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THE LISTENING PROCESS

22 November 2012 Comm 3 - UP Clark

Importance of Listening

Hearing vs. Listening

Most basic of the four areas of language development Our ability to speak, read, write, & master cognitive skills depend on our ability to listen Listening skill is vital in both formal & informal situations Our attitudes, skills, & behaviors are affected by listening

Hearing physiological process of receiving aural & visual stimuli Listener takes in the sound of the speakers voice Passive phase of speech reception we can hear without effort

Hearing vs. Listening


Listening is more than hearing Active phase of speech reception A physiological process guided & controlled by the habits, attitudes, & conscious intentions of the listener Choosing information from complex stimuli information that will be helpful in formulating response

Definitions of Listening
Nichols: If hearing is the apprehension of sound & listening is the comprehension of aural symbols, then listening can be more accurately defined as the attachment of meaning to aural symbols. (1954)

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Definitions of Listening
Baird & Knower: Listening is the term for a whole group of mental processes which enable us to interpret the meaning of messages. It is a cognitive process that involves perception, comprehension, & other mental processes. (1968)

Definitions of Listening
Wolvin: Listening is the process of receiving, attending to, & assigning meaning to aural stimuli. (1988)

Nature of Listening Definitions of Listening


Brooks: Listening is the combination of what we hear, what we understand, & what we remember. (1993)

1. Listening is a dynamic, transactional process. 2. Listening is an active process (not a passive one). 3. Listening is a complex process.

Hearing

Identifying & Recognizing

Auding

S P E E C H S O U N D S

Auditory acuity Masking Auditory fatigue

Auditory analysis Mental reorganization Association

Note sequencing Forming sensory impressions M E A N I N G

Identification of words

Stages of Listening
W. Brooks (1993) 1. Hearing 2. Identifying & recognizing 3. Auding

appreciation

The Brooks Listening Model

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1. Hearing
Hearing reception of sound waves by the ear. 3 Important Factors: Auditory acuity frequencies or tones at various intensities (loudness) Masking background noise with same frequency range as the message Auditory fatigue prolonged exposure to sounds of certain frequencies can result to hearing loss

2. Identifying & Recognizing


Identifying & recognizing patterns of relationships. Factors that influence: Auditory analysis comparing sounds heard with ones that are familiar (likenesses & differences) Mental Reorganization system for retention & structure of sounds. One may recode, regroup, rehearse, or syllabify Associations linking sounds with previous experiences, memories, & backgrounds. (Personal & subjective meanings may differ).

3. Auding
The listener assimilates the words, & responds to them with understanding & meaning. Thinking skills: Indexing arranging the material according to importance Making comparisons Noting sequence arranging by time Forming sensory impressions translating the material into sensory images (or even taste, smell, or feel of the message) Appreciating responding to the aesthetic nature of the message
S P E E C H S O U N D S

Hearing

Identifying & Recognizing

Auding

Auditory acuity Masking Auditory fatigue

Auditory analysis Mental reorganization Association

Note sequencing Forming sensory impressions M E A N I N G

Identification of words

appreciation

The Brooks Listening Model

Purposes in Listening Attention & Listening


Attention: At or focus; Tension energy to focus or perform the listening task.
ONeill & Weaver: Attention is a unified, coordinated muscular set, or attitude, which brings organs to bear with maximum effectiveness upon a source of stimulation, & thus contributes to alertness & readiness of response.
1. 2. 3.

4.

Appreciative listening Empathic listening Comprehensive listening Critical listening

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Barriers to Effective Listening


Hastily branding the subject as uninteresting or irrelevant. Suggestion: Seek ways to make the subject matter interesting & useful to you

Focusing attention on appearance or delivery. Suggestion: Judge content, not delivery

Barriers to Effective Listening

Avoiding difficult & unpleasant material. Suggestion: Practice listening in a wide variety of situations

Barriers to Effective Listening


Getting over-stimulated by what the speaker says. Suggestion: Keep your emotions in check

Barriers to Effective Listening


Faking attention Suggestion: Dont pretend to listen

Creating, or yielding easily to distractions Suggestion: Fight distraction

Listening primarily for facts. Suggestion: Focus on ideas

Engaging in private planning Suggestion: Set aside unrelated personal problems or concerns

Trying to outline everything that the speaker says. Suggestion: Try more effective ways of outlining/note-taking

Wasting the advantages of thought speed Suggestion: Capitalize on the advantages of thought speed

Guides to Effective Listening


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4.
5. 6.

Guides to Effective Listening

Listen actively Listen with empathy Listen for total meaning Listen with an open mind Give effective feedback Listen critically

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Propaganda Techniques

Propaganda Techniques

Name-calling Glittering generalities Irrelevant personal attacks False appeal to authority Transfer (of authority, sanction, prestige) Half-truth Card-stacking (selecting only favorable evidence)

Propaganda Techniques

Plain-folks device Bandwagon (appeal to popular opinion) False causality False analogy