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SinoPakistan Relations: A Chinese Perspective

The China Pakistan relationship is a unique phenomenon in the modern history. It is a product of the Cold War and therefore, is pre-dominantly based on security and strategic considerations. Politically, ideologically and culturally, the t o countries are different. !o e"er, the absence of any commonality did not pre"ent the gro th of relationship hich is no termed as #model relationship$, #all- eather time tested friendship$, #higher than mountain, deeper than sea friendship$ etc. In %&'&, the People$s (epublic of China ) P(C* as set up in the international

en"ironment of the Cold War bet een the +, and the +,,(. In the %&-.s /ei0ing faced real threat to its security from the +, as the latter as engaged in setting up a net ork of alliances to encircle China. ,outh 1ast 2sean Treaty 3rgani4ation ),12T3*,Central Treaty 3rgani4ation )C15T3* and mutual defense assistance agreements of the +, ith 6apan, ,outh 7orea , Thailand, 8aos and Pakistan a member of the +, led alliance relationship ere aimed at containing the communism and ensuring continued presence of the +, forces in these areas. Pakistan as as continuously influenced by the latter in its ith China during %&-.s. Pakistan recogni4ed China on 6an',%&-. and seeking China$s membership in the +nited 5ations

established diplomatic relations on 9ay:%, %&-%. In 6an %&-.., Pakistan supported an Indian sponsored resolution )+5*.In %&-;, it abstained on the +, resolution opposing P(C$s admission. In %&-<, first it abstained form "oting to block China$s entry into the +5. /ut on receipt of a demarche from the +,, the ne=t day it "oted ith the +,. In %&>., Pakistan represented by ?.2. /hutto, 9inster of @uel, Po er and 5atural (esources abstained. 3n 6an%&, %&>., President 2yub said that he could see China mo"ing south through 9yanmar and the +,,( through 2fghanistan and Iran if there bet een the t o. !e proposed a 0oint defense agreement as no clash ith India through good ill

and understanding on both sides. 2yub referring to %&-& e"ents in Tibet, termed China as threat to Pakistan and clashes in 8adakh bet een the forces of India and China as a matter bet een India and China. Prime 9inister ,uhra ardy on Aec &, had stated that %

the cold ar as due to communists$ attempt to impose their ideology on the rest of the orld. !e spoke critically of conditions in China during his "isit to the +,2 in 6uly %&-<. 9an4ur Badir, @oreign 9inister said that e=pansionist tendencies assembly on 5o" :%, %&>: in a secret session that Pakistan !indu imperialism and Communism. In %&-C, hen situation across the Tai an strait became tense, Pakistan said of so"ereignty o"er Tai an as not clear and the problem ishes of the local ere more noticeable in China than in the +,,( President 2yub 7han reportedly told the national as facing t o dangers,

that 0uridical position

should be resol"ed peacefully gi"ing due consideration to the the go"ernment of Tai an. Pakistan 0ointly

inhabitants. It also said that Pakistan had gi"en neither defacto nor de0ure recognition to sponsored resolution in the +5D2 critici4ing China for suppressing Tibetan uprising. In 6une 6uly %&-&, a muslim delegation led by (epublic 3f China, Tai an "isited Pakistan. It a #8ieutenant Deneral$ of

as recei"ed by @oreign 9inister of

Pakistan at 7arachi on 6uly', %&-&. The delegation as described as #5ationalist China !a0i 9ission$. Chinese go"t. took a strong ob0ection to this incident and accused Pakistan of follo ing the +, plot to create #T o Chinas$ and sho ing slight to Chinese so"ereignty and territorial integrity. It is not Pakistan ithout significance that the ban imposed on the Communist Party of

Pakistan since 6uly %&-' remains in force till date. Thus the relations bet een China and ere considerably less cordial than bet een /ei0ing and non-aligned ere correct and relati"ely friendly and in some respects they countries. !o e"er, they

ere particularly important as a symbol of /ei0ing$s declared readiness in /andong conference to deal e"en ith those 2sian countries belonging to the +, supported anticommunist alliance.

China, since %&'&, stri"ed to create an international en"ironment of peace and stability and promote its e=ternal e=changes. Its foreign policy is an e=tension of domestic policy and follo s and ser"es the domestic policy. Chinese foreign policy )based on domestic affairs* ser"es strengthening and consolidating national po er. Biao Duanhua ) %&%;-%&C;* considered that Chinese foreign policy should aim at reali4ing the strategic goals of a* protecting national neutrality and so"ereignty b* protecting national security and interests c* creating international en"ironment and conditions beneficial to socialist construction and national prosperity and strength and the 0ust cause of d* helping Chinas orld peace and progress of humanity.)?hou 1nlai and 5e

@oreign Policy, /ei 9onong, CCP Central Party ,chool Publishing 2gency, /ei0ing,:..:, p. >-<* In the %&-.s China confronted a "ery hostile en"ironment and a real threat to its territorial integrity and so"ereignty. The +, alliances to counter the e=pansion to ards the end of %&-.s +nion, it faced crisis as in the process of building military became serious ith the ,o"iet ith India. The dimension to the of communism. The situation

hen China de"eloped serious difference

ith the +,2 o"er Tai an and border clashes

increasing cooperation bet een the +,,( and India added a ne

strategic e=ternal en"ironment. China, therefore, focused its ob0ecti"e on ho to contain the in"ol"ement of superpo ers in 2sia, particularly in its peripheral region and to pre"ent them from playing hegemonic role. It anted to preser"e its o n freedom of action in this region by challenging encirclement by superpo ers. The leadership of China considered that ruling eapon of a country as the back up force of diplomacy. If the country is internally strong and the internal affairs are conducted ell its diplomacy ould also be smooth. The starting point as, therefore, to build the strength of the county and pursue a foreign policy to back it up. It carried out strategic e=amination of the countries in its periphery to understand their conditions based on facts and make an o"erall analysis of their policies. It Pakistan as the basic foundation inning a country. of Chinese foreign policy to correctly implement the strategy of

as the second largest country of ,outh 2sia and occupied an important

strategic position. It as a nationalist country hich had 0ust acquired independence. Its alliance ith the +, as a kind of option under a specific international en"ironment to ere in conflict ith each protect its ne ly acquired independence. Contradictions bet een India and Pakistan ere deeply rooted in religion, culture and history and both other o"er 7ashmir issue. The Chinese leadership based on this analysis, correctly concluded that Pakistan could be o n o"er. !o e"er, they also recogni4ed that to de"elop friendly relations ith Pakistan contradictions bet een India and Pakistan had to be squarely and cautiously handled.)lbid p-<C 2lthough relationship bet een India and China as smooth in the first half of hich contained fi"e

%&-.s and the t o countries had signed in %&-' an agreement long run it ould be ith India that her national interests

principles of peaceful coe=istence, China calculated from the "ery beginning that in the ould clash. China conscious ould make China a of its history as 9iddle 7ingdom, is an e=pansionist and out ard looking country. Its sheer si4e means its regional political influence confront India on a range of sub0ects. They kne ultimately a serious clash sector )%&-'* ill e=pand and big player in the 2sian region. China, recogni4ed the need at sometime or another to that relations bet een giants do not fall in the same category as relations bet een a giant and his puny neighbours and that as possible. Consolidation of border by India since %&-.$s estern in the eastern sector south of 9ac9ahon line) %&-.*, middle sector )%&-:* and

as "ie ed in China as encroachment on its territory. It claimed :...

sq.km in the middle sector and &.,... sq.km in the eastern sector and said that 2ksai Chin had all along been a part of China and that the P82 had entered Tibet through 2ksai Chin form Ein0iang in early -.s. Ein0iang-Tibet high ay passing through 2ksai Chin as constructed in %&->--<. 2 long term strategy patient in dealing rarely. as adopted by China to in o"er Pakistan. China as

ith Pakistan and critici4ed Pakistan$s policy to ards China "ery


In %&-.s Pakistan allied

ith the +,

hen the +, pursued the policy of e=treme as naturally influenced by the

hostility to ard China. Pakistan$s policy to ards China

+,2. 2s early as in %&-;, Chinese go"t .e=pressed e=treme concern to the go"t. of Pakistan e=pressing e=treme concern to the Pakistan2merica negotiations on military assistance agreement and its 0oining of 9iddle 1ast military bloc. /oth these actions as percei"ed by China affected stability in 2sian and 2frica, including China. 3n @eb%;, %&-' Pakistan$s ambassador to China e=plained to the Chinese leadership that the 0oint military assistance agreement bet een the +, and Pakistan as to enable Pakistan to Den. (a0a on get assistance from the +, to protect its independence and so"ereignty and that Pakistan did not consider China as its enemy. The Pakistani 2mbassador instructions from his go"t. met ?hou 1nlai to make things clear. ?hou 1nlai pointed out that +,-Pakistan agreement seriously harmed the fundamental rights of the people of Pakistan and it constituted a ne and could lead to tension in the threat to security of China and other 2sian countries orld. ) ?hongguo ai0iaoshi ) Aiplomatic !istory of

China %&'&-<& * edited by Eie Fi=ian, People$s Publishing 2gency,%&&>, p-:>. * The Chinese Premier ?hou 1nlai G Pakistani Prime 9inister 9.2. /ogra met for the first time in 2pril %&-- at /andung. /efore this Pakistan had ob0ected to the in"itation to China to participate in 2fro2sian conference at the preparatory meeting held at /ogor in Indonesia in Aec %&-',but relented leaders hen it found that 5ehru G other ere fa"oring in"iting China. ?hou 1nlai and 9.2. /ogra held talks t ice as directed against China and China

outside the conference. ?hou 1nlai came straight to the point and posed to /ograH I)i* Pakistan$s 0oining of the +, spearheaded ,12T3 as not satisfied Pakistan$s ith this. China, ho e"er, for the sake of friendship did not openly placed Pakistan in an embarrassing it is not "ery

accuse Pakistan )ii* after ,12T3 Pak 0oined +, and +7 budgeted /agdad Pact. membership of these t o treaties position in 2sia- 2frican region. 2s large country of this region, ad"antageous to

its people to be constrained by colonial po ers )iii* Pakistan+,

9ilitary 2ssistance 2greement is not only not beneficial to Pakistan but also caused a feeling of insecurity in China. The +, ants to use Pakistan territory to so discords in relations ith India and also may encircle and e"en attack China making Pakistan as

base. It constitutes a threat to China$s security. )?hou$ @Pp'>>-><* 9ohammad 2li /ogra e=plained to ?hou 1nlai that Pakistan opposed hoped to ha"e friendly relations against aggression and in it, as it did in 7orean ,12T3 and C15T3 and its military alliance estern colonialism and Pak had as to defend his country ould not take part ith China. !e also said that Pakistani membership of ith the +,

as not at all aimed against China. !e assured ?hou 1nlai that in ar. ?hou 1nlai declared about the Pakistani assurance in the ith a media delegation from ith different ere no hen

the e"ent of breakout of orld ar launched by the +,2, Pakistan first session of /andung conference . 2gain in a meeting

Pakistan on his return to /ei0ng, he said that the t o leaders had started harmful or aggressi"e intents and the basis of friendship the time as ripe Pakistan ould ithdra

ideas but reached unanimity of "ie s on finding commonality and that there

as peaceful coe=istence.

Pakistani 2mbassador said that Pakistan did not belong to the Western bloc and ho e"er, recogni4ed that it as difficult to ithdra

from ,12T3 G C15T3. ?hou 1nlai, immediately from the t o treaties orld. 9ao ?edong in his

but that as necessary. !e ad"ised Pakistan that as an 2fro- 2sian member it should not do anything that may split ,outh 2sian countries and 2rab talks China ith Pakistani 2mbassador, 2hmad on 2pril :<, %&--, said that both India and ere apprehensi"e about the +, military assistance to Pakistan. 2hmad said that ould ne"er be used against India or any other country. 9ao

the military assistance

?edong referring to ,12T, said that China did not fear Pakistan, Thailand or Philippines, not e"en the +7 and 2ustralia but the +,2. 9ao said that he understood that Pakistan had 0oined ,12T3 for fear of China but ad"ised Pakistan to remo"e the fear and p'><* ?hou 1nlai told Pakistan Prime 9inister during the latter$s "isit to China in 3ct %&-> that China may e"en setup as apprehensi"e that the +, could in"ol"e C15T3 G ,12T3 and military bases in Pakistan to threaten China. ?hou anted to maintain good relations said that all ith both the socialist and ork for impro"ement in bilateral relations. ) @oreign Policy ,elections of 9ao P-:.;. ?hou

nationalist countries

imperialist countries but

ithout being restricted by any country. The +, pursued

different policy and belie"ed in forming military blocs as ould be e"ident by Aullus$s public statementJ Ito be neutral is immoralK. Buoting 9ao ?edong, ?hou 1nlai referred


to India Pakistan relations and said that India and Pakistan should be friendly and consult and compromise :.;* In the %&-.s China Pakistan relationship did not make much head ay and remained comparati"ely not so acti"e as it lacked strategic and economic component. !o e"er, the strategic en"ironment of China started changing s iftly in the late %&-.s. China and India had border clashes in %&-&, Aalailama fled to India and 7hampa rebellion empted in mid %&-.$s. China and ,o"iet +nion de"eloped differences on many issues and their relationship come to such a critical became irreconcilable. This imperialismK one sideK in foreign relations to I fighting point that their differences as the phase China changed the strategy of Ilearning to ith t o firstK, that is, fighting the I+, ith the other first. ith each other to maintain peace G stability in 2sia.)4hou p-

ith one first and fighting I,o"iet re"isionismK

)@/I, C!I :..: .C%; dated -.C..: *. Contradictions bet een the ,o"iet +nion and china started surfacing in the late %&-.$s and became prominent in the beginning of %&>.$s. In 6uly %&-&, the proposed "isit of khuresche" to the +,2 to normali4e orld problems as "ie ed by relations and to seek the +, cooperation to sol"e hich

China differently and it accused the +,,( of not sho ing any urgency to china as resolutely opposing the threat of in"asion from the +,2. In 6une %&-&, ithdre from the bilateral agreement signed in 3ct %&-< on #5ational hich stipulated supply of the specimen of atom bomb and ,o"iet +nion

defense 5e Technology$

its production technology and material to China. The differences ranged o"er a large number of issues "i4. supply of nuclear submarine to China, lack of ,o"iet faith in China, ideological conflict o"er international communist mo"ement, posting of ,o"iet military and security ad"isor, ad"ise to China to cooperate capitalist system, making peace ,o"iet e=perts ith the +,2 to create #t o Chinas$, to make temporary concessions and sacrifices and not to test stability of ith Chiang kaishek etc. /y ,ep %, %&>. all of %;&. ithdra al of ,o"iet ere called back from China inspite of China$s insistence to continue.

China termed it illegal, illogical and politically untenable. The

in"ol"ement from China resulted in cancellation of ;'; agreements, abrogation of :-< scientific and technological pro0ects and reduced the supply of kery components )%&'& <& :&% :&- - G 9ao$s @P ;::*. <

,ino Indian border clashes before %&>: factored prominently in ,ino ,o"iet and ,ino Pak relations. China took up the issue ith the +,,( many times but the latter did not respond fa"orably. It simply e=pressed regrets in general terms. China considered this response as partial to India. @urther deterioration in ,ino ,o"iet relations and contradictions of India and ,o"iet +nion ith China brought India and the ,o"iet +nion closer to each other by de"eloping a special political, economic and military relationship. China felt that the ,o"iet +nion "ie ed India as its closet ally among the de"eloping countries and a force to balance against China. The gro ing Indo ,o"iet military alliance made China to tilt to ards Pakistan. Auring the %&>: ,ino-Indian border ar ,o"iet +nion openly supported India politically and militarily and spoke in defense of 5ehru. )Aang dai Fatai Lol.>M:..:,1"oltion of Indian @oreign Policy, p-':, %&'&-<&, Page :&%, :&-*. China recognized the geostrategic location of Pakistan, a state between Soviet Union and India and a staunch ally of the USA. In the meanwhile, Indian relations with China became increasingly tense on the border issue. Under these ob ective conditions, Pakistan govt. formally !ro!osed in "arch #$%# to the Chinese govt. to negotiate border !roblem between China and Pakistan. &#$'$( )$, !(*+*, -efore this Suhrawardy during his visit to -ei ing had !ro!osed to .hou /nlai in 0ctober #$+% and Ayub 1han in #$+$ and #$%2 &3.P. .hau P.')4, Ayub 1han5 Pakistan6s 3irst "ilitary 7uler, Altaf 8auhar, 0UP, 1arachi #$$%, P( #4%,. 9hile the negotiations were still going on in :an #$%*, Chinese govt. again asked Pakistani 8ovt. for a written understanding &Shumian ;iang ie, on relationshi! with China vis(<(vis its membershi! of two military organizations and clarifications on earlier assurances=guarantees &baozheng,. 0n "arch #$ #$%* Pakistani Ambassador brought along all the !revious written clarifications &Shumian deng>ing, !rovided by his govt. &!('%$ .hau 3.P.,. Since Pakistan was the US military ally, the military alliance constituted a security threat to China. ?herefore, only after oral or written e@!lanations &Shumian :ieshi, from Pakistani government and Pakistan !roved its good intentions through real actions that the obstacles could be removed and the relationshi! develo!ed smoothly. China waited !atiently while re!eatedly convincing Pakistan and analyzed the strategic relationshi! of Pakistan with its enemies, friends and China &.hau 3.P. P('A2,. Pakistan was dissatisfied with its alliance with the US as it was not de!endable and trustworthy as US was !ursuing the !olicy of B.hongyin >ingba6 &!aying im!ortance to India and slighting Pakistan,. China e@!loited the antagonistic attitude of Pakistan to India and an o!!ortunity to !enetrate into the US led alliances and created a hostile state between the Soviet Union and India that C

were animical to China, to meet its strategic re>uirement in the region. 9hile Pakistan6s !rimary concern remained to seek an alliance with China to counter India. DETERMINATES Border Agreement After receiving written assurances from Pakistan, the government of Pakistan and government of China issued a :oint Communi>ue on "ay 4, #$%* on an agreement to conduct negotiations on the location and alignments of the boundary between China6s Cin iang and contiguous areas defense of which is under the actual control of Pakistan &China, Pakistan D -angladesh Eol(II, 7.1. :ain, Few 9ave Printing Press, Few Gelhi, #$)), !(*+, China and Pakistan started talks on boundary issue on #* 0ctober #$%* and reached an agreement on Gecember *%, #$%*, in !rinci!le, in regard to the alignments of the common border of Cin iang and of the contiguous areas, defence of which is the res!onsibility of Pakistan. ?he Chinese side, however, had !erha!s already ma!!ed out the course of the agreement as they had conducted research and made necessary !re!arations since the border issue last referred to by Suhrawardy in #$+%. A oint communi>uH on this agreement was issued on Gecember *%, #$%*. 0f !articular interest is the s!eed with which the talks were initiated and concluded ust in about two and half months. 3ormal agreement was signed at -e ing on "arch *, #$%4 by ..A. -hutto and Chen Ii 3oreign "inisters of Pakistan D China. Under the boundary agreement, -ei ing agreed to cede to Pakistan #4+2 s> miles of territory, )+2 s> miles of which had been actually occu!ied and administered by China. Pakistan made a symbolic gesture of giving u! claim over *2+2 s> miles of territory on ma! only &China D ?he "iddle /ast5 ?he >uest for inflame /dited P.1. 1umarswami, Sage Publication, Few Gelhi J #$$$, Sino( Pakistan 7elations and the "iddle /ast, Samina Iasmin, !($*,. In march #$%4, when -hutto was in -ei ing to sign the border agreement told .hou /nlai D Chen Ii that because of Pakistan6s stand not to interfere in anti(Chinese activities, S/A?0 had already become ineffective and this would continue to be so in futre. Ke also said that -agdad Pact was also undergoing the same kind of change. ?he #$%* border agreement suddenly !ushed the relationshi! of the two countries to a higher level. ?he fre>uency of official visits of leaders and delegations of various kinds went u! in an endless manner. ?he two countries started ado!ting and coordinating similar !osition on many international issues. ?he !olitical coo!eration led to develo!ment of bilateral relations between the two countries in various fields.


Pakistan as a bridge between China and the USA. In the #$+2s China considered S/A?0 and C/F?0 as a real threat to its national security. Pakistan was the only member of these grou!s which had established di!lomatic relations with China. It was also !erha!s the weakest link in the alliances. ?herefore, China made all efforts to win over Pakistan starting from -andung conference to weaken the US led alliances as also to establish reliable and discreet contacts with the US, China recognized and a!!reciated Pakistan6s !olicy to develo! relationshi! both with China and the USA and e@!ressed ho!e that Pakistan would advice America not to be adversial towards China. &.hou 3P '%A('%$,. Pakistan also res!onded favourably to convey the Chinese wishes to the US leadershi!. In A!ril #$%', .hou /nlai en route to a foreign visit sto!!ed in Pakistan to meet President Ayub 1han. 7eferring to escalation of war in Eietnam and US bombardment in Forthern !art of Eietnam, he advised Ayub to inform the US5 LChina can not ignore e@!anding of aggression by the US against EietnamM China means what it saysM China does not !rovoke warM China has already made !re!arations to fight against aggressionM if the US carries bombardment against China, it would mean war which does not have any limits and if America carries aerial bombardment China would launch o!erations using other means through land at all !lacesN. Ayub is re!orted to have conveyed the message discretely without mistake. ..A. -hutto also offered to act as a bridge between China and the USA during his visit to China in "arch #$%4. President Ayub in a !ress conference in #$%' during .hou /nlai6s visit to Pakistan o!enly declared his willingness to fill the ga! between China and the US. &.hou 3P'%$(')+, !(')), In #$%$, President Fi@on ado!ted some fle@ible measures to shake off the crisis of Eietnam 9ar and ease u! and develo! Sino J US relations. Guring his visit to Pakistan in August #$%$, he re>uested President Iahya khan to convey to the Chinese leadershi!, L?he US does not agree to the Soviet !ro!osal to set u! Asian collective Security system, will not oin any arrangement aimed at isolating China and wants to hold dialogue with ChinaN. In Se!tember #$)2 President Fi@on asked Iahya khan to convey the US willingness to the Chinese authorities to hold talks. In 0ctober #$)2, Fi@on again through the same channel informed China that the US would sto! sending destroyer to the ?aiwan strait to !atrol. President Iahya khan subse>uently made a visit to China in Fov. #$)2 and in a !ersonal meeting with .hou /nlai conveyed President Fi@on6s verbal message that the US was ready to send one or two high level assistants to hold talks with officers of a!!ro!riate level from China at any !lace and at any time. .hou /nlai agreed to US re>uest !rovided the US acce!ted Chinese !osition on ?aiwan &i.e. L0ne China PolicyN,. Kowever, China was e@tremely an@ious to receive Fi@on as it would have hel!ed China to break its isolation and o!ened a new cha!ter in its foreign relations, irres!ective of the out come of the visit. &.hou 3P !(')),. 0n Gecember #A, #$)2 "ao said to SnowNM If Fi@on is willing to come to China, I am willing to talk to him5 If talks succeed, it is all right, If talks fail, it is also all rightM If there is >uarrel , it is all right. If he comes as a tourist its is all right. If he comes


as President, it is also all rightM /verything is acce!table. I don6t see I will >uarrel with him, criticism is for the sake of critism, Eisit of Secretary of State, Kenry 1issinger to -ei ing finally materialized on :uly $, #$)#. Ke reached some air!ort in 9estern China by a s!ecial flight from Pakistan and then to -ei ing. Fi@on finally visited China on 3ebruary #$, #$)* and signed LShanghai Communi>uHN with .hou and set u! a channel to im!rove Sino(US relations .hou /nlai acknowledged the contribution of Pakistan as historically significant. &!(')A, .hou 3P, O osition to Indo!So"iet C#oseness

Sino(Soviet relations had already strained by late #$+2s over ideological differences, withdrawal of Soviet Union from 0ctober #$+) Fational Gefense Few ?echnology -ilateral Agreement &which sti!ulated su!!ly of sam!le of atom bomb and its !roduction technology and material, and lack of su!!ort to China during #$+$ clashes between Indian D Chinese troo!s along the border etc. Soviet economic and military aid to India was !erceived by China as an attem!t to encircle and isolate China, which constituted a grave threat to its national security. ?o counter growing coo!eration between "oscow and Few Gelhi and to deny "oscow com!lete influence over South Asia China, tilted towards Pakistan in its dealing with Pakistan and India &Gangdai Iatai, &Contem!orary Asia(Pacific studies, /volution of Indian 3oreign Policy, .hao Ping !('*M .haggno 9ai iaoshi &A di!lomatic history of China #$'$()$, !(*$#,. ?wo most !rominent reasons which affected most the Chinese relationshi! with India and the Soviet Union in the beginning of #$%2s were &i, subversive activities in Chinas ?acheng and Iili areas, engineering of Iining counter revolutionary rebellion and influ@ of over %2,222 !eo!le from China to Soviet Union in A!ril="ay #$%* and &ii, moral su!!ort of Soviet Union to India in #$%* Sino( Indian border conflict &#$'$()A !(*$+,. China was not very su!!ortive of growing Pakistani a!!rochment with Soviet Union after Soviet(Union brokered ?ashkant agreement between India and Pakistan. Chinese /mbassy in Pakistan warned Pakistan government against sincerity of the Soviet efforts since #$%% to bring about ra!!rochement between India and Pakistan. ?his was the first time that China had carried its activities from Pakistan soil &Asian 7ecorder, :uly #+(*#, #$%A, P(A'*A, President Ayub during his visit to "oscow assured 1osygin in A!ril #$%+, as he did to the Chinese leaders, that Pakistan would never serve as an instrument of the US !olicy in the region against Soviet interests. Ke mentioned that Pakistan had declined the US re>uest to contribute in Eietnam war in certain way either by sending some troo!s or even a medical team. In the conte@t of U(* incident, he admitted Pakistan6s fault and assured 1osygin that Pakistan would never allow any American offensive wea!ons to be !ut u! at -adaber communication base


&Ayub 1han5 Pakistan6s 3irst "ilitary 7uler by Altaf 8anhar, 0@ford University Press, #$$%, !(#AA, In A!ril, #$%A 1osygin during his visit to Pakistan signed an agreement to set u! a steel !lant in 9est Pakistan and gave an understanding to Pakistan to setu! an atomic !lant in /ast Pakistan. At this !oint of time Pakistan gave notice to the US to terminate -adaber base agreement which was a ma or cause of tension and misunderstanding between Pakistan and the USS7 &!(*$2, Ayub, "il 7uler, ?he Soviet Union initiated a !ro!osal to form Asian collective Security system to unite some South /ast Asian countries including Afghanistan, Pakistan, India etc. After .hen bao incident of #$%$, it sent *2 re!resentatives to the countries in the neighbourhood of China to mobilize su!!ort to form this organization under its control D guidance &#$'$()A, !(4)2,. China viewed this initiative of the USS7 as a sinister move to !ackage it in an attractive cover under the label of Asian 7egional /conomic Coo!eration for setting u! a military ring of encirclement against China and an attem!t for !olitical control and economic !lunder of Asian countries. Pakistan discussed the !ro!osal with China and re ected that. Pakistan said that the !ro!osal a!!eared to be meant, at least in !art, to wall off China, and to build a counter weight against it, with India as its nucleus. 3or Pakistan, China was an influence for good in this region and the threat of aggression came from other >uarter &-ei ing 7eview Fo. *$, :uly #A, #$%$, !(*4, "arch #%, #$)4, !(#$, Asian 7ecorder :anuary *$ J 3ebruary '=#$)#, !($$A#,. China6s o!!osition to the !ro!osal was to contain the involvement of the su!er!owers in Asia and to !revent them from !laying a hegemonic role of the su!er !owers and thus !reserve China6s own freedom of action in Asian region. Second Afro(Asian conference, even after !rolonged deliberations could not be held finally because of shar! differences among the member countries over condemnation of the US against aggression of Eietnam, !artici!ation of the UF0 and India6s insistence on invitation to the Soviet Union. China insisted that conference !ronounce su!!ort for the !eo!le of Eietnam, ;aos, Congo, Gominica, Angola, "ozambi>ue South Africa, Palestine, South Iaman, "alaysia, Singa!ore etc. against the aggression of the US lead neocolonialism and im!erialism. Chen Ii said that if it was not so, it was better to !ut off than form a hotch !otch organization of various countries. Gee! differences, surfaced between India and China &su!!orted by Pakistan, &#$'$()$, !(4$%('22,. In the %2s, the rela@ation of tension between the USS7 and the USA softened USS7 attitude towards Pakistan. ?he !olicy of bilateralism ado!ted by President Ayub slowly but substantially hel!ed to im!rove Pakistan( Soviet relations. ?he "arch #$%# oil agreement, the 0ctober #$%4 aviation agreement, ?he A!ril #$%4 barter trade agreement and :une the #$%' cultural agreement !aved the way for friendly relations between the USS7 and Pakistan. Increased military aid from the USA and other western countries to India before and after Sino(Indian


war of #$%* also hel!ed to bring Pakistan D Soviet Union closer as Pakistan considered it an action against the s!irit of its military alliance with the US bloc, and the Soviet considered it as an attem!t to move India away from non(aligned !ath. 3or this reason Soviet Union introduced a !erce!tible change in its !olicy towards 1ashmir. In #$%', in the United Fations Security Council, Soviet re!resentative observed that the dis!utes should be solved by the !arties through !eaceful means. A somewhat neutral role !layed by the Soviet Union in #$%+(Indo(Pak war enabled it to !lay the role of !eace maker in ?askant in #$%%. ?he SU, however, did not succeed in wearing away Pakistan from Chinese influence &Strategic Studies, Eol(E, 9inter #$A*, Fo*, !('$(+#,. China successfully thwereted soviet move of forming Asian Collective Security System to encircle China, by winning over Pakistan. Is#ami$ %or#d "uslims constitute a sizeable !art of the Chinese !o!ulation. ?here are #2 minority grou!s like Kui, Uighur, 1azak, Gong @iang, 1yrgyz, Salar, ?azik, Uzbek, -onan and ?atar who !ractice Islam and are s!read mainly iin Fing@ia, 8ansu, Cin iang, 8uizhou, Kebei, ;iaoning, Oinghai and Iunnan !rovinces. Fo confirmed details of the e@act !o!ulation are available. Kowever, their !o!ulation ranges between official figure of about *P to ##P as >uoted by unofficial Sources &htt!5==www.adherents.com=large.com=comQislam.html,. Since #$'$, China has ado!ted duel Islamic Ploicy. Gomestic Islamic !olicy was aimed at integrating the Chinese "uslims with the mainstream Kan !o!ulation by granting religious freedom to the minorities and by encouraging the education to love country, im!lementing strict laws to deal with s!litist, e@tremist and fundamentalist forces. Kowever, the Chinese govt e@ternally tried to e@!loit Islam for im!roving relations with the "iddle /ast "uslim countries and regarded its muslim !o!ulation as an asset rather than embarrassment. ?herefore, in #$+2s D #$%2s it tried to mani!ulate the religious affiliations of China6s "uslims with Islamic countries like Pakistan, Afghanistan, Indonesia and Arab countries. China translated several im!ortant Chinese communist documents in Arabic. China attem!ted to foster closer relations by encouraging contacts between various muslim organizations of Pakistan and China. Pakistan re!aid the Chinese di!lomatic and military su!!ort since #$%2s by !roviding a window to the Islamic world &"odern China, a com!arison to a rising PowerM 8raham Kutchings, Penguin -ook, ;ondon(*222, !(4*+, Pakistan claims to have hel!ed China to establish di!lomatic relations with Iran in #$)# &7egional Studies, Eol. CIC Fo. 4, Summer *22#, Sino(Pakistan 7elations5 An All 9eather friendshi!, !rof 1halid "ahmud, P(#4,. In #$%', when .hou /nlai visited Pakistan, President Ayub offered his services to s!eak to Fassar to mobilize su!!ort to convene second Afro(Asian conference &.hou /nlai and the "aking of "odern China #$4A(#$)%, /ldest Son .hou /nlai, Kan Suyin J !(42#(42*,


China6s attem!t to use Islam as a !olitical tool was a dangerous !olicy to enhance its image in the third world and Islamic world. At times it also !resented itself as a defender of Islam or even as an honorary "uslim state by cham!ioning the cause of Palestine and su!!orting Islamic holi war in Afghan resistance during #$A2s. In #$A), China told visiting Chairman of IC0 that one billion Chinese and one billion "uslims could be a great force against any sort of hegemonism. &!(4'' Shambaugh, A Chinese scholar looked at Pakistan as an alternative centre of Islamic civilization which develo!ed during cold war !eriod and wanted Pakistan to become a nucleus country of Islamic civilization. Ke even tried to e@!lain nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan in #$$A and 1ashmir issue as a conflict between two civilizations &Islamic and Kindu civilizations,. &Fanya Ian iu :ikan, &South Asian Studies Ouarterly, 4=*22#, South Asian Policy o!tions of China, Ke Gaolong !(#+(*', China&s Israe# In three most troubled s!ots of the world J ?aiwan strait &between China and ?aiwan,, 1orean Peninsula &between Forth 1orea and South 1orea, and South Asia &between India and Pakistan, J China is evidently a ma or actor. It links its relationshi! with Pakistan with that of the USA with Israel and terms Pakistan as BChina6s Israel6 &Asia ?imes5 India=PakistanM Ahmad 3aru>ui, "ay *+, *22* 3ar /astern /conomic 7eview :une ##,#$$A, !(**,. Shanghai :oint Communi>uH signed by China and the USA on 3eb *), #$)* while recognizing the Chinese sovereignty over ?aiwan &B0ne China6 !rinci!le, also statedM LIt &:oint communi>uH, firmly maintains that India and Pakistan should in accordance with the UF resolution on India(Pakistan >uestion, immediately withdraw all their forces to their res!ective territories and to their own sides of the cease fire line in : D 1 and firmly su!!orts the Pakistan government and !eo!le in their struggle to !reserve their inde!endence and sovereignty and the !eo!le of : D 1 in their struggle for right of self determinationN. &-ei ing 7eview 4 "arch #$)*, !(', +,. China has !layed its assistance to Pakistan6s nuclear wea!on and missile !rogrammes &besides !roviding low cost defense security to Pakistan, against missile defense and arms sales to ?aiwan by the USA. &A -ig Power Agenda for /ast Asia5 America, China D :a!anM Gavid ". ;am!ton, 8regory C. "ayM Fi@on centre, 9ashington, *222, !age 44,. China continued to !ractice transgression of bilateral agreements related to the "issile ?echnology control 7egime &"?C7, !roliferating ballistic missile technologies for their commitment to Pakistan, ins!ite of re!eated sanctions im!osed by the USA on China and Pakistan and China6s assurances. Kowever, China is very sensitive about its sovereignty and is gaining in confidence in its relationshi! with the USA. China !ays great attention to the im!ortance of arms control and disarmament work and takes it as an im!ortant com!onent of its overall di!lomacy and defense !olicy. -ei ing ob ects to the fact no similar arms control a!!ly to manned aircraft like 3(#%s su!!lied to ?aiwan, des!ite their being highly ca!able of delivering wea!ons of


mass destruction over significant distances. China, therefore, has told that if the USA wanted China to res!ect the US security concern with res!ect to china6s su!!ly of nuclear and missile technology to Pakistan, the US should also res!ect security concern of China in regard to ?aiwan &:ane6s Intelligence 7eview, A!ril *22*, !('%, '),. ?he sale of advanced wea!ons by the USA to ?aiwan, including 3(#% fighters, -ei ing asserts, re!resents a !roliferation of American wea!ons into Chinese territory and is destabilizing -ei ing6s efforts to negotiate reunification between "ainland China and ?aiwan &Few Iork ?imes, *) August, #$$%,


Gocument on China6s relations with S D S/A Asia &#$'$(%*, edited by 8.E. Ambekar D E.G. Givekar, allied !ublishers, Pvt. ;td, #$%'. ?he 3ulcrum of Asia 5 7elations between China, India, Pakistan and USS7, -habami Sengu!ts, 1onark Publication. Gelhi , #$AA, P###(##* Pakistan 3oreign !olicy E0lI, Kamid A.1. 7ai Aziz Publication, 1arachi #$A#, P#'# -ilateralism, .A -hanlto P#'A(#'$. -urke , P2$4 -urke Pak 3P,P( *#% Pak 3P, S" -urke and ;awrence .iring 0UP, 1arachi #$$2, P( *AA -ilatualsim -hutoo , P J #'*(#'4 -urke , P($' Eol. I , Karneed A.1. 7ai PA# -urke P( #2A Pakistan Korizon, '$(4 :uly #$$% Fawaz Sharif6s s!eed at the Chinese Peo!les Institute of 3A, -ei ul , P( #%+ -urke J P($' CCPCC !arty school P (%() CCPCC Party school P(')A -urke P( #2A :G Simmonds P( )) Gi!l. Kistory#$'$()$ CCPCC P J ')A CCPCC J '%% -urkee P (#)+ .hon D 3P of F CKIna ! J '%%(%) P J *%2


.hon D 3- 03 F China !( '%) "ao 3oreign Policy P (*24 .hon 3- ! ( '%A