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PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

1.0 ABSTRACT/SUMMARY:
This experiment had been done on 9th October 2013 in the thermodynamics laboratory.
The aim of this experiment is to determine the properties of measurement/PVT. The equipment
that had been used is called Perfect Gas Expansion and by using this kind of equipment, all 5
experiments were conducted successfully. For the first experiment, we conducted to show the
Boyles Law and to determine the relationship between pressure and volume of an ideal gas. In
this experiment, the experiment is done for three times from pressurized chamber to vacuum
chamber, from atmospheric chamber to pressurized chamber and increase the gas of both
chamber .The next experiment is to determine the Gay-Lussac Law by done repeatedly for three
times to get the average value of the temperature at pressurize and depressurize vessels. The
graph of pressure versus temperature is plotted after getting the total average value. In the third
experiment, is to determine the isentropic expansion process to demonstrate the isentropic
expansion of gases, where pressure and temperature of pressurized chamber is taken before and
after expansion. After that, for the fourth experiment is to determine the ratio of heat volume by
done with getting before and after temperature and pressure of expansion. Only the pressurised
chamber and compressive pump are used during this experiment. The last experiment is to
determine the ratio of heat capacity .In these experiment ,only the pressurised chamber is used by
taken value of pressure and temperature before, intermediate and final .These experiments have
been successfully done and all the data which are about the reading before and after the setting
are recorded into the data .
PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

2.0 INTRODUCTION:

The perfect Gas Expansion is related to First Law of Thermodynamics, Second Law of
Thermodynamics and relationship between P-V-T. Due to expansion and compression of gasses
is one of the most important and very useful in our daily day. This is because due to related to
combustion of engines, refrigerators, heat pumps , hot air balloons , gas storage ,f fire
extinguisher and a host of other practical applications .Besides that, it is also problems that
related to the macroscopic reasoning of thermodynamics to microscopic picture of the kinetic
molecular theory. In this experiment of measurement properties or PVT deals with ideal gas. An
ideal gas is a gas that obeys the relationship PV=nRT. In this definition P and T are the absolute
pressure and absolute temperature respectively and R is the particular gas constant which is R=
8.3145 J/mol.K and n is the number of moles of the gas filling the container. The molecular
weight of the gas influences the particular gas constant. In this experiment, where students will
able to familiarize with several fundamental thermodynamics processes can be manipulate by
monitored the digital indicator on the control panel. Therefore, this apparatus should not harm
students. However, students should take care about their safety during the experiment. The most
important thing that during students opens the valve should be slowly when releasing the gas
inside the vessel to atmosphere because due to high pressure gas inside the vessel that being
released by the valve that can be harm to students.
The equipment that used is perfect gas expansion apparatus, TH11 as such like below:

Figure 2.1 Perfect Gas Expansion TH11
PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

From the figure 2.1, there are 2 boxes of cylinders which are pressure chamber and
vacuum chamber. During supply the air into the pressure chamber, gas particles in a box will
collide more aggressive and frequently with its walls and transfer momentum to them during
each collision. The gas pressure is equal to the momentum delivered to a unit area of a wall,
during a unit time. But, for the ideal gas particles do not collide with each other but only with the
walls. There are different between the ideal gas and actual gas. During a single particle moves
arbitrarily along some direction until it strikes a wall. It then bounces back, changes direction
and speed and moves towards another wall. The gas expansion equations are derived directly
from the law of conservation of linear momentum and the law of conservation of energy.














PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

3.0 AIMS:
For each experiment, they have a different aims and objectives which listed as below:
EXPERIMENT 1:Boys Law Experiment
To determine the relationship between pressure and volume of an ideal gas
To compare the experiment result with theoretical result.
EXPERIMENT 2:GayLussac Experiment
To determine the relationship between pressure and temperature of an ideal gas.
EXPERIMENT3:Isentropic expansion experiment
To demonstrate the isentropic expansion process.
EXPERIMENT 4:Determination of ratio of volume
To determine the ratio and compares it to the theoretical value.
EXPERIMENT 5:Determination of ratio of heat Capacity
To determine the ratio of heat capacity.









PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

4.0 THEORY:
As shown on the figure 4.1,the apparatus used in the left side is the pressurized chamber
meanwhile on the right side is the vacuum chamber and they are separated by the valve. Let
assume the apparatus is in thermal equilibrium with its surroundings, means that the temperature
is same inside and out.
Figure 4.1
This is concept used in the perfect gas expansion where what we going to observe is the changes
in temperature and pressure when the valve is going to open. When the valve is open, the gas
molecule will rush it from the pressure chamber into the vacuum chamber until the pressure,
number of moles gas and temperature of both chambers are equilibrium. That why when monitor
the result after the valve have open both of temperature almost same. The ideal gas law (PV=n
RT ) is apply before ,during and after the expansion, and that the volume V will be double
during the process.
Boyles law experiment and determination of volume ratio
Boyle's Law states that the product of the pressure and volume for a gas is a constant for
a fixed amount of gas at a fixed temperature. Written in mathematical terms, this law is
P x V = constant
A common use for this law is to predict on how a change in pressure will alter the volume
of gas or vice versa. Therefore, for initial values of p
1
and V
1
, which change to final values of
p
2
and V
2
, the following equation applies (David ,2000)
P
1
x V
1
= P
2
x V
2
(for fixed amount of gas at constant temperature)
PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013


Figure 4.2 : Boyle law sources:- (Ygraph,2007)
From figure 4.2, consider the box full of moving gas molecules, the particles have the same
energy (temperature) throughout. As the box gets smaller, they have a smaller distance to travel
before they collide with the walls, and thus the time between collisions gets increasingly smaller.
In a given amount of time the partials hit the walls more, which results in a greater amount of
pressure. The amount of moles is clearly constant, as we are not adding or subtracting particles
from the piston. Another way of looking at this is that as the pressure increases, it drives the
particles together. These compacted particles now occupy less volume. In order to compare a gas
where either pressure or volume vary, we can combine the equations P
1
V
1
= k and P
2
V
2
=
k. Because k is constant for both values of pressure and volume,
P1V1=P2V2
Thus, Boyles law states that for the pressure and volume of a gas, when one value increases
the other decreases, as long as temperature and number of moles remain constant. Boyle's
law is summarized by the equation
PV=k
Where P is the pressure of the molecules on the container, V is the volume of the container,
and k is a constant. The value of k always stays the same so that P and V vary appropriately.
For example, if pressure increases, k must remain constant and thus volume will decrease.
This is consistent with the predictions of Boyle's law.( Davis)
PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013


Figure4.3 : Volume versus pressure sources:-( (Brown,2000-2012)
The graph shows how the pressure and volume vary according to Boyles Law at two difference
temperatures. Then it can be conclude that, the pressure and volume gas is indirectly related
which is if the pressure of the chamber is increase then the volume of the gas inside the chamber
also decrease.
Besides, it also involves the kinetic energy. If we decrease the volume of a gas, thus
means that the same numbers of gas particles are now going to come in contact with each other
and with the sides of the container much more often. The pressure is also measure the frequency
of collision of gas particle with each other and with the side of the container they are in. Thus if
the volume decrease, the pressure will naturally increase. The opposite is true if the volume of
the gas is increased, the gas particles collide less frequently and the pressure will decrease.At
lower temperatures the volume and pressure values are lower. Any volume or pressure units can
be used as long as both P's and both V's have the same units. The particle theory and simple
arithmetical values is used to explain Boyles Law.
- When the volume of gas is compress into half, the collision of the gas will increase and
thus the pressure will increase double compare to the origin value.
- But if the volume of the gas is doubled or increase in the factor of two, the collision drop
and decrease thus the pressure will decrease into half compare to the origin.


PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

Gay-Lussac Law theory
Compare to the Boyles Law, the expression of Gay-Lussacs Law is used for each of the
two relationship named after the French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) and
which concern the properties of gases, though it is more usually applied to his law of combining
volumes. (Nakleh,1998). According to Gay-Lussacs law, for a given amount of gas held at
constant volume, the pressure is proportional to the absolute temperature. Mathematically,

Where,
P is the pressure of the gas
T is the temperature of the gas (measured in Kelvin).
k
G
is a appropriate proportionality constant
But, Gay-Lussac law also said that it might be dangerous to heat a gas in a closed
container. This is because due to increase pressure can cause the container to explode. Thus, the
equation will be change for initial values of p
1
and T
1
, which change to final values of p
2
and T
2
,
the following equation applies

During calculation, all unit scale of temperature must in Kelvin scale of temperature are T (K
=
o
C + 273.15).
PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013


Figure 4.4 :- The pressure versus temperature sources:- (Robert)
From the figure 4.4, the graph shows how the pressure and temperature vary according to
Gay-Lussac Law. Based on Gay-Lussac it stated that the pressure exerted on a containers sides
by an ideal is proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas. This follows from the kinetic
theory which stated that by increasing the temperature of the gas, the molecules speed increase
meaning an increased amount of collisions with the container walls. Thus, when an increase in
temperature , increases also collision frequently and energy ,so that raising the temperature
should raise the pressure if the volume is not changed.


Determination of ratio of heat capacity theory
For a perfect gas,
Cp = Cv + R Where, Cp = molar heat capacity at constant pressure, and
Cv = molar heat capacity at constant volume.
For a real gas a relationship may be defined between the heat capacity, which is dependent on the
equation of state, although it is more complex than that for a perfect gas. The heat capacity ratio
may then be determined experimentally using a two-step process.
PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

1. An adiabatic reversible expansion from the initial pressure P
s
to an intermediate pressure P
i
{P
s
, V
s
, T
s
} {P
i
, V
i
, T
i
}
2. A return of the temperature to its original value T
s
at constant volume V
i
{P
i
, V
i
, T
i
} {P
f
, V
i
, T
s
}
For a reversible adiabatic expression
dq = 0
From the First Law of Thermodynamics,
dU = dq + dW
Therefore during the expansion process
dU = dW or dU = -pdV

At constant volume the heat capacity relates the change in temperature to the change in internal
energy
dU = CvdT
Substituting in to equation x,
CvdT = -pdV
Substituting in the ideal gas law and then integrating gives
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
s
i
s
i
v
V
V
R
T
T
C ln ln


PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

Now, for an ideal gas

s s
i i
s
i
V P
V P
T
T
=

Therefore,
s
i
s
i
s
i
v
V
V
R
V
V
P
P
C ln ln ln =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

Rearranging and substituting in from equation x,

s
i
v
p
s
i
V
V
C
C
P
P
ln ln =

During the return of the temperature to the starting value,

f
s
s
i
P
P
V
V
=

Thus,

f
s
v
p
i
s
P
P
C
C
P
P
ln ln =

Rearranging gives the relationship in its required form:
f s
i s
v
p
P P
P P
C
C
ln ln
ln ln

=





PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

Isentropic expansion process theory
An isentropic process or can be called isoentropic process is a process takes place from
initiation to completion without an increase or decrease in the entropy of the system. Isentropic
(reversible adiabatic) processes are often desired and are often the processes on which device
efficiencies are based. One example of a process that approaches being isentropic are the rapid
depressurization of gas in a cylinder. The entropy of the system remains in constant. The type of
energy entropy is like heat, work and enthalpy is by definition energy which is lost in a process
which is characterized by:
S = 0 or S
1
= S
2
If a process is both reversible and adiabatic, then it is an isentropic process. An isentropic
process is an idealization of an actual process, and serves as a limiting case for an actual process.
For adiabatic, there is no transfer of heat energy.


PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

5.0 APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENT:








Figure 5.1:-Pressure Chamber Figure 5.3:-Vaccum Chamber Figure 5.2:-
Vacuum Pump
Figure 5.4:-Gas Expansion Apparatus (Model TH 11)
Figure 5.5:-
Valve 1
Figure 5:-
Valve 3
Figure 5:-Monitor Pressure and
Temperature
Figure 5:-
Valve 2
PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

6.0 PROCEDURES:
General start-up
1. The equipment are connected to single phase power supply and the unit is switch on.
2. Then, open all valves and the pressure reading panel. This is to make sure that the
chambers are under atmospheric pressure.
3. After that, close all the valves.
4. Next, connect the pipe from compressive port of the pump to pressure chamber or
connect the pipe from vacuum port of the pump to vacuum chamber. The connect must
not does at the same time.
5. Now, the unit is ready to use.
Experiment 1 :-Boyle s Law
1. The general start up procedure is performed. Make sure all valve are fully closed.
2. Compressive pump is switch on and allowed the pressure inside the chamber to increase
up to about 150kPa. Then, switch off the pump and remove the hose from the chamber.
3. The pressure reading inside the chamber is monitor until the reading stabilizes.
4. The pressure reading for both chambers is recorded before expansion.
5. Open V02 fully and allowed the pressurized air flow into the atmospheric chamber.
6. The pressure reading for both chambers after expansion is recorded.
7. The experiment is repeated under difference condition:
a) From atmospheric chamber to vacuum chamber.
b) From pressurized chamber to vacuum chamber.
8. Then, calculated the PV value and prove the Boyles Law.






PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

Experiment 2:-Gay-Lussac Law
1. Perform the general start up. Make sure all e valves are fully closed.
2. The hose from the compressive pump is connected to pressurized chamber.
3. The compressive pump is switch on and the temperature for every increment of 10kPa I
the chamber is recorded. The pump stop went the pressure PT1 reaches about 160kPa.
4. Then, open valve V 01 and allowed the pressurized air to flow out. Recorded the
temperature reading for every decrement of 10kPa.
5. Stop the experiment when the pressure reaches atmospheric pressure.
6. The experiment is repeated for 3 times to get the average value.
7. The graph of the pressure versus temperature Plot.
Experiment 3 :Isentropic Expansion Process
1. The general start up is perform make sure all valve are fully closed.
2. The hose form compressive pump is connected to pressurized chamber.
3. The compressive pump is switch on and allowed the pressure inside the chamber to
increase until about 160kPa. Then, switch off the pump and remove the hose from the
chamber.
4. The pressure reading inside is monitor until it is stabilizes. The pressure reading PT1 and
temperature reading TT1 are recorded.
5. Then, open the valve V 01 slightly and allow the air flow out slowly until it reach
atmospheric pressure.
6. The pressure of the reading and the temperature reading after the expansion process are
recorded.
7. The isentropic expansion process is discussed.






PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

Experiment 4 :- Determination of Ratio Of Volume
1. Perform the general start up procedure. Make sure all valve is close
2. The compressive pump is switch on and allows the pressure inside the chamber increase
up to 150kPa. Then, switch off the pump and remove the hose from the chamber.
3. The pressure reading inside the chamber is monitor until it stabilizes.
4. The pressure reading for both chambers before the expansion is recorded.
5. The V 02 is open and allows the pressure air flow into the atmospheric chamber slowly.
6. The pressure reading for both chambers after the expansion is recorded.
7. The experiment procedure is repeated for difference condition
a) From atmospheric chamber to vacuum chamber.
b) From pressurized chamber to vacuum chamber.
8. Then, the ratio of the volume is calculated and compare with the theoretical value.
Experiment 5 :Determination of ratio heat capacity
1. The general start up is performs. Make sure all valve is fully close.
2. The compressive pump is connected to pressurized chamber.
3. The compressive pump is switch on and allows the pressure inside the chamber to
increase until about 160kPa. Then, switch off the pump and remove the hose from the
chamber.
4. The pressure reading inside the chamber is monitor until is stabilized. The recorded the
pressure reading PT1 and temperature TT1.
5. Open the valve V 01 fully and bring it to close until after a few seconds. Monitor and
recorded the reading PT1 and temperature TT1 until it become stable.
6. The ratio of the heat capacity is determines and then compare with the theoretical value.

PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

7.0 RESULTS:
Experiment 1:-Boyles Law Experiment
CONDITIONS PRESSURE, k Pa TEMPERATURE, C
Pressure To Atmosphere
(at Pressure Chamber)


BEFORE PT1= 162.3 TT1= 29.5
PT2= 102.3 TT2=27.2
AFTER PT1= 142.6 TT1= 27.9
PT2= 142.6 TT2= 29.2
Atmospheric To Vacuum
(at Vacuum Chamber)


BEFORE PT1= 102.9 TT1= 27.0
PT2= 60.0 TT2= 26.0
AFTER PT1= 89.1 TT1= 27.5
PT2= 89.1 TT2= 27.7
Pressurized mixed Vacuum
(at both of Vacuum and
Pressure Chamber)

BEFORE PT1= 160.8 TT1= 29.9
PT2= 57.9 TT2= 26.0
AFTER

PT1= 127.0 TT1= 27.8
PT2= 127.0 TT2= 29.8











PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

Experiment 2:- Gay-Lussac Law Experiment
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3
Pressure
(kPa abs)
Temperature( C) Temperature( C) Temperature( C)
Pressurise
vessel
Depressurise
Vessel
Pressurise
vessel
Depressurise
Vessel
Pressurise
vessel
Depressurise
Vessel
102.3 28.0 28.5 27.6 28.5 28.4 28.8
112.3 28.1 28.3 27.8 30.8 28.5 30.2
122.3 28.7 29.2 28.3 31.0 29.0 31.4
132.3 29.3 30.1 29.1 31.7 29.7 32.3
142.3 30.2 31.0 30.0 32.7 30.5 33.9
152.3 31.1 32.0 31.0 32.9 31.6 33.3
162.3 31.9 31.9 32.0 32.8 32.6 33.0

Average Trial 1,2,3
Pressure
(kPa abs)
Temperature( C)
Pressurise
vessel
Depressurise
Vessel

102.3 28.0 28.6
112.3 28.1 29.8
122.3 28.7 30.5
132.3 29.4 31.4
142.3 30.2 32.5
152.3 31.2 32.7
162.3 31.2 32.6

PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

Experiment 3:- Isentropic Expansion Process
PT 1 (kPa abs) TT 1 (C)
Before Expansion 161.1 31.0
After Expansion 102.2 27.4

Experiment 4:-Determination of ratio of volume
CONDITIONS Pressure PT 1, KPa, abs Pressure PT 2, KPa, abs
Pressure To Atmosphere
(Pressurize Chamber)
BEFORE 161.1 102.3
AFTER 125.3 125.3
Atmospheric To Vacuum
(Vacuum Chamber)
BEFORE 159.8 59.3
AFTER 123.1 123.1
Pressurized To Vacuum
(Pressurize Chamber and Vacuum
Chamber)
BEFORE 159.2 60.0
AFTER 120.4 120.4

Experiment 5:-Determination of Heat Capacity
Initial Intermediate Final
PT 1 (kp abs) 160.7 138.85 141.7
TT 1 (C) 33.0 32.9 30.9





PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

8.0 Calculation
Experiment 1: Boyles law
Ideal gas equation, PV=RT. For Boyles law, temperature is constant at room temperature
Hence, R= 8.314 L kPa K
-1
mol
-1
, T= 298 @ 25C
i) From atmospheric chamber to pressurized chamber
P
1
= 162.3 kPa, P
2
= 142.6 kPa. Then V
1
and V
2
is calculated

V
1
= RT/P
1

= (8.314 L kPa K
-1
mol
-1
) (298.15 K) / (162.3kPa)
=15.27 L

V
2
= (8.314 L kPa K
-1
mol
-1
) (298.15 K) / (142.6 kPa)
=17.38 L

According to Boyles law: P
1
V
1
=P
2
V
2

P
1
V
1
= (162.3 kPa) (15.27L) = 2478.32 L kPa
P
2
V
2
= (142.6 kPa) (17.38L) = 2478.39 L kPa

ii) From the atmospheric chamber to vacuum chamber
P
1
= 60.0kPa, P
2
= 89.1 kPa. Then V
1
and V
2
is calculated

V
1
= RT/P
1

= (8.314 L kPa K
-1
mol
-1
) (298.15 K) / (60.0 kPa)
=41.31 L

V
2
= (8.314 L kPa K
-1
mol
-1
) (298.15 K) / (89.1 kPa)
=27.82L

According to Boyles law: P
1
V
1
=P
2
V
2

PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

P
1
V
1
= (60.0 kPa) (41.31 L) = 2478.60 L kPa
P
2
V
2
= (89.1 kPa) (27.82L) = 2478.76 L kPa

iii) From pressure chamber to vacuum chamber
P
1
= 160.8 kPa, P
2
= 127.0 kPa. Then V
1
and V
2
is calculated

V
1
= RT/P
1

= (8.314 L kPa K
-1
mol
-1
) (298.15 K) / (160.8 kPa)
=15.42 L

V
2
= (8.314 L kPa K
-1
mol
-1
) (298.15 K) / (127.0 kPa)
=19.52 L

According to Boyles law: P
1
V
1
=P
2
V
2

P
1
V
1
= (160.8 kPa) (15.42 L) = 2479.54 L kPa
P
2
V
2
= (127.0 kPa) (19.52 L) = 2479.04 L kPa











PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

Experiment 2
INCREASING AND DECREASING PRESSURE
Trial 1:
Increase

Decrease


0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
27 28 29 30 31 32 33
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Temperature
Gas Expansion in Trial 1
Gas Expansion in Trial 1
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
28 29 30 31 32 33
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Temperature
Gas Expansion in Trial 1
Gas Expansion in Trial 1
PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

Trial 2:
Increase

Decrease




0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
27 28 29 30 31 32 33
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Temperature
Gas Expansion in Trial 2
Gas Expansion in Trial 2
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
28 29 30 31 32 33 34
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Temperature
Gas Expansion in Trial 2
Gas Expansion in Trial 2
PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

Trial 3:
Increase

Decrease




0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
28 29 30 31 32 33
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Temperature
Gas Expansion in Trial 3
Gas Expansion in Trial 3
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Temperature
Gas Expansion in Trial 3
Gas Expansion in Trial 3
PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

Average Result Trial 1,2,3:
Increase

Decrease




0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
27 28 29 30 31 32
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Temperature
Average Gas Expansion
Average Gas Expansion
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
28 29 30 31 32 33
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Temperature
Average Gas Expansion
Average Gas Expansion
PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

Experiment 3
T
2
/T
1
= (P
2
/ P
1
)
(k-1 / k)

(27.4) / (31.0) = [(102.2) / (161.3)]
(k-1 / k)
0.8839 = (0.6336)
(k-1 / k)
ln 0.8839 = [ (k-1)/ k] ln 0.6336

k = 1.371

Experiment 4
(i)From atmospheric chamber to pressurized chamber
P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2

V
2
/ V
1
= P
1
/ P
2

V
2
/ V
1
= 161.1 / 125.3
V
2
/ V
1
=1.2857
(ii)From atmospheric chamber to vacuum chamber
P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2

V
2
/ V
1
= P
1
/ P
2

V
2
/ V
1
= 59.3 / 123.1
V
2
/ V
1
= 0.4817
(iii)From pressurized chamber to vacuum chamber
P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2

V
2
/ V
1
= P
1
/ P
2

PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

V
2
/ V
1
= 159.2 / 120.4
V
2
/ V
1
= 1.3222
In vacuum chamber:
P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2

V
2
/ V
1
= P
1
/ P
2

V
2
/ V
1
= 101.8/123.1
V
2
/ V
1
= 0.826
Theoretical value
V
2
/ V
1
= 15 / 25
= 0.6











PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

Experiment 5
Calculate the value of heat capacity ratio, by the given formula of C
v
:-
The expression of heat capacity ratio is:

] [


Therefore the ratio of:


The theoretical value of

is 1.4




PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

9.0 DISCUSSION:
For the first experiment is Boyles Law where according to Boyles law, P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
by
calculating using the data collected during experiment, it shown that the P
1
V
1
value is close to
the value of P
2
V
2
after calculated the data

. Thus this proved that there are some errors occur
during conduct the experiment. Before conduct the experiment, we had been inform that the
valve V
1
is function but almost damaged. Thus, this is might due to parallax error due to a little
leaking of air. Hence, we can say that the experiment to prove Boyles law is successful.
From the ideal gas equation, PV=RT the volume is calculated for each of the pressure of
the experiment 1. In first condition, the pressurized to the atmospheric the value of volume are
V
1
=15.27L then expend V
2
=17.38L. In the second condition, atmospheric to vacuum the volume
are V
1
=41.31L then expend to V
2
=27.82L. For the last condition pressurized to vacuum, the
reading is taken separately for pressure chamber and vacuum chamber. In pressure chamber, V
1
=
15.42L before expansion while V
2
= 19.52L after expansion.
In the experiment 2, according to Gay-Lussac law where the pressure is proportional to
temperature. From the plotted graph, the pressure is proportional to temperature where it follows
the Gay-Lussac Law. As the pressure is increased the temperature also increases in a constant
volume. In the graph, the depressurized is line has a higher temperature as the pressure increase
than pressurize line in the graph that show in the result.
For the third experiment that is isentropic experiment where the isentropic expansion
process happen went both reversible and adiabatic, there will be no heat transferred within the
system, and no energy transformation occurs.
Given that,


Where, k is constant. Given the value of temperature and pressure before and after expansion, we
can find the value of k. Thus, the calculated value of k in this experiment is 1.371.In this
experiment the pressure is drop from 161.3kPa to 102.2kPa and the temperature also decrease
from 31.0 C to 27.4C.This is because due to the volume is kept constant thus the temperature
and pressure is increase. In fact, during contact this experiment no heat flow occurs in the system
and no energy transformation change .Therefore, the change of the gas in entropy also is zero. In
PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

conclude that, when isentropic expansion processes the work done by the gas is equal the
decrease in the internal energy of gas.
For the fourth experiment that is to determination of ratio of volume, the Boyles law
equation can be manipulated to find the volume ratio of gas. From the equation P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
, the
volume ratio of gas is then: V
2
/ V
1
= P
1
/P
2
. There are also three conditions in this experiment.
For the first condition (atmospheric to pressurize) the volume ratio of the gas is 1.2857. For
second condition (atmospheric to vacuum), the volume ratio is 0.4817 while for the third
condition (pressurized to vacuum), are 1.322 and 0.826 in pressure chamber and vacuum
chamber respectively.
For the last experiment that is, the determination of ratio of heat capacity using the
expression of the heat capacity ratio, the heat capacity ratio is calculated to be 1.052. This value
deviated a little from the theoretical value which is 1.4. Hence, the percentage errors calculated
are as follows:
Percentage error = (theoretical value actual value) / theoretical value x 100
= (1.4 1.052) / 1.4 x 100
24.86 %
Since the percentage error is too large (more than 10%), this experiment is considered not
successful. This is may be because of the error while handling this kind of equipment.








PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

10. 0 CONCLUSION:
In the conclusion , the experiment is conducted to determining the properties measurement/PVT
according to based on Boyles Law, Gay-Lussac Law, heat capacity equation and isentropic
expansion process.Besides that , using this experiment which can determining the properties of
gases under few condition by using the Boyles Law ,Gay-Lussacs law , equation of heat
capacity and isentropic expansion process is successfully done.Even during conduct the
experiment we make some parallax error but we still can manage to get the result to prove taht
the Boyles law that is when pressure decrease the volume will increase and vice versa.In fact
,the result shown that the Gay-Lussac law is where pressure is proportional to temperature.In a
nutshell, this experiment is successfully done and the objective of the experiment is achieved.


PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

11.0 RECOMMENDATIONS:
During conduct the experiment , there are precautions should be taken such as each
experiment should do the start-up and shut-down experiment first in order to make sure there are
no gas are left in the chamber. Thus, all the valve must be opened to remove all gasses in the
chamber .Besides that, to avoid the parallax error during taking the reading of pressure and
temperature by repeating the experiment three time to get the average and more accurate
result.Open and close the valve carefully according to the procedure given.Make sure that during
open the valve is becarefull due to high pressure is release.The experiment should be conducted
at the stable and unshaken place. All the data must be recorded into a table.

12.0 REFERENCES:
Yusus A. Cengel, M. A. (2011). second low of thermodynamics. In Thermodynamics an engineering
apploach (pp. 274-309). New York: Mc Graw Hill.
David N.Blauch,(2000-2009) Calculations using Boyle's Law from
http://www.chm.davidson.edu/vce/gaslaws/boyleslawcalc.html
Ygraph (2007) from http://ygraph.com/chart/1535
Davis , UC Davis ChemWiki from http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Wikitexts/UC_Davis
Brown.W (2000-2012) Doc Brown's Chemistry KS4 science from
http://www.docbrown.info/page03/3_52gaslaws.htm
Nakhleh (1998) Division of Chemical Education Department of Chemistry , from
http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch4/gaslaws.php
Robert.P My Chemistry Website, From https://sites.google.com/site/chemistryandfragglerocks/gay-
lussac-s-law



PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013

13.0 Appendix

Figure 13.1:-Monitor Pressure and
Temperature



Figure 13.2 :- Valve 1

Figure 13.3 :- Vacuum Pump




Figure 13.4 :- Valve 2




Figure 13.5 :- Valve 1

PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013




Figure 13.6 :- Gas Expansion Apparatus (Model TH 11)




Figure 13.7:- Vacuum Chamber




Figure 13.8 :- Pressure Chamber


PERFECT GAS EXPANSION REPORT October 9, 2013