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1.

Linguistic affiliation:
Language is one of the most contentious issues in Kazakhstan. The official state language of Kazakhstan is a Turkic language spoken by only 40% of the people. They mostly used a Russian language spoken by virtually everyone. The language which is increased use of Kazakh symbols on money, in schools, on television, and in national holidays has been tempered by those who do not wish to part with soviet symbols of the past.

2. Symbolism:
Kazakhs are historically a nomadic people and thus many of their cultural symbols reflect nomadic life. The horse is probably the most central part of Kazakhs culture. Kazakh love horses, riding them for transportation in the villages. Kazakhs are also very proud of their mountains, rare animals and their national instrument, the dombra, a two- stringed instrument with a thin neck and potbelly base, resembling a guitar.

2. National identity:
Several factors that are unique to Kazakhstan, its land, its history, unite its people. Kazakhs are proud of the nations abundant natural resources, agriculture land potential, and natural beauty.

3. Ethnic relation:
According to many people of Kazakhstan, during the soviet years they wanted for very little, everyone had jobs; everyone had a house or an apartment, food was abundant. The Kazakhstan was part of powerful union that challenged the United States and other power of the world. They lived in a socialist system that based its success on the hard work of its people. Oil money, foreign investments, and a new management style have created a whole new style in Kazakhstan. Almaty and Astana both have five-star high-rise hotels. The big cities have casinos, Turkish fast food restaurants, and American steak houses.

4. Food and Economy:


Food in Kazakhs culture is very big part of their heritage, a way of respecting guest and of celebrating. When sitting down to eat with a Kazakhs family one can be sure of two things: There will be more than enough food to eat, and there will be meat, possibly of different types. Food in daily life: In daily life Kazakhs eat some of their own national dishes, but have borrowed some from the Russians, Ukrainians, Uzbeks, and Turks that they live among. Daily meals for Kazakhs usually are very hearty, always including bread and usually another starch such as noodles or potatoes and then a meat. With their daily meals, Kazakhs drink fruit juices, milk, soft drinks, beer, water, and tea. Basic economy: Because of the richness of its land and resourcefulness of its people, The Kazakhs basic economy is not very dependent on foreign trade and imports. The degree to which this is true varies greatly between the cities and towns and the village of the countryside. Almost every rural Kazakhs has a garden, sheep and chickens, and some have horses. Commercial Activity: Seventy years of living in a land without imports or major foreign trade made the people of Kazakhstan rely heavily on their soviet neighbors and on producing for themselves, In local markets, all types of goods and services are for sale, from product to clothes, cars, and livestock. Mineral and oil exports brings in much needed revenue. Major Industries: Major industries of Kazakhstan are oil, coal, ore, lead, zinc, gold, silver, metals, construction materials, and small motors. Kazakhstan produces 40% of the worlds chrome ore, second only to South Africa. Besides the major fossil fuels and important minerals extraction, which is being supported by both foreign investment and the Kazakhstan and the Kazakh government, much of the major industrial production in Kazakhstan has slowed or stopped. An industrial growth rate of -2.1% in 1998 was very frustrating to a country and people with such a rich land but with such a poor infrastructure and rate of capital investment.

Division Of labor: Liberal arts colleges have only existed in Kazakhstan since independence in 1991. Until that time all institute of higher education trained workers for a specific skill and to fill a specific role in the economy. This is still very much the case with high school senior deciding among careers such as banking, engineering, computer science, or teaching.

5. Social Stratification:
Class and Caste: Some would argue that there is no bigger problem in Kazakhstan than rising social stratification at all levels. Kazakh capitalism has been a free-for all, with a few people grabbing almost all of the power regardless who suffers. The terms New Kazakh or New Russian have been used to describe the nouveau rich in Kazakhstan, who often flaunt their wealth. This is in contrast to the number of unemployed or underpaid. A culture of haves and have not is dangerous for a country composed of many different ethics groups used to having basic met regardless of who they were or where they came from. Symbols of Social Stratification: The symbols of stratification in Kazakhstan are much like they are in many developing countries. The rich drive expensive cars, dress in fashionable clothes, and throw lavish parties. The poor drive old soviet cars or take a bus, wear cheap clothes important from china or Turkey, and save for months just to afford a birthday party or a wedding.

6. Political Life:
Government: American legal and constitutional experts helped the Kazakhstan government write their constitution and form their government in 1995. The system is a strong presidential one, with the president having the power to dissolve the parliament if his prime minister is rejected twice or if there is a vote of no confidence. The president also is the only person who can suggest constitutional amendment and make political appointments. There are some forms of checks and balance provided by a bicameral legislature called the kenges. The legal system is based on the civil law system. There is a supreme court of forty-four members and a constitutional court of seven members. while much of

the control is centered in Asian with the president, legislature and courts, there are fourteen provinces or states, called oblasts in Russian, with governors and certain rights.

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