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# DynamicAnalyses UnderstandingDynamicRandomAnalysesLecture UnderstandingDynamicRandomAnalyses.

mp3

## Understanding Dynamic Random Analyses

Dynamic Random Analyses solve random vibration problems with input in the format of Spectral Density.
Options

Airframe Model

## Normal Stress RMS results (psi). (One results) LectureNotes

Dynamic Random Analyses Dynamic Random Analyses are used to analyze random vibration problems. If an airplane passenger looks outside the window at the tip of the wing, the wing will appear to oscillate up and down with no clear pattern. The wing is being exposed to random vibration that changes with the winds strength and direction. While the vibration is random, we know that the profile of the response will be dependent on the strength of the turbulence encountered and the stiffness, mass, and damping properties of the wing. Hence a Dynamic Random analysis will not output explicit stresses, but it can output spectral density quantities for all the model results (same format as input). When defining a Dynamic Random analysis, the user has the following options:

Loading: The load definition for this analysis can be selected as Load Functions or Base Excitation. Load Functions enable you to select existing load sets in the model, and define a spectral density for them. Base Excitation requires you to enter an acceleration vector and its spectral density. Frequency Dependence: Whether Load Functions or Base Excitation is being used, you can define your own spectral density for the load. By default, Mechanica uses its built in uniform function which is a constant spectral density function equal to 1. This function is commonly referred to as white noise by vibration specialists. Modes: All dynamic analyses require a Modal Analysis to be run. By default, the Dynamic Random Analysis will make use of all modes, but you can limit the number of modes used with this option. Damping Coefficient: This damping coefficient is a percentage value for relative damping, which is the ratio between the damping in the system and a critically damped system. Output Intervals: You can have automatic output intervals selected by Mechanica or define your own. When you make use of user-defined output intervals, you can view full results (including fringe plots) for the model at selected frequency values. The values reported at specific intervals are spectral density values. Therefore, stress would be in psi2/Hz or MPa2/Hz and not in psi or MPa. There are many situations in which users embark on a Dynamic Random analysis and have the expectation that specific stress values will be reported that they can easily compare against yield strength or any other failure criteria they have. However, this is akin to knowing that the average of four numbers is six, and then expect to determine what the original four numbers were. Power Spectral Density, or Spectral Density, is a statistical method used to represent naturally occurring random data. It is not used only for random vibration, but also for analyzing turbulence and other random phenomenon. How Spectral Density is calculated requires a working knowledge of probability density functions, auto-correlation functions, and Fourier transforms.

Best Practices

From a practical perspective, there are a few things to keep in mind: The mean value for quantities in this kind of analysis is assumed to be zero. This means that the standard deviation () of a quantity is equal to the root mean square (rms). The area underneath a spectral density curve will be the variance or the mean square of the quantity. So if the requirements specify that the model should be designed based on 3 stresses define a measure for root-mean square of the maximum stress and multiply the output by 3. It is also worth noting that only vector quantities of measures can be reported in a Dynamic Random analysis. For example, a measure that calculates displacement magnitude or Von Mises stress will not be valid for a Dynamic Random analysis. However, a measure that calculates displacement in the X direction or axial stress in the Z direction will be valid.

## Procedure: Understanding Dynamic Random Analyses

Scenario
Create a Dynamic Random Analysis with tabular input. CreateDynRandom satellite_frame.asm

Task 1. Open the Mechanica application and create a dynamic random analysis.
1. Click Applications > Mechanica. 2. Click Mechanica Analyses/Studies from the main toolbar.

Every dynamic analysis requires a modal analysis to be defined. Note that the Modal_Analysis_4_Modes modal analysis has already been defined for this model.

3. Click File > New Dynamic > Random... from the Analyses and Design Studies dialog box. 4. In the name field, type Random_Vibration. 5. In the Direction area of the Dynamic Random Analysis Definition dialog box, type 386.4 in the Z field. Verify that the X and Y fields are set to 0.

Because Mechanica does not use g as a unit, you typed the value of g as the base excitation (in in/s2).

6. In the Damping Coefficient (%) area on the Modes tab, verify that the drop-down menu is set to For all modes and type 4 in the field below the drop-down menu. The dialog box should now appear as shown in the figure. This value is applied as a 4% damping coefficient.

7. Click Function

## 8. Click New... to being creating a new function.

The PSD acceleration for this analysis is given by the following table:

Frequency (Hz)

## Acceleration PSD (g2/Hz)

20

0.0256

2050

+6 dB/octave

50

0.16

800

0.16

8002000

-4.5 dB/octave

2000

0.0256

9. In the Definition area of the dialog box, select Table from the drop-down menu. 10. Click Add Row, verify that the Start at field is set to 1, set the Num Rows field to 4 and click OK. 11. Populate the table as shown in the figure. Be sure to select Logarithmic and Logarithmic for each of the drop-down menus at the bottom of the dialog box.

Changing to the logarithmic scale is critical because the table above indicates that the slope for 20-50Hz and 800-2000Hz is on a logarithmic scale. PSD function slopes defined as a specific dB/octave value are common.

12. Click Review..., verify that the Lower Limit is set to 20 and the Upper Limit is set to 2000 and click Graph. 13. Once the graph is displayed in the Graphtool dialog box, click Format > Graph. 14. If necessary, select the Y Axis tab and select the Log Scale check box. 15. Select the X Axis tab and select the Log Scale check box.

16. Click OK to close the Graph Window Options dialog box and display the graph. 17. When you are finished reviewing the graph, click File > Exit > Done > OK > OK to complete defining the function and return to the Dynamic Random Analysis dialog box.

18. Select the Output tab in the dialog box, select the Full RMS Results for Displacements and Stresses check box, and type 20 in the Minimum Frequency field. 19. In the Maximum Frequency area, select the User-defined radio button and type 2000 in the field as shown in the figure. 20. Click OK to complete the dynamic random analysis definition and close the dialog box.

21. Return to the Standard Pro/ENGINEER mode by clicking Applications > Standard. 22. Click Save from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model. 23. Click File > Close Window from the main menu. 24. Click File > Erase > Not Displayed > OK to erase the model from memory. This completes the procedure. UnderstandingDynamicRandomAnalysesExercise

## Exercise: Running a Dynamic Random Analysis

Objectives
After successfully completing this exercise, you will be able to:

Understand the different settings in a dynamic random analysis. Type data presented as g2/Hz into a dynamic random analysis. Create valid measures for a dynamic random analysis.

Scenario
Random analysis occurs in a number of applications. A satellite enclosed in a launch vehicle is subject to random vibration during launch, as is an airplane when it encounters turbulence or an off-road vehicle on uneven ground. In this exercise, the wing of an aircraft will be analyzed for random vibration. The input will be presented in a format and units common for this kind of problem. The input will almost always be expressed in terms of base excitation, and the units for the spectral density of acceleration will almost always be in g2/Hz. In addition, transition between values at different frequencies will almost always be logarithmic. Creating measures for a dynamic random analysis will be reviewed. Though a Dynamic Random Analysis outputs quantities in spectral density, how to use the output to determine confidence in the model will be examined. The input for this model is specified by the table and graph below. Acceleration data for dynamic random analysis is often obtained from empirical data. In addition, several large institutions such as the US Army or NASA have public documents (for example, MIL-STD810) that include PSD Acceleration plots to be used for products designed for them. It is also not uncommon for consumer products marketed as rugged or heavy duty to be designed using the types of specifications.

Frequency (Hz)

Acceleration (g2/Hz)

20

0.075

100

0.1

400

0.1

600

0.03

Note how the chart provided is on a log scale for both axes, and the curve appears as straight lines. This means that when the table is typed in Mechanica, Logarithmic interpolation has to be used. Sometimes if a graph is not included, the slope information will be

included in the table in the form of dB/octave. Setting the interpolation to Logarithmic will account for this as well.

DynRandExer

wing_rgt.prt

Task 1. Open the Mechanica application and begin creating a dynamic random evaluation.
1. Click Applications > Mechanica. Note that the units for this model are in-lbf-s and that the model already has a material assignment (Aluminum 6061), simulation features (4 points), and constraints (on the inboard section of the wing).

## from the main toolbar.

Note that a modal analysis has already been created. The modal analysis calculates the first six modes of vibration for WING_RGT.PRT.

3. In the Analyses and Design Studies dialog box, click File > New Dynamic > Random.... 4. Type Random_Vibration in the Name field. The direction vector for base excitation has served as a scaling factor in other dynamic analyses. In Dynamic Random analyses, the values typed into the base excitation vector are squared and then scaled by the function defined. So if the acceleration is reported in g2/Hz, then the base excitation vector should only have the value of g for that system of units, not g2. As such, for this model the acceleration of gravity in in/s2 is 386.4.

5. Type 386.4 in the Y field as shown in the figure. 6. Select the Supports radio button in the Relative to field.

7. In the Damping Coefficient area of the dialog box, verify that the drop-down menu is set to For all modes and type 5 in the second field as shown in the figure.

8. In the Frequency Dependence area of the dialog box, click Function 9. Click New... in the Functions dialog box. Note the default PsdFunc1 name for the function.

10. Select Table from the Definition drop-down menu. 11. Click Add Row, verify the Start at field is set to 1, type 4 in the Num Rows field, and click OK. 12. Populate the table as shown in the figure. 13. Select Logarithmic for both of the drop-down menus at the bottom of the dialog box as shown in the figure. 14. Click OK > OK to finish creating the function and return to the Dynamic Random Analysis dialog box.

15. Select the Previous Analysis tab. Note how the previously defined Modal_Analysis_6_modes is automatically selected at the Modal Analysis. This is due to the fact that it is the only modal analysis currently in the working directory.

16. Select the Output tab. 17. Select the Full RMS Results for Displacements and Stresses check box as shown in the figure. 18. Select the Mass Participation Factors check box as shown in the figure. 19. In the Output Intervals area of the dialog box, verify that the drop-down menu is set to Automatic Intervals within Range as shown in the figure. 20. Type 20 in the Minimum Frequency field as shown in the figure. 21. In the Maximum Frequency area, select the User-defined radio button and type 600 in the field as shown in the figure. 22. The dialog box should now appear as shown in the figure. Click OK to complete the Dynamic Random Analysis definition and close the dialog box.

## Task 2. Create valid measures for the dynamic random analysis.

Measures that are valid for a dynamic random analysis have to fulfill two requirements: A. They must be associated with specific points on the model. B. They must be vector quantities. (For instance acceleration magnitude is not valid, but acceleration in the x direction is valid.) 1. Click Close in the Analysis and Design Studies dialog box. 2. Click Simulation Measure Measures dialog box. from the Mechanica toolbar and click New in the

3. Type acceleration_y_tip in the Name field. 4. From the Quantity drop-down menu, select Acceleration. 5. From the Component drop-down menu, select Y. 6. Verify that the Coordinate system is set to WCS. 7. In the Spatial Evaluation area of the dialog box, select At Point from the first drop-down menu. 8. Click Select Reference figure. and select PNT14 from the model as shown in the

9. In the Dynamic Evaluation field, select At Each Step from the first drop-down menu. 10. The dialog box should now appear as shown in the figure. Click OK to complete the Measure Definition and close the dialog box.

11. Click Copy in the Measures dialog box. 12. Select PNT14 from the model and click OK in the Multiple Measure Copy dialog box. 13. If necessary, select the acceleration_y_tip1 and click Edit. 14. Edit the Name field to acceleration_y_tip_rms. 15. In the Dynamic Evaluation field, select RMS from the drop-down menu. 16. The dialog box should now appear as shown in the figure. Click OK to complete the Measure Definition and close the dialog box. 17. Click Close to close the Measures dialog box.

Task 3. Run the dynamic random analysis and review the results.
1. Click Mechanica Analyses/Studies and click Start Run from the main toolbar.

2. Select the Random_Vibration analysis from the Analyses and Design Studies list > Yes to start the design study. once the analysis is started. 3. Click Display Study Status

## The analysis should take a few minutes to complete.

4. When the analysis is complete, review the Diagnostics and Run Status window. Click Close to close each one when you are through reviewing it. 5. Verify that Random_Vibration is selected in the Analyses and Design Studies dialog box and click Results to start Results mode. 6. Select Graph from the Display type drop-down menu. 7. In the Graph Ordinate (Vertical) Axis area (on the Quantity tab), select Measure from the first drop-down menu.

## to open the Measures dialog box.

9. Select acceleration_y_tip from the User-Defined list of measures, and click OK. 10. The dialog box should appear as shown. Click OK and Show to show the graph result.

11. Review the graph. Note that your display might be slightly different, depending on which exercises you have completed from this course. When a quantity reaches high values when it encounters a natural mode, it can be more convenient to display the graph on a log-log scale to be able to see more information. You will do this in the next few steps.

12. From the Results window main toolbar, click Format > Graph.

13. Verify that the window is showing information on the Y Axis and select the Log Scale check box in the lower-right corner of the dialog box as shown in the figure.

14. Select the X Axis tab, and select the Log Scale check box in the lower-right corner of the dialog box as shown in the figure. 15. Click OK to view the graph in log-log format. Note that this is the spectral density for the acceleration. The units for the yaxis are in2/s2Hz, not g2/Hz

## from the Results window main toolbar. .

17. From the Results Mode main toolbar, click Result Window 18. Select Random_Vibration and click Open. 19. Type XX in the Title field. 20. Verify that the Display type drop-down menu is set to Fringe.

21. On the Quantity tab, select Stress from the first drop-down menu as shown in the figure. 22. If necessary, set the Component drop-down menu on the Quantity tab to XX. Note that there is no Von Mises stress availableit is not calculated for a dynamic random analysis.

23. Click OK and Show to show the Fringe plot result. 24. Click Copy from the main toolbar in the Results window.

25. Edit the title field to read YY. 26. Select YY from the second drop-down menu on the Quantity tab. 27. Click OK and Show to show the Fringe plot result. 28. Click Copy from the main toolbar in the Results window.

29. Edit the title field to read ZZ. 30. Select ZZ from the second drop-down menu on the Quantity tab. 31. Click OK and Show to show the Fringe plot result. 32. Review the resulting fringe plots. The highest of the axial stresses appears to be 1,081 psi in the Z direction. Note that the values of stress reported here are the root mean square (RMS) stresses, not the actual stress on the model at any point in time. It is assumed that since the vibration is naturally occurring, it follows a normal probability distribution function and has a mean of zero. If the mean is equal to zero, then the root mean square is equal to the standard deviation (sigma or ). One way you can use this to judge results for random vibration is to use three sigma results. It is believed that there is a 0.3% probability that the value could be higher than three standard deviations. So for your stress of 1,081 psi, the three-sigma value would be 3,243 psi. This means there is only a 0.3% chance that the axial stress will be higher than 3,243 psi. This is well below the yield stress for Aluminium 6061, which is 40,000 psi.

33. When you are finished reviewing the results, click File > Exit Results > No to exit the Result window without saving any results. 34. Return to the Standard Pro/ENGINEER mode by clicking Applications > Standard. 35. Click Save from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model. 36. Click File > Close Window from the main menu. 37. Click File > Erase > Not Displayed > OK to erase the model from memory. This completes the exercise.