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CLIMATE RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING

Cairo, Egypt, Africa 30N, 31E

Presentation1

Group Cairo

Ismail Khater, Saif Rashid

Desertec renewable energy grid

Energy by use
Industry Agriculture Gov. Sector & Public Utilities Residential Commercial Other

CLIMATE Climate Zone: BWh B - Dry Climates are characterized by little rain and a huge daily temperature range. W - stands for arid or desert, are used with the B climates. h - stands for Dry-hot with a mean annual temperature over 18C in B climates only. Recorded, design and average high temperatures are 39, 34 and 27C simultaniously. Recorded, design and average low temperatures are 5, 5 and 17C simultaniously. Mean annual temperature is 22C. Mean relative humidity for an average year is recorded as 35.2% and on a monthly basis it ranges from 25% in May to 46% in December.

ENERGY Energy Supply System Electricity is used for heating and cooling in Egypt. It is also common to use natural ventilation (cross ventilation) as well as passive thermal control. Electricity Generation In Egypt, electricity is mainly from Fossil Fuels (Oil and Natural Gas)and Hydro power. Natural gas is used for cooking and DHW. There is growing development of Wind and CSP energy, where by 2020 the installed capacity of electricity is planned to be covered by 20% renewable energy. Electricity Funding The electricity prices are very low, due to the subsidies (8.2 billion /Year). Prices for residential and offices range from1-6 c per kWh. Captive usage system has a limit of 50MW, as well as for private investments. Power purchace agreements are for 25 years. Water availability Water is scarce and therefore not suitable for evaporative cooling.
Zafarana Aswan

Energy by type

% Hydro % Thermal % Wind

Giza

Kuraymat

CLIMATE RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING


Heating and Cooling System Heating demand is 347 kWh/a which accounts for only 1% of the total energy demand. On the other hand, the cooling demand exceeds 62% of total demand, with 15345 kWh/a. Therefore, the main focus is to provide a cooling system which normally uses natural ventilation, shading and other traditional, passive techniques. Heat Pump / Boreholes As a more efficient system it is recommended to use heat pumps and geothermal energy, this heat pump will have a COP (coefficient of performance) of 3 and will reduce the total energy demand to 13,973 kWh/a. The length of the borehole needed to cover the cooling and heating demand of one floor is 213 m. this heat pump needs electricity which should be provided from renewable sources, which in this case is from PV panels. Photovoltaic Annual Solar Radiation at a horizontal surface is 2,000 kWh/m a. The maximum annual Solar Radiation is 2,203 kWh/m a at an angle of 30. The efficiency of PV panels used in calculations is 12% calculating the most efficient placement of photovoltaics showed that the tiltied roof with angle of 30 can generate 51,283 KWh, which can cover the demand of 3.7 office floors.(see table) CONCEPT Estimated primary energy demand: 41,918 kWh/a

Presentation1
PROPOSAL

Group Cairo

Ismail Khater, Saif Rashid

COMMENTS Results for a Standard Office room: The results are not satisfying. The cooling demand needs to be reduced in order to be able to have more floors and keep the energy sources limited to onsite renewables. Results for a multi-storey building: Results are not satisfying, as we need 788m deep* borehoels, which means 800m2 plots which would be 12x67m. An option would be to reduce the depth of the boreholes. The common International Style of the Offices is not suitable for this climate. Outlook Some of the first proposals that could be integrated to reduce energy demand: - Using fans and natural ventilation can store nighttime cooling in high mass interior surfaces - Adding solar shading devices and installing smaller windows which still allow needed indirect sunlight

Madrid

Heating

Cooling

artificial light

ventilation

Fig. 1: ELECTRICITY DEMAND Fig. 4: PROPSED EXTERIOR SOLUTIONS

Fig. 5: PROPSED INTERIOR SOLUTIONS

- Use light colored building materials for the exterior to minimize conducted heat gain as well as light interior paint to gain more lighting - Using enclosed well shaded courtyards to provide Wind-protected microclimates, as well as narrow streets for buildings self shading - Raising the indoor comfort temperature limit will reduce air conditioning energy consumption

Fig. 2: BOREHOLES CONFIGURATIONS

Fig. 3: CURRENT SOLUTIONS

Fig. 6: PROPOSED URBAN SOLUTIONS

* based on the height- distance ratio the area of the plot will be 396 m2. the optimum depth of the boreholes will be 50m (see Fig. 2)

CLIMATE RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING


Cairo, Egypt, Africa 30N, 31E Altitude angle at noon (12:00h) in winCLIMATE ANALYSIS ter is 33 above horizon and in sumAir Temperature Range: mer 86 above horizon. The average high temperature is 27C and the average low is 17C. The temperature difference between day and night in summer is more than 10K (1st July 22C-33C/ 1st August 22C-37C). This situation will be useful for night cooling.[1] Ground Temperature: Ground temperature is the same as the mean annual temperature which is about 22C.[1] Sky Cover Range: The sky is clear as the mean annual sky cover range is 33% and the average monthly range does not exceed 50% in any month.[1] Humidity: Evaporative cooling is theoretically possible because the climate is classified as a dry one as the mean relative humidity for an average year is recorded as 35.2%[1]. However, it is not feasible to use evaporative cooling due to water scarcity.[2] Solar Radiation and Sun Path: The mean annual average of solar radiation on a horizontal surface is 876 Wh/sq.m per hour. the month with the highest average solar radiation is July with 1027 Wh/sq.m and the lowest is December with 618 Wh/sq.m.[1]
Fig. 2: WIND WHEEL [3]

Presentation2
DESIGN STRATEGIES

Group Cairo

Ismail Khater, Saif Rashid

The climate data analysis shows that: The optimum building orientation that provides optimum sun control is north-south. North,north west orientation is the orientation for optimum natural ventilation. North-south oriented building with catchers can combine both optimum solutions, especially with the southward tilted roof. As a building structure and materials, thick walls and sandstone can support an optimum solution. Less glazing in the facade is also important to prevent direct solar radiation and heat transfer.

The design strategies for both residential and office buildings are similar, but there are some differences due to different function such as; the occupation hours, ventilation and lighting (needed more in office building), internal heat loads, space planning (offices are preferred more open and flexible with larger spans).

Fig. 1: SUN PATH CHART (21 June to 21 December) [1]

Wind Velocity and Direction: The direction of Prevailing wind is North and North-West[3]. In addition, theres a seasonal Hot-Dusty SouthWest wind mainly in April, ventilation openings in this orientation should be avoided[4]. The average yearly wind speed is 4 m/ sec and almost the same for monthly average, which is sufficient for natural ventilation.[1]

Fig. 3: ORIENTATION/VENTILATION DESIGN CONCEPT [5]

Fig. 4: PSYCHROMETRIC CHART [1]

CLIMATE RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING


DESIGN RULES Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation can store nighttime coolth in high mass interior surfaces, thus reducing air conditioning.[1] EXAMPLE 1: VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE BAYT EL-SUHAYMI Short description Suhaymi house is a traditional islamic/vernacular architecture house that was built in the year 1648, with a floor area of 2000 m2. It lies in the heart of Cairo city, and is now owned by the Egyptian government and used as a museum.[6] Climate Responsive Architecture The House is a typical Courtyard Building. [7] It has heavy bearing walls of brick & stone and roofs that are marked with their thermal resistance properties. Openings to the outside are very small and shaded, which protect the building from the strong sun. The decorated wooden grillage (Mashrabiya) allow the needed amount of light to penetrate without overheating.[8] The means of cross-ventilation exist, while being able to trap the cool airflow through the water fountain and courtyard garden. Balconies are facing the inside, which are mostly shaded during the day, allowing the cooled air in through pressure difference. Different Halls were used for winter and summer according to their orientation.[8]

Presentation 2

Group Cairo

Ismail Khater, Saif Rashid

EXAMPLE 2: BEST PRACTICE NEW AUC CAMPUS Short description The American University Campus in Cairo (AUC) is designed based on traditional architecture criteria, hosting educational, residential and office functions. It was built in the year 2008, covering 46,000 acres of land, and lies on the outskirts of Cairo. [12] Climate Responsive Architecture The AUC campus was built using stone, marble and granite. Sandstone walls reduce the cooling demand through their high thermal mass. All offices have the possibility to be naturally ventilated, and also have natural daylighting. The mechanical ventilation uses a chilled water system, which is 40% provided by co-generation power method. 27 water fountains increase the relative humidity, cooling the dry micro-climate of the campus. [12][13] Even though studies have been conducted to install renewable energy on the buildings [15], all of the energy is from fossil fuels. The building orientation and density is also doubted and could have been improved.

Fig. 10: SUHAYMI HOUSE (COURTYARD VIEW) [11]

Fig. 5: NATURAL VENTILATION EXAMPLES [1]

Shading Devices Window overhangs (designed for this latitude) can reduce cooling demand.[1]

Fig. 11: SUHAYMI HOUSE* (CROSS SECTION) [9]

Fig. 6: SUN SHADING EXAMPLES [1]

High thermal mass High mass interior surfaces like stone feel naturally cool on hot days and reduce day-to-night temperature swings.[1]

Fig. 12: TYPICAL TRADITIONAL CITY SECTION [10]

Fig. 14: AUC CAMPUS (LIBRARY) [14]

Fig. 7: THERMAL MASS GRAPH [1]

Heating Demand Equipment, lights & occupants will greatly reduce winter heating demand.[1]

Fig. 13: AUC CAMPUS (COURTYARD) [14] Fig. 8: INTERNAL HEAT GAINS [1] Fig. 9: SUHAYMI HOUSE FLOOR PLAN [8]
* Section is from Muhib Ad-Dmin Ash-Shfi house(1350). It is used here because of unavailability of data, but it represents the same concept.

Fig. 15: AUC CAMPUS (LAYOUT MAP) [12]


NOTE: All Information (text, diagrams and images) marked with a [x] are referenced. The bibliography is located at the end of the attached PDF.

CLIMATE RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING


Cairo, Egypt, Africa 30 N, 31E
NORTH

Presentation 3
DESCRIPTION Orientation (sun and wind)

Group Cairo

Ismail Khater, Saif Rashid

WALL SECTION VENTILATION SECTION


SUMMER SOUTH

BERNOULLI EFFECT

PREVAILING WIND DIRECTION

WINTER

From the weather data, best practice and vernacular architecture example we conclude the best orientation for the Building energy performance is to be North-South with the longer faade.[1][2] This is also suitable for the prevailing wind direction (NorthNorthwest), making it possible to use the required wind for ventilation.[1] Window size and placement As the sky is categorized dominant by clear sky, the used percentage will be the minimum of 35% of glazing [3], as there is a need to maximize the heavy construction mass. Glazing will be composed of 2.7 meter vertical panels to maximize supply and exhaust difference on the northern and southern faades [4]. Shading system Shading requirements will be met with fixed horizontal louvers on the southern faade designed to fully shade the glazing by April 21st at noon. There is no need for shading on the northern faade. [5] As for east and west, facade protrusions and recesses will be made to reduce the direct solar radiation on a detached panel to eliminate the thermal bridge. Ventilation strategy Natural ventilation will be mostly used, through windows, two opposite walls (cross ventilation), and also the possibility to use a ventilation shaft

through having openings in the corridor slab and a ventilation shaft with a solar chimney effect caused by the heat of the PV panels to accelerate wind change in the summer months. [6] During regular to high wind velocity the funnel setting of the PV panels will create the pressure difference sucking the air out (Bernoulli effect) [7]. Another ventilation method will be the one-sided ventilation which is forced by temperature difference. Construction mass Heavy construction mass is used in the outer shell, as well as in interior surfaces, which reduce day and night temperature swings [1]. For the outer walls sandstone is a good material to be used because of its characteristics [8] and availability. COMFORT LEVEL From the European Standard EN 15251 the outcome shows percentages of 74.6, 7.3 and 6.8 for categories I, II and III simultaneously, totalling a percentage of 88.7. The rest of 11.3 percent lies in category IV, which represents the hot days.[9] The overall assessment shows that it is insufficient. When we alter the design temperature by 2,3 and 4 K of upper level for adaptation to hot climates we reach categories III, II and I simultaneously, all with 84 exceeding hours. Mechanical ventilation (like ceiling fans) will have to be used to meet the satisfying results. Using fans can make temperatures seem cooler by 5 degrees F with closed windows.[1]

ONE WALL VENTILATION

CROSS VENTILATION

WINDOW-to-SHAFT VENTILATION

PROTRUSIONS

ELEVATION (north)

NON-SHADING

ELEVATION (south)

SHADING

CLIMATE RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING


ENERGY CONCEPT Demand for the optimized room Annually: thermal: cooling 5,870 kWh/a heating 470 kWh/a electrical: heating & cooling 2,113.4 kWh/a art. lightning 1,099 kWh/a Ventilation 1,596 kWh/a sum: sum: 4,808.4 kWh/a Geothermal heatpump 1,682.9 kWh/a Peak Chiller 860.9 kWh/a 5,238.8 kWh/a Fig.1: Achievable no. of Storeys Heat Pump / Bore holes The bore hole length from the simulation done in TRNSYS Lite is 144 m per floor, thus the property area required for the 10 storey office will be 1,215.3 m2 with a distance of 87 m between the buildings which is not satisfying for urban dense areas.[2] Therefore, the limiting factor in this case is the property area and the bore holes. Photovoltaic The maximum Energy which can be Generated from a tilted roof with an angle of 30 is 51,283 kWh/a. This amount of energy can cover the energy demand of more than ten storeys using a geothermal heat pump with a COP of 3 as shown in the table below.

Presentation3
Alternative system

Group Cairo

Ismail Khater, Saif Rashid

Using bore holes with smaller distances in between that deliver 600 Wh/d can solve the problem partly by covering the base load. In addition, electric chillers will be installed to cover the peak demand, using the electricity generated by the PV panels. Assumption: Building with 5.5 storeys (utilizing only half of the 6th floor area) and Distance to Height ratio (1:1.5). Building height = 21 m Distances = 14 m (bldg. to bldg.) Plot area = 336 m2 Basic cooling covered by bore holes = 218.2 Wh/m2d 78% of cooling demand to be covered by Geothermal heat pump (COP = 3.0) 22% covered by Electric chillers (COP = 1.5) Total electricity demand for one storey ( Geothermal, Ventilation, Lighting & Chiller) = 5,238.8 kWh/a Total demand for building = 5,238.8 X 5.5 = 28,813.4 kWh/a [see attached document] Fig.3 Building Concept

solar radiation on: Horizontal 40,320 kWh/a Tilted 30 51,283 kWh/a Daily: max heating/cooling demand 515 Wh/md borehole length 144 m Heating and Cooling System According to data from Climate Consultant, the building has six months with average temperature above 23C in which cooling is needed. Therefore, the building will be a hybrid type with cooling during summer months.[1]

Fig.2: Building distances

Fig.4 Buildings Urban Layout

CLIMATE RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING


COMMENTS Results for an adapted office room: The adapted building is performing significantly better than the International style building. This can be described by the results of the simulation done in TRNSYS lite in percentages reduced as following [2]: 80.2% of artificial lighting 42.3% of cooling energy 50% of mechanical ventilation This has been made possible by applying the measures (materials, orientation and comfort levels) derived from the climate consultant outcome [1], and from the vernacular architecture examples (see presentation 2). URBAN CONTEXT Explanation: Due to the high solar radiation on Cairo[1], combined with the clear skies[1], it is possible to densify the built environment (horizontally and vertically) and still achieve the goal of a ZEB. In this environment a ratio of 1.5 building height to street width has been used to reduce the heat island effect, infrastructure requirements and shade the streets to achieve a more comfortable outdoor environment.[6] Results for a multi-storey building: The results, after creating and testing the adapted building and the urban setting are satisfying, with an excess of 22, 469.6 kWh/a of electrical power.

Presentation3

Group Cairo

Ismail Khater, Saif Rashid

SUBSTITUTION MEASURES Even though there is no need to substitute the implemented measures and technology, as it covers the whole building demand and even exceeds the electricity needs, it is argued if the decentralized PV technology is the best to be used in Egypt.[3][5] According to some studies, the use of PV modules requires more maintenance in hot dry climates (with the higher potential of sand storms) as the panels get dirty, and therefore reduce the efficiency.[5] Therefore, a centralized PV system (park) could be maintained more easily. As for the efficiency of PV itself, studies have shown that using CSP technology results in a more efficient system in Egypt. This is mainly due to the fact that the Power generated by CSP could be stored, and therefore, used even during night time and during cloud covered times.[4] Still, for remote locations, the results of the study would be preferred, eliminating the need for constructing the infrastructure and saving the resources needed for them.

CONCLUSION Relatively to the current use of fossil fuels in Egypt, the results of the Office Building are satisfying. As discussed in the last section, other sources or settings for the renewable energy use or mix might be more suitable for an urban environment, making some restrictions like building heights or street width more flexible. In addition, companies could reduce the energy demand by changing their code of conduct and/or ethics, by implementing measures such as changing the dress code, or changing the working hours to better suit the employees according to the climate. By that said, there is a need to change the corporate culture. Architecture could be looked at as more of a challenge rather than a limitation. At the end, a good design is one that meets not only the style and aesthetics but mainly the occupants comfort criteria. The results of the overall exercise show that there is a great potential to achieve ZEBs in Egypt, in a convenient and manageable manner. For 21st century Architecture and Planning it is essential to pay a great deal of attention to the climate in the initial phases of any project.

Fig.4: Proposed urban context (section)

Fig.5: Proposed urban context (plan)


ZEB: Zero Energy Building

HafenCity University Resource Efficiency in Architecture and Planning

Climate Responsive Architecture and Planning


Prof. Udo Dietrich WS 11/12

Presentation 1
Location: Cairo, Egypt Ismail Khater Saif Rashid

CLIMATE
Climate Zone: BWh B - Dry Climates are characterized by little rain and a huge daily temperature range. W stands for arid or desert, are used with the B climates. h - stands for Dry-hot with a mean annual temperature over 18C in B climates only. [1] Recorded, design and average high temperatures are 39, 34 and 27C simultaneously. Recorded, design and average low temperatures are 5, 5 and 17C simultaneously. Mean annual temperature is 22C. [2] Mean relative humidity for an average year is recorded as 35.2% and on a monthly basis it ranges from 25% in May to 46% in December. [2]

ENERGY
Energy Supply System Electricity is used for heating and cooling in Egypt. It is also common to use natural ventilation (cross ventilation) as well as passive thermal control. Electricity Generation In Egypt, electricity is mainly from Fossil Fuels (Oil and Natural Gas)and Hydro power. Natural gas is used for cooking and DHW. There is growing development of Wind and CSP energy, where by 2020 the installed capacity of electricity is planned to be covered by 20% renewable energy. [3]

Figure 2: electricity by sector [3]

Figure 1: electricity by type [3]

Electricity Funding The electricity prices are very low, due to the subsidies (8.2 billion /Year). Prices for residential and offices range from1-6 c per kWh. Captive usage system has a limit of 50MW, as well as for private investments. Power purchase agreements are for 25 years. [4] Water availability

Water is scarce and therefore not suitable for evaporative cooling. [5]

Electricity:
Heating demand = 347 Electricity For heat pump (COP 3) = 5,234 Cooling demand = 15,354 Ventilation = 3,192 Artificial lighting = 5,547 ________ Total electricity demand (heat pump + lighting + ventilation) = 13973 electricity generation from PV 30380 40320 51283 32770 number of possible stories 2.2 2.9 3.7 2.34

elevated modules 114.9192 flat roof 168 tilted roof (30% angle) 194 elev. 20 124.6944

roof surface

Boreholes:
need for Stories area boreholes (m) 1 168 213 2 336 426 3 504 639 3.7 621.6 788.1 Based on the rule height of building = distance between buildings The distance will be 19 m so the area available for boreholes will be 12 * 33 = 396 If: x : length of Borehole n: no. of boreholes = 788 = 788 (1)

10 = 396 (2)

Substitute eq.1 in eq.2. 788 = 396 10 = 50.2 n = 16 boreholei COMMENTS Results for a Standard Office room: The results are not satisfying. The cooling demand needs to be reduced in order to be able to have more floors and keep the energy sources limited to onsite renewables.ii Results for a multi-storey building: Results are not satisfying, as we need 788m deep* boreholes, which means 800m2 plots which would be 12x67m. An option would be to reduce the depth of the boreholes.iii The common International Style of the Offices is not suitable for this climate. Outlook Some of the first proposals that could be integrated to reduce energy demand: - Using fans and natural ventilation can store nighttime cooling in high mass interior surfaces [2] - Adding solar shading devices and installing smaller windows which still allow needed indirect sunlight [2] - Use light colored building materials for the exterior to minimize conducted heat gain as well as light interior paint to gain more lighting [2] - Using enclosed well shaded courtyards to provide Wind-protected microclimates, as well as narrow streets for buildings self shading [2] - Raising the indoor comfort temperature limit will reduce air conditioning energy consumption [2]

This is only a theoretical calculation and 100m boreholes will be used as the suggested in the task Based on the assumptions from the calculations done before. Based on the common known best practice urban planning assumptions for street/building width.

ii

iii

[1] J. Grieser et al., World Map of Koeppen-Geiger Climate Classification.: www.gpcc.dwd.de, 2006. [2] Robin Liggett et al., Climate Consultant.: www.energy-design-tools.aud.ucla.edu, 2008. [3] Egyptian Electricity Holding Company, Annual Report. Cairo, Egypt: Ministry of Electricity and Energy, 2009. [4] New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA), Annual Report 2010. Cairo, Egypt: Ministry of Electricity and Energy, 2010. [5] W. Hamza et al., Water availability and food security challenges in Egypt, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Ed. Zurich, Switzerland: Center for Security Studies, 2010.

HafenCity University Resource Efficiency in Architecture and Planning

Climate Responsive Architecture and Planning


Prof. Udo Dietrich WS 11/12

Presentation 2
Location: Cairo, Egypt Ismail Khater Saif Rashid

CLIMATE ANALYSIS
Air Temperature Range: The average high temperature is 27C and the average low is 17C. The temperature difference between day and night in summer is more than 10K (1st July 22C33C/ 1st August 22C-37C). This situation will be useful for night cooling.[1] Ground Temperature: Ground temperature is the same as the mean annual temperature which is about 22C.[1] Sky Cover Range: The sky is clear as the mean annual sky cover range is 33% and the average monthly range does not exceed 50% in any month.[1] Humidity: Evaporative cooling is theoretically possible because the climate is classified as a dry one as the mean relative humidity for an average year is recorded as 35.2%[1]. However, it is not feasible to use evaporative cooling due to water scarcity.[2] Solar Radiation and Sun Path: The mean annual average of solar radiation on a horizontal surface is 876 wh/sq.m per hour. the month with the highest average solar radiation is July with 1027 Wh/sq.m and the lowest is December with 618 Wh/sq.m.[1] Altitude angle at noon (12:00h) in winter is 33 above horizon and in summer 86 above horizon. Wind Velocity and Direction: The direction of Prevailing wind is North and North-West[3]. In addition, theres a seasonal HotDusty South-West wind mainly in April, ventilation openings in this orientation should be avoided[4]. The average yearly wind speed is 4 m/sec and almost the same for monthly average, which is sufficient for natural ventilation.[1]

DESIGN STRATEGIES
The climate data analysis shows that: The optimum building orientation that provides optimum sun control is north-south. North,north west orientation is the orientation for optimum natural ventilation. North-south oriented building with catchers can combine both optimum solutions, especially with the southward tilted roof. As a building structure and materials, thick walls and sandstone can support an optimum solution. Less glazing in the facade is also important to prevent direct solar radiation and heat transfer. The design strategies for both residential and office buildings are similar, but there are some differences due to different function such as; the occupation hours, ventilation and lighting (needed more in office building), internal heat loads, space planning (offices are preferred more open and flexible with larger spans).

DESIGN RULES
Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation can store nighttime coolth in high mass interior surfaces, thus reducing air conditioning.[1] Shading Devices Window overhangs (designed for this latitude) can reduce cooling demand.[1] High thermal mass High mass interior surfaces like stone feel naturally cool on hot days and reduce day-to-night temperature swings.[1] Heating Demand Equipment, lights & occupants will greatly reduce winter heating demand.[1] EXAMPLE 1:

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE
BAYT EL-SUHAYMI Short description Suhaymi house is a traditional islamic/vernacular architecture house that was built in the year 1648, with a floor area of 2000 m2. It lies in the heart of Cairo city, and is now owned by the Egyptian government and used as a museum.[6] Climate Responsive Architecture The House is a typical Courtyard Building. [7] It has heavy bearing walls of brick & stone and roofs that are marked with their thermal resistance properties. Openings to the outside are very small and shaded, which protect the building from the strong sun. The decorated wooden grillage (Mashrabiya) allow the needed amount of light to penetrate without overheating.[8] The means of cross-ventilation exist, while being able to trap the cool airflow through the water fountain and courtyard garden. Balconies are facing the inside, which are mostly shaded during the day, allowing the cooled air in through pressure difference. Different Halls were used for winter and summer according to their orientation.[8] EXAMPLE 2:

BEST PRACTICE
NEW AUC CAMPUS Short description The American University Campus in Cairo (AUC) is designed based on traditional architecture criteria, hosting educational, residential and office functions. It was built in the year 2008, covering 46,000 acres of land, and lies on the outskirts of Cairo. [12] Climate Responsive Architecture The AUC campus was built using stone, marble and granite. Sandstone walls reduce the cooling demand through their high thermal mass. All offices have the possibility to be naturally ventilated, and also have natural daylighting. The mechanical ventilation uses a chilled water system, which

is 40% provided by co-generation power method. 27 water fountains increase the relative humidity, cooling the dry micro-climate of the campus.[12][13] Even though studies have been conducted to install renewable energy on the buildings [15], all of the energy is from fossil fuels. The building orientation and density is also doubted and could have been improved.

Bibliography

[1] Robin Liggett et al., Climate Consultant 5.1, www.energy-design-tool.aud.ucla.edu , 2008 [2] W. Hamza et al., Water availability and food security challenges in Egypt, Swiss Federal Institute of [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]
Technology, Ed. Zurich, Switzerland: Center for Security Studies, 2010. Robin Liggett et al., Climate Consultant 5.1, www.energy-design-tool.aud.ucla.edu , 2008 (*.epw (climate) file from U.S. Department of energy, http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/cfm/weather_data.cfm ) Dr. A.M. Hegazi et al., Egyptian National Action Program to combat Desertification, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Desert Research Center, 2005 Online: www.solardat.uorigon.edu/sunchartprogram.html , retreived 2011, University of Oregon, Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Rabbat, Nasser. A Brief History of Green Spaces in Cairo, Umberto Allemandi & C. for Aga Khan Trust for Culture, 2004 Brian Edwards et al. ,Courtyard housing: past present and future, Taylor & Francis, 2005

[8] Ibrahim, Abdelbaki Mohamed. Renovation of Bayt al-Suhaymi. In Alam al-Bina. Cairo: Center for
Planning and Architectural Studies, 38-42/200, 1998. [9] http://www.greenstone.org/greenstone3/nzdl?a=d&c=ccgi&d=HASH011c18f48d81ff6aeed198f1.7.pp &sib=1&p.s=ClassifierBrowse&p.sa=&p.a=b [10] Emad el-Den Ahmed Hassan Ali, Visual design guidelines for medium-sized cities, www.elib.unistuttgart.de/opus/volltexte/2003/1497/pdf/PART1.pdf , retreived 2011 [11] Image retreived from: www.hightoursegypt.com

[12] [13] [14] [15]

American University in Cairo, http://www.aucegypt.edu/newcairocampus/background/Pages/default.aspx, retrieved 2011 Green Leads, edition: Fall 2010, http://www1.aucegypt.edu/publications/auctoday/AUCTodayFall10/Green_Leads.htm , retreived 2011 Images retreived from: AUC: Catalyst for Change, American University in Cairo, www.aucegypt.edu/offices/ouc/documents/catalystforchange.pdf , retreived 2011 Menna Dessouki et al.,Installing Solar Panels at the AUC New Cairo Campus, 2010

HafenCity University Resource Efficiency in Architecture and Planning

Climate Responsive Architecture and Planning


Prof. Udo Dietrich WS 11/12

Presentation 3(a)
Location: Cairo, Egypt Ismail Khater Saif Rashid

DESCRIPTION Orientation (sun and wind) From the weather data, best practice and vernacular architecture example we conclude the best orientation for the Building energy performance is to be North-South with the longer faade.[1][2] This is also suitable for the prevailing wind direction (North-Northwest), making it possible to use the required wind for ventilation.[1] Window size and placement As the sky is categorized dominant by clear sky, the used percentage will be the minimum of 35% of glazing [3], as there is a need to maximize the heavy construction mass. Glazing will be composed of 2.7 meter vertical panels to maximize supply and exhaust difference on the northern and southern faades [4]. Shading system Shading requirements will be met with fixed horizontal louvers on the southern faade designed to fully shade the glazing by April 21st at noon. There is no need for shading on the northern faade. [5] As for east and west, facade protrusions and recesses will be made to reduce the direct solar radiation on a detached panel to eliminate the thermal bridge. Ventilation strategy Natural ventilation will be mostly used, through windows, two opposite walls (cross ventilation), and also the possibility to use a ventilation shaft through having openings in the corridor slab and a ventilation shaft with a solar chimney effect caused by the heat of the PV panels to accelerate wind change in the summer months.[6] During regular to high wind velocity the funnel setting of the PV panels will create the pressure difference sucking the air out (Bernoulli effect)[7]. Another ventilation method will be the one-sided ventilation which is forced by temperature difference. Construction mass Heavy construction mass is used in the outer shell, as well as in interior surfaces, which reduce day and night temperature swings [1]. For the outer walls sandstone is a good material to be used because of its characteristics [8] and availability.

COMFORT LEVEL From the European Standard EN 15251 the outcome shows percentages of 74.6, 7.3 and 6.8 for categories I, II and III simultaneously, totaling a percentage of 88.7. The rest of 11.3 percent lies in category IV, which represents the hot days.[9] The overall assessment shows that it is insufficient. When we alter the design temperature by 2, 3 and 4 K of upper level for adaptation to hot climates we reach categories III, II and I simultaneously, all with 84 exceeding hours. Mechanical ventilation (like ceiling fans) will have to be used to meet the satisfying results. Using fans can make temperatures seem cooler by 5 degrees F with closed windows.[1]
Bibliography

[1] Robin Liggett et al., Climate Consultant 5.1, www.energy-design-tool.aud.ucla.edu , 2008 [2] http://www.greenstone.org/greenstone3/nzdl?a=d&c=ccgi&d=HASH011c18f48d81ff6aeed198f1.7.pp [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]
&sib=1&p.s=ClassifierBrowse&p.sa=&p.a=b , retrieved January 2012 U. Dietrich, S. Calderon, Zero-Cooling-Energy-Buildings in hot Climates: Experiences and Results from a University Teaching Course, HafenCity University Hamburg, Germany 2011 Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Udo Dietrich, Buildings Ventilation, HafenCity Universitt Hamburg, Department Architektur, Bauphysik, Energietechnik in der Architekturausbildung Online: www.solardat.uorigon.edu/sunchartprogram.html , retreived 2011, University of Oregon, Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Jrg Schlaich - Wolfgang Schiel, Solar Chimneys, Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology Third Edition, Stuttgart 2000 Brian Edwards et al. ,Courtyard housing: past present and future, Taylor & Francis, 2005 Membranes, and Insulation Materials for Building Envelope Design, 2007

[8] Phalguni Mukhopadhyaya et al., Hygrothermal Properties of Exterior Claddings, Sheathing Boards, [9] From the excel sheet provided by Prof. Udo Dietrich for the class Climate Responsive Architecture
and Planning, Hafencity University, Hamburg 2011