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STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY (GEO 3Z03) 2011, Term 1

Instructor: Dr. Ulrich Riller, GSB 240, e-mail: rilleru@mcmaster.ca , tel.: 905-525-9140 ext. 26365, office hours: Tuesday at 10:00 11:00. TA: Heidi Daxberger (daxberh@mcmaster.ca), tel.: 905-525-9140 ext. 20444. Lecture: Tuesday at 11:30 13:20 in BSB, Room 106. Lab: Tuesday at 14:30 - 17:20 in BSB, Room 122 and Friday at 14:30 17:20 in BSB 238A Introduction Structural geology is the study of architecture of the Earths crust and the deformation processes that have shaped it. Structures such as folds, faults and mineral fabrics and respective patterns occur at a variety of scales and led to changes in shape and configuration of rocks. The study of rock structures, i.e., structural analysis, can be approached by: Geometric analysis - analysis of the geometry (patterns, shapes and mineral fabrics) of primary structures acquired while the rock was being deposited or emplaced, and secondary structures produced by subsequent deformation; Kinematic analysis - analysis of the displacements and movements that lead to shape changes (deformation and strain) of rock bodies; Mechanical and dynamic analyses - reconstruction of forces (e.g., magnitude, direction, duration) that led to deformation within a rock body. Objective of the course The objective of this course is to introduce at an intermediate level the fundamentals of structural analysis, including: construction and interpretation of geologic maps; descriptive, kinematic and dynamic analysis of structures; the mechanics of brittle and ductile deformation of rocks; identification and interpretation of geologic structures in the field. Overall, the course is expected to contribute to inferring deformation processes from observed geologic structures. This bears not only on unravelling geodynamic processes which have shaped the Earths crust but also on understanding the formation of natural resource deposits. Course Structure There will be one two-hour class (lecture) and one three-hour lab period per week. The purpose of the weekly lab period is to demonstrate practical methods for analysis of structural data and interpretation of geologic maps. Attendance is required for all lab sessions. Lab assignments are to be completed in one week and submitted in the following weeks lab. The entire material conveyed in the lectures and labs is subject of being tested in the mid-term and final exams. Lecture notes will be posted on AVENUE. Downloading of these notes does not substitute attending the classes or studying the recommended course texts. AVENUE will be also used to provide information for the term assignment, to post announcements, allow students to discuss the course content and share information. Therefore, AVENUE should be checked regularly, at least once per week.

The following basic tools will be needed for lab exercises: ruler (inches and centimetres), pencils, erasers, coloured pencils calculator with trig functions protractor (to draw circles) graph paper and tracing paper Equal-area projection (Schmidt net) will be provided by instructor Assessment Labs (10 at 5% each): 50 % Mid-term test (October 18): 20% Final exam: 30% Recommended Course Text Fossen, H. 2010. Structural Geology. Cambridge University Press. 463 pp.

Academic Dishonesty Academic dishonesty consists of misrepresentation by deception or by other fraudulent and can result in serious consequences, e.g. the grade of zero on an assignment, loss with a notation on the transcript (notation reads: "Grade of F assigned for academic dishonesty"), and/or suspension or expulsion from the university. It is your responsibility to understand what constitutes academic dishonesty. For information on the various kinds of academic dishonesty please refer to the Academic Integrity Policy, specifically Appendix located at http://www.mcmaster.ca/senate/academic/ac_integrity.htm The following illustrates only three forms of academic dishonesty: Plagiarism, e.g. the submission of work that is not one's own or for which other credit has been obtained. Improper collaboration in group work. Copying or using unauthorized aids tests and examinations. The instructor and university reserve the right to modify elements of the course during the term. The university may change the dates and deadlines for any or all courses in extreme circumstances. If either type of modification becomes necessary, reasonable notice and communication with the students will be given with explanation and the opportunity to comment on changes. It is the responsibility of the student to check their McMaster email and course websites weekly during the term and to note any changes. McMaster Student Absence Form (MSAF) If you are absent from the university for a minor medical reason, lasting fewer than 5 days, you may report your absence, once per term, without documentation, using the McMaster Student Absence Form (MSAF). Absences for a longer duration or for other reasons must be reported to your Faculty/Program office, with documentation, and relief from term work may not necessarily be granted. When using the MSAF, report your absence to the course instructor within 2 working days to learn what relief may be granted for the work you have missed, and relevant details such as revised deadlines, or time and location of a make-up exam. Please note that the MSAF may not be used for term work worth 30% or more, nor can it be used for the final examination.

Lecture and lab schedule (Depending on progress, this schedule may change) Week 1 (Sept. 13): Strain and (components of) deformation: Strain geometry, strain regime, strain ellipse, shape fabrics. LAB #1: Introduction to the equal-area projection (orientation of lines and surfaces). Week 2 (Sept. 20): Ductile deformation, progressive shear (and transpression), shear strain (strain gradient), ductile shear zones, kinematic indicators, quantification of strain, shape fabric analysis. LAB #2: Characterization of folds and respective structural elements as well as S-C type fabrics in the equal-area projection. Week 3 (Sept. 27): Folds: Geometry, mechanisms and kinematics of folding. LAB #3: Rotation of lines and surfaces around horizontal and inclined axes on the equal-area projection. Week 4 (Oct. 4): Fault-fold relationship: foreland fold and thrust belts, balanced cross sections, accretionary wedges. LAB #4: Shape fabric analysis, modified Flinn diagram, brittle ductile shear zones. Week 5 (Oct 11): Stress: Stress ellipsoid, stress measurement, Mohr circle. Coulomb criterion (failure envelopes), effect of pore fluid pressure. LAB #5: Fault-slip analysis. Week 6 (Oct. 18): Mid-term test in class (at 11:30 am). LAB #6: Geologic maps 1: Strike lines, inclined surfaces, faults. Week 7 (Oct. 25): Fault mechanics 1: Fracture types, Andersons theory of faulting, MohrLAB #7: Geologic maps 2: Folds, geologic history inferred from a geologic map. Week 8 (Nov. 1): Fault mechanics 2: Stress-strain diagrams, strength of geologic materials, stick-slip mechanism, seismic cycle. LAB #8: Geologic maps 3: Construction of cross section. Week 9 (Nov. 8): Scaled analogue models: Examples from the Himalayas (indentor tectonics) and Andes (localization of deformation and orocline formation). Lab #9: Geologic maps 4: Three-point problem. Week 10 (Nov. 15): Metamorphic and igneous fabric patterns: Metamorphic core complexes, emplacement of igneous bodies, diapirs. Lab #10: Geologic maps 5: Construction of a profile and interpretation of a real geological map. Week 11 (Nov. 22): Normal and strike-slip faults: Secondary structures. Week 12 (Nov. 29): Microfabrics Final exam: Possibly on December 7