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MUSIC
A

COMPOSITION
METHOD OF

NEW

HARMONY

BY

CARL

E.

GARDNER Theory,

Author of Essentialsof Musk

and of Rhythmic Principles Tonal Notation, etc.

NEW

YORK

CARL

FISCHER

1918

N\uS

30b"3

OCT

2t

1918

Copyright,

191

BY

CARL
New

FISCHER
York

International

Copyright

Secured

PREFACE.

DuKiNG

the past few years the art creations

we

have
in the

seen

the

beginningof
arts

reactionary
sciences. such
art
seen as

period in
At
we

and

teaching of,the
futuristic those

and

such
see

time, it is to be expected that there will be extremists


the creators this
of
some

among

of

our

products of
who have

and the

music; but
of futility

many

upheaval is encouraging to of our pedagogicalmethods.


educators have
of

Modem

and psychologists
"

abandoned

the

old ways
age

of

teaching
It has

the

method

of startingevery student, regardless of the mechanism very of the


are

and

with personality
come

the rudiments be

subject at hand.
endowed with almost

to

recognized that
to

few

persons

sufficient enthusiasm

bridge
to

over

this

irksome, sometimes
of the order

unintelligible, period of study

the time

when, somewhat
of the old

enlightened, subject.
in
make

they can
One

and appreciate of the most

enter

into the attractiveness

is in music

conspicuous examples composition. For fear that a


the

pedagogy
'^

student
a

would

matical" gram-

errors,

subject has been


"

taught by
of

series of rules
too

ously ingeni-

by academicians all spontaneity in the student.


himself,and guiding him
student his set of
so

made

series of don^ts which

often inhibited
to express

Instead

allowing the student


old method

in his self
woe

the expression,
who

gave

the
or

and rules,
was

to him

disobeyed them
of

whether

not, in
This

doing, the result


method and of chords
correct

artistic.

"indirect"

of

teaching harmony consists


to to

giving the matically" "grampart is

construction

formulating rules according


another. above
the bass.

their

one progression

Usually a
The

bass

given and
result is
a

the student mechanical inclined

writes the chords


correctness

inevitable is mathematically
one

in which

the student than

who the

will be
The

more infinitely

successful chain
no sense

who

is in All

musicallyinclined.
which the there is
no

student
no

writes

after chain

of chords

meaning,
art

form, and
are

of relative values. the student

and vitality
not
an

in music
a

removed

and

usuallybe^
tive conserva-

comes,

but artist,

mechanician.
and

Furthermore, the student progressionsof the


of the modernists

learns all the forbidden but when theorists,


to the

combinations

turning to

the works

and

even

works

of the older masters,

he is confronted
m

with

parallel perfect

iv

PREFACE.

unresolved dissonances, cross-relations, augmented progressions, fifths, of a fourth or fifth in same ei cetera two or more direction, progressions ad infinUum, much by a studyof the changesgoing on Music pedagogs can profit of the way of presenting other subjects; in the methods other many have benefited by taking cognizanceof data which modem subjects and pedagogyhave psychology
The
come.

to offer.

"direct" method Our


thesis

in the

of music composition is sure teaching

to

is,allow and encourage the student to compose. We children to write letters until such would not think of forbidding our time as they had learned the entire contents of an imabridgedWebster Rather we encourage and had learned allthe rules of English grammar.
he happens to the child to express himself with whatever vocabulary have. Although there are approximately 450,000 words in the English

used but 15,000 and Milton 10,000. Shakespeare language, The following thesis in mind. text has been written with the above Rules and don'ts have indirect method been avoided in resorted to
so

far

as

seemed

The possible.

only where the direct method fails because in such places the personal in print, factor is often necessary. be composers, but allcan be trained cannot All students of composition the works of composers. to appreciate, imderstand, and interpret will bringabout such Whether or not the study of music grammar, alone, has its place in any scheme of results will not be argued. Grammar be the initialpresentaprocedure;but its placeshould not necessarily tion, the most important. Spontaneity, and appreciation nor interest, the desired goalsand the prevalent method of teaching is a menace are and then a geniusescapes, but geniuses Now to these three qualities. in a startling are minority. In this method, the author hopes to make the studyof harmony not the dry and difficult which so many proclaim but an attractive subject it, of presentation permit spontaneity subject.If the order and manner the object Even of the work has been accomplished. and selfexpression, in this text, academic considerations are sacrificed to spontaneity, if, the work has not failed; but the author and appreciation, interest,
believes that The Dillon author
no

has been

such sacrificewill accrue.

extends his gratitude to his wife,Marion affectionately and suggestions. aid,criticism, Gardner, for her sympathetic C. E. G*

Cambudge,

Mass.,

191 7

CONTENTS.
PART I.
Paob
"""

Ul

To

THE

Teaches

vii
xiv

Introduction

Vocabulary

of Chords

xiv in the Mixed


in the

CoD^Miss CoD^Miss
Compass Chapter

of the Voices of the Voices

Quartet

xvii

String Quartet

xviii
xviii

of the Pianoforte

I. Cadences II. The


Tonic

and

Elementary

Form

Triad

Root

Position

and
I

Inversions.
8 9

Exercises, Group
ni.
The Dominant

Qiord

Triad, Seventh, Ninth, and

Inversions.
12

Exercises, Group
Exercises, Group

3
4

14

Exercises, Group
The Melodic Line

16 17

Group Exercises,
IV. The SuiBDOMiNANT Position and Root

5 Chord

21 22

Inversions.
6 28

Exercises, Group
The V.
The

Major

Seventh
Chord

Chords

29 30

Sufertonic

Triad, Seventh, Ninth, and Inversions.

Exercises,Group
VI. The Superdominant

7 Chord

35

36

Triad, Seventh, Ninth, and Inversions.

Exercises,Group
Vn. The
Mediant Chord

40 42

Triad, Seventh, Ninth, and Inversions.

Exercises, Group
Vni. The Subtonic

45

Chord

48

Triad, Seventh, and Inversions. Group Exercises,


DC. X. Recapitulation The
Minor Mode
11 and 10

52

Suggestions
r

54

58
62

Exercises,Group

vi

CONTENTS.

Chapter
XI.

Paob

Non-Chosdal

Tones

64

Pasang, Appoggiatura, NeighboringTonej Anticipatory, Suspension, and Tones. Retardation,Organ Point, Compound Non-Chordal Exercises, Group 12
XII.
Alteked

72

Chords with Altered Fifths

73
74

Chords

Italian Sixth Chord German French


Sixth

76 78
79

Chord

Sixth Chord Sixth Chords

Additional Augmented

80 82

Neapolitan Sixth Chord


Other Altered Chords
13

83
8S

Exercises, Group
XIII.
Eleventh
and

T^ikteenth

Chords

and

Modernities

89

PART
Xrv. Modulation
and

11.
97
100

Transition
^
. .

Exercises, Group
XV. The Various

14
op

Styles

Writing

loi

(Pianoforte, StringQuartet,Orchestra.)
of Duplication

Factors
15

107

Exercises, Group
XVI.
Binary
and

107

Ternary 16

Forms

107

Exercises, Group
XVII.

116

Introduction, Intermezzo, Group 17 Exercises,


The Rondo
and
the

Episode,
Form

and

Coda

117 125 125


127

XVin.

Variation 18

Group Exercises,
XIX. XX. The The

Sonata
Mixed

Form
and

128 Free Forms Music. 132

Pot-pourri, Fantasia,Program
Appendix Appendix Appendix A. B. C. Melodies
from

Bach's Exercises

Chorals

136
147

Miscellaneous Exeroses
on

Figured

Bass Mode

152 152 152 153 154 154 155

Triads Principal

of the

Major

All the Triads of the Major Mode Triads of the Minor Mode

Inversions of the Triads Seventh Chords and Inversions

Transition Altered Chords Miscellaneous


Appendix D.

Exercises
of

156 156
Technical Terms 159

Definitions

TO
The author realizes
of

THE

TEACHER.
teacher
The

that,at firstglance,the

average

will

object

to the method

presentationin the opening chapters.


in certain

first objection

will be to the limited scope

given the student in the second chapter,


the student's places in the exercises, but tonic,
to the
use

it may
ear

be

argued that
some

will desire should

other chord
no

than

of other chords

there The

be

objection for by

here

the student

is

assertinghimself.
the

followingresults obtained

". W.

Harrison, of Boston, show

in the material. possibilities (a.)


Exercise

i, p.

8, harmonized

for four

voices

with

tonic chord.

(^^
J.
f[m "SH
-^-

i
-"*

-"-

J.
-""-

i
^

n
-B"-

f
for solo voice with

(^.)

The

same

arranged

accompaniment

(tonicchord).

vu

VIU

TO

THE

TEACHER.

^^

x?-

:^
-"s^

trt
,

S
1 1^

(S

H:

J -^ :"(- -i

tlu'

ipittfe ^
c.

:g S*

S-

r 1^

The

same

arrangedfor piano solo.

( ^^^^^^^
I

1^

E ^

fe

1^=^

3i

^^
i

(a.)

Exerdse

2, p.

8,harmonized

for four voices.

It
Ex. 2.

-^^^^ifmri'\m'f} rfiri^^

TO

THE

TEACHER.

(^.)

The

same

amnged

for solo voice and

acoompaniment

"^H^H

(a,)

Exercise

3, p.

8, harmonized

for four voices.

"l ,i////v/fiMi'f
^ J -J,^; J:; j V ^_:^
^

^I'lh'yi'j/

TO

THE

TEACHER.

(5.)

The

same

arrangedfor

solo roice and

accompaniment.

(a.)

Exercise 4, p.

8,harmonized

for four voices.

m
Ex.
4.

f
11
.

^^
I

^
.

-U

^p
^
ir

^ijW^: f=^

if

f=f

W/'m^ ''i'(W^'i'
ivM/^^f/^ LJ^
^p
J J J

TO

THE

TEACHER.

XI

I
"

J
,

I
"^

^^

""5^ -(S2-

II

( ?^

f"
The
same

f5"

#-

(5.)

harmonized

for solo voice with

accompaniment.

ai

fc=t
-O.

^^

^=^

4^Jt
all* -""i*"S"a"

^
I
"

"

"

"""""

xu

TO

THE

TEACHER.

with which Mr. Harrison handled this material ingeniousness the existence of the chapterin its present form. To be sure, justifies of the versions, non-chordal tones appear in some but these are spontaneous and their use should be encouraged before the student has even such tones. reached the chapterwhich explains Mr. Harrison is a professional

The

and such

skilled instrumentalist and


the average

we

therefore cannot

results from satisfactory has obtained


the method

student.

expect ever, The author, howall students with

good comparatively
has been tried.
be advanced

results from

whom

A second
as

objection may

that the method


text books

is not
cover

as

rapid

most.

This arises from the fact that most


the the firstchapter,
must objection

the three
the second

triads in principal
etc. chapter,

triads in secondary

by comparison. The average in from fifteen to chord structure and progression text book covers material is covered by this text in chapters. The same twenty-five lessons than a chapter each of which requires fourteen chapters, no more
in other text books. the economy in time of this method, the author gave an class the final examination paper set by Harvard College experimental
To prove for the firstyear

This

be met

harmony class of

approximately seventy-two hours of hours of lectures. In spite thirty-five


of lecture hours,the author's class as and was originality displayed
It will be noticed that
no are a

The class at Harvard has 1914. of lectures. The author's class had
the difference in the number

whole

made

few mistakes,considerable
was are

all the work

logical.
devoted
to

introductory pages
found in most

the

rudiments of music such

as

of harmony. The S3rstems

author believes that the student of have


a

knowledge of thorough and of intervalsand their inversions. The author's Essen^ practitional), and the preparatory ground thoroughly tials of Music Theory covers

has or should composition already rhythm,of scales (both theoretical and

TO

THE

TEACHER.

xiii

such of

material

within

the

pages

of

text

book

of

composition

seems

out

place.
In

Appendix
Chorals. student has chosen

will
These

be

foimd
not

melodies

for and
In

harmonization
are

chosen
to

from after found


to

Bach's the

are

graded
14.

designed

be

used
be

completed
from worked
the
out

Chapter
works of

Appendix
composers

will

melodies harmonized

various
to

which

are

be

or

according
those who

directions. desire
to

Appendix
supplement
terms

C
the

contains melodic

graded
work.
A

bass

exercises
D
terms

for consists

Appendix
of these

of

list this

of

technical

with for
the

definitions.
first

few each

are

used

in is

method

perhaps

time;

in

case,

the

term

chosen

practically

self-explanatory.

INTRODUCTION.
VOCABULARY OF CHORDS.

In

the

followingvocabulary, the chords


denote Arabic

are

figured. Large
numerals
A denote

Roman

numerals

major triads; small figuresdenote


to denote

Roman

minor
to
a

triads.

chord
a

factors.

cipher is affixed
The

small Roman is affixed to


a

numeral

diminished
to denote

triad.
an

plus sign (+)


The
an

largeRoman
also

numeral Arabic

augmented triad.
denotes

plus sign is
interval.
In

affixed to

figuresand
not

augmented
of the

the original numeration figuringthe altered triads,


of whether regardless of the
or

triads is retained the normal

the alteration has

changed
to

formation
the

triad.

The

student

is not
The

expected
chords

memorize

vocabulary; it is given for reference.


are

arrangements
and

of the chord
are

factors

such
most

as

to

show

the

of the "spellings'*

not

the necessarily
of the

effective factor distributions.

Triads

Major Mode.
-^-

i
1^

^
"22L

-^-

CI
Triads

II

III

IV
Mode.

VI

VII"

of the Harmonic

Minor

i
a

-*5"-

^
75

1
V
Minor.

i
vir

iiO
of the

m+
Form

IV

VI

Triads

Ascending

of the Melodic

i
a

"^-

fe
II

^
IV
Melodic Minor.

i
ViO
vir

III+
Form of the

Triads

of the

Descending

^
a I

^
ii"
III
Mode.
IV

^
SL

i
vn

VI

Seventh

Chords

of the Major

i
C
h

^m
"7 III7

^m
1V7
xlv

#
^
Th,

V119

INTRODUCTION.

XV

s"eventh Chords

of the Harmonic

Minor

Mode.

i
a

I
lA

hi
m+7
1V7

1^
Minor.

IJJ
VI7
YVP,70

17
Chords

Seventh

of the

Ascending Form

of the Melodic

i
a

i
I7
Chords

i
II7
of the

I
m+n
IV.
of the Melodic Minor.
h5^

VlO^

VHO7

Seventh

DescendingForm

i
a

I^
I7
Chords

I
III7
Major Mode.

Ig
IV7

II
^-

Is
VI. vn,

11^7
of the

V7

Ninth

j22.

^m
c u9
Chords
ii" nil

^
IV"
Mode.
-^Sr
VI o

I
vnOg

Ninth

of the Harmonic

Minor

s^
^
a

I
i"

^E
in+
9
IV

-"-

i
9

n^9
of the

VI

viiO 9

Ninth

Chords

AscendingForm

of the Melodic

Minor.
-"s-

i
a I 9

1 #
II 9

m=m=x
m+c DescendingForm
IV
9

I
VjO 9
Minor.
vir 9

Ninth

Chords

of the

of the Melodic

i
a

i
i" II*

m. Major Mode.

IV.

VI

vn.

Eleventh

Chords

of the
GL

"49

t
CIu
nil rail

^ct.

]^
Vu

-"s-

^1
"nOii

rvu

viu

xvi
Eleventh Chords

INTRODUCTION.
of the Harmonic

Minor

Mode

"

i
a

III

""ii
Chords of the

ni+^u
Major Mode

ivu

Vu

VIu

VIlOu

Thirteenth

i
""
C

^m
"lis

^m
Vi,
VI IS

I, i"

"i"
Chords

rvia
Minor Mode.

vnO

IS

Thirteenth

of the Harmonic

i
a

H^l-^^
I IS

i
ivi.

iiOi,

m+is

Via

Vli,
2nd inversion.

vnOj,

xst inversion.

i
^
Inversions

of

Triad:
2z:

ist inversion. 2nd inversion,

-yd inversion.

Inversions of

Seventh

Chord:

ist

inversion.

2nd inversion.

3rd inversion. 4fh inversion.

i
Inversions of
Ninth Chord:
a

f
3:
"i9-

i
i
two

s
"^
-O. -"^

i
i
^
"z?"

m
c

i
1
omitted.
are

vx t
forma

1
of melodic minor

*The

eleventh and thirteenthchords of the

INTRODUCTION.

xvu

an Obviously, m

isolated eleventh

or

thirteenth chord

is

ambiguous

its various inversions.

ife l"^ (g"ii^ i|g ljig


Chords with raised fifths:
" etc.

T-g p^i"
C
V
"+

i-g I"
u

1.-^
""^

"1+

'*

li'.lil^llSl
Chords with lowered fifths:

Augmented
Chords:

Sixth "th d

* etc.

U\
c

rr^^

IV,

\A Jft J4^^ r "X'ltCVIt c^C#^

fe

NeapoUtui6lli

^ V^ \ %
Other altered Chords:

Ij{2LJ
etc.

^ii^anO"#
a

ii" CtlV7 a#iig J ii""J^ a#iVj

"*

"#
Mixxd

"#
Qvartbt.
Bass

Compass

op

thb

Voicbs

in

thb

Soprano

Ako

Tenor

^^ZH

i m

^l

;^

/"

XVIU

INTRODUCTION.

Compass

of

the

Voices

in

the

String

Quartet.

VioUn

(ist

and

2nd)/:zz
Viola
J52.

'CeUo

^
Compass
of the

Pianoforte.

^^

Bva

alt.

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

CHAPTER
CADENCES AND ELEMENTARY

I.
FORM.

1.

The

Authentic
to

Cadence tonic

(alsocalled Final Cadence) is harmony.


the The

progression
may

from

dominant

authentic chord when is


the

cadence

be its

perfector
root

imperfect* perfectwhen
both
outer

tonic

arranged
uppermost
cadence

with

in

voices, and
5 in the

imperfect
chord.

voice
when

soimds

factor

or

tonic

The

authentic

preceded by subdominant
effective
2. use

harmony
cadence
a

is called

complete cadence.
of
a

The

of the

authentic is

is at the end from


use

period.
or

The

Half
to

Cadence

progression
of

tonic is at

subdominant the end of any

harmony
The

dominant

harmony. phrase
Cadence

Its effective
a

phrase other than


3.

the last

period.
False Cadence
to
some

Deceptive
is
a

(also called
dominant

and

Avoided other
Its
a

Cadencef)
than effective

progression from
and the

harmony
other

chord

I, usually VI
use

IV preferablyin occasionally

first inversion.

is at

end

of

phrase
also
to

than the

the

last

phrase of length of

period. period.
4.

It

is

used effectively

extend

normal

The

Plagal Cadence
This

(also called
is
a

Church

Cadence,
the

Ecclesiastical chord in

Cadence, and Amen


to

Cadence)

progression of

subdominant

the

tonic chord.

cadence

is effective after the

final cadence

ecclesiastical music.

Elementary

Form.

complete musical eight long measures or


Periods
are

sentence

is called short less


a

period and

usually consists

of

sixteen
more or

measures.

divided

figures. The
*Soine

construction

of

into sections, arbitrarily phrases and typicalfigurefollows:

theorists call
theorists make here.

half
a

cadence

an

imperfect cadence.

t Some
not

distinction

between

Deceptive Cadence

and

Avoided

Cadence, but

this

need

be considered

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

Andante
Pniod* Section Fhiaae

by

Mazas.

i.

i.

Phrase

2,

Ex.
6.

^
mftkW

Figi3e. I
Period continued. Section
"

r
Phrase 3.

2.

ir

Phrase

4.

i^-j,iij:^f"fnirpLU
The division of following
a

is sometimes period
Period.

chosen

by

theorists:

Phrase

i.

Semi-phrase

Or

Section.

Semi-phrase.

Period

continued. Phrase
"

2.

Semi-phrase.

\r

Semi-phrase.

ic
A

i\^r:r\if!l^\^r^
oommence

periodmay

upon

fractional part of the measure is deducted from the last measure

fractional part of a measure. for the commencement required


a

The of
a

riod pe-

of the

period.

T ^v

CADENCES

AND

ELEMENTARY

FORM.

"u I* ^,
The

^:f[^^^

t-^

"^

1/

divisions of such

and typical as simple periods

are

shown

in the

devices: marked by either or allof the following are preceding examples the smaller and melodic line. Where cadence, rhythmic grouping, is fragmentary divisions are well marked the composition and therefore the smaller divisions should To avoid a fragmentary efifect, primitive. coalesce to
some

extent

in the harmonization

and but

one

well marked The

other than the final cadence, should appear. cadence,

following

diagramdemonstrates:
Diagram
i.

Cadence, not final. Compares with semi-colon punctuation.

Full Cadence
in

final.

Compares
in

period punctuation.

with

constructed period

as

follows is not Diagram


Period of
12

imcommon:

2.

measures.

Division

i.

Division

2.

Division 3.

"

"sy:

E7^

it

EBSO

"i

^
Fmal Cadence.

Cadence,

Cadence,

(not final.)

(not final.)

periodin

the Minuet

of Sonata

by Beethoven
is added period

shows
two

the above

structure

but to this twelve-measure Such


a

measures

by

the final cadence. repeating

device is called Extended Cadence.

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

The

Scherzo from
as

Beethoven's follows:

Sonata

III shows

^teen-measure

periodconstructed

Diagram I
Division
i.

3.

Period Division
2.

of 16

measures.

Division

3.

t:itE3
The

"

?T: g
a

"

"a

i"

3S

as

i"

iK
four-measure

third division shows

perfectcoalescence
been

of two

groups.

by and contraction. For an example expansion, interpolation of expansion, Beethoven's see Sonata, Op. 10, No. i. For an example of interpolation, For an example see Beethoven's Sonata, Op. 10, No.'3. of contraction see Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsodies. Like poetry, the divisions of a simplemusical period balanced one are another and the first division is called antecedent and the following against division consequent. These terms may be applied small to two balancing to two balancing divisions, largedivisions and even to two balancing periods. The use of these terms in this sense must not be confused with their use in the structure of the fugue.
structures
as

Such

have

considered above

may

be varied

the devices of

Exercises. The

teacher should
to

the student require

play several periodsof simpleconstruction between pointout the phrases, distinguish


and recognize various cadences. divisions,

and
well

marked

and less marked

The

student should also be


of

to make required various simpleperiods.

diagrams of

the construction

CHAPTER
THE TONIC

n.
TRIAD.

its major major mode consists of the tonic {do), fifth {so). It is called a major triad. The and its perfect third {mi), The tonic triad in the chord is consonant and inactive in effect. Its root has
are

itsthird finality;

but and fifthhave less finality


In
tones

whollyinactive in this relationship. it is necessary to double one of the triads for four voices, writing of the tones must be sounded by two voices. of the triad; one i.e.,

THE

TONIC

TRIAD.

The

factor of the chord most

doubled is the root, but, with frequently


be doubled.

certain
be

the other factors may restrictions, omitted in major and minor chords.

with either tripled root,or Voice itisadvisable for the

Factor five may In this case, the triad appears doubled root and doubled third. musical
use

affectsthe materially spacing


to beginner

and result,

ties, to avoid subtle-

of

an

close position;* an i.e., arrangement of voices in which the three upper voices do not exceed the compass Such an arrangement always results in good spacing octave.

because of the well established fact that the two


can

adjacentvoices which

interval are tenor and bass. by the largest separated the tonic triad in close position for four voices Various ways of writing
root

best be

with doubled

follow:

(I
Root

^
-""
"

:22:
h"^

-"fi.a.

:i3

-^.

^ position:

etc.

-tsl
JQ.

ISL

Jo:.

:a-

Zl

jSf. jQ-"5"-"9"WPS"

-fSr r^"^-

jO-9-

First inversion:
SL SL

etc.

=g=

-27-

sasL
-^-

-iz.

SCSL

-^
Second inversion:
12L

^
etc.

rffi:

22:
-"-

-w

12L
-^-

12
*

Some

writers

applythe followingterms

to

the

following arrangements

2z: 3S

Close:

etc.

: Half-open

or

etc.

Open

or

etc.

la this text the term

"

" includes close position

half-open position.

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

Some

ot the above the

arrangements sound

thin.

The

student's

ear

will

show readily

more

desirable arrangements.

Although

the

above

arrangements of the six-fourchord have doubled root, the chord is more


effectivewith doubled fifth.
From
a

melodic

the standpoint,

two

outer

voices

are

the most

tant. impor-

^^Granrniatical" errors, such as consecutive and concealed filths and octaves, are more prominentin outer voices than in inner voices.

good soprano to which should be added a harmonic progressions and connections logical good bass. As we proceed, The method pursued each chord be made. must by this text of treating of correlating the chords and placingthem in their proper separately,
'^

Our first consideration is a

families" will assist the student in these fundamental and progressions


be

considerations

of

connections.

Voices should

not

cross.

Although
this device been

of voices is presentin crossing should not

the works of great composers,

resorted to until

in part writinghas experience

gained. chord gives material with which of but a single A vocabulary yery little be done with this material than at first to work, but much more can of various melodic arrangements might be supposed. Motives consisting of the tones of the tonic chord may be found in the following quotations:
{a.)Beethoven,
Ex.
8. 'Cello.

Third
"

Symphony.
r I

(B.)Beethoven,

Fifth

Symphony.
^s,

1^^^

I 1^

i^etc.

^
G Minor

-^

and Clarinet, unison. Strings

(c.)

Bach,

Invention,No. 8.

{d.) Mozart,

Symphon t

l^yTFlt^ ^
Weber,
Sonata II.
:etc.

i
etc.

f "

(/)

Banner. Star-Spangled

i ^
be

^
Die Wacht
am

m r^4U

J ^
Weber,
Sonata

letc.

I.

(^.)

Rhein

mt
use

p
of the tonic chord An predominates. entire other chords than the tonic would often

the In all compositions,

of no however, consisting period,


monotonous.

THE

TONIC

TRIAD

The various composers.

following
ways

quotations
which the

from

standard chord has

compositions
been handled

serve

to

show

in

tonic

by

famous

Gounod's

Faust

( transcribed

from

orchestration

).

Pl;
Ex.
G.

'ill

J'l,

I,

f\i

VsRDi's
^
^

II

Trovatore

( transcribed
X X

from

orchestration

).

'

Ex.
lO.

The

tones

marked
lo.

with

cross

(x)

are

non-chordal

and

are

explained

in

Chapter

PoNCHiELLi's
X

Dance

of
from

the

Hours

from

Gioconda

transcribed

orchestration

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

melodies should be sung usingthe sol-fa syllables after following tion which, theyshould be hannonized with the tonic chord. The harmonizabe for solo pianoforte, solo voice with pianoforte accompaniment, may
on

The

for four voices.

ExERCTSES, Group
1.

I.
French Folk

Song.

ifa i f^f^^

f-J

p^"^

B^m
English Game.

s[ny=E^^^
3.

EnglishGame.

iSfe
v^^^-

^
3E=p:

lv^
1=t

r r CI
t=|:
"*^'-it

|"rTj
4.

^
German Folk

Song.
-^

^
#

(""

^
-$
^

t5"-

ir"J

ts'

Xli

^
the student should
The

i9-

it
^
^
#

After the exercises have

been

criticizedand

corrected

by the teacher,
turn.

each part in playeach exercise singing

student may compose melodies founded upon the tonic chord and harmonize them. The teacher's criticism of this original work will do much
to clear misunderstandings.

CHAPTER
THE DOMINANT

in.
CHORD.

All the tones triad


are

of the scale other

than

those
one

which
or more

constitute the tonic


of the tones of the

active in their

tendencytoward

tonic triad. The

7th scale step (theleadingtone) has strong tendency diatonically


to the tonic.

upward
The downward
The

4th scale step (thesubdominant) has strong tendency diatonically


to

the third of the tonic triad.

6th

scale step

(the submediant

or

superdominant)has strong
in

tendency downward
The 2nd

to the fifth of the tonic triad.

scale step Situated

is characterless (the supertonic)

regards to

its

tendency.
progress Next

to either. to the tonic

the tonic and mediant, it midway between Its progression final. to the tonic is more chord in importanceand frequency of occurrence which
is foimded upon

may

is
The

the dominant dominant

chord
a

the fifth scale step.

major triad and is therefore formed like the tonic triad (with major third and perfect but fifth).This chord is consonant
active,with tendency to the tonic chord.
active factor in the chord fifth of the dominant and it progresses triad progresses supplyingthe third in the tonic triad. which is inactive
as

triad is

The

leadingtone is the
to

most

normally to the tonic.


the

The

upward
The
root

mediant

thereby
chord

of the dominant
a

the fifth of the tonic chord


root

assimies

dual character
to

in the dominant

chord; in the bass, the but in an (called "cadencing progression")


a

progresses

the tonic remain

upper

voice,it

may

stationary Such
The the
root

tone stationary

is called "common

tone."

of the dominant

chord
the

is the factor most

less frequentlyand fifth, in four voice


root

doubled, frequently third (leading tone) is almost never


factor five is omitted
in the dominant

doubled

writing. When
must

the triad,

be

tripled.
dominant triad
occurs

The

second

inversion

of the

less

frequently
be

than the I|. The


use

of the six-four chord

on

all

degrees of

the

scale should

restricted to the
isL

Where
same

four progressions: following or preceded and followed by root position

first inversion

of the 2nd. the

chord, ex.:

I, I|,I; or I, le, IS, I", I, etc.

Where

the tonic six-four chord

precedesthe

dominant

chord

at

cadence, ex.:

12, V, I.

lO

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

yd. Where
ex. stepwise,

the bass of the six-four chord is approachedand

quitted

9*

""

g'

^^^^

4ih. Where
over progressing

the six-four chord

occurs

within

succession of chords
-^" -V

ex. stationary bass,

9:

g^-

n
In
a

succession of chords in the firstinversion, it is usually advisable chords and alternating


not be doubled.

to double the root in

the third in the

chords* but the


that the

is not principle
must

of sufficient to importance

remaining the rule nullify


triad to tonic

tone leading

of the dominant Various arrangements of the progression shown in the following are example.

{b.)

^"

gp-

m
or

"iS-^-

i
i

Jfi-

IZ.
-TOr

I2Z:

('.)

I
-V

m
"i9-

32:

i
etc.

"

te
Many
the mdodic melodic

-7^

m
harmonic

3:

imply certain progressions


end of a

For example: progressions. do

at the progression

oi it to composition
All the

(thus

"i9-

harmonizations with triads of possible chromatic alterations) or the above are and vuMV. In the midst V-IV, m-IV V-I, V-vi, vnM, ra-I, m-vi, vn**-vi, the above melodic progression be harmonized V-i but V-vi is frequently of a period, may advisable. Progressions of less frequent vnM, m-I and m:-vi are rence, occurused. In this chapter, and vn"-vi, V-IV, ra-IV and vn"-IV are rarely the dominant implies
to

tonic harmonies.

melodic progression (without modulation

student should

use

milydominant and tonic harmonies.

THE

DOMINANT

CHORD.

II

The and

fifthscale step is a factor in both the tonic and dominant


be harmonized therefore,

chords

may,

with either chord.

of Principles

and coherence usually variety govern the choice. of a tone in the melody, it is frequently advisable, Upon the repetition for the sake of variety, tone. to change the harmony upon the repeated A valuable last chord of the dominant Such
a a use

of the tonic six-four chord is upon

the third from the

periodif the melody permits.This chord is followed by

chord which progresses^ to the tonic triad in root six-fourchord may be called a "cadencial six-four."

position*

i
Ex. 13.

TSr "i9-

-Z5-

i i

i
IJ
The cadendal six-four chord may
a:

-JOr

be written without its root:

^
or "^"

*
"^"

etc

IJ
This

V
as analyzed

IJ
a

chord, may, of

course, be

mediant

sixth chord but its

effectis that of the cadendal

six-four. should be avoided in chord

Parallel and consecutive fifthsand octaves See progressions. The


page 23.

following exampleshould

be studied: 17th CenturyChoral.

Ex.
16.

r r

\m^
G

mil

J i J

rTT=rf
I

E
I

m
v^

Ve

loVjI

IJ

Open position may

be used

in the following exercises. occasionally

13

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

Exercises, Group
I.

2.

French

Folk

Song.

h-FFr

1^1

2.

F. SCHUBBRT.
"^-

^^
i
y
ft f^* j

E
22.

at"

f:

"

L.

^
French Folk

75H-

Song.

4.

French

Folk

Song.

k
:fc"

t=t
-"^

i -1
5. Reharmonize

lo:

i
'Tzr

I
-"-v

the exercisesin
The

Group I,page 8, usingthe dominant


triad will

triad

as

well

as

the tonic.

firstinversion of the dominant

be necessary in most placesbecause the nature of the melodies cause the dominant triad is used in root position. consecutive octaves when The
measure Vo should be used in the penultimate

of each exercise.

The To

Dominant

Seventh

Chord.

triad may be added the seventh (ofthe root) and the resultant All seventh chords are dissonant and chord is called a seventh chord.
any

active in dissonant The most

varyingdegreesaccordingto structure and character. The factors of a chord are best approached by contrary motion.
common

seventh chord is the dominant.

THE

DOMINANT

CHORD.

13

The

dominant

seventh chord is fonned

with

major triad and minor

and isthe onlychord thus formed. The dominant seventh chord seventh, normallyresolves to the tonic triad. Its tendencyis greater than that of the dominant seventh. Sevenths in all chords seventh in the dominant The downward. normallyresolve diatonically
The

triad because of the additional active factor, the dissonant

chord resolves to the third of the tonic triad.

The third fifthis free to resolve either up or down diatonically. The root in the bass tone) resolves upward diatonically. (leading
an

resolves to the tonic but in

upper

it may voice,

remain

stationary.

-i9-(9-or -^-

isr

^
or
-lar

.OL "w

m
no

doublingof factors in a seventh chord is necessary in four voice writing. Attention from the is further directed to the fact that the tonic chord resulting The resolution is wholly satisfactory above resolution is incomplete. the missing fifthin the tonic triad. Notice however; the ear supplies
The the differencein effectbetween with doubled root. The the triad with
a more

student's attention is directed to the fact that

root tripled

and

the triad

latter has

characteristicthan plaintive

the former while the former is more


The

decided and final.

fifthin the seventh chord may be omitted and the root in which case the resultant tonic triad will be complete, thus:
{a,)

doubled,

(3.)
"V -9-"5"-

ic.)

(d.)

3:

"i9tS?-

-1^

^
etc.

1^T!^ -gy -"-^-fl. -J5?-

Not

cases infrequently,

of seventh

chords

with omitted thirds are

found in standard

by chords in which however,lack the character possessed compositions.Such chords, where improvedvoice leading the third is not omitted but their use is justified thereby in part writing results. The student should avoid this arrangement until experience has been gained.

14

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

the following Study carefully example.

i^
Ex. 18.

125

i
"

n-i

Jlj
_a.

^-

^J
g r
J

r
"

T^TT 1 i
T

r
J
'

i
I

i
r
V",

J. ^
r
Vt

S t"-i
"

;9-

[
I

PF
""-'

VJ

1"

1^
r

i I

fe

fe

F=f
n

P
le Group

f
12 ExERasES,
3.

V,

1.

Resolve

the dominant

seventh chord

to and incomplete) (complete

the tonic triad in all major keys.


2.

Fill in the upper

voices in the
(fi.)
"i9

progressions: following
(c.)

(a.)

m
"

/9-

a m
I D

^
. ..

II

"

s"-

CI|
3.

V,

IJ

V7

Fill in the bass and

tenor

in the

usingthe following progressions,


(c.)

dominant incomplete
(a.)

seventh

chord:

(b.)
g"'^
-^-

^
"

g"-ig"
C

g"-

i
the

mM
Bb

*
"

i
a
"

I|

V7

V-

4.

Harmonize

seventh chord

melodic fragmentsusing the dominant following completeor incomplete:

^.o
-

II

^'

II

THE

DOMINANT

CHORD.

IS

S. Harmonize

the

following melody:
F. Schubert.

The To any seventh chord

Dominant

Ninth

Chord.

resultant chord
and than

be added may is called a ninth chord. chords


are

the ninth

(ofthe root)and

the

All ninth chords-are

dissonant

active.
in close

Ninth

more usually

The position.

dominant

is,by

effective in open position far,the most frequently

used ninth chord.


The ninth of the dominant in the The
manner

resolves

downward. diatonically
same

major mode is a major ninth and factors of the dominant rem.aining


as

ninth chord resolve in the ninth chord

in the seventh chord.


must

The when

contains five factors, one

of which

be omitted is the
rare

for four voices. The writing less frequently the seventh


two

factor most and

omitted frequently the third. On occasionally


and the root doubled.

fifth,
sions occa-

Study

factors may and compare (^')


(b)

be omitted

the

resolutions: following
(^")
-d2-

id.)
"

i
Ex.
19.

fS?-

-"-"-

jSL -J5J-

-f9-fi?"25^ -"-

jSl

etc.

V9
8

V?

^ a

All the tones of the scale have of the chords which

now

appearedas

factors in
we

one now

or

more

have thus far been

and considered,

have

all the tones of the diatonic melodies containing harmonizing that the fourth and sixth scale steps progress according scale providing Such melodies harmonized in to. their tendency(downward diatonically). the above manner, however, would sound fragmentaryand "choppy'*

material for

because of the final cadences


of the dominant

which

result from

the resolution to tonic

seventh and ninth chords.

i6

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

Exercises, Group
1.

4.
or

Resolve the dominant

ninth chord in open

close position to the

tonic triad in all major keys.


2.

Fillin the upper

voices in the (*)

following progressions:
(":.)

I
D

1^
I
E

mm
12 Vp
I C

I
Vn
:

IJ V"

3. Harmonize (tf.)

the

the dominant ninth chord following using fragments


(*.) {^')

i
C

22:

m
C

I
Vn
the

^^
F

12

V.

12

V.

Inversions

of

Dominant

Seventh

Chord.
are

The and

dominant

seventh chord has three inversions which

notated

in figured

the

following example:

-(9iS"-

m
jOL

^m

""- l-^-H
n
A factor should seldom be omitted in The inversion first

vi
an

inverted seventh chord.


same manner as

factors resolve in the inversions in the

in root

The position. of

occurs. (VJ)frequently

sion The second inver-

(Vt) is less restricted upon


a

approachthan

is the second inversion

is an
a

triad and may resolve to either I or I". The third inversion (V2) effective upon effectivedissonant and resolves to le. It is more
a

pulse. The firstand second inversions used in may be used upon the finalcadence but they are less frequently sion than in pol)rphonic style. The use of the third inverhomophonicstyle
strong pulsethan upon
weak

does noty of course, result in finality. The inversions of the ninth chord do not occur

conunonlyalthough

theymay

be used

effectively.

THE

DOMINANT

CHORD.

17 w
jO^ JQ.

(".)

{b,)
^^
2nd inversion.
:sL

{c.)
-"-

-jSL

11^.
ist

'^-

-ZSL

I
etc.

3rd
inversion.
-^9-

4th
inversion.

inversion.

"^-

Si
-^-

J^.
-"2.

-"?-

I
'O

IS
to a fixed

The

student should

avoid

a dissonant resolving

unison:

i
Ex.
22.

:^
L

i
Fixed unison.
."i2-

-ffl.

^
-"?-

i
is desirable:

Hence, the

use

of open

for inverted position

ninth chords

i
Ex. 23.
U3

he:
-"5"-

I
:s:

^t

5z:
-^-

Composershave resolved must leading accompany

dissonant to
a

voice fixed unison but skillful

such

progression.

Bach.

Ex.
24.

But

this is a

dissonant. passing

The

Melodic

Line.

introduced with judiciously A good melodic lineis produced by diatonic progression ik^ and chromatic steps,devoid of monotony but uniformlyconstructed.

x8
Smooth

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

the

use

melody is produced by diatonic or chromatic progression but such progression used exclusively becomes monotonous and should,therefore, be alleviated by of skips. The frequency of the occurrence of skips dependsupon the character
a

of the compositionas
and effect,

whole,upon

the

of the melodic tones,upon rapidity

the desired

voice part in hand. upon the particular Skipsin a melodic line produce a rugged and vigorous effect and
a

adapted to
When

strong bass

part in

rhythmicallywell-marked

is in rugged style a composition as the tendencies of the scale steps must be good melodic line, A downward borne in mind. the tendency of the seventh scale figure overcome may the scale step and an upward scale figure of the sixth or fourth overcome tendency may scale step. Sustentation, however, of the active scale steps normalizes their tendencies. On the other hand, the tendencies of active scale steps are increased when approached along the scale line in the same direction as their resolutions, an and, therefore, upward for striving
a

thematic voice part when

therefore, composition,or to a opposed to a lyrical style.


are,

scale

should seldom figure


on

turn

on or

the seventh

scale step and

downward

scale figure

should seldom turn

the sixth

fourth scale steps.

Skips to the leadingtone should seldom be made from below but from above. A skip from above increases the tendency of the leadingtone to resolve upward to the tonic. Skips from below will be found in compositionsbut these require careful manipulation. Skips to the sixth or fourth scale stepsare safer when made from below, in which case an increased tendency results. In general, wide leapsin any direction within the interval of the leap. and to any tone usuallyimply an obligation to return remarks apply only to harmonic progressions and not to cases All the foregoing where of the same skipsare made in a voice part during the repetitions harmony.
of Quotations follow showing applications the

tonic and

dominant

chords.
From

Gounod's

Faust

from (trans,

orchestration).
X

Ex.
25.

^ fTTif J"IT-

I
t^

^ I

f fi, f f

THE

DOMINANT

CHORD.

19

XX

dp W^
(

:^=?c

EH

t=t

=T

i '^1
'

rfi iff

c**it-"

'

'

II

"te

^; J If
Mascagni's from (trans, CavalUria

"

"

11

From

Rusticana

orchestration).

30

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

t=t

^^

""S*-r
"^

^
O
O

"
^

d te

"
H

It-

c r

cif^^
ii

^tf

From

Bizet's

Carmen

from orchestration). (transc

Ex. 27.

'^

^
w
"

i
^a
^

sfe^
I==tI
"

"

"

""

b=^

^^\fl^^
P^N
fcrf:
"X
t [^

"

m|. ""11

"s'

"-

THE

DOMINANT

CHORD.

21

From

BsLLiNi's

Norma

from orchestration). (transc.

Ex.
28.

ExERasES, Group
f
.

5.

Resolve the dominant

seventh chord in its firstinversion

(VJ) to
(Vf)

the tonic triad in all major keys.


2.

Resolve the dominant

seventh chord in its second inversion

to the tonic triad in all major

keys.
(Va) to

3. Resolve the dominant seventh chord in its third inversion in all major keys. the tonic triad (lo)
4.

Fillin the upper

voices in the
(*.)

following progressions:
{c.)
^
o

(")

^^^fi"
Eb

lt3E
Bb

-^Sh

im
C

-^-

"JBL

-^-

ISL
-^-

H
Vo
I

Vo

Vg

lo

Vg

L
*

Vji le

V.
"

ist inv.

3rd inv.

4th inv.

three-voice chords, add two more 5. To the following and bass)and resolve them to five-voicetonic chords:

voices

(tenor

12

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

(^0

(^)

(^0

^^ee\\ ^^-^^^=Mi
C

Vq

Vq

C
root

Vg
pos.

3rd inv. 6. Rehannonize

root pos.

the exercises in

Group I,page 8;

use

the dominant

seventh

or

ninth chord

in the firstinversion in the

measure penultimate

of each exercise.

CHAPTER
THE SUBDOMINANT

IV.
CHORD.

The fourth and sixth scale stepsdo not, of course,

tendency. They may progress nor progress by skip. Neither is it obligatory


normal

alwaysfollow their or theymay upward diatonically


sometimes
even

advisable to

harmonize their normal

these tones

with dominant

harmony

when

they follow

tendency. chords with which both the fourth and sixth There are two important scale steps may be harmonized, namely the subdominant chord and the chord, the firstof which is to be considered in this chapter. supertonic triad is,like the tonic and the dominant triads, The subdominant a scale step) its major third and major triad and consists of root (fourth chord but not final, fifth. It is a consonant its perfect althoughit has
not

which the definite activity third


are

characterizes the dominant

triad. Its

root and

the active fourth and sixth scale steps

respectively.

We

deduct that the logical of the subdominant would, therefore, progression

triad would be to the tonic

thus: triad,

"s:
-^-

32:

^
or

^^
To
root
: position

-^9-

i5"-

22:

m
IV

IV

^d

IV

in the above The last progression

of
use

hymns and called the

Amen

example is often appended at the close Cadence or the Plagal Close. Common
subdominant
the most

in other connections has

giventhe
no

triad
common.

and flexibility

the above

progressions are, by

means,

THE

SUBDOMINANT

CHORD.

33 triad is its progression


are

A
the

more

idiomatic

of the progression

subdominant

to the dominant

chord.

Various

of IV-V progressions

shown

in

following example.

#
Ex.
SO.

(*.)
-^-

(O
-f9-

i^
.22. "i9-

S
15L
.^Z.

etc.
-""^-

.fiL

i
IV

22:

"rr

-i9-(9-

IV

V-

IV

Vo

IV

V.

triad to the dominant progression where the roots of there is no common tone; this is always the case chords are situated a second or a seventh apart and in such progressions "fifths" and "octaves" frequently arise. objectionable
The
Consecutive fifths are Cherubim
because they often sound harsh and primitive.. objectionable

student will notice that in the

for this harshness[j|was due to the fact that "the upper thought the reason while in if to the lower another. in For example, the one moves key part progresses be added which givesa perfect fifthat each measure, thus: scale of C an upper part

i
Ex.
St.

"7S-i9
.,

f9-

1Z.

-Gf-

1^

.OL

I
itfollows that
one

^ ""

^"75

s:

-^

^-

part willbe in C, the other in G.


even

It is from this concurrence

of two

keys

that the

discordance arises, and,


when

in succession; several fifths as,

the prohibition to introduce consequently, the movement of the parts,insteadof being

the discordance none the less exists." Consecutive fifthshavq is disjunct, conjunct, been used effectively by great composers but should be avoided by the student. because they sound similar to consecutive fifths, Concealed fifths, objectionable

arise when motion to


a

any

voices progress thus: fifth, perfect


two

from any

interval other than

fifthin

parallel

Ex. 82.

"^
octaves

s: 32:
-^-"-

SL

I
one

etc.

Consecutive
a

and

unisons
a

are

objectionable only because their use

converts
*

four voice

into progression

three voice progression with

of the melodies doubled.

24

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

arisewhen

Concealed octaves, objectionaUe because they soond similar to consecutive octaves, froin voices two progress any interval other than an octave in paralld any
an

motion to

octave, thus:

Ex.
S3.
^

etc
-"r
-^-jy

-i^

-jgr

-^-

in orchestral writing,consecutive and concealed Obviously, abound instruments.

octaves

and

unisons

through the reinforcement of melodies and chord factors by one or more The same of pianc^orte, is true, in a lesserdegree, sextet and quintet

composition.
Concealed fifths and dghths
as a

between chords having a common tone are not, arising for the present,it is usually advisable (where pracobjecticmable, although, rule, tical)
to

in outer avoid them, especially

voices. Harmonic

vdce leading and spacing,

compass

should not, however,be sacrificed to this principle.

Consecutive
root

fifths and

octaves

are

avoided

between

two

chords in

the roots of which are situated a second or a seventh apart, position, the upper voices in contrarymotion to the bass. Consecutive by leading fifths avoided by doubling and octaves may also be advantageously some factor other than the root in one or both of the chords of the progression. such as the leading Factors havingstrong tendency tone, sevenths and ninths in chords,it will be

remembered,should

not

be doubled

in four-

part writing.
Like the tonic and dominant the subdominant triads,
one

triad has two The

the firstinversion beingthe inversions, second inversion is subject to the


same

more

used. frequently the

restrictionsas the V2*


are

onlymajor triads in the major mode. allthe tones of the major scale and They comprise therefore sufficientto harmonize any diatonic melody. They are are Triads also the Primary Triads. Pages in often called the Principal standard works can be found containing few,and,in some cases, no other
chords than those thus far considered.
harmonizations of diatonic mekxiies with the vocabulary guidance to logical of chords thus far given, the following text will serve. with The tonic i^do) harmonized other the tonic or the subdominant triad. may be When the tonic is repeated the harmony may change. As first or last tone of a melody, As
a

The three triads which have been considered

do should be harmonized

be harmonized with usually the tonic triad when itis precededby dominant harmony. This principle arisesfrom the fact that dominant harmony followed by subdominant harmony is seldom effective, such a progresaicm is found in the works of standard writers. although

with the tonic triad. It should

THE

SUBDOMINANT

CHORD.

"S

Bach.

IVe
seventh triad,
or

is harmonized The supertonic (re) The mediant The

with dominant with tonic

ninth chord.*

(mi) is harmonized

subdominant seventh
or

(fa)wherever
ninth chord

harmony. it descends diatonically may


may

be harmonized

with with

dominant

footnote below). It (see

be harmonized

harmony in allits progressions. The dcmiinant (so)may be harmcmized with either tonic or dominant harmony. When so is repeatedthe harmony may change. be harmonized with wherever it descends diatonically The superdominant (la) may dominant ninth chord (seefootnote below). Otherwise it should be harmonized with subdominant harmony. is harmonized with dominant harmony. tone (tt) 1^ The leading Tones which skq" in a melody are usuallyharmonized with the same harmony
subdominant
this cannot be as successfully done now although of chords. vocabulary oomplcte
as

later when

the student has the

IV-

In

cases

similar to the

following

an

is made. exception

Do may

be

harmonized

with tonic harmony in the above The above mdodic

V-IV. progression foflows: V-I-IV-IV.

of melody because of the ineffectiveness be harmcmized as fragmentwould therefore

^
Ex.
or

^
J.
IV
serath of
a

etc.

^
a

"B"CMiM

of tlM
vm

praftnbloto

thatc diords

of tli*rvsolotioii to tonic of thi domiuint fiaaUty diord tpvinglyotoept as tliaponnltiaata

and

ninth chorda^ It !"

period.

26

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

where all the tones of the skipsdo not belongto occur Passages with skips frequently in chord which be grouped logically.Principles of phrasing the same case, they must such For the and good chord progression melodic example, following govern passages.

fragment:
If
a

m
The

can

be harmonized

as

follows: I-rV-IV-rV

or

I-I-IV-IV.

new

if a is available; is

the second quarter note, the former harmonization phrase commences upon tion new phrase commences upon the third quarter, the latter harmonizathe midst

if the fragment is in preferable;

of

phrase,either

harmonization

is

available.

following melodic

fragment:

-j)^r^Jcommences on

is governed not -only

by phrase consideration but by the consideration of chord progression. In the midst monized with tonic harmony if the preceding so is harof a phrase,do should be harmonized be harwith dominant, but if so is harmonized with tonic harmony, do may monized
.with subdominant.
If
a

with subdominant. be harmonized preceding phrase on the dominant In a progression of successive sixth chords,it is usuallyadvisable to double the third be doubled Fifths may in alternating chords and the root in the remaining chords. in such
a

phrase chord, do may


new

do

and

so

finishes

if voice leadingprofits thereby. progression

The

should following quotations

be

studied. carefully
Belli

Ni*s Norma,

Ex. 87.

etc.

THE

SUBDOMINANT

CHORD.

J7
J. S.
Bach.

it is advisable to write almost At this time,

alto, tenor,and bass.


is available position)

In
as

for voices, wholly soprano, of writing, this style dispersed harmony (open
as

well

close
as

position(see footnote, page


as

$).

The inner voices should be made with

interestingis melodically

ble compati-

and coherence. The bass should be good chord progression that is, not too "skippy." This necessitates the frequent "flowing,"
use

of

inversions. Augmented

skips(^\

-f9-

should

be.

for the present,avoided in all the parts; diminished

skips

^m
tone need

however,are good.
resolve within the
not

The

second

tone

of

diminished The

skipshould usually
common

stepwise: skip

^^Watch
off the

be

retained unless desired.

for "fifths" and

"octaves."
the

Remember

that the root is the factor most

next doubled, frequently

then the third; and ninths are not to be the leading tone, sevenths, fifth, doubled. The followingarrangement with doubled third is good:

i
9^
nant

^
"

'

-^-

jSk. -"2-

phrasesin a melody before it. A subdominant endingis not often harmonizing phrase able. tonic and dominant phrase endings are availdesirable; Because of the tonic chord,a domjof the finality
It is advisable to mark

where the melody permits cept, exphraseending is usually preferable of course, upon

upon a ninth chord.

phraseof a period. The dominant triad seventh or to the dominant phrase endingis usually preferable
the last

a8

music

composition.

Exercises, Group
t
"

6.

Asoending major

scale.

^4

J ^

fE.

II Transpose to
Gemuui

all major

keys.

Folk

Song.

3.

French

Folk

Song.

Jl| t l^fiX'J

Jlr

I r f I

ji'' f^ J

ii|J f J J ij -.N-f-J r J ^

4.

H.

BKRTtin.

Andante

espressivo.

^^^^^

\i
.

\"
^
.

English

Folk

Song.

l^t'jJiiNjjIr^

THE

SUBDOMINANT

CHORD.

29

6. Write page

the

complete Cadence
sometimes the ninth. should
compose

i). Use
sometimes
student

(IV V I) in all major keys (seeCadences, the seventh, the dominant triad,sometimes
several diatonic
to

and

The
to

melodies, pa3dng
etc.

tion atten-

phrase grouping and


is

balance,
voice

the

judiciousmixing of stepwise
Be
sure

with progression

skips,to
These
chord

compass,

that

each

melody
The

"singable."
seventh
a

melodies
is

should

then
chord.

be harmonized.
It is
a

subdominant and therefore

an

uncommon

major seventh satisfactory.

chord

harsh dissonant.

Its cadencing resolution is not

very

(^.)

(^.)

(^0

i
Doubted Tone. leading Ton

''i

I
"2^

\"

A''
^

'

H
etc.

h5"

"9

,5"-

i
VIlO

IV7
This chord is not

VllO

IV7

YIlO

IV7

VllO

IV7

available at present. chord is constructed chord. like the subdominant


Its and

The
are

tonic seventh

the above

remarks is
what some-

to the tonic seventh applicable

cadencing resdution, however,

leas unsatisfactory.

gp

^ -tS^

ej
-fSr

I
etc.

-49-

ZSL
ja.
-o "

s
or as
a

Major
tones

seventh than
as a

chords

occur

more

frequently as passing chords


architecture.
the

result of passing subdominant

part of the harmonic


even

Unaltered chords.

tonic and

ninth

chords

are

less useful than

seventh

The those

first seven

exercises with

in

to work desiring

Appendix given bass.

may

now

be

worked

out

by

JO

CHAPTER
THE SUPERTONIC

V.
CHORD.

In this chapter we

enter upon

the

studyof the

chord first

to belonging

the so-called "secondary" chords. The three chords secondary


may

be

being called by the same namely, tonic,dominant, and subdominant. to the subdominant belongs family. The supertonic triad di"Fersin structure from
considered.
It consists of root
a

the groupedinto three main "families," the three principal names as chords, The chord supertonic

fore the three triads hereto-

its minor third and its perfect (re) chord but active. but unlike doubled, Doubled effective the fifthmay
may be

fifthand is called Like the the

minor

triad. It is a consonant* be

the root or triads, preceding factor three triads, preceding chord supertonic

doubled. freely

thirds in minor triads are better than in major triads. The most
use

is with the third in the soprano. would suppose we triad, Upon examiningthe factors of the supertonic that its natural tendencywould be to the tonic triad, thus: of the
(".) (^.)
z:

(c.)

^^

m
i

"V

-9-

is-

II

II

I"

The and
a a

student will notice that in the first progression, a paraUel octave


fifthresult, and parallel

in the second

doubled

third in the tonic triad

fifth and a parallel progression result. The third progression is not

although it results in a doubled third in the tonic triad. The faulty from Bach show good examples of progression n-I. following quotations

*Tlie minor

triad ia

as accepted

a consonance

by the

modern

ear.

THE

SUPERTONIC

CHORD.

3,

for a largenumber of progression is one This progression cadencingprogression. A natural


to another chord the root of which
a

chords is the so-called in which


a

is situated This

chord gresses profourth above (or


a

chord. fifthbelow)the root of the first The

of the progression is the

supermost

tonic chord resultsin the

n-V. progression of the supertonic chord cadencingprogression Common


use

one

used. frequently its factors and

has allbut upset the scale tendencies of giventhe chord as a whole a tendency to dominant
turn

harmony which in

resolves to

the tonic, therebysimplydela3ring chord.* supertonic

scale tendencies of the factors in the

-%

"

g-F
I
""

2Z
^

-^-

I ^

=-"^g

g^
^-

etc. fi
I
"g -^II flg

rt/:
"g-

II

II

The

following example demonstrates


triad may become

the factors of the tonic superdominant in the ninth factors chord by aUowing how

while the root, in the factors in the upper voices to remain stationary the bass,makes the cadencing progression.

II

of the supertonic chord to dominant harmony progression of the subis to the same harmony as the idiomatic progression between the supertonic and a relationship dominant,thus establishing them in the same subdominant chords and placing family group. the t riad inversions of are supertonic governed by the same ^The further as the inversions of other chords and therefore need no principles explanation. The exercises in group 6 should be be harmonized scale step (re) now may The
"S"" Xn It Chapter

idiomatic

again harmonized.
with V
or

The

second be har-

u.

Fa may

32

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

monized
etc.

with
may

V79 Vo, IV
be harmonized

or

to according

its progression, position,


to according

La

with

Vq, IV

or

its progression,

etc. position,

The

Supertonic

Seventh

Chord.

This very useful and minor

commonly used chord is formed by addingthe


triad: supertonic

seventh of the root to the

It is

dissonant and active chord.

Its normal

resolution is to the dominant

chord

and resolution) (cadendng

resolution V7-I. resolves downward


or

upon paper, looks no differentfrom the Its seventh resolves downward its fifth diatonically;*

downward

its third diatonically; itsroot of a third; by the skq" in the

resolves

upward diatonically
voice may remain

in an ui^r

but stationary
(a.)

bass^it makes
(^.)

the

progression. cadencing
(^.)

m
Ex.
46.
y,

:^

I
or

#
-a-

22:
-ZL

3:

I
etc.

^1

jOL -^-

i
117

JOL.

I
"7

2:

I
seventh

"7

The supertonic seventh chord may


or

also resolve to the dominant

ninth chord.
(^.)
ic.)

w
-""

g
JSL.

Ig

g;r+^

9i

I
etc

I
"7

"^9-

I
occurs

"^9-

"7

II7

"7

The ninth.
*

ninth supertonic
Its structure

chord

than the dominant less frequently

and resolution follow.

Notice that the seventh in the


to the

diord, its normal


downward

chord is the inactivetonic bnt as a dissonant seventh in the tapertonic is destroyed and it becomes an active tone with a tendency diatotdcallj immobility active leading tone.

THE

SUPERTONIC

CHORD.

33
W

(*)

(":.)

IS

z:

Is i

^
etc.

-"^

In

succession of dissonant chords be usually


on

the strongest dissonant chord


measure
or

should

the strongestbeat of the seventh supertonic


(d.)2nd

be

artificiall

accented. The inversions of the


(a.) ist
inversion.

chord follow:
(c.) 3rd inversion.

inversion.

s
Ex.
49.

^^
etc.
JSL-

:^
22: etc.

4S-

etc.

^
I
^

"g

^
iijV litV7
iiaVo
ninth supertonic chord do not

^
ii^

iijV
The

iiS Va

Vg

inversions of the

occur. frequently

Resolutions follow:
(a.) ist
inversion.
-fS-Gh

{b.) 2nd inversion. (^.)3rd inversion. (^.)4th inversion.


3:
s-""""

I i

^S.

-^-^-

i
-tf"-

"Z?"

"Z?-

i
n" IQ
T

-"" ii( X*0 Tfl

i5"III AIQ 'e

i
III **0

^^

The

chord supertonic
ni-n are

may

I-n and

not

the progressions although IV-n is better than profrequent. Progression gression

follow any

triad

n-I V. follow: Quotations


^ ^

Balfe's
X

z " Bohemtan

,/^ -u jx ^. ^ir/ (transcnbed).

XX

34

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

"

?i

V,

Ho

GavotU,CoULUi

W\M''S'i
I

11J117V

THE

SUPERTONIC

CHORD.

35

Exercises, Group
K

7.

Adapted

from

Bkbthovbn.

J^ Itf^*^'

t
"^-

J I p

^^

te
2.

J Jll' J

s
Adapted
from Br/iHMS.

^
^ 1-^ J IJ

^s

.n\i
Adapted

i
from

he
Schumann.

II

nr-^TrJ^TqiigJi^^ir^
J. Brahms.

i'i ijh^ii.

iz="

(i

Write
ist.

final cadences n-V-I.

in all major

keys as follows:

2fid. Ht-V-I.

yd.

Ht-Vt-I.

4ih. Ht-Vo-I.

36

CHAPTER
THE SUPERDOMINANT

VI.
CHORD.

The

triad secondary

a minor triad. triad,

like the supertonic upon the sixth scale step is, It belongs and is very useful to the tonic family* V-vi phrase. Progression forms
'^

as

the last chord of

Deceptive

Cadence." We is not have


seen

that the

alwaysdesirable as

V-I has finality and consequently progression a phrase ending excq"tfor the last phrase. If,
as

however, a phrase ended heretofore


necessary Now
may
to

follows: because

^^
of the
as a

it

was

harmonize and

it with

V-I

of infrequency

V-IV progression harmonize


most

the undesirableness of IV

with the addition of the

triad to superdominant

our

phraseending. we vocabulary,
vi.

the tonic in the above

phraseendingwith

The

effective position of the

triad superdominant

is with its and

third in the soprano; the chord is weak with itsfifthin the soprano should seldom be used with its root in the soprano. Various of progressions V-vi
are

shown
(c.)

in the

example. following
id.)

(t.)
qP
^
^ ^

g"

rtf
^

I--"L " fi"s

is
1 SC^

:
^-

II
etc.

.A.

jGL

VI

VI

V7

VI

Vq

VI

of the dominant The resolution is the most chord.


*

seventh chord to the

triad superdominant dominant seventh

resolution of the non-cadencing important

triad is not restricted It occurs to the above use. superdominant in the midst of phrases.A normal progression of vi is to n, frequently vi-V and vi-IV are available. vi-I should be avoided. and progressions be preceded gression VI may by I, n or V and occasionally by m or IV. ProThe
I-vi is better than vi-I.
*

A few theorists

placethis chord

in the subdomioant in placed that

bat funiljr,

as

it is more

commooljrused

as "

for the tonic chord, it is herein '"stitute

family.

THE

SUPERDOMINANT

CHORD.

37

triad need no explanation. supertonic Progression V-vi isbest with both chords in root position. The superdominant less frequently than the ^venth chord occurs dominant and supertonic seventh chords. It is constructed like the seventh chord (minortriad and minor seventh). Because of supertonic the frequent its use oLthis seventh chord formation as a supert"mic chord,

The invendoiis of the

tendency to suggest modulation. In where we hear the superdominant seventh chord, cases we hover, many Its as it were, between two to keys. cadencing progression a majortriad
use
on

other scale

has degrees

effectuates a modulation
may

but its cadencing to progression

minor triad

in such a manner as to retain the original manipulated tonality. The cadencingprogression of the superdominant seventh chord is to the supertonic chord,thus:

be

TL,

YI7

YI7

II

YI7

117

YI7

117

The

of the cadencing progression

inversions foUow:

VlJ
A

II

Yl|

II

VI,
a

1%

of vi2 is quoted from non-cadendng progression

Bach

Choral:

Ex.
66.

38
A

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

of VI9 cadencing progression

is.quoted from the

same

choral:

VI,

IlJ

V-

ninth superdominant foUow: ingprogressions The


use

of the

chord* is not

common.

Cadenc-

Ex.

VI,

II

Vli

"7

VI,

II"

The Their

ninth superdominant foUow: cadencing progressions inversions of the

chord

are

used. rarely

and inversion, (c) 3rdinversion, (d,)4th inversion. (a.) ist inversion. (^.)

chord to our vocabuJary superdominant an gives the first, and sixth scale steps additional chord for harmonizing third, the fifthscale stq" where it however),occasionally (seldomthe latter, and rarely the seventh scale stq" where it descends descends diatonically, diatonically. should be carefully studied. The foUowingquotations The

addition of the

*Samt

theoristscoosldNr tht tonic seventh

chord

ninth chord without sopefdominant

root.

THE

SUPERDOMINANT

CHORD.

39 ).S.
Bach.

Ex.
60.

/ r r Ia \1 3i i n M ^m ^^
i

1
i

'

i
^

IV

V^"

VI

Vo(l7)n"f

Yj

V,

^
IVa lo

i
V^

IV(7, IJ

t
(i6th Century).

N. Dxcius

Ex.
ei.

/T\

i
-C.

^
^ ?2:
-C.

/c\

^
::^
-fi.

f
i

:"

^ ^ Ail
t:

(g
r
Notice two fourth
or

i
VI

?
N.B.

MX"
VI

i
r
of a skips

of a fourth skips
a

in the bass in

measure

5 and 6.

Two

or

more

of

fifthin the

present. Most

direction in any voice part should be avoided for the theoristsforbid such skips but they are foimd in many works, e^"esame

dallyin the woriu of modem

composers.

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

W.

Dachstbim

(i6th Centmy).

/T\

i^i' f'
J. J.

I
r
J.
'

j^' r
A

r
J.

' f' "


J.

A
I

r
VI

r
i4

ExERasES,
1.

Group

8.
Franz

Schubb"t.

jij

i "! fir

J|JJ

Ji*". JiJ^^
r

jN J J JM-

JiJ r r nr

).

Haydn.

THE

SUP"RtK)MINANT

CHORD.

41

F. BfKf dblssdhn-Baktholdt.

If rff JiJ J r

rir r -' 1

4.
"

J. S. Bach.

5^^

M
*

II.

J'J l,J i

feE ^ ijf"*JjmJ|.i,"ficiZf E

Jir ri^'^u Jir rM JiJ..''J|J n


JOHAMNKS
BftAHMS.

i4"j J j3iJ^Paa^-a
f^^ i^"f^'Jir

tP-

Lr^r 01
^iffcir r JJi

j3|J*rJiLrf

^^

J. S. Bach.

4"

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

CHAPTER
THE MEDIANT

VII.
CHORD.

The mediant with minor active.


Its

triad is formed,like the two islessconmion

triads, preceding secondary


triad is consonant but

third and. perfect fifth. This minor


use

t^an that of the other triads. It belongs to the dominant family and progresses normally to the tonic. It does the dominant chord at the finalcadence although not frequently displace it was used in this manner in the Romantic Period. Progressions to the
tonic follow: family
25:

i
etc.

-lo-

m
HI

32:
VI

i
is 8ii|^-

III

has tonal ambiguity; the key of the relative minor m-vi progressioii m elodic in its descending fonn. gested

The

THE

MEDIANT

CHORD.

43

The inversions of the triad follow:


Bach.

i
"x.

1^

I i

"%

iii2
seventh chord

Vfl

ni"

VI

V"

The

mediant

is formed

with minor

seventh like the

and superdominant seventh chords. It is somewhat more supertonic useful than the superdominant seventh chord but does not occur as seventh chord. Its cadendng resolution commonly as the supertonic chord. IS to the superdominant
ia.y
(*.)

(O

etc

1117

1117

VI

1117

Yi

resolution of the mediant A useful non-cadencing tonic.


(".)
22:
-^-

seventh chord is to the

(*.)

(c.)

i
etc. 2: s: zz: 22:

1117

1117

1117

The inversionsof the mediant seventh chord with follow:

resolution cadencing

m
s:

-fi"

"J

etc.

'i9-

:SL

ZSZ3

^^^"

!*"~^"W^BIP

44

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

The mediant ninth chord is not follows:


(a.)

commonly used.
(c)

Its cadencing resolution

(*.)

ii\
22 ^

K.

fi\i..

'^
etc.

Ex.

-g-

i
IIIq

^1
yi7

IIIq

vi

IIIo

TI

Its tonic resolution foUows:

221

"

i
etc.

22: I

IIIq

The inversions of the mediant

ninth chord foUow:


id)

-^-

"3^

"
Ex. 70.
ISt

^^
2nd inversion.

=^
fif ^^

I
I

3rd
inversion.

4th
inversion.

inversion.

m
5tlis.
IIIq
vi

rt

2:

UIq

yi

IIIq

Tig

IIIq

ViJ

quotations. Study the foUowing


Bach. Bach.

f'"^frTrr.^
V^ iii^vi

THE

MEDIANT

CHORD.

45 Early
i8th

Century

Choral.

i
Ex.
72.

3^

^
f
J

J U

J J

nr J

f
1
"

3
f

i I

i
f"=f
VI

(i
N.B.

^
II

r
Sfi/

III

RoSENMULLER

(17th Century).

m
Ex.
73.
"

r
J

Ji
r'r
VI

J
:^=sz:

j.j j,j j,j


i^
"

jO. .a. Sfi/

m.

I
VI

=;^=^ 1 I
V"/

g"

"g

'I

V"

III

II"

The

mediant
or

chord

may

be

preceded by I, V,

or

vi

and

occasionally

by

IV.

It progresses

to any

chord.

Progression

gress prooccasionally best to vi, I, or IV and may V-ra is better than ra-V.

Exercises,

Groxtp

9. J. S. Bach.

^
2.

^^ I
J. S. Bach.

^m

46

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

r If
rsf F

r
i=F

rif

r r

i iW\

"rr

r r

ir*n

4.

J. S. Bach.

^AJ4J
[f
5.

^^-4^
r
t^

J Jij J J

'

"'^^
/C\

^^
Decius.

^^
6.

t=t
-"5ii"fi ?!^

F=*

^
/C\

J JJ J If'' 3
-^"
"

-tf*

3^

i
i i

ROSENMULLB^.
tf^

I^xGll
7.

3
-"s"-

:^

"^

at-

?
an

From

old choral.

E^

-^-"S'-

-"!5"-

-""-

ns

^
8.

19-

-^

^
-"$^

i9""-

221

-^

i
X
z^

From
-i9-

choral of the

17thCentury.

"

rg

eJ

15"-

?
/5N

E E

lr-1"
"g'

t
g; zz

THE

MEDIANT

CHORD.

47

O.

From
/5S

choral of the i6th

Century.
/TS

JIJ^ ^)r,
10.

t=\;
rj g^
"""

2^

E
221
-(5^

Dachstein.
/9S

^^
1 1.

-i9

fi"-

J|JJjJ "^If fM'^


From
a

"(9-

choral of the

z/th Century.

^^ ^^
12.

-II. J
-S^-

.] J
"i9 "^

E)

e)

-^

ISL

t=|:

g*

"I

3
-"S"
^

g^
-"5'-r

I
Century.

From

choral of the

i6th

15"-

Rf^
/T\

3
/T\

-Til'

"^

3
-75^
-"Sl
g^

E^
\ "
"

^^

fi*

13.

Luther.

iI

g"

gi

fr^

c"

A
^
"

"gi^
"

/T\

I
-tf^

/T\

^3

-^

"(9-

t^

1=t

:s:

-"5"-

GOUDIMEL.

^b
16.

^
Major

?z:

^
"^

Jrif Jir rifi-a


SL
-IS^

Scale.

"

g s

1^-

5^

CHAPTER
THE SUBTONIC

Vm.
CHORD.

The

subtonic

chord

is

very

common

chord

and

useful

one.

The

triad di"fers in formation and


and consists active,
a

from
of root

the

preceding six triads. It is dissonant its minor third, and its diminished (ti),

and is called fifth,


Notice

diminished
are

triad.
named

that the other triads

major by their thirds,

or

minor, but that

the subtonic triad is named

by its fifths

The

subtonic
are

chord the and


same

belongs to
tones
as

the

dominant

family.
These seventh

The

factors

of the triad seventh led many root." Unlike doubled The


as

the three upper


same a

factors of the dominant facts have without

chord

progress

in the

manner.

theorists to call this triad

''dominant

chord

all the other


root

the subtonic triads,

triad is

never

written with doubled third.

in four-voice

composition;it

is best with

fifth is frequentlydoubled
as
a

but the doubled

fifth should The


root.

be avoided will

much

because possible doubled


fifth
as

it has definite tendency. undesirable


as a

musician

often find
The

doubled

normal

resolution of the subtonic

triad is

non-cadendng

to

the

tonic triad.

VIlO

VIlO

The
root

firstinversion of the triad is

considered, by

many,

to preferable

position.
32:

-^"?y Tpr

I
i

TI18

THE

SUBTONIC

CHORD.

49

The second inversion of the triad is unusual.


from quotation foUowing tones. however,of passing its use. The Bach

Some
a

theorists forbid

contains

vn^

as

result,

IV

(vii"2)I

The

passing tones, however, are

of sufficientimportanceto upset the

effectwhich would be presentwith the passing tones removed, and plagal is I-IV-V-I. the effect, in terms of families, A progression fifth is usually from a diminished fifth to a perfect undesirable.
Ex.
77.

-9-(9-

22:

from progression

fifthto perfect

diminished
.^. -9-

fifth, however,is good.

Ex. 78.

^
Subtonic
are

The

Seventh

Chord.

The subtonic seventh chord is the mildest dissonant seventh chord


of the

major mode.

Its factors

the

same

tones

as

the upper
some

four

factors of the dominant ''dominant like the chord. ninth chord

ninth chord and is called without root."

by

theorists a

Its factors

tones corresponding

in the dominant

normally resolve, ninth chord,to the tonic

-19-

2:

l^S.

i
I

-r^-

2z:

VlA

so

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

Notice that this nonnal resolution is non-cadendng. The resolution of vn\ cadencing is not
common.

VlA

III

viA

III

Examples of the inversions of vn^7 with their resolutions


foUow.

to

tonic

Ex.
81.

vn""2

vn^t

I^

viio,

Their

resolutionsfcUow: cadencing

i
Ex.
82.

3:
:Z2:
"i9-

zr 13L

"^" -^-

i i
criticism from

jCL.

.^Z

1.

.^.
-^-

-.^

The

subtonic chord in both modes

has suffered much

theorists

although it has been and is being used by masters. It is criticizedas being ''overworked" and that much can be accomplished
with it with
as a

minimum

of

The technique.

former criticismcould

apply

well to the dominant

isan academicism. is not


a

the lattercriticbm, while true, others; that too much subtonic harmony It is true,however,

chord and

and that where it b used- because proofof goodcraftsmanship, itisundesirable. of a lack of technique and not for effect, follow: Quotations

THE

SUBTONIC

CHORD.

SI
).S.
Bach.

^y
63.

( ^^ r
"

J
f
r
^

IJ. J J I
f

n
VI

frif
i

rij-

m
T
I
"

"=^
""

IVa

Vo

IV

vnj

Choral

of the

Early17 th Century.

84.

^^^
I
Yi

.^-^^ -j.^^.^^j-i^ s s 1 p ^ n^
N"/ Yi

Vo

IVYiigl

Voir(vii8)I V-7

Choral

of the

Earlyi6th Century.

i^^
Ex.
85.

2:

i ;i;;i;i'ii'iV
r

s"

IflJSIC

COMPOSITION.

J. S. Bach.

Ex. 86.

fr
I
"""
VI
"

(3,

iiJ(Va)le

iiS 117

Iv(viiD

IVJ(ii|)

III

(VJ)

Exercises, Group

10.

F. SCHUBKRT.

^^ I. ^

E s

^
r r

Mr'
I^

G. DONIZBTTI.

7^rj-n

THE

SUBTONIC

CHORD.

53

Sl

r r I* "^ ^^

^
3.

"":

f^

r r 1^^ ^JI J
AdesU

^
Fideles,

I
""^

3S==t:

J J J "ij
^-

i*

-^-

J J ^

^ij j,i^
g

^
4.

William

Byrdb.

(Mf

^ jiJ J j.if r
-^-

f
J-

3
-tf

1^

+^J

J'J7777^I

^^

JTJ^IJ-JJJ.I
6.

Thbodors

Lack.

^^
fe^CJr rir rr^J j^j Pir j Ji

54

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

BoiBLDIBtT.

J J J

J J .T^iJ

|J J

j^

^J r ^^ I

iJ

fp^

M^i
RECAPITULATION

"

^
AND

JI LJ' [.r

II ffJTi
r
"

CHAPTER

IX.
SUGGESTIONS.

all the seventh chords,the practical ninth triads, chords and inversions in the major mode have been considered and the student should
now

All the diatonic

be

capableof harmonizing any major

diatonic

melody.
A table follows showing the chords with which each scale step may
harmonized.
Ex.
87.

be

g
"V

"JBL SL

RECAPITULATION

AND

SUGGESTIONS.

55

The

table is not

for example:V? complete,

is listedonlyonce

in the table

but it may be used to harmonize any tone which is a factor in the chord. of use or relative The table is not planned to show the relative frequency

importanceof the chords;major triads are given firstfollowed by minor ninth then seventh chords and lastly, then diminished triads, triads, The tones which are not listedas ninths in ninth chords are do, chords.
re,
so

and
are

H.

The

ninth respective

chords Such
tones.

of which

these tones formations

are are

vii^o*" Io" IVq, and viq. nearly alwaysthe result of non-chordal


ninths

ninth chord Remember

that IV7 and should be used

I7

are

unconunon

and that

some

of the other chords

sparingly. The following table


I may
n m

shows

chord progressions. possible


to n, occasionally

progress to progress progress


to to

may may

TV may V may
VI

progress to progress to progress progress


to to

may

vn^ may

V, IV, vi, m, V, vi, vi, IV, I, V, I,n, I,vi, m, n, IV, m, n, V, I, m, V,

vn^ seldom to IV,


m.

to I, vn^ occasionally to vn^ occasionally

seldcMBu to n, V.
to vn*.

to vi, m, vn^. occasionally seldom to IV, occasionally

seldom to I,vn*.
to IV, occasionally

seldom to n,

vi.

A table of chord
cannot

is valuable onlyas progressions


a

mechanical

guideand

be

given as
a a

law.

The

different stages in the evolution of music of chord generalization

influence such families. Such

but tablet

in a there is stability

onlyin
foUows:

the event

is governed by natural laws and change generalization of a change in scale system. The generalization is as

familytrends to the dominant family. The dominant familytrends to the tonicfamily. The tonicfamilyis free. Within a family, the principal member may progress to a
member but the
reverse

The subdominatU

subordinate

of this should be avoided.

V-vi is best with both chords in root position. The first Progression inversion of vii?.is to root position or second inversion. preferable fifths and octaves undesirable. are perfect fifths and octaves in outer voices when are objectionable progress to the fifth or octave by skips. Awkward melodic
an

Consecutive

Concealed both

parts

skips,such

as

augmented intervals and

skips

greater than

octave, should be avoided.

"See ChapterXIII. t "and the ear, Uke the eye,


toon

*eccowod"tee

'

itself to

new

and unrelated hannonies." perq"ective

S6
Avoid
compass.

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

for writing
Extremes

of any voice any lengthof time in the extremes of a voice compass are more intonated where easily
sure

Be approached stepwise. Roots

fifths are

that each part is singable. the best chord factors to double. Doubled are, in general, usuaUy better than doubled thirds. It is better to double

of doubling, major triads. These principles of good voice leading. The however, are subservient to principles of doubling; subtonic triad presents to the general an exception principles the third in the subtonic triad is the best factor
a

thirds in minor chords than in

to

double.

The fifthin
the

six-four chord is usuaUy the best factor to Avoid The best factor for omission is the

in double, especially The

six-four. cadencing

doubling tendencyfactors.
fifth. perfect
root

may

be

omitted in the tonic six-fourchord.

A tonic six-fourchord is sometimes

written at the cadence with omitted third.


Factors

forminga dissonant
intervals resolve

are

best

approachedin contrarymotion.

Diminished The

by

contraction:

"""-

and nine is tendency of chord factors seven as the case or inactivity stronger than the normal scale activity may be. In the dominant seventh and ninth chords,the mediant seventh and ninth chords, and the subtonic seventh chord,the resolution tendency of the sevenths and ninths is analogous to the scale tendencies of these downward diatonic
tones.

In

some

chord is the

or, which

remain stationary factor seven or nine may progressions, thus: changed, same, be enharmonically

{a.) Stationary7th

i
"^-

IZL

\
"

^s
*

Ex. 88.

Modulatory

Modulatory

Modulatory f

etc.

?
V7

ftg
a

I (^

^
C

^
V,
b

lit

V7

V11O7 C V7 fS Vf

iiOft V

"See tSee

ChapterXIV.
Chapter* XII
and XIV.

RECAPITULATION

AND

SUGGESTIONS.

S7

(6.) Stationary9th

\4 fil-\-^l^^ f
i
Modulatory *
^^^

I
C

J
V,
VI

V7

B"V7

factor seven Occasionally, chromatically:

or

nine may

progress

upward stepwise, usually

(a.) Modulatory *
Ex.

(6.) Modulatory*
a:
etc.

'iA=M=^ ^
""

m=^
C V"

V7

ij

V,

in composing. thoroughly experienced Most voice and all end with the tonic in the highest compositions end with the tonic in the lowest voice (rootposition).! compositions The penultimate either ti or re, sometimes tone of a melody is usually /a but seldom la, Schumann's Warum is quoted as an sOy occasionally voice: with the third in the highest example of a composition ending

Rarely,factor seven onlybe used by one

or

nine is

quitted by leap. Such

device should

Ex.
00.

Robert

Franz's GtUe NacM

is

quoted as

an

example of

composition

endingwith the fifthin the


"See

melody:

ChapterXIV.

tSMChapUrXIII.

58

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

dose, when used,is in addition to the real ending. plagai When as is keep the voices as nearly usingopen position, equidistant Avoid groupingthe two upper voices and the two lower possible.
The voices with alto
or a

wide interval between


tenor

the two

the alto and


an

should seldom

soprano and be separated by an interval


groups.

The

greaterthan

octave.

is usually for strong dissonant chords. The preferable Open position from its root by an be separated ninth in ninth chords should usually interval of at least a ninth. fixed unison. Voice A dissonant should not be resolved to
a

leading governs
are

the choice of omissions and

duplications, cially espe-

in ninth chords. Dissonant chords Avoid the


most

effectiveupon

strong pulse.
a

of a harmony or repetition

bass note from

weak

to a

strong

pulse.
Exercises 8-16 in

AppendixC

are

now

available.

CHAPTER
THE MINOR

X.
MODE.

The modes

differencein the triad formations between


may be Mode
seen

the

of by a comparison

the numerical

major and symbols:

minor

Major

I,n,

m,

IV, V, vi, vn*^.

Harmonic

Minor

Melodic Minor Ascending Melodic Minor Descending

V, VI, vn". vi". IV, V, vi", i, n^ III+, (primitive) i, u**, HI, iv, v, VI, VH.
i, n",01+, iv,

THE

MINOR

MODE.

59

the hannonic fonn of the minor mode should be the composing, and descending) used are workingbasis. The melodic forms (ascending for melodic purposes althoughadvantagesin part writing principally from the use of chords of melodic minor formation, accrue frequently vi^ and VII should be avoided where monotonality is desired. A comparison of the triads of the major mode with those of the harmonic In minor shows
two

triads which

are

V and vn^. alike,

All other

triadsdiffer. The harmonic


two

minor mode

has two minor triads (i and

iv),

major triads (V and VI), two diminished triads (n" and vn^) and one augmented triad (III+). An augmented triad is formed with major third and augmentedfifth.
Such
a

chord is dissonant and active.

Augmented intervals resolve by expansion.


All that has been said of the chord in the minor mode.
More

in major is applicable progressions mode than

augmented intervals are

to be found in the minor

are

found in the

major.

In the harmonic

minor mode,
an

an

augmentedsecond

exists between

scale steps six and

seven,

augmented fifth between

three and seven, and an augmented fourth between four and seven. Melodic progressions of all augmented intervals should be avoided by those not The in part writing. experienced avoided but some augmented fourth and fifthare easily difficulty is often experienced with the augmented second. The difficulty exists in progressions V-VI and n^-V. In

V~VI, progression

double the third in VI instead of the root,thus:

instead of n^-V, lead the upper voices downward progression voice. The bass should be led the common tone in the same retaining upward to avoid concealed fifthsand octaves. In

"
Ex.

jg
"

.a.

6o If a tone in the
to
a

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

melody is harmonized
with V

with n^ and progresses

upward

tone

which

is harmonized

^P

the

foDowing

solutions are

possible:

i
Ex. 04.

^=i
r

i.

"r '
-t

^
f

("" i
T

" .", A
''""-

I
etc.

(g
The student needs harmonize

p^
no

f
to enable him to

I
correctly
Remember

further comments

melodies in the melodic minor

mode.

which should be avoided and avoid them factor The

by

the gressions proand logical leading differin with the in both shows

doubling.
seventh and ninth chords in the harmonic
the

minor mode

formation from
of exception

chords in the major mode corresponding seventh chord which The is the
same

the dominant

modes.

Their treatment

is similar, however.

table following

the construction of each.


chords which (Parentheses signify never used.)
are

used. rarely

Brackets

chords which signify

are

almost

Triads

Seventh

Chords

Ninth

Chords

plus n^ plus III+ plus IV plus V plus VI plus yifi plus


I

[major 7th] minor 7th (major 7th) minor 7th minor 7th (major 7th) diminished 7th

plus

plus plus plus plus plus plus

[major 9th] minor 9th (major 9th) (major 9th) minor 9th 9th] [augmented minor 9th
'

The

dominant

ninth chord in the minor mode

is called the ''chord of ninth chord.

the minor ninth" and is the most The chord of the minor

used frequently

ninth is often used in the

major mode

(flat

instead of the sixth scale step) The


*

majordominant
be studied.
tanor

ninth.

should following quotations

oouna,

Coniectttivcfifths(incontrary motion) appear betwaan tha atadant far tha praaaot* to ba avoidad bjr

and basa*

Soeh aoDMcotivaa

ara"

cf

THE

MINOR

MODE.

6i

Vt

V5(viiO)i

ixr^r
m
Ifl
V VI

'

" i'
A J

v-ul t

f^=^ f

iiO(iv)xj

J. Crugbr.

Ex. 06.

v^""

i"Yii8

IV

viigi"

1V5V

i*5"-

"JJ|J ji^
35

""--"

I
^

^^
nia I [jr.B. Bble vi
I

r
iv II
i

VI

VI

mvn
I V

iiiviiiv I V
II

i^vi
vio IV

-7

IV

VI]

6s

MUSIC

COBfPOSITION.

07.

io(iV7)V

VI

VoVc7,i iiOoV

(i4) VJ

VI(nOJ)V

i.4'~-n-i
i
E
I

j^4.

U^
ivo

^^i|'
nio lo
VI rv

cu
~

""

1V5

viig V

ni^iv^

iig """

jvn(7,
y"y

in
I

[^.B.

iia

Ifl 117 vug

!" -J

Vn V

IV n

V7
1117

iig in Va viig I]

io(vii8)(ivt)V2

xi^J V

Exercises,

Group

ii.

French

Folk

Song.

THE

MINOR

MODE.

Gabrixl-Makib.

i^

-^

^^^

^m
w
4.

Jlf r

1^" ^'^

^ ^r 'Vi

i
9.

^ E

cj-!" H

f r )^^

i ffi P

^^

^p

fe^

r r iM "y""
6.

^^p

jlJP^MlJJJ^lJipm^ ^,^^JJ73|J II f^l^T^lJTj^U F^g^


Exercises 17-31 in AppendixC
are

now

available.

64

CHAPTER
NON-CHORDAL

XI.
TONES.

Non-chordal which

tones

are

tones

which

are

not

factors of the chord

in

and tones (accented as passing they sound. They are classified unaccented), tones, unresolved neighboring appoggiaturas, neighboring retardations, tones, suspensions, tones, anticipatory organ point and various A

compoiuidnon-chordal
TONE
IS a

tones.

PASSING

non-chordal tone which is approached and direction. An accented passing tone is one

quitted
which

in stepwise

the

same

the factor of the chord to chord, delaying thereby effectivein a downward than scale figure which it progresses. It is more tone is one which is in an upward scale figure.An imaccented passing is attacked with the sounded
Between
on

of the chord. the latter portion


two

chordal tones

separatedby the interval of


fg f

major second

may

be

inserted a chromatic passingtone, hence: j /K


X
or

| may

be embellished thus:

^^
a

4 1' V
*^

Between

two

chordal tones separatedby the interval of


hence:

third may

be inserted
X

diatonic

tone, passing

may

be embellished thus:

*^CI
or

(accented)

4r
00*^

cji"^
separated by the interval of
a

Between
two

two

chordal tones

fourth may

be inserted
thus:

diatonic
X

tones, ^hence: passing

#^
CI
IV

may

be embellished

i
The

t
I

m
^iv
as conunon.

etc.

accented passingtone
The in

is

more

effectivethan the unaccented

tone passing

but

it is not

than figure
the

downward

effectivein an upward passingtone is more Chromatic affect figure. passingtones do not necessarily
r\

chromatic

tonality.Passingtones

are

spmetimes repeated:

g^rrrrh^"

Notice that the

"

is

^ctor of the tonic chord and is therefore, not ttrictly tpeaking,

paaeing toii9.

NON-CHORDAL

TONES.

6S
with the occurring chord

The

afpoggiatura

is an

accented non-chordal tone

chord and

downward resolving

to the or chromatically diatonically

factor which it delays.

(".)

"^
i
i

(
Ex.
08.

m I

d'i, J nH
f
Q!

I
etc.

"

J.

(gf
C I-

gJ*

f=f
-vs

and the accented passing tone appoggiatnra is that the former is approached by leapand is consequently unprepared while the latter enters preparedalongthe scale line. The appoggiatura resolves upward (usually a minor second). occasionally the upper and lower adjacenttones precedea chordal Frequently and these non-chordal tones are called by most tone (unprepared) The differencebetween the theoriststhe double

appoggiatura.

etc.

The

double

occurs appoggiatura frequently

as

an

AnscUag.
is by most

A non-chordal tonq similar to the

following:

^m
CI-

theoristscalled an
tone ''passing which ambiguity
a

Others prefer to callit appoggiatura." approached by skip." The former name isfree from the "unaccented characterizes the latter name.
TONE,

NEIGHBORING

also Called ''auxilliaiy tone/'is an


a

unaccented This
non-

non-chordal tone which embellishes chordal tone


tone

chordal repeated

tone.

may

and may

be the upper or lower adjacent tone to the chordal be at the distance of either a major or a minor second, The
upper
tone neighboring

an rarely

augmented second.

is

usually

diatonic but the lower

tone neighboring

is

more

minor a frequently
does not

second below the chordal tone.

A chromatic

tone neighboring

affect the tonality. necessarily

66

HUSIC

COMPOSITION.

Bach.

Bach.

GI"
Tones Neighboring
The
are

Vt

v;

IV.

VI

sometimes

repeated.
neighboring tones,
,x

GruppeUoor
X
X

turn

isa group of chordal tones and non-chordal


/^

XX

/%

thus:

etc.

the praU-triUy and tnarderUf tones. neighboring The

the UriU

are

also ornamental

of the applications

An
tone

unkesolved

neighboring

tone

is

an

unaccented

non-chordal
a

and quitted of diatonically approached by skip,usually

third,

resolution.) (delayed
X

(unresolved.)

thus:

etc.

Some

theorists call

such

non-chordal

tone

"changingtone."

because of the custom


as an

among

misleading other theoristsof defining a changingtone


term tone to foreign

The

is

accented
ANTICIPATORY

tone. passing
TONE
a

An

is an imaccented

the chord with It may

which it soimds but

factor in the chord which

follows.

be approached

or by skip diatonically

SUSPENSION

is

chord

factor sustained from


a

one

chord

into the

chord following chord.

of which it is not

ward downpart,and resolved diatonically the daring


sustenance

to a factor of the second chord

of the second

NON-CHORDAL

TONES.

67

100.

A A
r

or

"

A A

etc.

1f^n
Less

Vic- r ir r

is resolved upward diatonicaUy.The the suspension frequently, a retardation. by some theorists, suspension resolving upward is called,
**

suq)ension except in the progression is which in Chapter 12. harmony explained The suspensbn is figured the firstfigure the bass with Arabic figures, over showing forms with the bass and the second figureshowing the interval which the suspension The tone of su^)ension the chord factor which is delayedby the suq[)ension. ai^)ears a nd is sustained the first as a chordal tone (called to preparation) foUowing chord downward and progresses diatonicaUy to the (calledresolution) (calledpercussion) the ocmsonant tone of the second chord which was by delayed suspension. Preparaand resolution should be in the same voice part. Percussion usually ticm,percussion,
errors"
are

Grammatical

not

alleviated

by

the

cl the German

Sixth Chord

to dominant

be present in any other voice part Various suspensions at the distance of the interval of a second. are duringpercussion
occurs on

an

accent.

The

delayed tone should

not

shown

and

in figured

the

foUowingexamples:

/^
Ex.

i
-a^ sr

I i

1^

9-8: Suspension

101.

J
C

ft
o 8

IV

m
Ex. T^

-^

i i
8

Stt^iension 4-3:

102.

"\

tei
C IV

2:

68

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

^=^
Suspensibn 6-5:
-SL

i
V]

[ N,B.

iii^

The

suq)eiision 6-5

does not

form

dissonant at

and percussion

is therefore not

as

effectiveas suspensions 9-8 and 4-3. in any voice part and A suspension occur may voices simultaneously:

suspensions may

occur

in two

or

three

/^
Ex.
104.

J
I 1

m
lie

The above

examplemay

be

as analyzed

an

in the bass anticipation

or

as

suspension

in the three upper

voices.

a dissonant factor is retained: Occasionally

i
106.
'

1
jQ-(9-

SL

The

inverted.

is altered when the second chord of the suspension is of suspensions figuring becomes second The firstinversion of the su^)ension and the 9-8 7-^
6-6
.

inversion becomes
5 4
^
.

The

suspension 4-3

with the second chord in itsfirst inversion the second chord in its

is figured

9^;second

inversion
6-6

The

6-5 with suspension ^*

6HS. mversion is figured first ^^; second inversion,

NON-CHORDAL

TONES.

69

II

II

Vo

VI,

[ALff.

iiij]

^^duAJ'^m
TV

11

IVo

IJV.B,

iij]

Three

of the suspensionare irregular progressions

common:

the lower neighbor. it^. Interpolating


X

and.

To

another

tone

of the chord.

The

same

with
X

passingtones.
XX

108.

70

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

Changing the 3rd.

chord at

"

Resolutioo."

I
Sh

f
109.
^^^

i
C
V IV

The

organ

point

is a retained tone

in (usually

the

the bass)during
occur;

retention of

which,chords related and unrelated


be related. The both.* and sometimes The

to the tone

the

firstand last chords must tonic


or

organ
tone

the pointis usually may be reiterated

or

dominant

in his Erl King, has produced a dramatic effect Schubert, the dominant organ pointin upper voices: by using

sustained.

^
72nd
measure.

jij

J. ;i.nj.jij j.ji

Ex. 110.

etc.

of compodh important part of the majority tions, homophoniccompositions. especially


tones
an ^Modern conpoten
use frequently

Non-chordal

form

the submediant

as

an

organ

pofatf.

NON-CHORDAL

TONES.

7"

Many

subtleties non-chordal

enter tones

into and
ear,

logical harmonization
rules and
a

of

melody

taining con-

are

of

little assistance.
amount

Musical
are

experience,

well-trained
to
success.

great

of

analysis

the

stepping-stones
The
tones.

following
For

quotations analysis
work

show

the

application
Songs
more

of

the

non-chordal Wards
are more

further The and

Mendelssohn's

WiihotU

recommended. successful

in

analysis

becomes

benefidal,

less restricted

after

studying

modulation.
Schubert

(Andante).
"^_^^^_

Pianoforti

J. S. Bach

(Musette).

'.Vjj:ijfj'|jj|jjjjj|jj
Ex.
112.

ya

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

i^\r^ K*-^
JiJ.

AH

J i i J "g^
^

i i i J.
a;
"I

rJJ;jijJ

nrji^^fp
t

(B^
Review

Examples

51, 52,

60, 71, 83,86, 95, 0 and 97.

Exercises, Group

12.

J. S. Bach.

J J i^^f
2.

rif

fjrtJir j j ri^-S^^
J. S. Bach.

iSgiifii^ftifninu^
I
F. SCHUBULT.

nj^u.ii M*gnjTr]ijTr]^jiJif

rrrifii^rir

ALTERED

CHORDS,

73
F.

4.

Schubert.

^m

"

"

"

^m
rr n r r (^1
"

^-^^
J. S. Bach.

6. In a-minor

J. S. Bach.

ncjf
7.

f fir f

'

rjjifr'ii
J. S.
Bach.

r r rirr ijjir

irr r r ,"

Jirc;f i^^ ^

CHAPTER
ALTERED

Xn.
CHORDS.
or more

Tones
to

are

altered for one chromatically

of four

reasons:

(ist)

to produce smoother (3rd) modulate,(2nd)to add esthetic interest, of scale tones. voice leading and (4th) to increase or alterthe tendency

Altered factors should seldom be doubled. The fifthof triads is frequently altered. The triad is more the raised than frequently The other
roots.

root of the subdominant

The sixth scale step in

major mode

lowered. purposes.

and the second scale step in both modes are frequently third in a chord is frequentiy altered for modulatory

74 The most
common

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

altered chords

are:

(i) Chord with raised fifth, (2) Italian Sixth Chord, (3) German Sixth Chord, (4) French Sixth Chord,
Sixth Chord. (5) Neapolitan

(i) Raised
The fifthmay

Fifth.

IV7,V, V7, Vo,

be raised one-half step in the following chords: I,IV, and no (without the 7th)in the major mode and iv, n The mediant

VI and VI7 in the minor mode.

triad in harmonic

minor

may be considered a normal scale chord. Raised fifthsin other chords result in modulation or faulty voice leading. The raised factor has

strongtendencyupward chromatically.

^H^^t^^ If
Ex.
1 1 3,
a.

*
-

'*'^ Ii^^ I"- II

^
0 I 6+

-^-

-"h

r
1
rfO

1" 1" I
1
#0

4C

X II 6-f

I
n?H

IV 5+

IVJ+

Vft+

VJ+

Vg+

fe ^^
Ex.

|tfe! I "^^^
"^-

118,b.
"^-

I
5+

i
VII
6-f

iv"+

VI

"Wherever

scale tone

is followed by itschromatic alteration, or noii-chordal) (chordal

the alteration should take

placein

the

same

voice in which the unaltered tone


cases an

appears, otherwise a cross rekUian results. In allother from above.* be s^proacfaed In the

should augmented fifth

the sixth scale step, major mode, I5+ has tendencyto a chord containing the third scale step,and 05^ to a chord containing Vl+ and Vf + have tendency Vs-f.}
and

n^

have tendency to

a a

has tendencyto mode, iVft^.

chord containing the seventh scale step. In the minor the second scale step, and Vls+ "^"1 chord containing

the fourth scale step. VI5+ and YlJ^ Vl2+ have tendency to a chord containing ambiguous chords and have some tendency to changethe mode to tonic major. aie

The

dominant seventh chord and ninth chord with lowered fifthare

available:
"See

ChapterXIII.

ALTERED

CHORDS.

75

(".)

{b.)

(^.)

^^(^^(^^1^^
Ex. 114.
jCL

221
-T^-

m
%'

fcfe

^
vii,i
VJ^i

C Brahms

Vjbl

made

effectiveuse of the dominaiit ninth cfaoid in major and minor with

altered fifth.

The most the outer

effective alteredchords

are

those in which two voices (usually various

voices)form

sixths in the

key of

augmented sixth. The majorare the following:


an

augmented

^
"tes"C
rVorii iiorV Y

i i
resultsby resolution

otyvP

The

following augmentedsixthin C major:


chord with doubled leading tone. The

m^K jta? normally


c

in

sixths in augmentationof the remaining

the key of C

major normallyeffecta modulation.*


minor
are:

The

various augmented sixths in the key of

(^
Ex.
116.

m
22:
IV
or

i
^
or

}^
M

m
The

I
V

II
vii"

II"

following augmented sixth in


a

minor:

/kl"b-jtg
The

normallyresults by

resolution in

chord with is not


common

doubled leadingtone. and has

augmented sixth: following


The augmentaticm

m
d the

HtSL
sixths in the key of remaining example 136. exeeptkm"
c

to modulate. tendency

minor

effecta modulation. normally

*8ce the

76

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

(2)
This chord consists of from the bass. The

Italian

Sixth

Chord.

major third and augmented sixth reckoning


in the

Italian Sixth Chords

major mode

are

as

follows:

^
dzzz
C

-i9-

I
I
as

^-

IV0+

110+

T118+
are

The Italian Sixth Chords

in the minor mode

follows:

(I
Ex.
118.
/"

% 5="rz2E:
-"S"-

i i
V118+
as

m
"^"i+

Many theoristspresent the Italian Sixth Chord


Chord. Original Same

follows:
ist inversion=Itatiaii

with raised root,

6th Chord

Ex.
1 19.

i
C
a

-WWSI

F
II IV

in both modes is not common. vii**of isthe factor most frequently doubled. fifth(present The original third) The
use

of

The normal resolutions of the Italian Sixth Chord

are

as

follows:

etc.

CIVo+V

iiq+Iq

iio^.iiiviig+ I
seventh chord with lowered

ciVo+V
and fifth without

I viig^.

^This chord is like the dominant theoristsit is considered


as

the root.

By

KMne

such.

ALTERED

CHORDS.

77

Other

for txamfiti as well as other doubUngs, are possible non-modulatoiy piogressioiis

(*.)

(".)

g
or

bi

tf"

^E
.a.

i
etc.

""P-

iw
IVa+CorcV7

IVo+

12 ore

Modernists would not scoffat the

harsh but highly dramatic progression: following

Such

not vocal. are instrumental, progressions

The student willnotice that the melodic linemay suggestthe use of the chords with itis not unoonunon to find the upper factorof an augmented augmented sixth, although sixth chord in Unless
care an

inner voice.

be taken in modes

(Seeexamples 132 and 157.) using no+, a modulation to the relativeminor


to

may

result.

vnS^ in both
most

has power

effecta modulation of
a

to

the subdominant

key. The

characteristic Italian Sixth Chord

key is therefore IVo^.

The root position and the second inversion of the ItalianSixth Chord are occasionally called "Italian Sixth Chord in used, and such chords are often ambiguously Root Position *' and
"

ItalianSixth Chord in Second Inversion." In these two

positions,

the diminished third is found instead of the resolve by contraction.

augmented soth.

Diminished intervals

or

IV

0+

Jf "

p.V

IV0+

and

inv.

V"

in the above The fifths

fonn progressions

the basis for academic

to the objection

of the Italian Sixth Chord

in other than itsnormal position.

78

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

(3) The
This chord

Gebman

Sixth

Chord. with the addition of the

is like the Italian Sixth Chord


as a

fifthof the bass


(a.)

chord
(*.)

thus: factor,
(c.)

(O

i
Ex.
124.
\

U
^i^
-^Sh
-^

22.

fc

K^ 9-

\ \^
-w-

I
i

JO.

^Jte

\^
Sixth Chord

Doubling of factors in the German


voice

is not necessary in four

writing.
Sixth Chord
as

Many theoristspresent the Gennan


Chord. Original Same

follows:
"=

with raised root.

1st. inversion

German

6th Chord.

Ex.
125

m
most

fe
"

"

^
Altered iy7

1"

ite?

e
that
not

IV7

ivj+
Sixth Chord Notice is iv?"'". theorists do

The

characteristic Gennan have C vii**5+

C IVJ+ and

augmented fifths. Some


Sixth Chords.

consider these chords German Resolutions follow:


{a.)

(*.)

(^.)
jg -09-

(rf.)
-""g"
-9-

(*.)

(/)

(^.) (4.)

m^^
Ex. 126.
-^9jS.

"i9-"or

H?1g-{H ^
|K,^" I ^

fc

^'

t^^
or

or

^
-2^^SL
zz:

"Wrg
'

is

x.g'

ClVg^VorlJ
The

ii|^-iiiorIo vii0|tl

civJ+VoriJ viiOg+i

fifthsin the above progressions are coimtenanced, especially parallel resolved to II and ^ with suspension are frequently 6-5. IVSt and ivS''" the fifths in progressions to avoid the fifths. Similarly, respectively, nj^-in,vn^lt ~I and vn^l^ -I are tolerated.
Like the Italian Sixth, the German

used in root Sixth Chord is occasionally

position

called the ''German and is ambiguously and in second inversion, also in third inversion, Sixth Chord
*Uk"

in Root Position," etc.


root and

V?. without

is oontidcrsd

as

tach \i$aoms

thaorista.

ALTERED

CHORDS.

79
3rd
inversion.

Root

Position.

2nd

inversion.

-9"zy

-^-

-ar

%
-"9-

-(9-

i
i

fr^
.^"^-

41^
j"
"^-

^^
ivT

.^2.

22:

iva+

V|

(4) The
This chord

French

Sixth

Chord. with the addition of the

is like the Italian Sixth Chord


as a

fourth of the bass

chord

thus: factor,

^^
Ex.
128.
-49-

#
jsl

Y\"^^

I i% =1

JQ-

I
-O-

"W-

Iefc
c as

"75^

-bis^

iiO|t v|t
=

Many

theoiists present the French


Chord. Original Same

Sixth Chord
with raised

follows:
2nd inversion French 6th chord.

3rd.

:k
isr

sc:

I
form the

XlOJ,
Notice that the augmented sixths in the Italian and German

.r"|t
Sixth Chords

following chords,IV, n and vn" (inmajor) and iv and vn^ (inminor) whereas the chords corresponding augmented sixths in the French Sixth Chords form the following vn" n^ and V (inmajor) and and V (inminor). n,
The in
of a factor doubling four voice writing.

in the French

Sixth Chord

is not

necessary

Resolutions follow:
(a.) (*.) (^.) id.) {",)
ISL 2Z
-(9"i^-

(/.)

(jr.)

(A.)

g
.a.

i:

-f9-

^f=ffl
or

or

-^9-

jO^

V
""^nor

.^.

a-

A^n
-tf?-

?^

22:

CnttVorlJ

TnO||Ioorni V|t

il""StVoriJ Vtt

8o

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

firstinversion and third This chord may be used in root positipn, called the "French Sixth Chord in Root inversion and is ambiguously
etc. Position,"
Root

position.

ist inversion.

3rd inversion.

1
-v

-V

tg 1^

I tfg^ ^
-"-

g -V

"

22:

k
"*=:
lA
"^-

%
ifi 81

I
lA

of both the German and French Sixth Chords other than Progressions the normal progressions of the (seeprogressions given are possible ItalianSixth Chord). The Italian, German, and French Sixth Chords of the German Sixth to may progress one to another. The progression fifths the parallel the French Sixth Chords is another way of avoiding mentioned heretofore.

P
Ex.
132. "

"=p:

i
J-

:zl

I I

^
V
-

k^
7

^
2:

B"
c

f"^
iv"+

ivj"

l^
are.

The

names

of the
same

but are preceding augmented sixth chords have little significance


way

valuable in the
as

that all names

Some

text

books refer to them and Third."

tively respec-

"Chord

"" of the Augmented Sixth/' Augmented Chord

of the Sixth- Fifth-

and Third"

and ''Augmented Chord of the Sixth- Fourth-

An effective augmented sixth chord which is not included in the above groups isthe dominant seventh chord in the thus: in its third inversion,

majormode

with raised fifth

"49-

,a-

I
cvy

ALTERED

CHORDS.

8l

The

dominant chord in the minor


an

mode

with lowered seventh in its It


con-

third inversion also forms sbts of

effective augmented sixth chord.

augmented second,doubly augmented fourth and augmented

thus: sixth,
-/I

O.v

is:

i
I

V
"

bo

"

"

1^
I

cvjt^.
The

augmented sixth chord following

formation is available:

The

double augmented fourth major third, and augmented sixth. The chord is more useful as the sharpsupertoniq in the major mode than as the subtonic in the minor mode. This chord has been named the "American Sixth Chord/' by Mr. H. R. Palmer.* The mediant chord may be altered to an augmented sixth as follows: above chord is formed with

i^3
etc.

^
etc.

IV. Ciii|t

V?

mtj: ii|
be altered in such
two

The

tonic seventh chord may


between

manner

that

an

augmented sixth appears


of this chord is the most
*Sm

of itsfactors. The

root

position

satisfactory.

PaloMr't

TJk40ty i/Mutic,published by The John Chofdi Co.

8a

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

-8S^
!^
Tg-

ig:

I*:
z

i
-^-

crb
5# Such chords

IV

as a

and lit require careful in|t resolution. logical

treatment

"

smooth

and approach of the key are

Notice that the two most

salienttones

altered.

(5) The
This chord is an

Neapolitan

Sixth Chobd.
and is

chord in the minor mode supertonic formed with minor third and minor sixth, thus:

altered

{4 *f.
Ex.

II

-9-

I
It is occasionally used in

The

chord may be used in the major mode. thus: and in second inversion, root position
Root

position.2nd
-t^

inversion.

IZ.

^m
-f9-

Ex.
139.

-b^a

Vifi

^^^(W

third is the factor most frequently doubled as in the above original The altered factor may be doubled and in this respect, the jcxamples. Sixth Chord differsfrom altered factors altered factor in the Neapolitan The in other chords.

Sixth Chord normally Neapolitan progresses ^'^minant harmony,thus:


The

to tonic six-four or

ALTERED

CHORDS.

83
Five vdoes.

Vocoul

Potltkni.

(*.)

(^.)

I^ r"Hg~^+^i="-^^

^^
etc

m
aiiO "1^ \^ Ob
BootPMitlMi.
doubled

-JSl

te
no^,^ VJi,
to French

ii^obV"
root.

6th.

"""-

-^-

22:

U
I
b^
biio

I^
I
bg
biio

1'^

fe

H
etc.

141.

l"g

""^

""

IK
biio

-"^

biio

V|t

Second Inrertioii.

ifg I ^
-^r

IK
2Z:

i
etc.

I
may

"

"^t

vib

""3i, v.
in the minor mode

Factors three and five in the

chord supertonic

be raised one-hslf step as follows:

iiog i,oj^
"#

i^j^
"#
most

Of the various inversions of the


*Th"

chord,the firstis the

practical.
be avoided in

aufmentod fourth in the but

is poMiblein instrumental
so.

but oomposltion

should

See Chopini Prelodefnumber vocal oonpoeition.

84
follow: Progressions
(a.)

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

(*.)

(c.)

(*.)

jg Itfg P li{g
Ex.
l^^.

^j^
n/Q

|"" tTg

^ *^^^ ^
"

g/p

"'^'

ji/g

n^

ji/r"

-O.

"t^ "fe
"#
"

""

B#

Pint

Inrenioii.

(A.)

(I.)

etc.

V 11^8
ist. inv.

The

subdominant

seventh chord in the in the minor

major mode

with raised root

and the

chord supertonic
are

mode

with raised third in first

inversion

useful chords:
(".)
3:
"^-^-

(*.)

^
.OL

i
i
examplemay
be

Ex.

"

"

\y

.a.

Tlie altered chord in the second written


as an

in the progression

above

augmented sixth chord:

Ex.
146.

..lOtt

ALTERED

CHORDS.

8S

The subdommant mode

seventh chord with raised root and third in the minor

is available:

^h
in analyziiig altered chords is often experienced because of enharmonic Difficulty and editors to notate in a way which It is customary among composers offersthe least difficulty to the instrumentalist and vocalistin reading. For example, the second progression in Example 144 is chosen; if the d-sharpin the tenor part be notation.*

approached from

the notation is likely to be

as

follows:

The

should following quotations

be

studied. carefully
IftvocoHon to

TSCHAIKOWSKY,

Slop,

etc.

bl^nr^n.
"

12

iioj la

Sec

ClnpCtrXIII

86

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

Andante

Cantabile

from

StringQuartet
I

Tschaikowsky,

Op.

1 1.

J.'
"
r"
'
-

"=*
^_

("

Ex.
160.

i
^

i
BtillVj
iiit

4::

i
r
v"

J^

"^
"
r
-^

^^
s

^9
f

i"t f

^
"^
^"+

^^
Ip^

"tb

fjiri^j-:^

etc

LOBSCHHORN,

Op. 52.

Ex. 161.

ALTERED

CHORDS.

87

etc.

Chopin,

C-minor

Sonate.

Ibid.

Ex.

etc. etc.

1612.

ivj+liPlt 1^6+

ScHUt,

Theme

and

Variations,Op. 29.

Allegro.
Ex.

m 14'''' [
.,0|tij

etc.

88

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

Exercises, Group
Notate
D

13.

the

indicated below; progressions

major I5+, vi, Us+, VI+, I. B major I,IV5+,V, V?+, I. d minor i, IV5+, V, VI, VI5+,V", i. F major I,IV, n, 1I5+ V, VIb, I. b minor i, IV5+, V, Vf bi i.
chords: following

Resolve the

* M
pzi

j^pp
U^
Bl^

tf

e
-

fli

j^^
ti^
viio 0+

%
D

^ IV0+

1^
G

b^l"
n^o+

\h
b

iie+

f# ITa+

3. Resolve the

chords: following

" ip^

iV *,. i"*
*

,.

i"
I
d

^ii
"""

t iii.' It
E

U*

i"

PW^ ^
g"TIlOJ+

IVJt

11J+ Bl^ n^"iX

nrj+

4.

Resolve the

chords: following

^^
..

I*i; l"iiV II. iVt ilit^i^


F#

1/

i".

II

ii|tG viiO|t

V|t

c"

iiO|t g V|t

chords in all major and minor keys; firstto 5. Resolve the following the dominant triad and second to the tonic six-four chord:

ELEVENTH

AND

THIRTEENTH

CHORDS

AND

MODERNITIES.

89

6.

Notate the

indicated progressions F
e

below: f minor
g minor
a

A D

major iia+, !".


I. major vii**e+,

I. major V|t,

bn^o^i2*
V7. bn**e,
V. uPi\,

minor

i. V|t,

d minor
"

vii^o+, i.

I". major VS"*",


i. V|tH, IV". majorra|t,

minor

major nS^,I^.
I. major vn^^t,

b minor
A

major #IV,V.
V. #11", V. #iv2|y

G
a

b minor
e

minor

vii^+, i.

IV. major I51,

minor

J^. major VDP|t


altered chords
are

Additional exercises on

in Group 14. given

CHAPTER
ELEVENTH AND THIRTEENTH

XIII.
CHORDS AND

MODERNITIES.

admitted no such chord formation as Theorists of the past generation entered as a suspension that of a ninth. The factor of a ninth alwa3rs or other non-chordal tone and
as such. To-day,ninth chords analyzed and take an important in the used without preparation are freely place musician'svocabulary. admit of no such chord Some theorists of the present generation was

formations
are

as

those of the eleventh and thirteenth. intervals with of

posers comNevertheless,

usingthese

called ultra modem harmonic

music

The sogrowingindependence. in to-day is opening new possibilities

structure,and onlytime can tellwhether or not the choidal of the criticism radicalismof thismusic willbecome established. In spite
the best of the "ultra" finds its way conservative, halls, and, in many cases, to the hearts of the audience. The well of identity chords of the elventh and thirteenth
to be to the concert

of the

are

not, as ]ret,

enough established

whollysuccessful

in four voice

writing

because of the fact that too many chord factors must be omitted. itis not advisable of these chord formations, # Because of the immatiuity for the student to attempt to use them at the presenttime. chords which oplythe skilledcraftsman should use.

They

are

90

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

The formation of the dominant

eleventh and thirteenth chord follows:

Quotationsfrom the
avoided.
average

most

ultra of the modem which follow show

music have been intention

Those

examples which

the

modem

ear

readily grasps.
Edward

MacDowsll,

Op, 55, No.

!."

^^
Ex.
166.

t^
I
^
t

;
I
N

m
etc.

"

23rd measure

(fe

^
ig6+
6+

Tonic

organ

point
or

""

example 155, factor eleven in the chord figured vi^Jmay be But the ''3"in the above suspension as a suspension analyzed 4-3. becomes an eleventh in the following dominant chord I The prc^pressions follow none of the academic rules for suspensions or other non-chordal these are eleventh chords. tones. Obviously, often result in an eleventh chord formation,for AfUicipaiians
In

example:

C
"PnUitlMd

V7

(II)

bf

Arthur

P. Schmidl

(capyrifht).

ELEVENTH

AND

THIRTEENTH

CHORDS

AND

MODERNITIES.

91

Godowsky in his free arrangement of Rameau's Sarabande uses the in the penultimatemeasure above anticipation with considerable suggestion of a dominant eleventh chord. Similarly, of an anticipation
the mediant formation. in V-I progression the results in
a

dominant

13th chord

(op. 58,no. 6) uses Sch3rtte

thirteenth chord formation: following

b
Ex.
157.

zg

This is followed tonic triad. ninth chord


as readily an

by

the dominant

seventh chord which

resolves to the
as a

Many

theorists would

analyze this chord


the
ear as

mediant
more
"

in the first inversion)but


overtone.

accepts the d

tone

such

may the

or analyzedas a neighboring Schyttenumber, the d has considerable chordal importanceand as unhesitatingly analyzed a

also be

is figured 13 " In other non-chordal tone. this which

will doubtless be in the


near

dominant

chord

factor

future.
on an

uses Wagner's Die Meisiersinger with considerable chordal significance, thus: poggiapura

OUivier in his PhatUdsie

a^

i^^P
Ex. 168.
"|
"

(g
T c vf
" -

i
"

This choid

is

precededby the tonic six-four and resolves to the tonic

triad in root

posidon.
MODEKNTtlES.

differ so radically from the two composition established systems (polyphony and homophony) that it is aiq"arent that an entirely new theorymust ensue. Many of the progressions,

Modernities

in musical

^2

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

be of the modem cannot compositions groupings accounted for by the rules of polyphony or homopbony and in many ard A glanceat a page in a score the rules are broken. other cases by Richor Scott, Strauss,Ravel,Sibelius, Schdnberg,C3nJl Debussy Elgar, for the time honored shows absolute disregard and a host of others, ''rules"of the academicians. Adverse criticism of modernists is, by far, i tself. but is the more this Bach, repeating simplyhistory conunon, but Beethoven,Brahms, and Wagner, each in his time,suffered similarly of their critics. not, however, to the glorification in the use of The science of physics as well as the growingfreedom chord formations and

dissonant chords prove that it is oiur ears, not Nature,which dictate

our

of many acoustical phenomena. or disapproval ai^roval Consecutive fifths have been the bugbearof theoristssince the formulation of rules of under justified is more
or

and coimterpoint,

while much
newer

of the condenmation

is

the diatonic system, the

methods, where tonality

and even demand such consecutives. Fifths justify have been used,and used effectively, by masters of the diatonic school, and effectively Beethoven,and are now being used freely including by who are infinitely and thinkers than their greater geniuses composers critics.

lessvague,

Augmented steps and skipsare also forbidden by academicians but used by composers. The principal to such beingfreely are now objection isfoimded upon the fact that an augmented interval melodic progressions interval to sing, and it is, is a difficult restriction for a logical therefore, vocal composition. Unresolved dissonances are frequent in modem music and the treatment of dissonances is very free. Cross relation is also ignored to a
great extent.
is a theory of ''horizontal" composition Counterpoint restricted, of however,by certain "vertical" considerations. Harmony is a theory vertical composition certain horizontal considerations. The comprising serious compositions of the homophonic school draw considerably more and concepts of the contrapuntal school. The ultra iqx"n the princq"les takes a new modem road,and while drawingupon both the polyphonic and homq"honic concepts, it travels new at the paths. Theo;rizing

present time upon


which
are

modernities
are

hazardous. at best, is,


not
are

The

few theories

herein set forth

intended to furnish rules or offeredonlyas


a

princq"les
and

of ultra modem
as

but technique,

solution possible

seed for

thought.

ELEVENTH

AND

THIRTEENTH

CHORDS

AND

MODERNITIES.

93

Many

modernities

result from

an

equal division
our

of the octave, the

of superposing

intervals other than

usual thirds in

formingchords,
contrapuntal

and from horizontal concepts other than those of the older school. The whole-tone scale is popularwith
oiu:

modernists:

Ex. 169.

m w
1 2 S
"

^^
4 5 6

2C

-p^
6

The two tonal

above scales combined

giveus the chromatic scale. Notice the

ambiguity* any of the six tones in either of the above scales may be a tonic by proper manipulation hence, the modulatorypossibilities manifold. are Equal division of the octave in any manner alwaysoffers modulatory opportunities.
Several
new

chords may
a

result from

the whole-tone scale.

For

ample, ex-

isin the key of C with a frequent of the use composition whole-tone scale, in the place chords founded upon the g-sharp may serve of a diatonic dominant :t
suppose (^.)
Tg-^-^'

(^.)

*e:

-""-

I :S:

lil|i% li II
To

the diatonic etc.

tonic chord.

3:

iP"

P^

:zt

2:

The

above

exampleshows
np modem

alterationsof diatonic chords

dictates of the whole-tone scale and willsoimd heard modem


ears

to the according to allwho have ''impure"

littleor

music
we

and
may

to those who
term

have

heard
ears.

much

music but have what

"conservative"

will supplythe

fifthin the tonic chords in perfect

Many (b) and (c) (a),


use prolonged

of the above

Great

example. difficulties in reading present

themselves in the
of many
as a

of the whole-tone scale which


*The

is also tme
the
use

other modernities.
pedal and frequentreturn
in

tonal

center

is

maintained by frequently

of such devices

to the diatonic

system.

tThe

terms

tonic, dominant,subdominant, etc.,will probablybe discarded

applyingtheory to

modernities.

94

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

This would advisable.

seem

to argue

that

some

new

fonn of notation

might be

by imknown Many worthy compositions because of been refused by publishers allprobability


A great many

composers have in these difficulties.*


are

other scales are

used,some

of which

similar to the

old modal the most

scales. The

but frequent foiuth is also frequent. the octave offer several

major diatonic scale with flatsixth is, perhaps, The with raised the least revolutionary. sam^
than of
a

of intervals other Superposition


new

third and

equaldivision of
system, we
have

chord formations other than those derived


oiur

from the whole-tone scale. In

present harmonic

three diatonic scale chords which divide the octave diminished triad

evenly, namely: the

(n^ and vn^), the diminished seventh chord (vii^t, minor mode) and the augmented triad (III*^). The formation of the these chords, not "Nature's Generator."t major and minor scales justifies tions. chord formascale formations will justify new new Undoubtedly many

of Superposition

i
g^
I6i

4ths: perfect

"

^
"327

For

an

of perfect example of superposition


see

fourths

Rebikoff FeuiUe

d^Album:

of Superposition

ex.
^"2-

augmented fourths:

m
ears
no

"f:

"6

^The "ff en
reason onr aa

author hat devised


from radically

Dotatkm which would


as

the present system its advocation would be useless. We

hut it offer fewer difBcultfet in the way of reading the present system does from the Gregorian. For tUs with can hope,however, for a solution more compatibla

prsisnt system. t Simikrly, the minor triad is justified. Our


demand longer

the 7lMr"r

de^ardit*

ELEVENTH

AND

THIRTEENTH

CHORDS

AND

MODERNITIES.

95

This chord is like the diminished triad without itsthird.

I ,iN= ^
ex. ^"3*
w

fr^

"

i
i

of Superposition

sths: perfect

^ 2z:

Beethoven

used them in the Sixth

S3rmphony:

Allegretto^

Ex.
164.

}
\

J1

i
^^^,

(P P

'

r-

rpji^iji^ |J- j [: i; \iy i^i^


etc

9^K=a

?2

;:2!

33Z

^
:r-~r
^
in
^^

T"

f^

of augmented 5ths: Superposition

^^^ i (c^

This chord is like the Chords


the gives of

augmented triad. the major seventh are frequent even


a

an

inversion which

clash of

minor second.

Beethoven

and others of the diatonic


use

school have used the minor


*T1ie F
can

but the modernists second,


point. Even
S0| it breaks
an

it with much

be analysedas

tonic organ

academic rule by entering

nnpfepared.

96

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

more

freedom.

Major
passages the
new

seconds seconds chords Two

are

also be
more

veiy

freely
in modem

used

and
scores.

compaia-

tivdy
Many
horizontal

long
of

in

will result
or

found
or

less

accidentally
may the the
occur

through
taneously simul-

concq"tions.
and in well-handled vertical
of

more

melodic of this how

lines

progressions
resultant. diatonic Note
or

kind,

ear

willingly
accepts contrary

accepts
the

abnost

any resultants

easily

ear

vertical

scales,

chromatic,

played

in

motion. Different radical

keys

are

sometimes the in

combined,
Such

which
a

practice
concurrence

is of At

the

most

innovation is
to

of found

modernists. Thus

different the sixth

keys

be

Strauss'

Spake

Zaraihustra.

measure

from

the

end

the

bassoons

sound

the

following

chord:

while

the

cellos

and

basses

mark

the

rhythm

as

follows:K)*

IM^

In

the

fifth wind

and

f oiuth the sound chord last effect


as

measures

from chord
of

the

end,

the in

high
their

strings
high

and

high
and the

wood the

S9und strings
b-natural

major
low is
two

b-natural
In

registers
from the alone

low the

c-natural.

the

third time

measure

end,
in and the

again
measures

heard,

this

without

c-natural in cellos such


a

bass.

The The

consist it should for due other.


to

of

c-natural be
tone

basses.
program

is

unique
has is
no

as

when
poem.

treating
Very
the

unique
clash is

Strauss This
one

chosen doubt the

this the

little

noticeable.
are

fact

that

uiuelated

elements

isolated

from

PART
CHAPTER
MODULATION
AND

11.
XIV.
TRANSITION.

has been to present the manner of the preceding object chapters in which simple melodies may be harmonized to which end all the chord formations together with their logical have been given. The progressions characterized of the material has been a "monotonic" one presentation the by simplephrase balance and periodconstruction. Obviously, The exercises have deals with
more

resulted in tonal and

here,upon

complex structure as actual composition and althoughmelodies

constructive monotony. Part n well as tonal variety.We enter,


are

monizati g^venfor har-

the student should compose melodies of his own, the structure of which should be decided by the particular form imder consideration.
to a new digression change of key in which a

constitutes add

is called moduloHon transition. A or tonality new key isestablished for architectonic purposes modulation. A transitory change of key which exists to does not exist for architectonic purposes
to the dominant

and variety

constitutes

transition.'*' The
most
common

are digressions

and subdominant

gression (superdomiiltot) keys.tDimode as the to the two former keysis usually made in the same made in to the latter two keys is usually original key whereas digression the q"posite mode from that of the original key.

keys and

to the mediant

and

submediant

The

name

modulaticm or tnmsition is to a key requiring the addition or subtraction simplest of but one sharpor flat. Such ke3rs called attendant keys. Some theorists are such a digression to a non-attendant key is a natural modukUian; a digression
extraneous

called an

modulation.

*The
entation The Horn
two
as a

anthor has chosen titsM


and oi tlicsabject
terms to

tpedficdefinitiontof modulatioii

and

have become

for wliidi purposes extremely ambiguous among theorists. One

differentiatethe two

transition to fiidUtatsthe pres* made. are dianges of tonality theorist has defined
a

mcduta^

as example:C major to c minor) and trtuuUwn theorist has stated that a diange of mode does not effect modulation. Another that a diange of mode is neidier a modulation contradiction by slating aniQther nor no change of key takes place.

diange ci. mode

(for

diange
And
a
one

of

tonality. might add

transition because

to note t It is interesting

that in the

works eighty-one

in sonata

form

ci

Beedioven, the axdiitectoidc


times thirty
to

modulation to dominant

occurs

to subdominant only three times,

nineteen times,and

tlie

98
A

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

change of key is effected by the introduction of the dominant harmony of the new key. To establish a remote key, the dominant seventh or ninth or the subtonic seventh chord is frequently necessary. the new key,the more is necessary to introThe more duce remote technique
the
new

dominant

the subdominant six-four, in the introducing

The tonic harmony in an unforced manner. the supertonic and the augmented triad, chords,
of family

sixth chords of the subdominant


new

the

new

key are

all valuable

dominant.
a

is not necessary when

(See Ex. i8i, page no; paragraphof text which follows the latter example.)

modulatingchord (adominant) is in an attendant key. new phraseor period also Ex. 182, page 112, togetherwith the
The allthe triads in C

following exampleshows figuring:

The

major with compound

I H I
F

I
"'^"
"ra?"

i
i
VIlO ifi VII"

"

I :' I : I
V
VI

IV I VI

G
D b
c

I IV VI V

III II I IV

a 0

bI"v
a

G
a e

b*"V
A similar example in minor follows:

V g " B VI I IV V

VI

bb
F C

V I IV

ft

VIl" IlO

b'' V
chords
are

Remember

that the mediant

and

seventh superdominant become Sixth Chords

seventh chord and may constructed likethe supertonic chords. The Italian and German
are

supertonic

enharanalogous,

in construction to the dominant seventh and may become monically, is necessary to handle these considerableskill iminant chords, although this manner

successfully.

MODULATION

AND

TRANSITION.

99 for

The

diminished seventh chord offers rich


Because of the fact that the

resources

modulatory

purposes. soimd to the minor

in augmentedsecond is analogous

third, any diminished seventh chord isenharmonically


other

into three changeable

keys:
(6,) (c.)

i %_|_|g I ^^j^=|gz=i=|g
i
a
=

-fSh

"^a

I
a

""s"-

^
=

I
^

vii^2

""

"

yi^7

vii^7 vii^l e*'


(^.)

vii^a
M

f*

vii^^

(^^^
Ex.
169.
^

I2z:

b^

^ fi

Jk-

(s

^"^ vii^J
(".)

I
(^.)

s:

.^-

i:^
"e

^
=

i
I

"

b^ VM^I ci^vii"7

vii^a vii"7 bl"


(^.)

gv"^i

#
Ex.
170.

"^

I bg_U^

^ ?

^-

":r

(af
b

32:

^m
"

2z:

fl^
f

I
b

f*
-"5""

"
"3C"-

viiOJ

V11O7

viiO|
=

VHO7

vii^a g* vii^^

All the diminished seventh chords The


occurs

are

shown

in the above

alteration of factor three in for

modulatory purposes.

major and minor major triads may By this alteration,


seventh chords may become

examples. chords frequently


super-

become

minor and viceversa, dominant

tonic seventh chords and vice versa.


to a remote key, especially modulating, of to introduce the salient tones of the new key (themost conspicuous which isthe leading in an inconspicuous tone) place. It iseven advisable at times to go beyond the objective key. formulae,but with the contributions Many methods have modulatory of Beethoven to the evolution of music, such formulas became antiquated.

It is frequently desirable when

lOO

MUSIC

COMPOSITION,

although they serve


statements
serve
a as much originality as

as

mechanical

guide. The
are

similar purpose and formulae

not

abstract preceding to bind the student's likely

do. usually

Exercises, Group
1. a

14.

Modulate

from C to

G; C

to

This work may in the upper voices. part and then filling
to

C, and

to F.

F; C to a; C to e; a to e; a to d; be done,at first, the bass by writing


a melody as Secondly,

ing interestthen harmonized.

as

should possible The

be written for each

modulation

and

2.

following melody should be harmonized


where indicated.
star indicates where

with

simplechords;

transitionsare to be made
the sparingly;

Altered chords may be used altered chords may be effectively


as

used.

Some

of the notes should be treated

non-chordal.
Tito Mattel

minor

'^Mr

i ^

bfrJ

t^Fff X

'i'U\[-1ti
X"|xxiJ]r3j. HL-fr' ciT-'r
^

w;
B

-transitional to" """-

^^irlf'TlLaT ^
A"^f\

^^

-tf'-y

B'"

--b^

"

THE

VARIOUS

STYLES

OF

WRITING.

lOI

3.

C. Chaminadb.

Andantt

d minor

?\ iM^ri\o^u^im i"f"j
a

minor

CHAPTER
THB

XV.
OP

VARIOUS

STYLES

WRITING.

The

student of free

will composition

be desirous of

in writing

the

in which he is most interested. particular style obtained by some are one knowledge of style therefore desirable to be well informed upon

The best resultsin any all the styles, and it is the

of the possibilities the pianoforte, and the string human voice, quartet. The knowledge is invaluable aid to composition of orchestration in any style, but for an of orchestration, a text devoted to this subject an adequateknowledge is necessary as well as personal contact with orchestras in the capacity of listeneror performer.One of the best text books upon orchestration is Professor H. above Modem Sling's OrchesProHon and InskumefOaHan* The wind
text book

is also valuable to those interested in the wood

and the military band. the brass choir, choir, The The tonal compass of the Pianoforte.

follows: pianoforte
Sva,

Ex. 171.

Chromatic.

/
6"

.1

Ntw lagUth tfBBsUtkm pabUshed by Carl Fiidier,

York.

102

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

The

pianolends
not

itself to

of styles of writing. The voice great variety


care

parts are

well individualized and

must

therefore be taken to allel Par-

write for this instrument with the individual voice parts in mind.

nant cross resolved dissofifths, relations, augmented leaps, incorrectly often difficultto detect upon the pianoforte are when chords, etc., heard. broken chord styletogether with harmonic figuration rh3rthmic The following is particularly well adapted to the pianoforte. quotation
The demonstrates:

F. Chopin,

Op. 66"No.

4.

Moderate

CantabiU

tr

J Hyfa
Ex.
172.

"

^
I
I "
"

"5?
#-i

"-

jt"t \\m

"^
Ped. I Ped,

1 Ped_\

Ped.

Ped.^
Ped.

Ped.^

Ped.^

Psd.^

Ped.

THE

VARIOUS

STYLES

OF

WRITING.

103

Ped^

Ptd^

P4d.Ji

PedJ

""u Mj
Ped.
J

%i
/V"/..

^
Ped.J P4d.^ Ped.J

I04

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

but two voice parts,but apparently is not contrapuntal. the chords are well brought out and die quotation The broken chord in the lefthand does duty for several voices and the harmonic effectis the same heard simultaneously. as thoughseveral voices were In the above there quotation,
are

The

broken chord in

the style permits arpeggio

use

of many

voices:

Ex.
173.

Chopin's Etude,Op. lo, No. ii, from which is written throughout in arpeggio style.
Without breakinga chord,as many
which
case one
as

the above

is taken, quotation in

twelve voices may


tones:

appear,

in each hand plays two finger

Ex. 174.

loco.

Voice parts upon the pianoforte may be added or discontinued at the of the composer and melodies and voice progressions pleasure may be in multiplied literature. The Stiong
octaves.

Parallel octaves

therefore abound

in

pianoforte

Quartet. Quartet* String

Many and rich resources

are

found in composing for the

is offered in this Greater scope as to voice compass and technicalities in the vocal style.Chords are possible than is possible of writing style istherefore each of the instruments of the quartetand the composition not limited to four-part writing.Varied effects may be producedhy
on

harmonics muted strings, introducing fizskaio,

and

ponHceUo.

THE

VARIOUS

STYLES

OF

WRITING.

lOS

Two

violins(first and

quartet. The
to the

viola and 'cello, constitute the string second), firstviolin corresponds to the sc^rano, the second violin
tenor

the viola to the alto,

and the 'cello to the bass.

The

Violin.

The four

of the strings

violin are tuned to

gf

~Y

df-^

"

)"

( cb

""^

J ^^^

f^\

J. The

compass

of the instrument

follows:

0
.

Ex.
176.

^=t
Several tones the
use

than higher

the above

may

be written for virtuosi.

than indicated may tones higher harmonics, is more A tone producedupon an open string than a tone sonorous which requires more fingering. Sharp keys are, therefore, frequently than composingfor strings ^ the note. over designated by an Chords'*'of two, and four three, used in flat keys.

of

By be produced.

Open

tones

are

often

tones

are

possible upon

the violin.

Chords of two tones may be emplo3red pianoor forkfbut chords of three four tones for a single or performershould only be employed in forte chords of three passages. In writing should be sustained.
or

four tones, not

over

two

tones

not
.O-

IBI

All chords below the d

instrument unless the


or playedarpeggio

string are, of course, impossible upon a single is lowered or the chord tuningof the strings
Where such chords
are
or

tremoh.

written the tones


more

of which

are

to be sounded

two simultaneously,
are

to performers

the part are necessary and the chords


*

marked

divisi.
tmblM of

When

iattmiiieBti iIm ttadmrt tlMMld have wridng chords for dM ttrliif

dwrdi phjpmblc

reference. Such tables may for readjr

be foand faimost

treatises apoa iastrameatattOB.

io6

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

The
case,

unison may
one

be

of the tones

employed effectively upon d, a and e, in which will be produced upon an open string:

1V ""1^1
Other imisons offer technical difficulties.

^' I

tremolos,rapid passages, Arpeggi,


effective upon the violin.
The

and

all musical

ornaments

are

Viola. tuned to
c

The

four

of the viola strings

are

f
ment of the instru-

f IHI
^

and ji

|^[

j.The

practical compass

follows:

Ex. 1 78.

f-4"

The

low and middle

the third line and the

of the viola are notated in the C-def registers in the G-clef. upper register this instrument is

upon

All that has been said of the different effects upon


as

the violin as well


to applicable

of the

for of writing technique

the

viola. The The four 'Cello

(Violoncello).
tuned
to
c

of the 'celloare strings

( "9*

)" S ( 9'

(9

"g

and j,

f "9*

J. The

lower

and

middle

are registers

notated in the F-clef; the middle on on any staff degreebut usually is notated in the C-clef
commencement
or or

is also notated in the C-def register the fourth line;the upper register
.

the G-clef

The

notation in the G-clef at the


tones
an

when

the F-clef indicates following

octave

than theysoimd, but when following the C-clef the notation shows higher the actual sounds. The practical compass of the instrument follows:

Ex. 179.

St
-^-

m
^

BINARY

AND

TERNARY

FORMS.

107

That

that has been said of the violin is true of the 'cellowith the
as

modification that the 'cellodoes not lend itselfto the violin. Duplication
of

rapidpassages

as

Factors.

omission of chord factors cannot be boimd by rules. or Duplication where many tive In orchestral composition are duplications necessary, effecand ingenuity of the composer as resultsdependupon the experience well as upon the character of the composition Some orchestral at hand. are adapted to three sectional arrangements, in which case compositions is duplicated voice chord for strings a four or more by wood wind and brass. Such an arrangement need not, necessarily, preponderatein the so-called orchestral colorings orchestral composition, and, in fact,
are

obtained

by deviations from

the above

arrangement.
chestra. or-

A remarkable

exampleof

is to be found in the last measure duplication Rondo for violin and Capriccioso
two

of Saint-Saens' ItUroductian and

and Here,the chord contains fifteenroots,one third, the Occasionally


manner

fifths.

not be

of an instrument influence the possibilities of duplications, but artisticchord effects should and number sacrificedto techniques of an instrument. technical

Exercises, Group
Harmonize

15.

page'147.

Exercises 1-3 in Appendix B, to directions, according The work in AppendixA should now be commenced.

CHAPTER
BINARY AND TERNARY

XVI.
FORMS.

The Tonal

consists of two balancing simplest two-part composition periods. is obtained is modulation in shown the as variety by following Diagram
6.
2nd Period

diagram:

ist Fteriod

(Antecedent).
if

||B
I I

(Consequent).
if regular.

| |[
ri

IZZZZ8

or

16 measures,
or

rggMlar.~

S or

16 measures,
or

May

may

not

repeat.
a or

May

may

not to and

repeat.

to G, F, Key of C modulating

e, etc.

||

Modulatingback

endingin

C.

The second

consists of three-part composition simplest and part being a contrast after statement after contrast. The contrast

three the

the divisions, third

beinga

restatement

is obtained

by

the appearance

io8

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

of

the

is obtained by the appearand tonal variety motive, ance Tonal is of the second part in a new key. unity preservedby of the "home at restatement. The following key" reappearance
new

theme

or

diagramillustrates:
Diagram
7.

ZI8

or

16 measures,
or may

if

May
Theme the
may

not

if regular.lJlS if regular.xl regu]ar.Ilt8 or 16 measures, or 16 measures, LI not repeat.ZztzMay repeat.ZljL_.May not repeat. or may or may Theme
II in
a

I in the key of
be made.

contrasting
may

Recurrence

of Theme

I in the
varied.

signature.Transitions

key.
made.

Transitions

be

key. original

Sometimes

verbatim,sometimes

Most modem

dance waltzes

music
are

from

the old dance

of the Classical Suite to

our

in either two-part or three-part form. It will be remembered that in the division of a period, we

had

thesis

and
a

antithesis, or, in other words, an antecedent division followed by tion consequent division. Two-part form often presents similar construc"

followed by a consequent period. period In two-part and three-part well as modulation, as form, transition, ally may occur, but too much transitionand transitionto remote keys (especiin binary Is main the in to obscure form) likely keys short or simple compositions. These two forms (binary and ternary) serve as the basis for the more elaborate forms. Frequently whole shows binary a as a composition shows one of or ternaryform also a well defined part of the composition these forms. Ex. 183.) (SeeBach, Gavotte, The classical and modem suites should be carefully studied and also the waltzes, marches,etc.,of modem analyzed, Many composers. of the songs of Schubert and Schumann of these valuable examples are
an

antecedent

forms. The show two-part quotations following (Binary)


A
xst Period.

and

three-part compositions:
Gavotte, Corelli.

Ex.
180.

'\" |ii r
'

^ :i ,^
1

'^1^ I

kw
InF-

^u
s

BINARY

AND

TERNARY

FORMS.

109

InC-

In F-

^^

-InC-

2nd

Period.

m
"

"A

UL

^
1
"

E="="
I
"

^^
IndIn

""*F-

^^

3=3:

11

^^
r

no

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

and

Period

repeated.

i44g3

/'^iUJjiJ
(Ternary)
A
"t

Period in

minor,

R.

Schumann,

Op. 68, No.

8.

AlUgrocon

Mo.

Ex.
181.

-S jifl jj-i Ij
"
"

BINARY

AND

TERNARY

FORMS.

Ill

2nd

Period

in

major.

y^

Period

in

minor.

!i 'TLU

mw^^m JLL^jjvi
" "

no

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

Iand

Period

repeated.

f^k

^
"

.^J

f
F-

ti

if f f

i?

(Ternary)
A
ist Period

in

minor.

R.

Schumann,

Op. 68, No.

8.

Allegro con

brio.

Ex.
181

BINARY

AND

TERNARY

FORMS.

Ill

2nd

Period

in P

major.

*)

*l

"

*1

*1

j'.'^-ij jT'iJT^

3^^

Period

in

minor.

^^m\il'jj\ ^^\\^WMi 1^1

112

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

". Grieg,

Op.

12, No.

7.

minor-

PH"!

i
^

^5^

?
*'-J*=^
*

^^^^

"

-X

f
G major-

r f

^^
r

"^

-b minor

1GV7

G major-

BINARY

AND

TERNARY

FORMS.

113

^m
^

? HLi'

-54"

i fit 5 ";*."".

n-j
-e

TT3i"^r!l.
vii" V
e minor-

I^N=^i^^lr i r II. r
"e minor-

^^

tf fc

fj
"

^^gj^T^^
1"
E
'

M
t

"
E

^X^XJ
ITTT
f I

Ml^^

In the above

periodB
The

is in the

third

first period A is in the key of e minor. The second key of the relative major but ends in the original key, e minor. period (thesecond A) is in the key of e minor. The modulations are as
e

the example,

follows:from

to G

and from

to e.

At the fifteenth measure,


measure.

there is a transition

from G to b returning to G in the sixteenth

The

above

They are
are

quotations exemplify simplebinaryand ternary forms. of the terms and examplesof the forms in the strictapplication
6 diagrams

coincide with

and 7. Many binary and in less regular construction and many are more

ternarycompositions
elaborate.

Analysis

is the

key to

success

in

the understanding

ways

in which

compositions

in these forms

are

varied.

"4

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

of two themes,both a composition foUowing diagramrepresents themes of which are in the same key but in which several other tonalities of the same main key for both transitorily occur, hence the desirableness in three-part themes. A similar construction is possible form.

The

Diagram S.
First Period.

(Theme i.)
not

Second

Period.

Tlieme

2.)

iMay

or

may

repeat.1

IMay

or

may

not

repeat.!
the
same or

of the

Comnendng and ending in the key signature.One transition or


several are made.

Commencing key as theme

and
i.

ending in
One
are

transition

several

made.

The

foUowingdiagramshows

a common

ternaryconstruction.

Many

constructed may at first sight similarly compositions appear too complex will show the means for three-part form, but a careful analysb by which is gained complexity upon a basis of ternary fonn. Diagram
First Period.

9.
Third Period.

Second

Period.

UMay

or

may

not

repeat.
Second

I
First theme verbatim tiieme presented in be or may of the ways previously varied by contraction, expansion described. and in otiier means. end To the main

First theme
one

in presented

of the ^lays

previously one

described.

key of the composition

formal is its principal

obligation.

For

a 20.

of the application simple

above

structure

see

Schumann, Op. 68, English Suite

No.

The is shown

construction of Bach's
in the is in two

Gavotte

from

the Sixth

of following quotation

the upper voice part. This composition divisions called Gavotte i and Gavotte n (Musette).
9 and the

Each tion

division isin
as
a

form similar to Diagram three-part form. whole is in three-part


Gavotte I.
tr

comp"osi-

J. S. Bach.

in d minor.

Ex.
188.

r r 11,,,
irfjt \3"

t^fTr^g
ending on
the dominant

;=t:
of d-minor

First theme

BINARY

AND

TERNARY

FORMS.

"5

d V

"l^^

yarlo,"key..

ir

V Second tiieme made


ji.

up

of largely

material of the firsttheme

and

containing

i^,"^ri',rrr
free transition

commencing in

minor

in d-minor

^," XjH

J P Ir'"/f r'r J-7-^" r'tUuili/'


-"-

JI First theme
tr

(entersin

an

inner voioe) varied

fiJ^ fW^ ji"


Gavotte
II
in

^ [lEr f I fry

/f\

i9-

I
I

Fine

(Musette)
D-major.

i
I First
theme of Gavotte li

'ii6

MUSIC

-COMPOSITION.

1st

2nd

and G.-major. in-D-majdr tr

Second

theme

of Gavotte

II

with

transition

in

D-major.
tr

Mn^^^ w
First theme of Gavotte
II

varied slightly

jst

\2nd

.\

Gavotte

I D,C, al Fine

Notice that the first theme, A, of Gavotte

ends with dominant that the in most and

harmony
consequent
of the

(Half Cadence) which


themes show nineteenth themes and

is

Notice, too, irregular.


than consequent
themes

less contrast

music

twentieth

centuries;the motives

of all the figures

ality, similarity althougheach theme has individuand the composition can hardlybe considered what we may call a monothematic composition. For such a compositionsee Schumann's rrawweref (AppendixB, No. 2). show

considerable

Exercises, Group
(Binary )
1.

16.
Menuet W. from Don

Juan,

A. Mozart.

INTRODUCTION

AND

INTERMEZZO.

"7
B

Eju^lffM^
(Ternary.) A 2.

Gavotte, C. Gurlitt, Op. 172

"

^ ^
B

1=4:

i
J

ji
*

J j_i ij

S
w^

14;

jjTJ;^^ ^^
""s^

fftrr^TfflT^
M
J*'
I*-

P J jjs^ ^Sm^Uj:^^^f^fI\
q

^^
3. Harmonize

":
"*-#-

Ktf

i^=

^^

^S
Example 183.
Continue the work in

AppendixA.

CHAPTER
INTRODUCTION, A

XVII. EPISODE,
AND CODA.

INTERMEZZO,

is frequently A measures. precededby introductory composition in long introduction may form a satisfactorily completecomposition itselfsuch
as
are

foimd

measures introductory
*

in many The etc. overtures, sets of waltzes, foreshadow the themes, establishthe main usually

Arthur Copyright, 1890,

P. Schmidt.

ii8

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

key and
such

sometimes

the

rhythm.

In

case

that the

do not foreshadow
measures are

that that is to follow but

measures introductory simplyestabli^ the key,

often called prdudein contradistinction to itUroducUon.


are more or

The tenn

which to oompofiitkms frdude isalso applied of free improvisatic"i but not Prdudes, Chopin's be found in

lessfree in form
an

and of the nature the teim


may

Such introductory.

of application

of short introductionsand preludes foUow: Quotations


Bkbthovbn,

Op. 46.

Ex.
184.

Voice.

^I^"?

etc.

^^^^^p
F. Liszt, Du

"""

--

Bist IVie Eine

Blume.

^^m
Voice.

to
con

Adagio

tenerezza.

etc.

^MfWtx

^^

INTRODUCTION

AND

INTERMEZZO.

"9

F. ScHUBBRT,

Am

Meer,

Ex.
186. etc.

of long introductions the student isreferred to the following examples compositions: JosephHaydn: S3rmphonyin G Major,first17 measures. first10 measures. Ludwig van Beethoven: Sonata Pathetique, For The Magic Fluie, first15 measures. Overtiue, Emil Waldteufel's and J. Gungl'sWaltzes. Johann Strauss' (n), and of irregular construction* may be of any length It is characterized by the absence of definitemelody and usually consists The of melodic
passages

W. A. Mozart:

Inteiucezzo*

fragmentsin sequence, of scale passages,


The
a

or

of broken chord

of transitionalcharacter.

intermezzo has two

particular

fimctions:

(i) as

substitute for

interlude between

two

theme and (2) as an contrasting themes. The following contrasting quotations

exemplify.
E. Grikg,

Op.

12, No.

3.

^U

'

'ij

*The

term

dances of the

Is also applied to short compositions,to the entr'acte, inUrmeMM to the intermediate and occasionally to a movement of a symphony. (See Goets's Syn^hony, second suite,

movement.)

320

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

Intennezzo

(Substitute for contrasting division)


*-"

%
nty
!=":

at^
^t"
=^

^
-^.

r
jj^
I

J
1^
27-

//

"""

=^

i^

a
*

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/J/

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INTRODUCTION

AND

INTERMEZZO.

12 k:.

^^^-i

T
sa/

Notice the
second theme
less contrast

two

themes
up

before the

the last half of the intermezzo,

is made

of material from the first theme

thus

making^

than is usual between


contrast.

themes.

The

intermezzo, however
codas.
Scherzo.

furnishesvivid
up

The

restatement

after the intermezzo is made

of material from both' themes

and is not unlike many


Fr. KuHLAU,

Theme

I in C-major.

Ex.

*.
I

(^
{^m

^""

#-

i
^

^m

^P"

#-

i \

133

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

Theme

II in

G-major

and

A-minor.

Intermezzo

ooolaining

transitional

material

over

cadences

in

G-major

and

modulating

to

C-ma

jor.

8va.

If rtrtii 'frtH^m
*

^*

Theme

I in

originalkey (C-major)

THE

EPISODE

AND

CODA.

"3

Theme

repeatedan

octave

higher.

m
" " "

m^

Notice
measures

that the second

theme

leads into the intermezzo. Intermezzo

group

of

of this type marked Cadences theorists. Episode The

Extended

(inthis case,

might well be analyzed as extension of Theme II) and is so called

by

some

The

has similar functions and is similar in character to the

the however, is more melodious and partakes Episode, theme. character of a subsidiary Episodesoccur in Fugues and serve of a fugue theme. For an the repetitions as intermediate parts between from Mozart's String example of an Episode see the Slow Movement and extending Quartet in C major commencing at the thirteenth measure Theme at the twenty-sixth n commences through the twenty-fifth. Intermezzo.
measure.

The

Coda

is a chordal of
a

or

thematic

appendageand

follows the natural

The functions of the coda period, form, or movement. are (i) to emphasize the motive, the final cadence, or other material, back to the main key where the finaltheme (2)to convey the composition ends in a different key,and (3) to summarize the material of a composition.

termination

124

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

Termination

of Theme

F.

Liszt, Du

Bist

Wie

Eine

Blume,

Ex.
189.

"

"

ICoda

the motive). (emphasizing

TCTiination

of Theme

F. Schubert,

Op. io6, No.

4.

Coda

final cadence.) (emphasizing

Theme

ending

in d-minor.

J. Brahms,

Op. io$,

No.

3.

*^
Voice.

P^

t
^

T"

n-

i aih^|i"Jiyir f
ICoda
back (conveying
to main

key, F-major).

THE

RONDO

AND

THE

VARIATION

FORM.

laS

Tie plagal dose may be considered a short coda. Codas which smumariz^ the material of a composition see are usually long; for example,
codas to the orchestral waltzes of
was

and Gungl. Beethoven Waldteufel, Strauss,


gave
to the coda in the great dignity

the firstcomposer

who

Sonata

Form

and in his

in compositions
.

this Form

may

be found

long

and elaborate codas. standard c("iichaptershould consist of analyzing and codas. intermezzi, episodes, containingintroductions, positions The work for this work Original in should composition also be done.

Exercises, Group
1. 2.

17. 149. and 150.

Exercises 4 and 5 in Appendix B, pages Appendix A may be finished.


an

3. Write
4.

introduction and
in

coda for Exercise 2, Group 14, page

100.

Analyze the harmony

Examples 184, 185,186,187,188, 189,190

and 191.

CHAPTER
THE RONDO AND THE

XVIII.
VARIATION

FORM.

of a principal consisting nounced subjectancomposition after contrasting sections. The earlycomposiand reciuring tions in this form are primitive and consist of a subject of definitelength, in | rh3rthm, of eight cadence. measiues ending with a perfect usually The Rondo
a

is

Between

each

recurrence

comes

section less definite and


to furnish contrast

with

no

and tonality aggrandizethe principal subject As the form developed, contrasting themes supplantedthe indefinitesection until the fully form developed The following culminated in the work of Beethoven. diagrami^ows the of a Rondo by Couperin: structure
. ' V
.

apparent objectin view other than

in

."

.piagnmi
"

10.

. .

-S

measures.

4 mieasures.

A [j

measures.

C (I
of

measures.

||
""-

Bb" Principal Subject,

section Contrasting ending in F.

Recurrence

section Contrasting in g.

Subject. Principal

"

m '
* "

-^

AS II

measures.

14

measures.

"8 m^asiir^.

Recurrence, of
.

Cp/itrasting section
ia Bb and c."

I, Recurrence

of

Subject. Principal

Subject. Principal

136 The

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

foUowing diagramshows
movement

the structure

Rondo; second

of Beethoven^s

developed highly 5iMiato PolAelJ^Me.


a more

of

II.

B measures. A 8iiieasiifat(repeats).|| ||
la

measures,

li C
of

i4mBunn" in Episode

Subject in Ab. Principal Repeats 8va with varied accompaniment.

Episodein

f-minor.

Recurrence

and

Subject. Principal

abi B, and Ab.

measures

(repeats).

CODA.

measures.

11

is not restricted subject principal that it occurs with the exception at least three times. The intervening sections may consist of contrasting The or episodes. themes,iniermezzi, each occurrence doses with a final cadence, on principal subject usually sections often lead into the principal whereas the intervening or subject is occasionally The princqial varied subject pause on a semi-cadence. in its several recurrences, often appears with varied accompaniment, sometimes with changeof harmony,and is occasionally eictended. In the highly complex Rondo Form may be found transitional measures,
The

number

of

recurrences

of the

and codas between the various passage work, elaborate extensions, The third movement divbions of the composition. of Beethoven's in structure shows great complexity Paihetique the harmonic and formal structure of should analyase Sonata and the student this movement.

The

Variation

Form.
a

The
or more

Variation Form

is a term

themes ispresented and older

in which one composition in variously re-presented di"fering styles.


to ai^lied

of the Variation Form were principally concerned examples with a groundbass which served as a basis for building vafia" subsequent tions. The most highly is to be found devel(^)ed exampleof this style in J. S. Bach's Vanaiions on an Aria in G Major which is a Sarabande variations. Here, Bach used the harmonic structure of the with thirty Aria as a baas on which he built, contrapuntally, thirty contrasting The
movements.

THE

RONDO

AND

THE

VARIATION

FORM.

137

a theme Later,

as

well

as

a some

ground bass served


cases,
we

variations

were

built. In

basis upon which find contrasting themes (see


as a

Haydn'sAndanie
is the
most

with Variations in F

of which the first Minor) serving worked thorougjily


out.

and important

therefore most

sodes, Epi-

made their variations, cadenzas, intermezzi, etc., appearance as well as elaborate codas,and to-daywe have a highly complex form which exists as a completeopus number or as a movement introductions to of
a

Sonata Rondo

or

Symphony.
and Variation Forms
are

The
an

sometimes

combined.

For such

example,see Haydn's F Major Sonata for violin and clavier (slow movement) which should be analyzed.
the acounpaniment;(2)by changing theme to the harmonization harmonization of the theme; (3) a new by writing the length of the various of the principal theme; (4) by changing and often a new notes thereby a new metre; (5)by obtaining rh3rthm of certain notes which may or may not changethe metre; (6) repetition tones ornamental to the tones of the theme,scale passages, by introducing the tones between the tones of the theme,etc.; (7) by obscuring passing of the tones of the theme; (8) theme by arpeggio figuration by inverting and the of the the intervals or contracting (9)by expanding theme; the intervals in the theme. less readily to the Variation Form than an theme lends itself lyrical theme with potentialities. epic-like is necessary to successful results in many technique Contrapuntal a theme such as are good resultsin the ways of varying cases, but fairly listedabove may be obtained without such knowledge. should consist of analyzation of standard The work for this chapter in the Rondo Form and in the Variation Form. A theme compositions A should be chosen and in this worked
out

principal ways the of style (i)by changing


Some

of the

in which

theme

may

be varied follow:

in variations in the various

ways

enumerated Form

work in the Rondo composition chapter.Original may be done.

and Variation Form

Exercises, Group
I. a.

18.

Exercises 6, 7 and 8, AppendixB, pages 150 and 151. Compose a theme; harmonize and treat it in a manner
of at least eight measures; harmonize

similar to

Diagram 10, page 125. 3. Compose a theme


five
or more

and write

variati("is.

lis

CHAPTER
THE SONATA

XIX.
FORM.

the need of contrapuntal skill As the form grows more complicated, becomes more when considering apparent and this need manifests itself the Sonata Form. and The Sonata Form
the greatest amount requires aims only to the equipping sufficientto of the student with knowledge and appreciation the analyzation of the Sonata Form. is applied in three (Merent ways. Previous to The term "Sonata" the term the work of Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788), used was and meant almost any kind of a composition for instruments in loosely contradistinction to the cantata. nitely defiTo-day, the term is used more for solo instrument (usually in and is applied to a composition conventional lines. Thirdly, four separatemovements) based on more the term is applied in conjimction with the term "Form" (SonataForm) of one of the movements of a to signify a certain structure or more

complexof allthe forms of technique. Tliis chapter, therefore,

isthe most

Sonata.

consists of four separate usually movements, each of which is a complete form but allof which constitute a whole with more The common between the various movements. or less interrelationship 2nd movement, of the movements is: ist movement. Allegro; disposition "Slow"; 3rd movement. Minuet or Scherzo; 4th movement. Allegro. in The first is frequently movement preceded by an introduction usually The following is in Sonata Form. slow tempk). The first movement
The

modem

Sonata

may considered. A
a

movements

be in Sonata

Form

or

in any

of the forms heretofore


is called of three

for orchestra similar to the Sonata composition Symphony. The Sonata and Symphony sometimes consist The Sonata Form

movements.

in a broad sense, Three-Part Form. The first is, the second part (B),"Development," part (A) is called "Exposition," The Exposition consists of two and the third part (A) Recapitulation. themes in contrasting or more keys; the Development consists ot an in the motives of the themes in k of the lateht possibilities unfolding consists of a restat"ebitof Bie the Recapitulation transitionalmanner; with iemphasis themeis of the Exposition upbn the main key; A common tonal scheme of structure is shown in the following diagram:

THE

SONATA

FORM.

f39

piagram

12.

(A

Exposition.

|J"B D9TBlopiiiMit~ ifC

Recapitulation.

the Recapitulation Not infrequently Transitions, may, of course, occur. theme usually in the subdominant the first is in two contrasting of keys, the main key and the second theme in the main key. Notice that such
a

tonal scheme

keysfrom

results in the reappearance of both themes in different those in which they appear in the Exposition. The Development

and is the complicated part of the movement the character of a free fantasia. least rigid. Oftentimes it partakes musical thoughts from the original motives and Here, new germinate and variety.The or lesschaotic tonality us contrast more occurs, giving form with emto the themes in their original return at Recapitulation phasis and givesus unity. upon the main key roimds up the movement themes, episodes, Subsidiary transitional, passage work of rhapsodical,
or

section is the most

cadencial

of themes (sometimes sometimes material, repetition varied, and codas


are

verbatim),conclusion themes
movement. movements Overtures,

found frequently

in the

of

and trios, quintets, quartets, the Sonata


3

concertos

are

written in Sonata Form.

example of specific Beethoven's Symphony No. brief analysis.*


For
a

of Form, the first movement in E-flat {Eroica^ Op. 55) is chosen for

In analyzing orchestnd score, notice must be taken of the fact that the clarinets, an instruments" and are written tran^"osed;for horns,and trumpets are "transposing

for the B-flat Clarinet

or

B*flat Trumpet

really higher

sounds

b-flat

therefore the tones written scale of

are

notated for

major

second

than they actually sound.


sounds

The

an

e-flatinstrument actually

the scale of e-flat, All strings, flutes (inorchestrations), etc. oboes,English cert," written "conhorns,bassoons, are tubas,and trombones (when in the bass or c-defs) the sound. that is, written in the g-def, Trombones tones they accordingto instruments in b-flat. however, are treated as tn^nsposing
*The

orchestral score

to

this

Symphony
as

should

be in the hands in his

of the student

that he may

analyze

the harmonic
tore most
score

as progressions

well

is obtainable in the

of the Form. An inexpensive mtnia" analysis and is for sale by Payne Series published by Ernst Eulenberg, Leipxig,

to assist him

music dealecs. large

130 The

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

two flutes, oboes, two three horns (ine-flat, but changing)^ clarinets (inb-flat), two bassoons, double bass, and quartet of strings. two trumpets (in e-flat), t3anpani, is the chief theme is sounded by the cello piano but Theme i which

is Symphony (Eraica)

scored for two

introduced

by

two

tonic forte

chords

by

full orchestra.

The

motive

is

of a among the different instruments until the entrance theme at the forty-fifth This theme starts with measure. subsidiary tossed around

harmony in the key of b-flat preceded in the forty-fourth of b-flat is only measure by augmented sixth chords. The tonality transitional measure a connecting vaguelyestablishedand at the sixty-fifth passage leads to the second theme proper (which is in the key of At the one hundred and ninth b-flatmajor) at the eighty-third measure. founded upon the rhythm and ideas of the princq"al a passage measure Notice at the one and subsidiary themes commences. hundred and the dissonant chords upon the weak beats which measure twenty-third until at the one hundred and twenty-eighth obscure the tonality measure
dominant the dominant inversion in the seventh chord in itsfirst
measures.

is reiterated forzando for four


measures

The

key of f enters and rhythm in these four

in effect, two-four. At the end of the Exposition the material is, is foreshadowed. of the long coda which ends the movement The
now Exposition repeatsverbatim. The Exposition does not end with a finalcadence but coalesces with the Development. The Development consists of the unfolding of the The material of the first theme and the subsidiary theme. potentialities

of the second theme in


a

is very little used which is an

unusual circumstance

note, Development. The transitions are radical and interesting; 181 radical dissonances The also to deserve measures especially, 185. for but above all, measure 348 to 279 and elsewhere, example, study, measures 394 and 395 where the horn sounds the tonic chord in Eb major while the violins sound the dominant seventh chord. This placehas caused much discussion and many amusinganecdotes and mistakes on the part of musicians and publishers. An Episodein E-minor commences at measure 384. This episode 322 in E-flat minor. reappears at measure
At

developmentand evolves, climax for full orchestra at measure to a fortissimo transitionally, 362. Fragments of theme one are heard on a diminuendo until at measure 394,
measure
i

338,theme

reappears

for further

theme above.

isheard in the horn with the radical accompaniment mentioned This is followed

F-major,the horn again theme i but this time in F (measure 408). At measure sounding 4x6 the firstviolin and flute sound theme x in D-flat (measure409).

by

modulation

to

THE

SONATA

FORM.

"31

coalesce and the firsttheme Development and Rec^"itulation differsin many respects appears in E-flat major. The Recapitulation from the Exposition but not sufficiently The to destroy sidiary Subunity. The theme

harmony
measure

448 but this time on re^pears at measure in E-flat. The connecting transitionalpassage
a

the dominant
conunences

at

The Exposition. second theme enters at measure 468 in E-flat. Compare the passage of dissonances conunendng at measure tion 526 with the passage in the Exposiat (commencing measure 123). The Coda commences with the Recapitulaat measure tion. 552 coalescing It is an Form

468 but this time

fifth lower than in the

example of one of Beethoven's contributions


a

to the Sonata

but a complexpart of appendage Notice that the principal the movement. theme is sounded firstupon the E-flat chords then upon the D-flat majorchord, and thirdly upon the chords are used until measure C-major chord. No modulating 569. in Here the dominant harmony C-majoris insistedupon until measure itprogresses to the dominant harmony in 573) where instead of resolving, the key of F. At measure 595 a new melodious passage in chromatic and mencing style lyric-like enters,sounded by cello and bassoon in xmison. Commere
or

and is not

termination

at the

measure crescendo^

627,we

are

led back the

to

the

main E-flat

and tonality,

from here to the end of the movement

key of

onlyoccasional and temporary transitions. Notice the insistence upon dominant harmony in the home key commencing at the measure 681, and continuing S3mcopation, throughthe fourth measure
domineers with from the end. A illustration of diagrammatic the structure of Eroka follows:

Diagram 13.

Two cbords main

tonic

theme Principal in and

in

("b) "b, Subsidiarytheme


Bby Second
theme in Bb. Transitional ity (Dual Tonal-

the

Development of and principal Episode.

Restatement themes of the

of

Further

opment develand
statement re-

and passages

introdttdng
theme.

themes. subsidiary

Exposition.
in Eb. themes the
to

of

Themes

ing bringment movea

TonaUty.) Rhapsodical pas" (Plural


transitions).

igtB, with

(Mono-Tonality with transitions.)

close

in"b.

The

student should in Sonata Form.

analyzethe harmony and form of several


The Beethoven be obtained in
sonatas pianoforte editions. inexpensive
are

ments move-

excellent

for this. These may

MUSIC

CX)MP09ITI0N.

CHAPTER
THE MIXED AND

XX.
FREE

FORMS.

The

or Medley consists of Poi-paurri

selection of themes

from

an

in contrast to strung together opera, folk songs, or national songs, etc., another. Operatic consist of a selection of the one medleysusually
most
a no

finds one populartunes of a single opera althoughoccasionally selection consisting of times from various operas. The pot-pourri has
set form

and

no

value other than

a sensuous

one.*

in of the movements following diagram shows the disposition selection from Mascagni'sCavaUeria RusHcana with the key together The

scheme: Diagnun
14.

but in pot-pourri, Such an overture as Suppe's Poei and this case the themes are original. and folk national, however, than most operatic, Peasant has more unity, of the movements diagram shows the disposition medleys. The following The
overture popular

in the is frequently

of style

of Poet and Peasant,


*The lacks unity which pot-pourri is
a

of all hecsstfryquality

arts..

THE

MI^ED

AND

FREE

FORMS.

133

"S-

in which the composer gives free scope composition The form is wholly tained but unity is mainto his fancyor imagination. free, of motives, istic characterby various devices such as the persistence In many etc. of the instrumental rhythmicand harmonic figures, those of the earlyEnglish, works of the early and, composers, including those of J.S. Bach, may be found the older application of the term. later, characteristicsof the early Fantasias was the development The principal of a theme by free imitation. Since then, the term has come to be section of the Sonata Form, as well as frequently to the development applied and inexcusably Fantasias may to the pot-pourri. Interesting be found in the works of Mozart,
our

The Fantasia is a

Beethoven,Schumann, and in those of

presentday composers.

Program

Music.
form

Program music is instrumental music,the mood,


which is determined either

and context

of

by its titleor by a description printed upon the composition, rather than by abstract musical formalities. Although the older composers including Kuhnau, Bach, Couperinand Rameau,
wrote
common
a

few small works of this kind.Program Music until the Romantic style Period.

did not become

The

state

of Program Music was late development due principally comparatively in the media of expression, the immatured to the inadequacies and the of instrumental music, the bigotry of musical theorists,

environment

sicists. and lack of breadth in the education of the so-called Clas-

134

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

Symphony, Beethoven opened new paths and since its pxoductionthe listof programmatic music has grown, and much of the either realistic, best music is now or characteristic, descriptive. definite Modem to preler a to a more seem or inspiration composers less prosaic weaving of tones. They desire to express in their music the emoticms of their inner lifewhether kindled by literature, a mood, vision, or a composition picture. To a specific inspiration, object, event, philosophy,
In the Pastoral of this type The form
owes

its form.

and governed by the specific inspiration bemg empirical better for necessitates concrete such study can examples study,and no be had than the Symphonic Poems of Liszt and his successors. obtain scores who For the benefit of those students of Sym" cannot is given. of a Symphonic Poem phonic Poems, a brief analysis

Les Preludes
J

Fsanz

Liszt. Lamartine's

The
a

is founded composition translation of which

upon

of portion

MediiaUons^

prose
What

follows:

is our

lifebut

series of Preludes Love

to

the unknown

song,

the firstsolenm
but life;
some

note

of which

is sounded

by death?

is the enchanted
are

dawn

of every

what

is the destiny where whose And

the first joys of happiness

not

whose its fair illusions, fatal breath dissipates


where

fatal

by interrupted consumes lightning


one

storm,
its altar?

is the wounded
in the

to cahn

its memories

that does spirit lifeof peaceful which

not

seek, when
him

of its tempests is over,


man

the country?

Yet

cannot

long resign
with
to

himself to the kindly monotony

firstcharmed

in his companionship
to

trumpet'sloud blast has called him in of the strife, of the nature point of danger, regardless his of strength. possession
Nature, and when
''the

arms," he rushes
to

the

order

gain,by combat,

2 obpes, 2 clarinets, 2 flutes, bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, bass tuba, tympani, drums, cymbals,harp, and the usual strings. into six parts played, The compositionmay be divided arbitrarily Each part depicts a different phase of Lamarhowever, without pause. themes which two tine's poem, but the whole is founded principally upon and rhythmic guises. A diagram appear in various melodic, harmonic,

The

Symphonic

Poem

is scored

for 3

follows:

THE

MIXED

AMD

FREE

FORMS.

"35

Diagram

t6.

xsT

Theme

Recitative

for strings.
upon
maestoso
a

Motive
to

answered
a new

by wood
form of

wind the
same

(Andante
theme
bones, trom-

I).

Leads

crescendo

(Andante
and the theme

V)
Leads

sounded
upon
a

by

bass

strings, bassoons,
to
a

tuba.

diminuendo violins of each and

third with

form
an

of

(f) sounded
and bassoons

by
at

second the end

cellos

echo
to

in basses

phrase.

Moduktes

E-major,

followed

by

transition.
Theme

2ND

Sounded

by
and
z

horns

and

violas

(C-V)*
to
a

Rei4)pears:
climax.

oboes, dariof

nets,
theme

bassoons;
in

developed

Reminiscences

horns, flutes, and

darinets.

Development

1;

PrincquJly
tempestuoso
next

of

theme

(Allegro
storm.

ma

non

txoppo

| and leading

Allegro
to

V)-

Suggests

(Quiets down

the

theme.
Theme

3BD

(Allegretto pastorale f).


horn,
then

Figures by
of

of

the

theme then

sounded tossed

first by around;

oboe,
of

followed motive
Restatement

clarinet, and
2.

Reappearance

theme

of

2Nd

Theme

In

violins, then

in

horns

and

violas, followed
to

by
the

wood
next

wind division.

and

h
"
u

horns.

Developed

transitionally leading
Fkee Recapftulation

(Allegro marziale, animato


trumpets,
to
a

]).
low

Theme

sounded trombones.
a new

by

horns

and

answered with 2nd

by

strings and
Theme
2

Developed
and mood Sudden

union

theme. wood

in

rhythm
violins.

sounded

fortissimo by

wind,
of theme and

horn,
z

and
a

traniriticms.

Reappearance

in

former

guise sounded
Ends

by
with

basses, bassoons,
full orchestra.

trombones,

tuba

CV).

fortissimo

13^

HUSIC

COMPO3IXI0N.,

APPENDIX
MELODmS
1.

A.
BACH'S

FROM

CHORALS.
/P\

m
m
/T\

-""-

Llii-U^
/7\

m
3
"^9-

Hif
f5""a^

f
#

ndu
^M
/TV

^^m
n\

J=rt

"*'

"

^"^ J II I f I**

^^
/TV

^^
"^

m
3.

tS*-

i^

IJ J 4*J

J J IJ~^
"^"
/C\

/TN

^^

/TS

/TN

/T\

^gLgli-i ^

^^
/f\ /"IN

iff=d *

^^

"^-

MELODIES

FROlf

BACH'S

CHbRALS. 137

i,f J
6.

ii^fjj jii
/TS

^T\

ijijji
/TS

^^

^^
/T\

In

r I

/T\

/f\

^
7.

'hTj
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139

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147

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APPENDIX
MISCELLANEOUS

^ffi'^^ ^i^iB.
EXERCISES.

Harmonize
Andante.

the

violinsolo with pianoforte accompaniment following


P. Mascagni.

ufarrT^fjiU
pp
6

^ Id

rrf

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"Hti t-.f" -^ cJiO

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148

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

r m^'
/

!"f,r f
"'^^ ^1 '
^

fi^' iT" l1 CJLT Iji^r'

I'

^/w.

A^

2.

Harmonize

the

ist following

violinpart for string quartet:


R. Schumann.

IJJH^ ||!,J__.^
iJKi

ijj:\r\^'m

tempo

i^^-^ri^^^^i^^^^i^ jTigf i5[[jlr


-^ /TV

3. Harmonize
Minuet.

the

solo: following melody for pianoforte


Bkethoven.

Ugato,

[jicjrcjulu c^ rfjir''^:

MISCELLANEOUS

EXERCISES.

Z49

^^

D.C.

dl Fifu.

4.

Compose
Moore:

choral for mixed

chorus

to

the

following poem

by

Thomas

Thou Thou

Art, O God.

art,O God, the lifeand


world

light
we

Of allthis wondrous Its glowby

see;

day, itssmile by night, Are but reflections caughtfrom thee; Where'er we turn, thy glories shine.
fairand all things
are bright

And

thine!

When

day, with farewell beam, dela3rs clouds of even. Among the opening
we can

And

almost think

we

gaze

Through goldenvistas into heaven. Those hues, that make the sun's decline
Lord! So soft, so radiant.
are

thine.

ISO When

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

with wingsof Starry gloom, night, O'ershadows allthe earth and skies" whose plume Like some dark, beauteous bird, Is with sparkling That sacred So eyes. those fires divine, gloom, thine. unnumbered

Lord^are so countless, grand,

When

aroimd us breathes. spring youthful her fragrant warms sigh; Thy spirit
every flower the
summer

And

wreathes

kindling eye. Where'er we turn, thyglories shine. thine. fairand bright And all things are
Is bom beneath that the following song 5. Harmonize Introduction and Coda: Supplyan with

accompaniment. pianoforte

Allegretto,
p
.
"

H.

KjERULF.

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a

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r

motive. Add a melody foimded upon the following key and restate the first period. consequent periodin a contrasting Harmonize for (ist) solo,(2nd) string pianoforte quartet,and (3rd)
6.

Compose

Adagio,
vocal quartet:
-_

jj^i.

"i9-

MISCELLANEOUS

EXERCISES.

"SX

three or more sections (themes, intermezzi or contrasting Ccftnpose to the following and supply episodes) subject.Harmonize for pianoforte
7.
a

Coda:
W. A. Mozart.

grazioso. AlUgreito

wm^

lfrgfJ#L;CfrrL;r^

8. Write four

or

more

variations on

the

theme. following

Harmonize

solo or for pianoforte

string quartet:
John
Bull.
r^ TTTT^

Allegro,
^

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s
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MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

APPENDIX
I. PRINCIPAL TRIADS OP THB

MAJOR

MODE

IN

ROOT

POSITION.
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THB TRIADS

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MAJOR

MODB

IN

ROOT

POSITION.
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TRIADS
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TRANSITION. eb 8b 7b ab 5b

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MISCELLANEOUS

3 It it

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EXERCISES FROM BACH'S

VIII.

CHORALS.

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DEFINITIONS.

"S9

50.

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APPENDIX
DEFINITIONS.

f
D.

Of
Active.
"

the

Technical

Terms

used

in

the

Text.

A tone which is not finaland when

leaves something heard,


or

to be desired.

An active tone
or

or

chord has

more

lessdefinitetendency

to progress to another tone

chord.
a

Cadence.

"

fallor close of

inflectionof rhythmic flow. strain; of the chord with which

Resolution under Resolution.) (SeeCadencing Chordal it sounds. Concealed Fifths.


"

Tone.

"

A tone which is a member

in progression
a

any distance apart other than fifth. {SteParalld Fifths.) Dissonance.


"

ated situany two voices, motion to fifth, proceedin parallel


which
tones

of two mingling

or

more

with unrestful effect.


in any

The

term

is comparative, and

the amount

of

inherent activity

dissonant
Factor.
"

dependsupon
"

tone

and environment. culture, member of a chord; called in most


era,

text books

interval.'*
Fixed

Unison.

"

The

result of the diatonic resolution to

unison of

voice part from the dissonant of the intervalof a second. Form. phrases, Arrangement of the parts and elements (rh3rthms,
"

constituent sections, themes,and tonalities) periods, Homofhonic.

of music

by

which

and unity. S3rmmetry of outline is obtained with variety of composition to that style havingone Pertaining predommatingmelody accompaniedby other parts which supplythe Harmony. Opposed to polyphonic.
"

i6o Idiomatic.

MUSIC

COMPOSITION.

to a progression or usage which has become Pertaining characteristicthrough constant the part of composers and on application is often opposed to logical theory. Modulation. A consummate changeof key which enters into the architectureof a composition. MoNOTONic, Characterized by a single main key. A melodic germ. A group of notes from which a period, Motive. movement, or composition may be developed.
"
" " "

N.B.

"

Take

notice.
ToNE.
"

NoN-CHORDAL

A tone

which

is not

member

of the chord

with which it sounds.


denotes non-choidal tones. overnotes The symbol enThes3nnbol (X) placed dosed by parentheses of a non-chordal a chordal tone having a characteristic signifies
tone.

any two voices situated a fifth(ortwelfth, motion to another fifth. etc.) apart proceedin parallel sths.
7-

Parallel

in which progression

in which any two voices situated a fifth progression in either motion to another fifth. (ortwelfth, etc.) apart proceed contrary or parallel (SeeConcealed Fifths,)
"

CoNSEcnriVE

Fifths.

Parallel
.

octave octave.

A progression in which any two voices situated an motion to another (double octave, etc.) apart proceedin parallel
8ths.
"

Consecutive
octave

Octaves.

"

in progression

which

any

two
or

voices situated motion parallel

an

(doubleoctave, etc.) apart proceed in either contrary

to

another octave.

musical sentence. complete A portion of a period with a cadence. Phrase. terminating of composition Polyphonic. to that style Pertaining having two with one more independentmelodies simultaneously, harmonizing Period.
"

"

"

or other. an-

Opposed
Resolution.
"

to

homophonic.
of a progression dissonant chord to another chord
to their proceedaccording

The

such

as

the permits

factors of the former to

tendencies.
r Cadencing
NoN-cADENcmG
a

Resolution.

"

The

resolution of

dissonant chord

to

the chord

whose root is situated a fourth above (ora fifthbelow)the root of the former chord.
RESOLUTION
OR

Progkession.

"

resolution

or

of progression

chord to any chord other than the one whose root is situated a fourth above fifthbebw) the root of the former chord.

(ora

DEFINITIONS.

l6i

Tendency. Transition.

"

A
A
"

characteristic transient of three

attribute

of

active

tones.

change
tones.

of

key.

Triad.
"

chord

Major

Triad

consists

of

"

root

"

(or

fundamental)

tone;

its

major

srd

and

its

perfect
Minor

5th.
Triad consists Triad Triad of consists consists
a

root

tone,
a

its tone,

minor its its

3rd
minor

and

its and and

perfect
its

5th.
diminished

.Diminished

of of

root

3rd 3rd

5th. 5th.

Augmented

root

tone,

major

its

augmented