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Chapter 1

Introduction to Engineering Design


Prepared by: Mohd Azwir Bin Azlan
Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Notes Mechanical Engineering Design I
WEEK 1
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BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this topic, the students would be able to apply
and appreciate the knowledge to:
understand the basic principles of mechanical engineering
and its applications in engineering design.
recognize the approach and the process of engineering
design.
practice standards and codes, ethics and professionalism of
mechanical engineer.
Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design
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Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
What you will be learn here?
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design
1.1 - Design Definition
1.2 - Mechanical Engineering Design
1.3 - Design Process
1.4 - Design Tools and Resources
1.5 - Design Engineers Professional Responsibilities
1.6 - Standards and Codes
1.7 - Economics
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Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
1.1 Design Definition
Word design is derived from the Latin designare, which
means to designate, or mark out.
Websters gives several definitions, to outline, plot, or
plan, as action or workto conceive, invent contrive.
To design is either to formulate a plan for satisfaction of
a specified need or to solve a problem.
Design is an innovative and highly iterative process. It is
also a decision making process.
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design
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Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
1.2 - Mechanical Engineering Design
Mechanical engineering design involves all disciplines of
mechanical engineering.
Examples:
A simple journal bearing involves fluid flow, heat transfer, friction,
energy transport, material selection, thermomechanical
treatments, and so on.
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design
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Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
1.3 - Design Process
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design
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Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
1.3 - Design Process
Recognition of Need
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design
Often consist highly creative act,
because the need may be only a
vague discontent, a feeling of
uneasiness, or a something is not
right.
Usually triggered by a particular
adverse circumstance or a set of
random circumstances that arises
almost simultaneously.
Recognition of need
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Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
1.3 - Design Process
Definition of Problem
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design
Is more specific and must include
all the specifications for the object
that is to be designed.
The specifications are the input
and output quantities, the
characteristics and dimensions of
the space the object must occupy,
and all the limitations on these
quantities.
Definition of Problem
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Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
1.3 - Design Process
Synthesis
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design
The combination of ideas into a
complex whole.
Is sometimes called the invention
of the concept or concept design.
Generate concept variant
concept concept selection
concept improvement detailing
concept.
Synthesis
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Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
1.3 - Design Process
Analysis and Optimization
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design
Construct or devise abstract
models of the system that will
admit some form of mathematical
analysis.
Carry out to simulate or predict
real physical system very well.
Analysis and Optimization
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Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
1.3 - Design Process
Evaluation
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design
Is the final proof of a successful
design and usually involves the
testing of a prototype in the
laboratory.
Intent to discover if the design
really satisfies the needs.
Is it reliable? Will it compete
successfully with similar products?
Is it economical to manufacture
and to use? Is it environmental
friendly?
Evaluation
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Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
1.3 - Design Process
Presentation
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design
Presentation is a selling job.
When designers sell a new idea, they
also sell themselves. If they are
repeatedly successful in selling ideas,
designs and new solutions to
management, they begin to receive
salary increases and promotions; in
fact, this is how anyone succeeds in
their profession.
Undoubtedly, many great designs,
inventions and creative works, have
been simple lost because the
originators were unable to explain their
accomplishment to others.
Presentation
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Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
1.4 - Design Tools and Resources
Today engineer has a great variety of tools and resources available to
assist in the solution of design problems:-
Computational Tools
CAD (Computer Aided Design) AutoCAD, I-Deas, SolidWorks, ProEngineer
CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) Cosmos, Algor, Fluent, ADAMS
CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) MasterCam, UniGraphic, SolidCAM
Acquiring Technical Information
Libraries Encyclopaedia, Monographs, Handbooks, J ournals
Government sources U.S. Patent and Trademarks Office, SIRIM
Professional societies ASME, SAE, SME, ASTM, AWS
Commercial vendors Catalogs, Test data, Samples, Cost information
Internet the computer network gateway to website associated with most of the
categories listed above.
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design
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Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
1.5 - Design Engineers Professional Responsibilities
Required to satisfy the needs of customers and is expected to do so
in a competent, responsible, ethical and professional manner.
The way to develop professional work ethic and skills:
Sharpen your communication skills either oral or writing
Keep a neat and clear journal / logbook of your activities, entering dated
entries frequently
Develop a systematic approach when working on a design problem
Must keep current in the field of expertise by being an active member of
a professional society, attending meetings, conferences and seminar of
societies, manufacturers, universities, etc.
Conduct activities in an ethical manner.
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design
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Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
1.6 - Standards and Codes
Standard is a set of specifications for parts, materials, or
processes intended to achieve uniformity, efficiency and
a specific quality.
aim to place a limit on the number of items in the
specification so as to provide a reasonable inventory of
tooling, sizes, shapes and varieties.
Code is a set of specifications for the analysis, design,
manufacture and construction of something.
aim to achieve a specific degree of safety, efficiency
and performance or quality.
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design
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Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
1.6 - Standards and Codes cont
Some organizations or societies that interest to mechanical engineers are:-
AluminumAssociation (AA)
American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA)
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM)
American Welding Society (AWS)
American Bearing Manufacturers Association (ABMA)
British Standards Institute (BSI)
Industrial Fasteners Institute (IFI)
Institution of Mechanical Engineers (I. Mech. E.)
International Bureau of Weights and Measure (BIMP)
International Standard Organization (ISO)
Society of Automotive Engineer (SAE)
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design
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Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
1.7 - Economics
The consideration of cost plays such an important role in the design
decision process.
Some general concepts and simple rules of cost factor study involves:
Standard Sizes
Use of standard or stock sizes is a first principle of cost reduction.
Specify a parts that are readily available.
Select a part that are made and sold in large quantities because of
usually the cost is somewhat less.
Large Tolerances
Tolerances, manufacturing processes and surface finish are
interrelated and influence the producibility of the end product in many
way.
Large tolerances can often be produced by machines with higher
production rates; costs will be significantly smaller.
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design
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Department of Material and Engineering Design,
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Johor.
BDA 3083 Mechanical Engineering Design I
1.7 - Economics cont
Breakeven Points
Use when two or more design
approaches are compared to
cost.
The choice between the two
depends on a set of conditions
such as the quantity of
production, the speed of the
assembly lines, or some other
condition.
The point corresponding to
equal cost known as the
breakeven point.
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Engineering Design