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ShipInsight

Critical information on marine technology and regulation

April 2013

Paints and Coatings


What potential customers need bear in mind when choosing the right system
PRACTICAL MATTERS PRODUCTS

Information and approval status of all systems not employing Active Substances

Who stole your fuel?


We have a strong suspect.
Hull fouling can increase fuel costs by up to

$500,000

/ year

Without hull cleaning, your operating costs will soon sky-rocket. But by aiming at zero fouling, you easily overpay for cleaning and ruin the coating. The best approach is to accurately monitor the hull condition for the optimal hull treatment strategy. Eniram automatically collects high-frequency data from your vessel, without human error. Using highly advanced statistical analysis we expose the hull fouling trend with maximum accuracy. Making the right decision has never been easier.

Get your free hull fouling study at: www.eniram.fi/fouling

Introduction

Malcolm Latarche

Introduction
Coming up to scratch
Its like watching paint dry is a term often used to describe something dull and tedious; but for a ship, paints and coatings are essential products designed to protect it from the inevitable gradual process of corrosion and to ensure that its hull remains free of fouling and thus contribute to significant fuel savings. Inside and out, paints and coatings have a role to play. Externally there is both a protective and aesthetic role. First impressions are important both to customers and to inquisitive inspectors but protection is also needed inside and in some very inhospitable areas. The cargo hold of a bulk carrier needs protection from both corrosion and physical damage and protection against corrosion is also vital in ballast tanks, void spaces and the cargo tanks of crude and chemical tankers. Until very recently shipowners were more or less free to decide what parts of a ship were coated and with what. But that is changing, and although rusty ships will almost certainly be around for many years to come and most probably forever some areas of a ships structure are already subject to mandatory coating and to definitive standards under both IMO regulations and the IACS common structural rules. Things are also shaping up for regulations to be drawn up compelling owners to not only apply anti-fouling or foul release coats but to ensure that they remain in good condition regardless of when the next scheduled drydocking is due to take place. Of course the soaring cost of bunker fuel should already be a sufficient spur for owners to accept any new regulation without too much complaint but even so there is bound to be resentment at yet another compliance hoop to jump through.
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Paints and Coatings

Contents
Editor: Malcolm Latarche editorial@shipinsight.com Head of Design: Chris Caldwell Layout & Production: John Amy Advertising Sales: advertising@shipinsight.com ShipInsight Ltd 145-157 St John Street London EC1V 4PW United Kingdom www.shipinsight.com The Paints and Coatings Guide is produced by ShipInsight Ltd. Care is taken to ensure the information it contains is accurate and up to date. However ShipInsight Ltd accepts no responsibility for inaccuracies in, or changes to, such information. No part of this publication may be produced in any form or by means including photocopying or recording, without the permission of ShipInsight Ltd. Register at shipinsight.com to receive the next free guide.

Chapter 1 Regulations..........................................4 Background to the convention and how to comply Chapter 2 Technologies..................................... 11 Fast track to a Federal regime and examining the differences Chapter 3 Products (Primers)............................ 15 The methods employed, how they work and the pros and cons of each Chapter 4 Products (Ballast Tanks and Cargo Spaces)................................................ 23 What potential customers need bear in mind when choosing the right system Chapter 5 Products (Fouling Control).............. 27 Information and approval status of all systems making use of an Active Substance Chapter 6 Practical Matters............................... 59

ShipInsight
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Information and approval status of all systems not employing Active Substances

CRUISE CONTROL

Setting the benchmark for reduced maintenance costs and guaranteed fuel savings.
At PPG, our knowledge in marine coatings technology is helping to increase vessel productivity and protability with the SIGMAGLIDE silicone fouling release system. SIGMAGLIDE Coatings are specially formulated to provide optimal hull smoothness from the outsetfor immediate fuel savings of up to 8 percent*. And, because it doesnt contain biocides, its friendly to marine life. The tolerance of our coatings and the support provided by PPGs experienced staff help our customers t critical shipyard and ship owner schedules. Outstanding color and gloss retention as well as in-service durability reduce maintenance. Find PPGs global marine products under the leading brand name SIGMA COATINGS. Visit ppgpmc.com to learn how PPG innovation is helping the marine industry control costs and steer toward better performance.

The PPG logo and Bringing innovation to the surface. are trademarks of PPG Industries Ohio, Inc. SIGMAGLIDE and SIGMA COATINGS are registered trademarks of PPG COATINGS NEDERLAND B.V. The Pullmantur Zenith, and the above image, are properties of Pullmantur Cruises. *Statistic conrmed by customers.

Paints and Coatings

Chapter 1

Regulations
Leaving aside trivial things such as having a ships name, place of registration and loadline marks painted on the hull, there are three aspects of IMO regulations that cover paints and coatings and there may very soon be a fourth. The first of the three current regulations was considered important enough to warrant its own governing convention. Unlike so much IMO regulation which details what ships must do or carry, the International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships which was adopted in October 2001 but only came into force on 17 September 2008 is totally geared to preventing the use of certain products. The convention covers all vessels including FSUs and FPSOs. Initially the product at which the convention was aimed was tributyltin (TBT), a substance developed through the 1960s and first used in the 1970s and which the IMO itself concedes is probably the most effective biocide so far devised for the maritime industry. Before the convention came into force all of the leading coatings manufacturers had already ceased production of TBT products and were developing replacement products. Not all of the new coatings used on the hulls are affected by the convention. There are now three different technologies used in products for coating for the underwater parts of a ship. anti-foulings contain a biocide to kill organisms that adhere to the full, foul release coatings are designed to prevent organisms attaching by a variety of methods and hard coats present a smooth surface which can be cleaned using equipment that would remove or damage the other two types of coating. As with most IMO treaties, there is provision for countries to opt out of it but even should they do so their vessels will not be welcome in most
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Regulations parts of the world. Any party to the treaty is obliged to apply it to vessels flying their flag or which they otherwise have some control over, and to prevent any vessel of whatever flag entering their ports. Since most of the worlds major economies are parties to the treaty, only a very few domestic vessels and some trading between adjacent countries that are not signatories can afford to ignore the treaty. Testing for banned products by Port State Control inspectors is allowed under the convention but there is very little evidence to suggest that this is done on any great scale. Ships above 400gt are obliged to undergo an initial survey before the ship is put into service or before the International Anti-fouling System Certificate required under regulation 2 or 3 of the convention is issued for the first time. Ships are also obliged to undergo a survey when the anti-fouling systems are changed or replaced and the details of the survey recorded on the certificate. The certificate records the type of anti-fouling used, the manufacturer, where it was applied and by whom and even extends to the colour of the coating. Generally as long as the certificate appears to be in order, PSC inspectors are unlikely to order tests on the coatings although this can never be discounted. The convention includes a clause which states that a ship shall be entitled to compensation if it is unduly detained or delayed while undergoing inspection for possible violations of the convention.

The Black List


As mentioned earlier, the convention does not approve any products but is purely a prohibiting convention with a black list of banned substances. Today, organotin is still the only substance on the banned list which is contained as Annex I to the convention. However, there are expectations that other products may be added over time. Copper-based products are often mentioned as being likely candidates for future banning. For any product to be added to the list, an amendment is required under article 16 of the convention which will first be subject to a lengthy investigation process described in articles 6 and 7. As the shipping industry in general and the coatings manufacturers in particular are likely to be aware of any move to add a substance to the banned list well in advance of any action actually being taken, the length of time needed for the process is not likely to cause headaches for operators. Even so the convention does allow any vessel affected by an amendment to Annex I a period of grace of up to 60 months or until the coatings were due for renewal whichever is the earlier.

Paints and Coatings

Around the corner


It is somewhat ironic that the ban on TBT was brought in because a build-up of the biocides from anti-foulings was causing casualties among some species and now new regulation looks certain to encourage more of the same in a bid to stop the spread of invasive species. The realisation that species can be transferred around the world other than in ballast water seems to have finally dawned on regulators and in July 2011 the IMO a issued MEPC.207(62) entitled 2011 Guidelines for the control and management of ships biofouling to minimize the transfer of invasive aquatic species. The document came with a request for IMO member states to take action to implement the guidelines as fully as possible. So far there has been no international movement to make the guidelines binding but just as with the matter of ballast water treatment, some local attempts are being made to enact legislation. Not surprisingly, California has been a leader in this regard as there is no Federal US regulations on the issue although the USCG regulations on ballast water treatment do make mention of biofouling management. The IMO guidelines have been picked up by several classification societies and some coatings manufacturers including International Paint. Consequently there are now a number of model biofouling management plan (BMP) templates available free of charge and ready advice on offer. A typical BMP will record details of hull coatings and provide practical guidance on measures to minimise the risk of transferring invasive species from ships biofouling. That guidance would cover maintenance of anti-fouling systems and operational strategies such as matching coatings to environmental conditions likely to be encountered. A good BMP would ensure that factors such as slow steaming or long periods of inactivity are taken into account and paying particular attention to areas such as propellers, rudders, thrusters, anchors and chains, sea chests and chain lockers where conditions can permit organisms to survive for quite long periods. Unless a vessels flag state or a port state declares otherwise, the guidelines are voluntary but something that a prudent ship operator should consider implementing. As well as providing practical experience for the time when regulation eventually arrives, successfully managing biofouling also has a beneficial effect on ship efficiency and thus reduces fuel bills. Mandatory coatings are not yet something that operators need to
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Regulations worry about but as from the 1 January 2013, ships have been required to implement a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP). Under IMO regulations the exact date for individual ships is the first intermediate or renewal survey after 1 January 2013. Since hull fouling has an obvious detrimental effect on a ships efficiency it is evident that the matter of anti-fouling should be covered in its SEEMP. Taking voluntary action on biofouling could also make a ship more attractive to potential charterers and an obvious concern for environmental matters is likely to influence official inspectors in a positive way.

Performance Standards for Protective Coatings Ballast Tanks


Every shipowner should know that ballast tanks have historically proven a troublesome part of the ship to maintain and also that any failure in their structure can have catastrophic results. Any movement of the ship can start a scouring process inside the tank by sand and sediments taken in during ballasting. Cleaning and coating of tanks was most often carried out more to meet cost and time limits rather than to a high standard. Inspection of ballast tanks during construction, repair and in service was also often a cursory process and the standard of training sometimes such that difficult to spot deficiencies were overlooked. As work at the IMO on the ballast water treatment convention was coming to a close attention there, and in IACS, turned to addressing the issues of ballast tank coatings. In 2006 at MSC82 the IMO adopted Resolution MSC.215(82) Performance standard for protective coatings of dedicated seawater ballast tanks on all new ships and of double-side skin spaces of bulk carriers, which was made mandatory by way of amendments to SOLAS regulations II-1/3-2, also adopted at the session. The amendments subsequently entered force in 2008 and applied to newbuild contracts from that date. As from July 2012 most vessels delivered are covered by the new standards. The resolution title is generally referred to in abbreviated form as PSPC. Existing ships built before 2008 and those contracted before then but commenced later are not covered by the regulation. The PSPC applies only to dedicated seawater ballast tanks in all types of ships above 500gt and double side skin spaces in bulk carriers above 150m loa which are constructed of steel. It does not apply to cargo holds in bulk carriers that are sometimes used for ballast purposes. It is based

Paints and Coatings on a detailed specification and requirements which intend to provide a target useful coating life of 15 years, which is considered to be the time period, from initial application, over which the coating system is intended to remain in GOOD condition. GOOD is not a vague term but is defined as: A condition with spot rusting on less than 3% of the area under consideration without visible failure of the coating. Rusting at edges or welds should be on less than 20% of edges or weld lines in the area under consideration. The actual useful life will vary, depending on numerous variables including actual conditions encountered in service. While there is a requirement for the owner to maintain the coatings to the standards during the life of the ship, the most onerous parts of the regulation is directed at coating manufacturers, coatings contractors and inspectors. The PSPC is formulated around two-coat epoxy coatings but permits alternatives such as Nippon Paints NOA 60HS Self-Indicating one-coat epoxy coating system. Two coats were stipulated for the simple reason that the second and lighter colour coat allows easy identification of areas where coverage has been missed. The one-coat epoxy system has a very different colour depending upon the coating thickness making it relatively easy to see both under and overcoated areas. The PSPC requirements say that products used for ballast tank coating must be type approved but they go far beyond that simple statement with information on how the type approval process should be carried out. A great deal of the PSPC is about preparation of the tank surfaces and structures. This is understandable given that even the best coatings will fail if surfaces have not been properly prepared. Inspection standards are also covered in the standard. On delivery of the ship, the owner should also be given a Coatings Technical File (CTF) detailing the coatings used, shipyard work records, type approval certificates, results of inspections during construction and guidance on repair and maintenance. Once the ship is in service, the owner will be responsible for recording all repair and recoating activity together with appropriate documents. The flag state surveyors should not issue a safety Construction Certificate until the CTF is completed and his own inspection recorded. One aspect which was not covered in the PSPC that some consider is a serious omission is the potential for some ballast water treatments systems particularly those that make use of active substances to be
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Regulations incompatible with the particular coatings used on individual ships. There is a degree of dispute between coatings manufacturers and treatment system suppliers as to which of them should test for compatibility. Some treatment system makers have begun tests with different coatings and can give assurance but with so many systems and coatings on the market there are many permutations and owners should initiate discussions on compatibility at an early stage if later problems are to be avoided.

Performance Standards for Protective Coatings Cargo Tanks


Four years after the PSPC for ballast tanks was adopted by the IMO, a similar regulation was adopted to cover the cargo tanks of crude oil tankers. It would appear that the move was necessary due to the move from single-hull to double-hull crude oil tankers. The phenomenon of accelerated corrosion in cargo oil tanks had begun to be investigated in the mid to late 1990s when double-hull tankers became common. A 1997 report by OCIMF suggested that in addition to the more conventional corrosion mechanisms, a possible contributory cause of accelerated corrosion has been microbial attack from bacteria in the cargo oil. It would appear that, as crude oil is often loaded at temperatures higher than ambient air and sea temperatures, during the loaded passage the temperature of the cargo tank structure is being maintained at higher levels than normal due to the insulating effect of the double hull spaces. A new SOLAS Regulation II-1/3-11, which entered into force on 1 January 2012, on corrosion protection of cargo oil tanks of crude oil tankers, requires cargo oil tanks to be protected against corrosion and makes IMO Resolution MSC.288(87) Performance Standard for Protective Coatings for Cargo Oil Tanks of Crude Oil Tankers mandatory. These regulations are generally referred to as PSPC COT. As with the PSPC for ballast tanks, the regulation is directed more to the shipyard and coating supplier than to the vessel owner although the obligation to maintain and repair does pass to the owner on delivery. Since SOLAS did not actually contain a definition of a crude oil tanker it was necessary to address this omission as well. The new regulation came into force in January 2012 and applies to crude oil tankers of 5,000dwt and above for which the building contract is placed on or after 1 January 2013 or in the absence of a building contract, the keels of which are laid or which are at a similar stage of construction on or after 1 July

Paints and Coatings 2013 or the delivery of which is on or after 1 January 2016. It was already common practice to apply protective coatings in the upper and lower areas of cargo oil tanks but the IMO PSPC COT regulations set out more exact specifications. The following areas are the minimum areas that shall be protected according to the IMO text: 1. Deckhead with complete internal structure, including brackets connecting to longitudinal and transverse bulkheads. In tanks with ring frame girder construction the underdeck transverse framing to be coated down to level of the first tripping bracket below the upper faceplate. 2. Longitudinal and transverse bulkheads to be coated to the uppermost means of access level. The uppermost means of access and its supporting brackets to be fully coated. 3. On cargo tank bulkheads without an uppermost means of access the coating to extend to 10% of the tanks height at centreline but need not extend more than 3 m down from the deck. 4. Flat inner bottom and all structure to height of 0.3 m above inner bottom to be coated. Coatings must be type approved according to strict guidelines aimed at simulating exposure to a generic crude oil. The development of a testing protocol for new products was entrusted by the IMO to the International Paint and Printing Ink Council. To undertake this work, the council established a working group that was composed of representatives from class societies, shipowner groups, shipyards, testing laboratories and coating companies. The PSPC COT approval process for the actual coating on a vessel follows closely the procedures used in the PSPC for ballast tanks including the requirements for surface preparation, for a CTF and a target useful life of 15 years in GOOD condition for the coating.

A practical alternative for cargo tanks


Most of the leading coatings manufacturers have developed typeapproved coatings to meet the standard so compliance should not present any problems for owners. For owners looking for an alternative option to coatings for newbuildings, Japanese class society Nippon Kaiji
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Regulations Kyokai (ClassNK) has developed what it claims as the worlds first set of guidelines for the application of corrosion-resistant steels to the cargo oil tanks of oil tankers. They were accepted as an alternative to coatings as part of Resolution MSC.289(87). As a result, crude oil tankers over 5,000dwt contracted for construction after 1 January 2013 are able to use corrosion-resistant steel for the inner surfaces of cargo oil tanks. As the use of corrosion-resistant steel eliminates the need for the expensive facilities, preparation and finishing work associated with coating application, while reducing the need for maintenance and coating reapplication, the demand for such steels is expected to grow in the future. ClassNK certification was issued for the new NSGP-1 steel (Nippon Steel Green Protect) manufactured by Nippon Steel and confirms that the material complies with the IMOs new performance standard for corrosion-resistant steels. ClassNK has been involved since the start of development of corrosion-resistant steels, working closely with steel manufacturers, shipyards and shipowners, as well with the IMO and other organisations. The Guidelines on Corrosion Resistant Steel for COT document was released in January 2012. It is too early to estimate how the cost of corrosion-resistant steel will compare with conventional material, but the society is confident that any additional cost will be more than offset by avoiding the additional time, labour and resources needed to apply coatings.

Health and safety


All coatings products contain substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are released into the atmosphere during application and curing of the coating. The level of VOCs is frequently controlled by local regulations particularly in the developed world and places such as shipyards may be subject to inspection to ensure rules are being adhered to. In most instances this will be a matter for the contractor and not the ship operator to concern themselves with. However, VOCs present both a health and fire risk and should be taken into consideration when crew are carrying out any repair and maintenance to coating systems. A prudent operator would include the risk assessment in its ISM procedures and should ensure that any other hazards associated with any particular product are identified from the makers material safety data sheets (MSDS) or
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Paints and Coatings other issued safety advice. There are other safety issues for an operator to consider when crew are tasked to work on coatings. These include use of PPE and more generally applying safe practices for working at heights, overside and in enclosed spaces.

Dry Cargo Holds


There are no regulations affecting dry cargo holds in the same way as there are for ballast tanks and crude oil cargo tank. However, holds and particularly those in bulk carriers are subject to corrosion and damage cause by the cargo handling methods and the cargo itself. Since the majority of bulk carriers are single-skin vessels, the inside of the hold is also the hull and the double bottom tank tops. Therefore any corrosion is likely to affect the structural integrity of the vessel and therefore will be given special attention by PSC, P&I and class inspectors and surveyors. Some typical bulk cargoes such as coal, sulphur and fertilisers can themselves be corrosive and under the appropriate conditions of temperature and humidity can cause severe corrosion wastage in unprotected parts of the structure. For these reasons cargo holds are often coated, usually with epoxy coatings. The coatings used in cargo holds should be able to withstand physical damage such as experienced when shooting hard cargoes such as coal and ores and abrasion and gouging caused by the movement of the cargo during the voyage. Mechanical damage can also be cause by cargo handling equipment such as grabs and buckets used during discharge. Many leading manufacturers produce coatings specially designed for use in cargo holds. The coatings are notably robust and often of a hard coat type. Because some coatings can contain substances harmful to human health, certificates proving that the coating on a ship is harmless may be required by some administrations.

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Technologies

Chapter 2

Technologies
While coatings are of course products, they are highly complex ones and a huge amount of science and chemistry has gone into their development. From a ship operators point of view this will hardly appear to matter but if the wrong product is used for any particular purpose, or if incompatible products are used in conjunction with one another then the result will not meet expectations and could even affect the lifespan of the vessel. Coating systems usually consist of a primer, possibly a tie coat and one or more coats of the chosen product. All the products have a role to play with the primer being the first barrier against corrosion, a tie coat if necessary will bond the primer and the top coat and the top coat will provide the protection the coating system is designed for. Products from different manufacturers may employ similar technologies but usually a manufacturer develops its own products to work best together. The paint store on a top end ship will usually reflect this but further down the scale of good management this will not always be the case. The vast majority of coatings are applied when the ship is being constructed or during routine drydockings. Application by a ships crew is usually restricted to repair and maintenance work or for aesthetic reasons. Except in a very few cases, the quality of work by the crew is unlikely to match that of coatings contractors. If insufficient attention is given to surface preparation, mixing and method of application, the result will inevitably be inferior. All leading makers supply the necessary information required for both health and safety reasons and for technical advice. For ships with internet access, most of this material can be accessed directly from the makers website.
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Paints and Coatings

Layers of protection
On any coating system, the base coat will be the foundation upon which all subsequent coats are reliant upon. It must adhere to the steel substrate and will offer a degree of protection against corrosion. At the point in time when coating contractors begin work on a newbuilding the structure of the ship will almost certainly have some shop primer covering. Shop primers are used during fabrication and will need to be mechanically prepared or removed before the application of the system primer. They should not be confused with the main primer coat which forms the basis of the coating system. Today it is common practice to use a universal primer in newbuilding coatings rather than the range of different products that were used until quite recently. A universal primer may seem to be a compromise solution but in fact it would seem to have many benefits. From the shipyards point of view, a universal primer may cost more but it does reduces waste and allows for economies of scale in bulk purchases. For the paint manufacturers, product lines can be optimised and R&D more focused on whole systems rather than individual products. Shipowners might not appear to benefit directly but assuming the yards cost savings are passed on then there is a financial benefit and in all probability the coatings will be of a higher standard as workers will be more familiar with the product. For newbuilding work, almost all primers will contain zinc because of its highly effective anti-corrosion properties. There are two basic type of zinc primers zinc silicate and zinc epoxy. The former is considered better for initial coating at the shipyard while the epoxy is considered as the best option for repair and maintenance work because there is less of a requirement for a high standard of surface preparation.

Epoxy Products
This group of products are widely used on ships and account for most coating systems other than those below the waterline for biofouling management. They come as either pure epoxies or modified epoxies. The modified epoxies will have added ingredients designed for a specific purpose such as reducing curing time or application on areas Epoxy coatings need to harden or cure to form the outer protective coating. This can take a considerable time but with the use of a hardening agent the time is much reduced. For this reason most epoxy coatings are two-pack products; one being the resin and the other the hardener.
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Technologies The two parts have to be mixed in precise ratios for the declared properties of the final coating to be achieved. The hardening process is affected by a number of factors with temperature being particularly important. Coating thickness and humidity also affect drying times and quality of finish. Even when a coating is applied in full accordance with the manufacturers instructions the curing process can take several days or weeks before the maximum protective effect is achieved. During this period, care should be taken to avoid damage to the coating. Attempting to speed up a repair job by adding more hardener or adding solvents to extend the working time of a properly prepared mix will also have detrimental effects on the final finish. Epoxy coatings are used extensively for ballast tanks, cargo tanks and cargo holds. In some instances it will be possible for a coating to react with particular cargoes. Operators of chemical tankers should be well aware of the compatibility of coatings and cargoes and will doubtless have procedures in place to prevent loading of cargoes in inappropriate tanks. Some regulatory authorities such as the EU and the FDA prohibit the carriage of some foodstuffs in tanks and holds with a coating that can react with or be absorbed into the cargo. Coatings makers will publicise the products which have been given approval by such bodies.

Moisture Cure Urethane


Moisture curing urethane or polyurethane coatings are single component coatings in which the curing process is a chemical reaction with atmospheric water. They are an effective and economical coating and can be applied independent of the weather (temperature, humidity and dew point), dry quickly and are surface tolerant. Because this type of coating does not have to be mixed in the same way as two-component coatings there is no risk of error in mixing components. In addition, the coatings remain elastic and resistant to UV radiation to provide long term durability. The drying rate of one-component coatings is dependent on the relative atmospheric humidity and the temperature. Low temperature and low atmospheric humidity may slow down the drying considerably.

Fouling Control
Preventing weed and animal growth on the submerged parts of a ships hull is one of the most effective means of reducing fuel consumption.
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cospeed gives a very thorough and lasting defense against cavitation and corrosion damage for a ship hulls entire service life. The coating equally provides the underwater hull with an impenetrable protective layer while its flexibility enables absorption of the forces that

are produced by cavitation. This prevents the damage normally caused by this phenomenon. By removing the existing paint layers and applying Ecospeed on the hull we can break the never ending cycle of painting, suffering damage, having to perform exten-

sive repairs in drydock followed by a full repainting, again and again. With an Ecospeed application no full repaint will be needed during drydocking. Ecospeed is guaranteed for ten years. At the most, minor touch-ups will be required.

EU Office Phone: + 32 3 213 5318 Fax: + 32 3 213 5321 info@ecospeed.be

www.ecospeed.be

US Office Phone: + 1 727 443 3900 Fax: + 1 727 443 3990 info@ecospeed.us

Technologies Even in the days of wooden vessels when fuel consumption was not a factor to consider, there was a need to protect the hull from fouling and attack by animal such as the Teredo worm which would literally eat the timbers of the vessel. To protect vessels from the ravages of the Teredo worm copper sheets would be attached to the bottom of the ship. Copper is still used as a biocide in fouling protection and, as a result of the ban on coatings containing tin, is once again in common usage. The roughness of the hull on a microscopic scale also increases friction and reduces fuel efficiency. It also gives fouling organisms an easier surface to adhere to. The improved smoothness any underwater coating can allow is considered a benefit and is used in marketing coatings products. At least three different technologies are used to combat or prevent fouling with all having pros and cons. anti-foulings contain a biocide which releases gradually killing weed and organisms that attach to the hull. Foul release systems contain no biocide and work by preventing weed and organisms from attaching to the hull. These break down into two types; hard coatings and silicone-based products. The latter type have been further developed and there are now several products with nano properties that not only present a smooth surface that fouling finds difficult to adhere to but actively repels any organism that may attempt to settle on the hull.

Anti-fouling
Several grades of products are produced by leading manufacturers with performance generally increasing in line with price. The biocide in the current crop of anti-foulings is invariably a copper-based substance. There are plans by some US states to ban the sale of copper-based antifoulings at some future point. A similar move in the Netherlands for leisure craft was overturned by courts there. With no obvious replacement for copper biocides yet available, a ban for commercial shipping is not considered imminent. At the lower end of the scale of anti-fouling products are what are known as contact leaching coatings which release their biocides by diffusion into water which penetrates into them. Typically these contain lower levels of rosin and have a very short life span sufficient only to last between interim and special survey drydockings. An improved version has higher levels of rosin and the depletion rate of the biocide is more controlled and can last up to 60 months. Both types do little to improve
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Paints and Coatings hull roughness beyond the quality of the application. A further step up the scale are self-polishing coatings which, as their name suggests, are polished smooth all the while the ship is underway. Two types are available but not necessarily from all manufacturers. Silyl acrylate based products polish slowly initially before the rate of polishing steadily increases whereas metal acrylate systems polish fast initially before reaching a steady state. The banned TBT coatings were considered to have a linear polishing performance with the rate of polishing and biocide release constant throughout the life of the product. Manufacturers strive to develop products that match this performance with greater or lesser degrees of success. Products which come closest are considered the top tier of antifouling and command a premium price.

Foul Release
Since these products contain no biocides of any description they are considered more environmentally friendly and are unlikely to be subject to any restrictions in the same way that anti-foulings may. Some foul release coats are passive and some have an active repellent property as an added feature. Some products in this category have a long track record having been used extensively by operators in Japan which stopped the use of TBT well before the global ban came into effect. Most foul release coatings are silicone-based and have a relatively soft surface. Most of the species that attach to ships hulls do so using some type of natural adhesive. In order to attach strongly this adhesive must cover a relatively large area of the hull and bond to it. The very smooth non-stick surface that is made possible by foul release coatings coupled with the vessels movement through the water means that weed and organisms do not easily find a footing on the hull. Those that do manage to attach during periods of inactivity when the vessel is in port or at anchor for prolonged periods may cause some reduction in performance but to a far less extent than on an untreated hull or a depleted anti-fouling. The very smooth surface of foul release coats also means less drag and so allows for a higher fuel efficiency. It is for this type of product that most of the claims of significant fuel savings are made. There certainly seems to be no shortage of ship operators willing to endorse foul release coatings. Standard silicone foul release coatings are not immune from some
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Products (Primers) degree of fouling and to improve on their performance manufacturers have developed products with an added feature. Nano technology has allowed coatings to be developed with springs that physically repel organisms or in other cases to have a hydrogel layer which fools organisms by making the coating appear to be nothing more than seawater. As premium products this family of coatings is under constant development. One of the most recent products developed by International Paints claims to prevent even the bacterial slime layer that is found on all ships. Another type of foul release products are commonly known as hard coatings and rely on a very smooth and very hard non-stick surface to be effective. The hard surface is achieved using various means including the inclusion of glass platelets in the product that form an impenetrable barrier. These products make use of the same method as silicone versions to prevent fouling. In general, these products carry a significant cost premium over other coatings. Against this must be weighed the fact that some makers are prepared to offer ten-year guarantees against coating defects and claim a life span of around 25 years for their product except for mechanical damage such as may be caused by collisions with other vessels and fixed and floating objects. For all types of foul release coatings the benefit can be maintained longer by regular cleaning. Cleaning can be done in drydock or underwater by divers. The type of equipment will vary from water jetting to hard brushing depending upon the type of coating involved.

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Paints and Coatings

Chapter 3

Products (Primers)
The following information is mostly taken from manufacturers publicity material and may contain opinions expressed by the manufacturers. Further details of the products and matters related to them can be obtained direct from the makers or at the websites listed.

Advanced Marine Coatings AS


www.amcoat.no

The AMC primers combine the qualities of any traditional primer with what the makers says are the superior properties of the Carbon Nano Tube (CNT) reinforced epoxy coatings. It may be applied in any area requiring primer and through its excellent adhesion ensures that any top coat extends its usage over time.

Advanced Marine Coatings Heavy Duty Primer


Is a two-component, surface-tolerant epoxy anti-corrosion system with high solid content for all types of steel structures. It provides excellent corrosion protection in both freshwater and seawater. For use in newbuilds, maintenance and repair work. This product can be used in combination with any other AMC products.

Advanced Marine Coatings Epoxymastic


Another two-component, surface-tolerant epoxy anti-corrosion system. AMC Epoxymastic is tailor made for corrosion protection and flexibility. Combining the usability of traditional mastic coatings with CNT gives a unique adhesion and longevity.
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Products (Primers)

Brunel Marine Coating Systems


www.brunelmcs.com

EnviroMarine System
This system is a hard coat epoxy resin with 100% solids and containing no solvents. A chemical and mechanical bond to substrate and the chemical bonding of each layer, create a single impermeable protective coat. It can be applied quickly using a conventional airless pump and needs no specialised equipment or training. EnviroMarine can be applied in high humidity or light rain and does not need variable mixtures - the coating process will not be delayed by ordinary weather conditions. The same product can be used as a foul release coating and in ballast tanks and cargo holds.

Chugoku Marine Paints


www.cmp.co.jp

BANNOH 1500
This is a typical Universal Primer applicable for all areas including ballast water tanks and outer hull. It allows almost all different kinds of subsequent coats providing good adhesion and contributes total cost saving due to higher solid. It is low VOC type, which contributes to the improvement of global environment and working condition, and it also provides a smooth coated surface. With the use of CMPs hydrolysis anti-fouling paint for hulls, it delivers fuel savings, induced by low friction between sea water and smooth coated surface.

Hempel
www.hempel.com

HEMPADUR UNIQ 47741/47743


Two related self-priming, two-component, high-build, pure epoxy paints, polyamide/amine cured and abrasion and corrosion resistant. Both can be used as a universal primer or self-primed high performance coating system for atmospheric or in-water service. They provide the possibility of reducing the number of primers for new-building. HEMPADUR UNIQ 47741 is intended for use in warm climates above 10C/50F and 47743 is intended for use in cold climates down to -10C/14F.
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Paints and Coatings

International Paints
www.international-marine.com

Intershield300
With a proven track record on over 12,000 vessels since 1988, Intershield300 is claimed to be the industry benchmark in IMO PSPC compliant anticorrosive performance. This abrasion resistant, (>9%) aluminium pure epoxy coating, offers long term asset protection, control of through life maintenance costs, enhanced vessel earning potential, excellent application properties and low temperature workability.

Intershield300HS
New Intershield300HS is a high solids version of the above, which offers 78% volume solids and reduced VOC emissions, without compromising build productivity. With the aluminium content maintained at >9%, Intershield 300HS is said to deliver excellent corrosion control.

Intergard7600
Intergard7600 is a light coloured pure epoxy universal primer providing good abrasion resistance and corrosion control. It offers excellent application properties, low temperature workability and true long overcoating intervals.

Intergard787
With 80% volume solids, Intergard787 helps meet the environmental challenge with reduced VOC emissions, application time and cost, in addition to cutting the amount of cleaner used, wastage and packaging. It has an excellent track record in Korean Newbuilding shipyards.

Intergard5600/5620 (Summer/Winter)
These light coloured, epoxy universal primers have excellent sprayability all year round and are based on proven anticorrosion technology.

Jotun
www.jotun.com

Jotacote Universal
is a two-pack abrasive resistant high solid (72%) pure epoxy for use in newbuildings and for maintenance.

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Products (Primers)

Jotamastic range
The Jotamastic range is a family of twin-pack surface tolerant epoxy primers that can also be used as finish coats. Jotamastic 80 is the basic product intended for less severe environments with Jotamastic 87 designed for more severe environments and a long life as the mid-range product and Jotamastic 90 having the longest life and suited for any environment. Jotamastic 80AL, Jotamastic 87AL and Jotamastic 90AL are improved versions containing aluminium flakes to give a waterproof barrier. Jotamastic 87GF and Jotamastic 90GF are the premium products in the range containing glass flakes for an impenetrable abrasion resistant surface. Jotamastic SF is a high solid solvent free version that is ideal for hot work in confined spaces.

MCU Coatings
www.mcucoatings.com

MCU-Zinc
is a single component moisture cure urethane coating that can be applied in 6% to 99% humidity and to damp substrates. It is resistant to moisture within 30min. of application and is fast curing.

MCU-MIO
zinc is a single component moisture cure urethane based on MCU Zinc and containing micaceous iron oxide. MCU-Coatings claim it to be an anti-corrosive primer that has proved to be more surface tolerant than epoxy mastic coatings and to outperform perfectly applied inorganic zinc primers.

MCU-Aluprime
is a high solids surface tolerant, aluminum and micaceous iron oxide primer for ferrous and non-ferrous metal substrates with outstanding barrier protection against corrosive elements. MCU Aluprime can be used as primer, intermediate or topcoat in immersion-, splash zone or atmospheric exposure.

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the naval architects choice for independent hull and propeller performance monitoring.

The CASPER Service

Begin Partial hull data collection cleaning 60% Full hull cleaning Drydocking Hull cleaning

Long-Term Development of Hull and Propeller Resistance

added resistance

50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600

Validate fuel efficiency of new hull coatings: whether you are interested in the performance improvements before and after docking or between dockings, CASPER provides the metrics to truly assess hull blasting and coating efficiency. Establish a condition-based hull husbandry program can be critical with slow steaming and port restrictions on inwater husbandry. Different hull coating systems in connection with vessel operational profiles may require cleaning to sustain highest fuel efficiency. Evaluate all hull cleaning technologies for cost, effectiveness and fuel efficiency. Predict and measure the effect of hull pre-treatments in drydock. Full blasting of selected hulls can greatly improve fuel efficiency. Set KPIs for technical fuel efficiency. The ships added resistance is a critical KPI in the CASPER program. This KPI indicates immediately and accurately the combined hull and propeller condition across the fleet.

days for development of added resistance

Since 2002, Propulsion Dynamics has provided shipowners and charterers with web-based performance analysis and recommendations. CASPER is a subscription service based on vessel performance data collected without additional software, equipment or CFD studies. This data is compared to sea trial condition (clean, smooth hull) using state-of-the-art naval architectural weather corrections.

The Americas: 6475 E. Pacic Coast Highway, Suite 500, Long Beach, California 90803 USA Phone: +1 562.495.9027 Europe/Hellas: Stockholmsgade 43 DK-2100 Copenhagen Denmark Phone: +45 31.14.42.36

www.propulsiondynamics.com

Products (Primers)

Sherwin-Williams
www.sherwin-williams.com

Fast Clad Epoxy


Primer is an ultra high solids epoxy amine primer engineered for immersion service in sea water ballast tanks, fuel/sea water ballast tanks, and petroleum storage tanks. The rapid return to service properties of this coating provide superior protection compared to conventional epoxies. A version called Blue OAP contains fluorescent pigments that show up under UV light highlighting areas where the topcoat has not been properly applied.

Sigma Coatings
www.sigmacoatings.com

SIGMAPRIME range
The SIGMAPRIME range consists of high-quality, multi-purpose epoxy anti-corrosives that have been specifically designed to suit modern shipyard building practices and to ensure excellent long-term corrosion protection. Applied in two layers, the coating serves as a proven highquality, water ballast tank system. As evidence of its success it was applied on the water ballast tank of the very first IMO PSPC type-approved vessel.

SIGMAPRIME 200
Two-component, multi-purpose, anti-corrosive epoxy system. Lowtemperature version delivers excellent performance when applied down to -10C (14F). Can be specified up to 200m (7.9mils) dft in one single coat.

SIGMAPRIME 700
70% high-solids, two-component, multi-purpose, anti-corrosive epoxy system. Low-temperature version provides excellent performance when applied down to -10C (14F).

SIGMAPRIME 800
80% High-solids, two-component, multi-purpose, anti-corrosive epoxy system. Low-temperature version provides excellent performance when applied down to -10C (14F). Can be specified up to 250m (9.8mils) dft in one single coat.

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Paints and Coatings

Chapter 4

Products

(Ballast tanks and cargo spaces)


Advanced Marine Coatings AS
www.amcoat.no

Advanced Marine Coatings Cargo Hold

The abrasion and fatigue resistant properties of this coating is ideal for the challenges faced by bulk carriers. Wear and tear on the cargo hold coatings is considerably reduced and re-painting can be done less frequently. Strengthening Epoxy coating with Carbon Nanotubes has proven that a dramatic increase the abrasion resistance and surface smoothness of marine coatings can be acheived. In addition the exceptional smooth surface of the AMC Cargo Hold makes it considerably easier to clean and reduces time used for cargo hold cleaning compared to other alternatives.

Advanced Marine Coatings Ballast


Carbon nanotube (CNT) modified two component solvent free epoxy systems for all types of ballast tanks and other types of tanks in ships containing salt water and exposed to difficult substances like sand and gravel. In addition to reinforcing the coating, which is done by the nanotubes, AMC also improves the viscosity of the paint and adhesion to steel and other difficult surfaces. AMC Ballast Tank coat systems can be applied free of pores and the dense structure of the coating provides optimum protection against corrosion. It also prevents cracking by vibrations and movements and reduces the risk of disposal on the edges and in other vulnerable areas.
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Products (Ballast tanks and cargo spaces)

Advanced Polymer Coatings


www.adv-polymer.com

A US-based company that specialises in tank coatings for chemical and product tankers.

MarineLine 784

MarineLine is claimed as the only high performance lining that withstands all IMO approved chemical cargoes. Its unique cross-linked polymer structure does not allow a chemical cargo to permeate the lining. The maker claims that This Forced Hot Air, Heat Cure coating outperforms stainless steel and all other coatings providing the highest chemical resistance available on the market today. Being heat cured in the shipyard enables MarineLine 784 coated tanks to carry aggressive cargoes immediately out of the shipyard without restrictions.

MarineMend

Is a two-component 100% solid coating manufactured with the same polymer as MarineLine. MarineMend is supplied in complete small sized kits for quick and easy repairs of mechanically damaged MarineLine coating, holidays (pinholes), and damage from welding due to modification work in cargo tanks.

GuardLine LTC

GuardLine LTC (Low Temperature Cure) cures in the range of +25C/+77F. APC says the coating can avoid the additional cost and time of a high-temperature forced-hot air heat cure, which is necessary for the high chemical resistance of the companys MarineLine 784 system used for chemical tankers and their more hazardous cargoes. It is intended for the clean petroleum products, bio-fuels, vegetable and edible oils, and dirty petroleum products markets.

Brunel Marine Coating Systems


www.brunelmcs.com

EnviroMarine System
This system is a hard coat epoxy resin with 100% solids and containing no solvents. A chemical and mechanical bond to substrate and the chemical bonding of each layer, create a single impermeable protective coat. It can be applied quickly using a conventional airless pump and needs no specialised equipment or training. EnviroMarine can be applied in high humidity or light rain and does not need variable mixtures - the coating process will not be delayed by
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Paints and Coatings ordinary weather conditions. The same product can be used as a foul release coating and in ballast tanks and cargo holds.

Chugoku Marine Paints


www.cmp.co.jp

EVAMAX 2000 and EVAMAX 2000 F


These two related coatings are low VOC heavy-duty coatings based upon a combination of epoxy resin, a special abrasive resistant agent and polyamide curing agent. They possess an excellent range of characteristics :- strong adhesion, very good anticorrosive performance, and a high degree of inherent toughness/scratch/abrasion/impact resistance. In addition to cargo holds the products are suitable for protection of exposed deck areas. When used as part of an approved scheme, these products have the following test results/certification EVAMAX 2000: Grain Contamination Testing - Report No.8230/08 EVAMAX 2000F: FDA Certificate

Hempel
www.hempel.com

HEMPADUR EM 35740
Developed for smaller difficult access areas where climate control and surface preparation is difficult. It is a two-component, ultra high solids and very low VOC epoxy coating with good self-priming properties and is suited for application even under humid conditions and on marginally prepared surfaces. Treated areas such as ballast tanks, can quickly be reimmersed and put back in service. It is especially recommended for spots and small area onboard maintenance and repair in water ballast tank. It can be used on moist surfaces, under conditions of 100% relative humidity and is mainly intended for brush application.

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With nearly a centurys marine paint and coating experience, Hempel can always provide the protection you need to keep business moving. We believe in working closely with you to understand your specic challenges. This enables us to supply a solution that not only keeps your vessel in prime condition, but that also makes sound nancial sense. Take the 60-second test and discover the product that best suits your needs at antifouling.hempel.com Proven performance. Dependable value.

Paints and Coatings

HEMPADUR QUATTRO 17634


A two-component universal epoxy paint which cures to a hard and tough coating with good resistance to abrasion, seawater and various oils. As a universal epoxy and self-primed high performance coating system for atmospheric or in-water service, including cargo holds and water ballast tanks to be coated according to IMO-PSPC requirements. HEMPADUR QUATTRO 17634 is intended for all year application down to -10C/15F and for in-shop applications where fast recoating and handling is required.

HEMPADUR QUATTRO ALU 45604


A two-component aluminium pigmented universal epoxy paint, which cures to a hard and tough coating with superior anticorrosive properties and good resistance to abrasion, seawater and various oils. Designed as a universal epoxy and self-primed high performance coating system for atmospheric or in-water service and as primer for HEMPADUR QUATTRO 17634 for water ballast tanks. HEMPADUR QUATTRO ALU 45604 is intended for all year application down to -10C/ 15F and for in-shop applications where fast recoating and handling is required.

HEMPADUR QUATTRO FIBRE 47604


A two-component aluminium pigmented universal epoxy paint with synthetic mineral fibres, which cures to a hard, tough and abrasion resistant coating with superior anticorrosive properties, good resistance to seawater and various oils and significantly improved crack resistance. It is a universal epoxy and self-primed superior performance coating system for atmospheric or in-water service. HEMPADUR QUATTRO FIBRE 47604 is intended for all year application down to -10C/ 15F and for in-shop applications where fast recoating and handling is required. Can reduce cracking and break down in high stress areas characterised by harsh in-service conditions such as mechanical flexing/impacts and cycling of wet/dry conditions and high/ low service temperatures.

HEMPADUR ULTRA STRENGTH 47500


This is a self-priming, two-component, high-build, pure epoxy-polyamine paint which cures to a very abrasion, impact and corrosion resistant coating. It is applicable by standard heavy duty airless spray equipment. Designed as a heavy duty coating for areas exposed to abrasion and aggressive corrosive climate such as hatch coamings and cargo holds of bulk carriers and is particularly suited for hard, angular cargoes
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Products (Ballast tanks and cargo spaces) such as coal, iron ore and bauxite. It has grain certification from Newcastle NHS. 10 year major repair interval.

HEMPADUR IMPACT 47800


A self-priming, two-component high build pure epoxy paint which cures to an abrasion, impact and corrosion resistant coating. It is applicable by standard heavy duty airless spray equipment. As a dedicated heavy duty coating for hatch coamings and cargo holds of bulk carriers. 7 year major repair interval. This coating is certified for carriage of grain and FDA compliant for dry food contact.

HEMPADUR 15400
A two-component, amine adduct cured epoxy paint, which cures to a coating with excellent resistance to a wide range of chemicals as listed in Hempels CARGO PROTECTION GUIDE (available from the company website).

HEMPADUR 15500
This is a two-component, amine adduct cured phenolic epoxy (novolac) paint, which cures to a coating with excellent resistance to a wide range of chemicals.

GALVOSIL 15700

Described as a two-component, solvent-borne, self-curing, inorganic zinc silicate with outstanding resistance against weathering and abrasion. It has excellent chemical resistance within the pH range 6-9. This coating can be used as a general purpose, heavy-duty, rust-preventing primer; as a single, complete coating for long-term protection of steel exposed to moderately to severely corrosive environment and to abrasion and as a tank lining in accordance with the Hempel CARGO PROTECTION GUIDE.

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Paints and Coatings

International Paints
www.international-marine.com

The company has a range of products designed for ballast and cargo tanks and cargo holds.

Ballast Tank Products


Intershield 300. A light coloured abrasion resistant, aluminium pure epoxy coating giving excellent long term anticorrosive protection and low temperature application capability. Intershield 300 is the premium performing product in the International Paint ballast tank coating range. Intergard 403 is an epoxy coating with an extensive track record at maintenance and repair. Intergard 403 and the low temperature version Intergard 423, offer high performance corrosion protection for water ballast tanks. The buff and grey colours enhance inspection and working conditions. Designed primarily for use on-board by riding squads or ships crews, Interbond 808 is a light coloured, two pack epoxy particularly suited to repair at sea as it is both surface and damp tolerant. Interprime 65. A one pack, light coloured, surface tolerant ballast tank repair system for economic on board maintenance.

Cargo Hold Coatings


Intershield 803Plus Internationals toughest ever cargo hold coating that has been specifically designed to withstand the impacts of modern high speed belt conveyors, frequently used at loading. Shooting damage from such mechanisms can have a dramatic effect on coating lifetimes. Intershield 803 - a two-pack, high performance, abrasion resistant pure epoxy coating. Its excellent mechanical properties limit mechanical damage and subsequent corrosion. With an extensive track record and proven performance it offers outstanding long term protection. Intergard 7020 - an aluminium two-component pure epoxy coating offering good corrosion and abrasion resistance. Interbond 201 - a surface tolerant, anticorrosive primer, available in two grades: a temperate version for use at temperatures down to 5C (41F)
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Paints and Coatings and a low temperature curing version for use at temperatures down to -5C (23F).

Cargo Tanks
Interline Range Featuring new Bimodal Epoxy technology, Interline 9001 provides zero cargo absorption for many cargoes. Internationals smoothest tank lining yet, its glossy surface makes tank cleaning easier. With enhanced cargo resistance, it offers a step change in performance compared to standard epoxy phenolic technology. Offering over 60% fewer cycling restrictions, it is suitable for carrying all of the cargoes that epoxy phenolic can, plus a further 25% of the large volume cargoes that it cannot. An epoxy phenolic tank coating, Interline 994, is designed for the carriage of an extensive range of aggressive cargoes, providing operational flexibility within the chemical and spot market product trades. Offers excellent chemical resistance and USA FDA / EU Food Contact compliance. Interline 904 is a polyisocyanate cured, high performance epoxy. With a broad range of cargo carriage (including acrylonitrile) and sequencing, it provides operational flexibility within the chemical and spot market product trades. Full chemical resistance is achieved without the need for post curing. Interline 704 is the industry benchmark in pure epoxy technology for product tankers, providing good chemical resistance for flexible cargo carriage and meeting FDA regulations for carrying liquid foodstuffs into the USA. Interline 344 is a zinc silicate coating designed for vessels engaged in the neutral solvents and chemicals trade. It allows more efficient tank cleaning operations, control of VOC emissions and improved mudcracking resistance. Also available are: Interline 624 and Interline 644, are solvent free cargo tank coatings, offering required cargo carriage capabilities and yard regulatory compliance.

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Products (Ballast tanks and cargo spaces)

Jotun
www.jotun.com

Ballast

Balloxy HB Light is a surface tolerant, two-pack, high build, epoxy mastic based coating specially designed for ballast tanks. Balloxy HB Light is resistant to abrasion, mechanical damage, stress and exposure to the elements. It can be applied up to 300m in a single coat without sagging (Jotun however recommend 2 x 150m coats). It can be applied directly to prepared surfaces whether blast cleaned, power tool or hand tool prepared or water jetted. It is also compatible with most other generic types of paint and with cathodic protection. Balloxy HB Lumi provides all the benefits of Balloxy HB Light and contains an Optically Active Additive incorporated in the paint which makes it react to ultra violet light. When the first coat is applied, ultra violet light from a specialist lamp is shone on to the surface to monitor the quality of the application. Areas of high film thickness will appear much brighter than low film thickness. First coat defects or areas of under thickness show up as black spots under UV light. Remedial work can then be undertaken. When the second coat is inspected, any areas that have defects will be seen and, again, these can be remedied. This information and the condition of the coating can be easily monitored and photographed throughout the life of the vessel. Balloxy HB Lumi provides great advantages in saving time, whilst improving the standards of inspection, together with potential savings in material.

Cargo Holds

Jotaguard 600 series A range of three pure epoxy coatings for use in cargo holds. The hard wearing epoxy based cargo hold coating Jotaguard 630 is intended for maintenance situations and is certified for carriage of grain. Jotaguard 660 provides very good protection for cargo holds subject to mechanical damage and corrosive climate. It protects against hard, angular cargoes and is FDA compliant and certified for carriage of grain. At the top of the range the pure epoxy coatings Jotaguard 690 and Jotaguard 690 S provide ultimate protection of cargo holds. Jotaguard 690 is a primer with excellent mechanical properties, and Jotaguard 690 S is recommended as a finish coat to maximise abrasion- and scratch resistance. The combination has very high mechanical strength and withshipinsight.com | March 2013 | 35

Paints and Coatings stands abrasion, impact and gouging in tough environments. The coating reduces the need for maintenance during operation and is FDA compliant and certified for carriage of grain.

Cargo Tank Tankguard


A range of coatings developed to protect different type of tanks against corrosion and their cargo against contamination. Tankguard Zinc is designed for high value cargoes such as methanol being contracted for a certain period of time with short frequent voyages. Tankguard Special Ultra is designed for transportation of cargoes including aggressive chemicals like methanol, bio-diesel and vegetable oils with up to 100% FFA. It is easy to clean and has a short recovery time which makes it an ideal tank coating for product- and chemical carriers transporting a broad range of products with rapid turnover. Which coating system to use, depends on ship type, trade pattern and type- and aggressiveness of the chemicals and solvents to be shipped. Operators have individual needs and may be forced to choose between coatings that are resistant to the broadest range of cargoes or a clearly defined cargo/group of chemicals. To help choosing the right coating, Jotun has developed a web-based resistance list. This includes all its specially designed tank coatings against over 14,000 chemicals. The resistance list includes an advanced search function and a calculation tool. The programme has the advantage of being useable on-line as well as downloadable.

MCU Coatings
www.mcucoatings.com

Ballast Tanks

MCU-Mastic is a coloured moisture cured intermediate/topcoat with outstanding corrosion resistance and barrier performance when used for immersion or non-UV exposure service. MCU-Mastic has a smooth semi-gloss finish and is available in custom colours for interior applications. MCU-Mastic is free of any tar and so available in light colours to facilitate interior tank inspection. It is intended for use in ballast tanks or cargo holds.

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Products (Ballast tanks and cargo spaces)

Cargo Holds

MCU-Aluprime is a high solids surface tolerant, aluminum and micaceous iron oxide primer for ferrous and non-ferrous metal substrates with outstanding barrier protection against corrosive elements. MCU Aluprime can be used as primer, intermediate or topcoat in immersion-, splash zone or atmospheric exposure. FDA approved for use in cargo holds.

Nippon Paint Marine Coatings


www.nipponpaint-marine.com

NOA Range
A range of coatings all two-component epoxy based and featuring unique patented self-indicating technology making use of pigment control within the coating giving the ability to see the development of the colour thus confirming if the correct thickness has been achieved. This reduces the need for complicated thickness checking and also eliminates the need for a two coat application as recommended by the IMO PSPC. NOA 60HS is a light coloured coating for corrosion protection of steel surfaces. It has been designed especially for use in ballast tanks, cargo oil tanks and voids. NOA 10F is recommended for cargo holds, as is NOA GF which is an abrasion resistant variant. NOA PC is for cargo and grey water tanks.

Sherwin-Williams
www.sherwin-williams.com

Ballast tanks

Tank Guard Epoxy Polyamide is an epoxy polyamide coating formulated for application on steel surfaces in fuel and salt water ballast tanks. This product complies with Military Specification MIL-PRF-23236C Type V, Class 5, Grade C

Cargo Tanks

Phenicon HS Flake Filled Epoxy is a VOC-compliant epoxy novolac phenolic with micaceous iron oxide. Designed for use as part of a system for internal tank lining. Designed as part of a system to improve performance in immersion service compared to non-micaceous iron oxide filled coatings. Internal tank lining for most petroleum products such as: crude oil, unleaded gasoline, most aromatic solvents, motor fuels, alkalies, and brines. Phenicon HS Epoxy is a VOC-compliant epoxy novolac phenolic
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Paints and Coatings

for Chemical Tankers


THE tank coating system for handling aggressive chemical cargoes.
Transport all IMO cargoes, especially aggressive acids, solvents and alkalis, with MarineLine 784 tank coating system. The coating uses an impermeable polymer-based technology to ensure cargo product purity from port to port.
Advanced Polymer Coatings Avon, Ohio 44011 U.S.A.

38 | shipinsight.com +01 440-937-6218 Phone

+01 440-937-5046 Fax

www.adv-polymer.com

Products (Ballast tanks and cargo spaces)

coating formulated for use as an internal lining for tanks used to hold crude oil and most refined petroleum products including unleaded gasoline, MTBE, aromatic solvents, and most octane booster blending stocks. Light Blue contains Opti-Check OAP pigment technology for rapid holiday detection with safe blue light inspection lamps.

Sigma Coatings
www.sigmacoatings.com

Ballast Tank
Sigmaguard 603 Sigmacover 280, 280LT, 380, 380LT

Cargo Hold
Sigmacover350, 350LT Sigmarine 80 Sigmashield 220, 220LT, 420, 420LT, 460, 460LT, 905

Cargo Tank
Sigmas website allows access to a tool that can be used to match cargoes with appropriate tank coatings.

The PHENGUARD system provides protection against a wide range of aggressive cargoes. The three-coat system is easy to apply using standard shipyard practices. It confers the ability to carry an exceptionally wide range of cargoes, including highly aggressive loads such as methanol, EDC and fatty acids. It is also resistant to hot water as well as grey water and galley waste. Products include PHENGUARD 930/935/940. The PHENGUARD 965 system, developed from the original technology, meets the increasing demands for a wider application window, easy-to-clean surface and with the ability to be applied and to cure at temperatures down to 5C (41F).

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Paints and Coatings

Chapter 5

Products (Fouling Control)


Advanced Marine Coatings AS
www.amcoat.no

Since 2006 AMC has developed and tested super smooth bottom paints for the merchant marine that are modified with nanotechnology. The platform for a whole new generation of bottom paints are based on a patented Finnish technology to disperse Carbon Nanotubes (CNT / Baytube from Bayer) in liquid polymers. Carbon Nanotubes function as reinforcement in coating systems. In addition, the flow properties also improved and the use of thinner / solvents can be substantially reduced. By using modern equipment one can eliminate the use of solvents completely. Our coatings also provide a pore free surface where algae and slime are unable to grow. Shellfish, crustaceans and barnacles will be unable to attach themselves to such a surface. Advanced Marine Coatings Antifoul An anti-foul system based on copper oxide slowly leaking through the coating during a span of several years. The coating remains very smooth and has low friction against water. It is applied with roller, brush or spray and without added solvents (VOC).
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Products (Fouling Control)

Advanced Marine Coatings Antifoul, Super sleek


An anti-foul system that combines a copper oxide solution with a fine tuned super sleek surface that is particularly suitable for vessels involved in washing regimes and high speed ferries or catamarans. The pore free coating film has proved to be extremely hydrophobic and water repellent. Speed trials have proven that it is possible to increase speed up 10% compared to alternative anti-foulings. In addition the nano reinforcement ensures that the coating does not lift from the steel surface if washed by high pressure water cleaners.

Advanced Marine Coatings Heavy Duty Easy Clean


AMC `s foul release systems are in the midst of a very exciting development where a combination of polymer and nano-particle modification has shown very good release-and-wear properties. The coating is delivered free from any biocides and copper.

Brunel Marine Coating Systems


www.brunelmcs.com

EnviroMarine System
This system is a hard coat epoxy resin with 100% solids and containing no solvents. A chemical and mechanical bond to substrate and the chemical bonding of each layer, create a single impermeable protective coat. It can be applied quickly using a conventional airless pump and needs no specialised equipment or training. EnviroMarine can be applied in high humidity or light rain and does not need variable mixtures - the coating process will not be delayed by ordinary weather conditions. The same product can be used in ballast tanks and cargo holds. As a foul release coating, EnviroMarine is intended as a one-time coating and should only need repair to mechanical damage.

Chugoku Marine Paints


www.cmp.co.jp

SEAGRANDPRIX Advanced Fusion Range


SEA GRANDPRIX 220HS, 330R and 660 HS (including the release rate controller) are a range of anti-fouling paints designed to meet the economic challenges faced by the marine industry and perform on a dock to dock basis regardless of the ship age or time requirements between dockings, whether it be 24,30,36,48 or 60 months. The range simplifies
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Paints and Coatings specifications and every product can be used with each other in duplex schemes as appropriate. Modern technology enabled increased volume solids which automatically reduces Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) / emission levels. Modern technology has also improved working processes, at application (higher volume solids = less anti-fouling paint to apply and drums to dispose of), furthermore these products are compatible with majority of existing grades of anti-fouling, and are suitable for use on all ship types.

SEA GRANDPRIX 1000L


Launched in 2011, this is an improved version of the long-established SEA GRANDPRIX 1000. It is a hydrolysis-type self-polishing anti-fouling paint for ship bottoms. It is a low-VOC paint which also gives consideration to the environment. It is suitable for all ship types including container vessels and has a life span of up to 90 months.

SEA GRANDPRIX CF-10


This is an unusual product being both tin and copper free. It is self-polishing anti-fouling paint that has been specially developed for the ocean going vessels, based on a unique zinc polymer employing the ionomer technology. Designed for all vessel types it has a service life in the region of five years.

SEAFLOW NEO
Another coating introduced in 2011, SEAFLO NEO is a high performance TBT free hydrolysis anti-fouling, utilising a new polymer to deliver an ultra-smooth surface with self-levelling technology and excellent selfpolishing performance, thus providing long term anti-fouling protection, low friction resistance in resulting low-fuel consumption. SEAFLO NEO is claimed by the maker to be the lowest VOC(330g/L) anti-fouling in the hydrolysis category.

SEAFLOW NEO SL
This is a premium version of the above with an ultra-smooth surface and constant/lower polishing rate by means of advanced silyl technology as well as micro pigmentation technology. Thanks to newly developed silyl polymer and self-levelling performance, SEAFLO NEO SL is designed in low VOC with high solid which can provide less quantity used for specific docking interval without any undesirable fouling even for 90 months docking interval.

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Products (Fouling Control)

Hempel
www.hempel.com

OLYMPIC+
A self-polishing, rosin-based anti-fouling with a high solid volume. The coating is reinforced with patented inorganic fibre technology for optimal mechanical strength. This is described as an economic anti-fouling coating for protection of vessels operating in not overly aggressive fouling conditions for up to 36 months. The bioactive package provides good protection for vessels operating in fouling conditions that are not overly aggressive. For maintenance and new building of bottom and boot top on deepsea vessels that operate at medium to high speeds. It is deal for vessels with high activity levels and short idle periods.

OCEANIC+
Oceanic+ is a proven and cost-effective hydrolysing anti-fouling coating for reliable performance in most trading waters. Oceanic+ can be specified for up to 60 months. Oceanic+ is a self-polishing anti-fouling based on zinc-carboxylate technology with a high solid volume. The coating is reinforced with patented inorganic fibre technology for optimal mechanical strength. The efficient bioactive mixture provides steady protection for vessels operating in fouling conditions that are not overly aggressive. For both newbuilding and maintenance of bottom and boottop on deepsea vessels that operate at low to medium speed. Ideal for vessels with low to medium activity levels and short to medium idle periods.

GLOBIC 6000
Globic 6000 is an anti-fouling coating based on proven nano-capsules technology. Globic 6000 delivers reliable performance for up to 60 months and a good return on investment. It is a self-polishing, hydrolysing anti-fouling that utilises the nano-capsule binder-system. Patented inorganic fibre technology gives the coating extraordinary mechanical strength. The efficient bioactive mixture provides good protection for vessels operating in normal to aggressive fouling conditions. For both new building and maintenance of bottom and boot top on deep-sea going vessels that operate at medium to high speeds. It is intended for vessels with a medium level of activity.

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Paints and Coatings

GLOBIC 9000
Globic 9000 is a premium anti-fouling coating that delivers an outstanding return on investment over extended docking intervals of up to 90 months in aggressive waters. It is a very efficient, self-polishing, hydrolysing anti-fouling that uses nano-capsule acrylate binder technology for highly controlled self-polishing. Patented inorganic fibre technology gives the coating extraordinary mechanical strength. It offers premium fouling protection for vessels that operate worldwide in aggressive fouling conditions. For both newbuilding and maintenance of bottom and boottop on deep-sea going vessels that operate at low to medium speeds.

DYNAMIC 79540
Is a high solid, self-smoothening and self-polishing anti-fouling based on a hydrolysing silyl acrylate binder that ensures effective polishing control. This coating contains an inorganic fibre reinforcement that provides high mechanical strength. It is intended as an anti-fouling for bottom and boottop especially on vessels operating at medium to high speed and high activity with short idle periods and for service intervals up to 90 months.

DYNAMIC 79560
A high solid, self-smoothening and self-polishing anti-fouling based on a hydrolysing silyl acrilate binder that ensures effective polishing control. This coating contains an inorganic fibre reinforcement that provides high mechanical strength. For both newbuilding and maintenance of bottom and boottop on deep-sea going vessels that operate at low to high speeds.

DYNAMIC 79580
A high solid, self-smoothening and self-polishing anti-fouling based on a hydrolysing silyl acrilate binder that ensures effective polishing control. As with other products in the range, an inorganic fibre reinforcement provides high mechanical strength. As an anti-fouling for bottom and boottop on vessels operating in coastal trade at low to medium speeds and low to medium activity.

HEMPASIL X3
This is a third generation fouling release coating with high solids content. It is a premium product described as a biocide-free fouling release coating that delivers optimal fuel savings and return on investment. An invisible hydrogel microlayer makes it hard for fouling organisms to attach to the
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Products (Fouling Control) hull and the product has excellent self-cleaning properties. The coating is designed for vessels with service speeds above 8 knots.

Hydrex Underwater Technology


www.hydrex.be

Ecospeed
A hard coat product, Ecospeed contains a high concentration of embedded glass platelets. It has a very low amount of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and is typically applied in two coats of 500 m dft. The high film thickness and the presence of glass platelets which act as an impermeable barrier explain why Ecospeed has excellent anti-corrosive properties. It is extremely durable, making it perfectly suited to be subjected to regular in-water surface treatment. The timing of application is geared to the schedule of the yard. This flexibility can be easily achieved with Ecospeed because the coating has versatile application potentials. Either of the two required coats can be applied at any time during the building process, even when there is a winter period or serious bad weather between applications. With Ecospeed only one application is required and the cost of any future repaints is eliminated apart from repairs caused by contact damage. This also helps shipowners to extend their vessels drydock intervals to 7.5 years when permitted by classification societies under extended drydock programmes. Ecospeed comes with a 10 year guarantee and is expected to last the lifetime of the vessel. Some fouling will occur and can be removed by cleaning services. Hydrex has its own team of cleaners at certain locations and can recommend contractors in areas where it is not directly represented.

International Paints
www.international-marine.com

Intercept Range

Intercept 8000LPP and Intercept 7000 are biocidal anti-foulings with the first making full use of the companys new LUBYON polymer technology which gives the coating a superhydrophilic surface. When the coating is immersed, the seawater has a lubricating effect, resulting in less friction. International paint claims this reduces drag and increases
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Paints and Coatings vessel efficiency giving average fuel consumption and associated emissions savings of 5% compared to typical controlled depletion polymer anti-foulings. The coating surface also swells on contact with seawater, helping to smooth out imperfections and potentially further reducing drag. The biocide release rate is largely unaffected by seawater temperature meaning the coating has trading flexibility and can operate across global routes and through all seasons. International Paint is keen to highlight that unlike typical silyl and metal acrylate anti-foulings Intercept8000 LPP replicates the linear polishing of the shipping industry benchmark tributyltin based coatings meaning total predictability with the polishing rate remaining constant throughout the in service period. As well as the premium grade product, a slightly lower cost version called Intercept 7000 is also available with a service period of up to 60 months compared to the 90 months of Intercept 8000LPP.

Intersleek Range

Intersleek 1100SR, launched in 2013 is described as the first micro fouling-focused fluoropolymer based slime release technology specifically designed to tackle the impact of slime. It contains a new patented fluoropolymer which has been developed by enhancing the slime resistant polymer groups used in earlier generations of Intersleek technology. It is designed for all commercial vessels, even when operating a slow or ultraslow steaming strategy. Intersleek 1100SR helps maintain performance throughout the full docking cycle for all vessel types by controlling macro and micro fouling with improved static resistance, even in warm waters and is suitable for slow steaming. Slime that does build up during static periods is released by the movement of the ship through water and at considerably lower speeds than earlier generation foul release coatings. Until the launch of Intersleek 1100SR this was the premium product in the range. Intersleek 900 is a patented fluoropolymer foul release coating, which presents the organisms with an amphiphilic surface, combining hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties in order to minimise the chemical and electrostatic adhesion between the surface and the fouling organism. Any which do attach, normally do so only weakly and usually can be removed easily. Intersmooth 7465Si SPC is a high performance, low friction, SPC anti-fouling, based on patented silyl acrylate polymer technology.
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Cuts through water. Slashes through fuel costs.


A-LF-Sea from Nippon cuts fuel costs and emissions Advanced Formula:
Nippon Paints new Advanced Low Friction Coating is a revolutionary anti-fouling paint that reduces your fuel costs by slashing hydrodynamic friction. A-LF-Sea's breakthrough hydro-gel and rheology-control technology creates a unique water trap layer and self-polishing mechanism that maximises water ow over the hull. The result? A cutting-edge paint that lowers your costs and decreases your emissions.

l Veried fuel-saving l Reduced CO2 emissions l Biomimetic technology

nipponpaint -marine.com

What can save fuel costs, consumption and emissions?

Paint Can.

A-LF-Sea

Paints and Coatings Designed for deep sea vessels at newbuilding or maintenance and repair, Intersmooth 7465Si SPC offers the same fouling control, up to 4% fuel savings and excellent patina resistance as its copper acrylate SPC counterpart, Intersmooth 7460/7465HS SPC. Thanks to SPC technology, it maintains a smooth hull, offering predictable anti-fouling protection for up to 90 months.

Interswift Range
Interswift products are standard performing self-polishing copolymer anti-foulings, based on a blend of IntersmoothSPC and Interspeed technologies. The combination of these two technologies produces antifoulings which have the controlled depletion polymer benefits of surface tolerance, high volume solids and an attractive cost base, together with the SPC attributes of polishing rate control, reduced leached layer size and control of biocide release. Interswift 6900Si incorporates patented silyl acrylate polymer technology, giving the same level of fouling protection as the copper acrylate self-polishing copolymer anti-fouling, Interswift 6800HS. Suitable for in-service periods of up to 60 months, and for use at newbuilding or maintenance and repair, the product offers up to 1.5% fuel savings. Interswift 6800HS is a blend of copper acrylate SPC and rosin-based CDP technology, providing up to 60 months fouling control in service. An economical version of Interswift 6800HS, Interswift 6600 combines copper acrylate SPC and CDP technologies.

Interspeed
The Interspeed brand has a track record of over 13,000 applications and offers an economical choice in fouling control, using CDP technology. Interspeed6400 and 6200 deliver fouling protection for up to 36 months.

Jotun
www.jotun.com

Sea Quantum S range


A range of anti-fouling products using a silyl acrylate polymer that hydrolyses when exposed to seawater. Protection is provided by a linear polishing rate and a low leached layer - ensuring a controlled release of biocides over time. Products in the range are all designed for a service life of up to 90 months. Sea Quantum Static is designed for vessels laid up for periods of up to 24 months and also for 36 months when applied to low activity vessels.
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Products (Fouling Control) Sea Quantum Ultra S is intended for low activity vessels, Sea Quantum Classic S for medium activity vessels and Sea Quantum Plus S for high activity vessels. Operators can opt for an economic alternative such as when operating a slow-steaming strategy or when between drydockings by using the next product down in the range.

Sea Mate range


SeaMate draws on the benefits of the silyl technology of Sea Quantum in a product optimised for service life of 60 months. Sea Mate has a hard coating with great mechanical strength and shorter drying time. Reliable long-lasting protection is provided by balancing the polishing rate and leaching rate of biocides.

Sea Force range


This is Jotuns basic anti-fouling based on patented polymeric plasticiser technology. There are three products in the range: the original Sea Force 30 has been supplemented by improved versions called Sea Force 60 and Sea Force 90. The improved versions have low leached layers and superior biocides are used in Sea Force 90.

Foul Release
Sea Lion Resilient Introduced in March 2013, Jotun claims this is the first anti-fouling coating that includes epoxy-polysiloxane, a compound of resins and hardeners that provides highly resilient hull protection. When combined with Jotuns fouling release coatings technology, the epoxy-polysiloxane in SeaLion Resilient prevents settling of organisms on the hull and produces a glossy, smooth surface optimised for owners seeking to reduce costs related to dry-docking and maintenance. The properties of SeaLion Resilient significantly reduce the risk of mechanical damage and maintain hull condition throughout the service period. Requiring only two coats, Sea Lion Resilient is easy to apply and cuts time spent in dock, resulting in significant savings related to maintenance and repair. On its release, cruise ships were singled out as benefitting from the new coating. SeaLion Repulse SeaLion Repulse is a foul-release product with both release- and repellent properties. Through nano-scale engineering a repellent silicone layer is created on the surface. The nano structures extend into the water and create a layer that acts as nano-scaled springs. When the spring-like
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Paints and Coatings structures are compressed, a counter force is developed. The nano-scale springs thereby provide release- and repellent properties. This is claimed to give a smoother surface than conventional fouling release coatings and provides up to 10 years lifetime of the coating system under normal conditions.

Nippon Paint Marine Coatings


www.nipponpaint-marine.com

LF-SEA

LF-Sea is a low friction hydrolysis tin free self-polishing anti-fouling paint using silyl-copper acrylate hydrolysis technology and with a 5 year service life Through the use of unique biomimetics that are said to mimic the water trapping effect of the tuna. This corrugated hull surface reduces turbulence during the ships operation An advanced version called A-LF-Sea was launched in early 2013 and has been developed by enhancing LF-Seas biomimetic technology. A new improved Hydro-Gel has maximised the water-trapping that provides the low-friction effect. By incorporating this into the self-polishing copper silyl acrylate anti-fouling, the manufacturer says the long-term low friction performance is ensured. The new coating is said to give 10% fuel savings against the 4% offered by LF-Sea

ECOLOFLEX Range

ECOLOFLEX SPC is the original self-polishing anti-fouling paint developed by Nippon Paint. Its self-polishing properties provide constant and predictable anti-fouling performance. ECOLOFLEX HyB is based on the original Ecoloflex SPC and developed to further improve the performance and predictability. This product provides 60 month service life by providing very accurate polishing rates and eliminating skeleton layers on the coatings surface. This has been achieved by combining in a unique hybrid the ultra- reliability of Copper acrylate and the silyl resins.

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Products (Fouling Control)

Sherwin-Williams
www.sherwin-williams.com

Copper Bottom Anti-Fouling Paint #45


is a semi-hard, anti-fouling developed for the shallow draft trade. It offers a moderately high concentration loading of cuprous oxide and a chemically modified binder that only slightly dissolves upon immersion service. Used for moderate tropical fouling conditions where a moderately high concentration loading of cuprous oxide is required. Used as an anti-fouling coating over prepared surfaces such as steel, wood, aluminum, fiberglass, and previously painted surfaces coated with antifouling paint. Use on vessels with a service speed of less than 10 knots.

Seaguard Ablative Anti-Fouling Coating


is an advanced anti-fouling coating based on a polyamide polymer containing cuprous oxide. Recommended for the underwater surfaces of steel vessels operating in all coastal and oceanic waters with short to medium idle times. Use on vessels with a service speed exceeding 10 Knots.

SeaGuard Sher-Release Surface Coat


is a silicon- based, biocide free, topcoat in the Sher-Release System. The low surface energy provides excellent foul release properties. The SeaGuard Surface Coat provides superior durability as compared to traditional silicone foul release systems.

Sigma Coatings
www.sigmacoatings.com

SIGMA ECOFLEET 690


provides high performance anti-fouling for short sea and coastal shipping. The newest addition to the ECOFLEET range provides predictable anti-fouling protection at variable operating speeds in aggressive fouling environments Developed specifically for the dry dock, maintenance and repair market, SIGMA ECOFLEET 690 has been formulated using PPGs patented binder technology ensuring consistent performance levels and fouling control for in-service periods of up to 60 months.

SIGMA SYLADVANCE
The SYLADVANCE range is based on patented silyl acrylate polymer technology and offers self-smoothing properties and outstanding fouling
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Paints and Coatings protection. The reduction in frictional drag of operational vessels coated with SYLADVANCE technology has been proven to deliver excellent fuel savings.

SYLADVANCE 700
Specifically developed for vessels that have a medium- or high operating rate, SYLADVANCE 700 delivers superior performance and offers owners and operators the potential of fuel savings. Unlike many traditional anti-foulings, SYLADVANCE 700 is built upon a pure silyl acrylate binder to deliver consistent anti-fouling performance and a predictable linear polishing pattern.

SYLADVANCE 800
is a hydrolysing anti-fouling that is tailored for the future. The special silyl-acrylate binder systems results in an advanced self-polishing and self-smoothing coating with impeccable results on both deep sea and coastal vessels. Suitable for a wide range of applications, SYLADVANCE 800 can be specified for new-build, and maintenance and repair.

SIGMA NEXEON
copper-free anti-fouling range is based on self-polishing binder technology. All products in the range provide a high level of protection against fouling and also enhance vessel aesthetics due to their colour stability.

SIGMAGLIDE
The SIGMAGLIDE range of foul release coatings is completely biocidefree. Built around a silicone base, the range provide a very smooth hull coating and all SIGMAGLIDE products can be applied to vessels that trade in the most delicate ecological environments. Building on the success of SIGMAGLIDE 890 PPG developed the pure silicone technology even further and introduced SIGMAGLIDE 990. This highly-engineered, pure silicone finish brings advantages to shipyards and operators worldwide.

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Products (Fouling Control)

Chapter 6

Practical Matters
Performance Guidelines and Guarantees
Almost all manufacturers will quote expected lifetimes for coatings systems but there are very good reasons why these claims need to be considered as guidelines or best case scenarios rather than absolute guarantees. No manufacturer can be held responsible for incorrect preparation, application or use in service but unfortunately these are most frequently the causes for poor coatings performance. Coatings have always been something of the poor relation when it comes to inspections and upholding standards during construction and repair work in drydock. Consequently there is a long history of dispute between owners and contractors. At the time when the concept of PSPC for ballast tanks was first mooted and also included into IACS common structural rules, there was much debate over who would undertake inspections and whether there were sufficient qualified inspectors to meet demand. There are industry standards for surface preparation and at the very least the owner should be able to expect that these will be met. Beyond that, the skill of the contractors, environmental conditions with regard to temperature and humidity and how the coatings are allowed to cure before use are all factors that will affect its performance and longevity. There is one area where coatings manufacturers claims are not only used for boosting sales but are often taken literally by regulators and
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Paints and Coatings potentially used in formulating regulation that can affect operators. That area is the potential fuel savings and consequent reduction in exhaust emissions claimed for anti-fouling and foul release products. Shipping is often perceived wrongly as a dirty industry and the idea that operators could reduce emissions by 5-10% just by applying a coat of paint has been used by some campaigners to highlight the disregard shipping has for the environment. That idea is of course highly flawed but arguments refuting it would likely not be understood by those that make the claim. The shipping industry is fully aware that coatings or lack of them can have significant effects on fuel consumption but determining exactly how much is an extremely difficult task. Performance of a ship tends to deteriorate between drydockings as fouling occurs and shows a marked improvement on leaving drydock. Some of that improvement will doubtless be due to the new coating but engine, turbocharger and propeller overhaul and repair could also be much more significant factors. Changes in operating strategies and working in different geographical regions also make comparison of a ships overall performance overtime difficult meaning the effect attributable to the coatings may be impossible to determine. Even so, some manufacturers have attempted to quantify the savings using software developed by third parties. International Paint and BMT ARGOSS use the BMT SMARTSERVICES system to verify the contribution to vessel performance made by its products and Jotun has similar arrangements with Kyma and Marorka. There are also independent software providers such as Propulsion Dynamics with its CASPER software and Eniram among others. Propulsion Dynamics software was one of the first offerings to be developed in this specialised area and it compares ship performance from hull and propeller fouling with a clean, smooth hull and propeller from sea trials. This generates accurate figures for speed and fuel consumption due to basic roughness and fouling. This initial product has been supplemented with a tool to provide ideal trim based on speed, weather, and loading that does not require installation or calibration of sensors as it is based on a physical model of the vessel. All of the latest generation of software programs are designed to measure key parameters such as those mentioned above and their developers say that once sufficient data has been collected it is possible to strip out factors alone or in combination to determine the actual effect that one or other has on performance.
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Practical Matters Unfortunately, there is as yet no industry standard agreed upon that would allow the claims of coatings manufacturers to be measured; although in late 2012, International Paint did publicly call for the IMO to work with independent, vessel performance monitoring organisations to develop a standard methodology. Such a development would not only help to weigh claims from different manufacturers but it would also assist operators in drawing up SEEMPs and could be used in calculating ships EEDI ratings.

Operations in ice
The last ten years or so has seen an increase in navigation in ice infested waters beyond the normal winter activity in areas such as the Baltic Sea and the St Lawrence Seaway. Plans for commercial vessels to make more use of the Northern Sea Route and oil and gas exploration in high latitudes will mean more ice-strengthened vessels are being built. Hull coatings are highly susceptible to damage when navigating in ice so the choice of an appropriate coating is very important. Hard coatings are better suited to ice navigation than some of the less resilient products and some manufacturers produce coatings specifically developed with ice navigation in mind.

HULL CLEANING SERVICES


Regardless of the anti-fouling or foul release coating applied, most ships will suffer a degree of fouling between drydockings that can adversely affect their performance and could be responsible for transferring species between different environments. Operators of fouled ships have a number of choices open to them including having the hull cleaned by a specialist contractor. The time to the next drydocking and the extra fuel being consumed must be weighed against the cost of cleaning the hull and for ships with a limited lifespan coating, the possibility of damaging what coating remains is also a factor to be considered. Ships that have been hard coated are far less likely to suffer damage from cleaning operations and manufacturers such as Hydrex recommend that cleaning is undertaken regularly if the full benefit of such premium coatings is to be enjoyed. Cleaning can be done by almost any diving contractor with appropriate equipment but there are specialists in the field including Hydrex itself. Underwater maintenance of Hydrex Ecospeed is carried out with specially designed underwater hull cleaning tools that simultaneously
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Paints and Coatings remove all fouling and optimise the smoothness of the paint surface. A complete set of complementary equipment was designed in-house to allow divers to clean the flat areas as well as the harder to reach parts of the hull without damaging the coating. Sea chests and other nooks and crannies are best cleaned out using underwater high pressure water jet equipment. This combination makes it possible to have a 100% clean hull after each maintenance session, resulting in the best possible hydrodynamic condition of the underwater hull throughout the service life of the vessel and the removal of any potentially harmful invasive aquatic species which the ship may have picked up. The tools best suited to cleaning hulls are often developed by the specialist contractors and sometimes marketed to independent contractors. Most use manual operated tools but there are a small number of alternatives. Norwegian company CleanHull for example offers efficient hull cleaning, based on its CleanROV(remotely operated vehicle) technology. The CleanRov uses only high-pressure seawater for cleaning and does not harm anti-fouling which is susceptible to brush damage. CleanROV is designed to crawl around a ships hull, rotating around its own axis. Cleaning is carried out using water at intermediate pressure, carefully removing any fouling. The machine documents the whole cleaning operation with several cameras, enabling random quality controls of the cleaning process. UMC is another contractor that has developed its own tools one of which is the Mini-Pamper. that was initially designed for cleaning acoustically clad submarines where the absence of any anti-fouling paint meant that device had to deal with extreme marine growth without damaging the fragile surface. Mini-Pamper allows the operator to bring a choice of cleaning heads gently into contact with the hull until they are just cleaning and no more. Having selected the correct cleaning pressure, the machine will automatically maintain this level.

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Practical Matters

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