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M2 Browning

M2 Browning

WARNING: Article could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) a bug in the pdf-writer software (b) problematic Mediawiki markup (c) table is too wide Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB Browning M2 "Ma Deuce"M2HB heavy machine gun Type Heavy machine gun Placeoforigin United StatesUnited States of America Service history Inservice 1933 present (M2HB) Usedby See #UsersUsers Wars World War IIKorean WarFirst Indochina WarSuez CrisisPortuguese Colonial WarVietnam WarSix-Day WarDhofar RebellionYom Kippur WarCambodian Civil WarCambodian-Vietnamese WarFalklands WarSouth African Border WarNamibian War of IndependenceInvasion of GrenadaUnited States invasion of PanamaInvasion of PanamaGulf WarPersian Gulf WarSomali Civil WarYugoslav WarsWar in Afghanistan (2001present)War in AfghanistanIraq War Production history Designed 1918 Manufacturer Current: General Dynamics, Fabrique Nationale, U.S. Ordnance, and Manroy Engineering (UK)Former: Sabre Defence Industries, Colt's Patent Fire Arms Company, High Standard Company, Savage Arms Corporation, Buffalo Arms Corporation, General Motors Corporation (Frigidaire, AC Spark Plug, Saginaw Steering, and Brown-Lipe-Chappin Divisions), Kelsey Hayes Wheel Company, Springfield Armory, Wayne Pump Company, ERMCO, and Ramo Manufacturing Produced 1921 present (M2HB) Numberbuilt 3 million Specifications Weight 38kg (83.78lb)58kg (127.87lb) with tripod (weapon)tripod and T&E Length 1,656mm (65.2in) Gun barrelBarrellength 1,143mm (45.0in) Cartridge (firearms)Cartridge.50 BMG.50 BMG (12.799mm NATO)Firearm actionActionRecoil operationShort recoil-operatedRate of fireRateoffire 485635 rounds/min (M2HB) M2HB-QCBDunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), pp.310311750850 rounds/min (AN/M2)1,200 rounds/min (AN/M3) Muzzle velocityMuzzlevelocity 2,910ft/s (890m/s) for M33 ball Effectiverange 1,800m (2,000yd) Maximumrange 6,800m (7,400yd) Feedsystem Belt (firearm)Belt-fed (M2 or M9 links) The M2 Machine Gun or Browning .50 Caliber Machine Gun, is a heavy machine gun designed towards the end of World War I by John Browning. It is very similar in design to Browning's earlier M1919 Browning machine gun, which was chambered for the .30-06 Springfield.30-06 cartridge. The M2 uses the much larger and much more powerful .50 BMG cartridge, which was developed alongside and takes its name from the gun itself (BMG standing for Browning Machine Gun). The M2 has been referred to as "Ma Deuce", as a GI phonetic slang or "the fifty" in reference to its caliber. The design has had many specific designations; the official designation for the current infantry type is Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, Flexible. It is effective against infantry, unarmored or lightly armored vehicles and boats, light fortifications and low-flying aircraft. The M2 has had the longest continuous service for a machine gun in the world.The Browning .50 caliber machine gun has been used extensively as a vehicle weapon and for aircraft armament by the United States from the 1920s to the present. It was heavily used during World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and during the Iraq War and War in Afghanistan (2001-present)War in Afghanistan in the 2000s and 2010s. It is the primary heavy machine gun of NATO countries, and has been used by many other countries. The M2 has been in use longer than any other Small armssmall arm in U.S. inventory except the .45 ACP M1911 pistol, also designed by John Browning. The current M2HB is manufactured in the United States by General Dynamics and U.S. Ordnance for use by the United States government, and for U.S. Foreign Allies via FMS sales. FN Herstal has manufactured the M2 machine gun since the 1930s. U.S. Ordnance developed their M2 Quick Change Barrel system after years of manufacturing machine guns for the U.S. Department of Defense and U.S. allies.History The United States did not have many machine guns when it entered World War I, and most were old technology. The machine gun was heavily used in World War I, and

M2 Browning weapons of larger than rifle caliber were appearing. Both the British and French had large caliber machine guns. The larger rounds were needed to defeat the armor that was being introduced to the battlefield. Armor was also appearing in the skies. During World War I, the Germans introduced a heavily armored airplane, the Junkers J.I. The armor made aircraft machine guns using conventional rifle ammunition (such as the .30-06) ineffective., stating "The Germans put a heavily armored plane into service during the closing days of World War I. This act made obsolete for all time the rifle-caliber machine gun for aerial use. Some countries were slower to accept the fact than others but nevertheless it cannot be disputed. The United States was among the first to come to this realization."Consequently, American Expeditionary Force's commander General John J. Pershing asked for a larger caliber machine gun. Pershing asked the Army Ordnance Department to develop a machine gun with a caliber of at least 0.50 inches (12.7mm) and a muzzle velocity of at least 2,700 feet per second (820m/s). John Henry Parker (general)U.S. Col. John Henry Parker, commanding a machine gun school in France, observed the effectiveness of a French 11mm (0.43in) incendiary armor-piercing round. The Army Ordnance Department ordered eight experimental Colt machine guns rechambered for the French 11-mm cartridge. The French had developed a prototype machine gun for an even larger caliber. The French 11-mm round was not suitable because its velocity was too low. Pershing wanted a bullet of at least 670gr (43g) and a muzzle velocity of 2,700ft/s (820m/s). Development with the French round was dropped.Around July 1917, John M. Browning started redesigning his .30 caliber machine for a larger caliber. Winchester worked on the cartridge, which was a scaled up version of the .30/06. Winchester initially added a rim to the cartridge because it wanted to use the cartridge in an anti-tank rifle, but Pershing insisted the cartridge be rimless. The first .50 machine gun underwent trials on 15 October 1918. It fired at less than 500 rounds per minute, and the muzzle velocity was only 2,300ft/s (700m/s). Cartridge improvements were promised. The gun was heavy, difficult to control, fired too slowly for anti-personnel, and was not powerful enough against armor.While the .50 was being developed, some German anti-tank rifles and ammunition were seized. The German rounds had a muzzle velocity of 2,700ft/s (820m/s), an 800gr (52g) bullet, and could pierce 1in (25mm) at 250yd (230m).. Chinn states the German round was 12.7-mm anti-tank, but it may have been the 13.2mm TuF round. The Germans were working on their MG 18 TuF heavy machine gun. Winchester made the .50 caliber round have similar performance. Ultimately, the muzzle velocity was 2,750ft/s (840m/s).Efforts by John M. Browning and Fred T. Moore resulted in the water-cooled Browning machine gun, caliber .50, M1921 Browning machine gunM1921. An aircraft version was termed the Browning aircraft machine gun, caliber .50, M1921. These guns were used experimentally from 1921 until 1937. They had light-weight barrels and the ammunition only fed from the left side. Service trials raised doubts whether the guns would be suitable for aircraft or for anti-aircraft use. A heavy barrel M1921 was considered for ground vehicles.John M. Browning died in 1926. Between 1927 and 1932, Dr. S.H. Green studied the design issues and service needs. The result was a single receiver design that could be turned into seven types of .50 caliber machine guns by using different jackets, barrels, and other components. The new receiver allowed right or left hand feed. In 1933, Colt manufactured several prototype Browning machine guns (including what would be known as the M1921A1 and M1921E2). With support from the Navy, Colt started manufacturing the M2 in 1933.A variant without a water jacket, but with a thicker-walled, air-cooled Gun barrelbarrel was designated the M2 HB (HB for Heavy Barrel). The added mass and surface area of the heavy barrel compensated somewhat for the loss of water-cooling, while reducing bulk and weight: the M2 weighs 121lb (55kg) with a water jacket, but the M2 HB weighs 84lb (38kg). Due to the long procedure for changing the barrel, an improved system was developed called QCB (quick change barrel). The lightweight "Army/Navy" prefixed AN/M2 "light-barrel" version of the Browning M2 weighing 60lb (27kg) was also developed, and became the standard aviation machine gun of the World War II-era for American military aircraft of nearly every type.Design details The Browning M2 is an air-cooled, Belt (firearm)belt-fed machine gun. The M2 fires from a closed bolt, operated on the short recoil principle. The M2 fires the .50 BMG cartridge, which offers long range, accuracy and immense stopping power. The closed bolt firing cycle made the M2 usable as a synchronized machine gun on aircraft before and during World War II, as on the early versions of the Curtiss P-40 fighter. The M2 is a scaled-up version of John Browning's M1917 Browning machine gunM1917 .30 caliber machine gun (even using the same timing gauges). Features The M2 has varying cyclic rates

M2 Browning of fire, depending upon the model. The M2HB (heavy barrel) air-cooled ground gun has a cyclic rate of 450-575 rounds per minute.Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), pp.310311: the official rate during WWII was 450575rpm, but it was extremely rare to encounter a M2HB that exceeded 550rpm. The early M2 water-cooled AA guns had a cyclic rate of around 450600rpm.DiGiulian, Tony, USA 0.50"/90 (12.7 mm) M2 Browning Machine Gun (2007) Article The AN/M2 aircraft gun has a cyclic rate of 750850rpm; this increases to 1,200rpm or more for AN/M3 aircraft guns fitted with electric or mechanical feed boost mechanisms. These maximum rates of fire are generally not achieved in use, as sustained fire at that rate will wear out the bore within a few thousand rounds, necessitating replacement. For the M2HB, slow fire is less than 40 rounds per minute and rapid fire more than 40 rounds per minute. "Browning Machine Gun Caliber .50 HB, M2" United States Department of the Army Field Manual FM 23-65A U.S. Marine mans a .50 caliber machine gun as part of a security force during a training exercise with the 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit in November 2002.The M2 has an effective range of 1,830 metres (2,000yd) and a maximum effective range of 2,000 metres (2,200yd) when fired from the M3 tripod. In its ground-portable, crew-served role as the M2HB, the gun itself weighs in at a hefty 84 pounds (38kg), and the assembled M3 tripod another 44 pounds (20kg). In this configuration, the V-shaped "butterfly" trigger is located at the very rear of the weapon, with a "spade handle" hand-grip on either side of it and the bolt release the center. The spade handles are gripped and the butterfly trigger is depressed with one or both thumbs. Recently new rear buffer assemblies have used squeeze triggers mounted to the hand grips, doing away with the butterfly triggers. When the bolt release is locked down by the bolt latch release lock on the buffer tube sleeve, the gun functions in fully automatic mode. Conversely, the bolt release can be unlocked into the up position resulting in single-shot firing (the gunner must press the bolt latch release to send the bolt forward). Unlike virtually all other modern machine guns, it has no safety (although a sliding safety switch has recently been fielded to USMC armorers for installation on their weapons). Troops in the field have been known to add an improvised safety measure against accidental firing by slipping an expended shell casing under the butterfly trigger. Crew Served Weapons lesson plan The upgraded M2A1 has a manual trigger block safety. Twin M2HB .50 caliber machine gun during a Pre-aimed Calibration Fire (PACFIRE) exercise in May 2005.Because the M2 was intentionally designed to operate in many configurations, it can be adapted to feed from the left or right side of the weapon by exchanging the belt-holding pawls, and the front and rear cartridge stops (three-piece set to include link stripper), then reversing the bolt switch. The operator must also convert the top-cover belt feed slide assembly from left to right hand feed as well as the spring and plunger in the feed arm. This will take a well trained individual less than two minutes to perform. The charging assembly may be changed from left to right hand charge. A right hand charging handle spring, lock wire and a little know how are all that are required to accomplish this. The M2 can be battle ready and easily interchanged if it is preemptively fitted with a retracting slide assembly on both sides of the weapon system. This eliminates the need to have the weapon removed from service to accomplish this task. Ammunition There are several different types of ammunition used in the M2HB and AN aircraft guns. From World War II through the Vietnam War, the big Browning was used with standard ball, armor-piercing (AP), armor-piercing incendiary (API), and armor-piercing incendiary tracer (APIT) rounds. All .50 ammunition designated "armor-piercing" was required to completely perforate 0.875 inches (22.2mm) of hardened steel armor plate at a distance of 100 yards (91m) and 0.75 inches (19mm) at 547 yards (500m).Barnes, Frank C., Cartridges of the World, U.S. Army .50 BMG Cartridge Specifications, DBI Books (1989), ISBN 0-87349-033-9, p.432 The API and APIT rounds left a flash, report, and smoke on contact, useful in detecting strikes on enemy targets; they were primarily intended to incapacitate thin-skinned and lightly armored vehicles and aircraft, while igniting their fuel tanks.Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), pp.311312Current ammunition types include: M33 Ball (706.7 grain) for personnel and light material targets, M17 tracer, M8 API (622.5 grain), M20 API-T (619 grain), and M962 SLAP-T. The latter ammunition along with the M903 SLAP (Saboted Light Armor Penetrator) round can perforate 1.34 inches (34mm) of HHA (face-hardened steel plate) at 500 metres (550yd), 0.91 inches (23mm) at 1,200 metres (1,300yd), and 0.75 inches (19mm) at 1,500 metres (1,600yd). This is achieved by using a 0.30-inch-diameter (7.6mm) tungsten penetrator. The SLAP-T adds a tracer charge to the base of the ammunition. This ammunition was type classified in 1993. M903

M2 Browning Caliber .50 Saboted Light Armor Penetrator (SLAP), M962 Saboted Light Armor, GlobalSecurity.org Caliber .50 Cartridges, GlobalSecurity.orgWhen firing blanks, a large blank-firing adapter (BFA) must be used to keep the gas pressure high enough to allow the action to cycle. The adapter is very distinctive, attaching to the muzzle with three rods extending back to the base. The BFA can often be seen on M2s during peacetime operations. DeploymentAn M2 fired from a rigid-hulled inflatable boat.B-25 MitchellB-25H "Barbie III" showing four M2 feeds and 75_mm_gun_(US)#Variants75mm M5 gun The M2 .50 Browning machine gun has been used for various roles: A medium infantry support weapon As an anti-aircraft (AA) gun in some ships; up to six M2 guns could be mounted on the same turret. As an anti-aircraft gun on the ground. The original water-cooled version of the M2 was used on a tall AA tripod or vehicle-mounted anti-aircraft weapon on a sturdy pedestal mount. In later variants, twin and quadruple M2HB Brownings were used, such as the M45 Quadmount used on the US M3 Half-trackM16 half-track carrier. Twin or quad-mount .50 M2 guns normally used alternating left-hand and right-hand feed. Primary or secondary weapon on an armored fighting vehicle. Primary or secondary weapon on a naval patrol boat. Spotting for the primary weapon on some armored fighting vehicles. Secondary weapon for anti-boat defense on large naval vessels (corvettes, frigates, destroyers, cruisers, etc.). Coaxial gun or independent mounting in some tanks. Fixed-mounted primary armament, with the AN/M2 light-barrel version only, in World War II-era U.S. aircraft such as the P-47 Thunderbolt, P-51 Mustang, and the Korean-era U.S. F-86 Sabre, sometimes synchronized to fire through the propeller arc in a twin mount atop the engine, as on the Curtiss P-40P-40B Tomahawk fighter. Gun turretTurret-mount or flexible-mounted defensive armament, again only with the AN/M2 light-barrel version, in World War II-era bombers such as the B-17 Flying Fortress, and B-24 Liberator. United StatesA U.S. soldier in Normandy stands guard with the M2HB installed on a dual-purpose mounting.At the outbreak of the Second World War the United States had versions of the M2 in service as fixed aircraft guns, anti-aircraft defensive guns (on aircraft, ships, or boats), infantry (tripod-mounted) guns, and as dual purpose anti-aircraft and anti-vehicular weapons on vehicles.Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), p. 225George, John B., Shots Fired In Anger, NRA Press (1981), p. 404: By World War II, the M2HB had been designated as a dual-purpose anti-aircraft and anti-vehicular weapon for motorized, armored, and infantry divisions; the designation "anti-vehicular" included thin-skinned and lightly armored vehicles, as it was already recognized by 1940 that the .50 M2 AP round would not be useful against modern medium or heavy tanks.The .50 AN/M2 light-barrel aircraft Browning used in planes had a rate of fire of approximately 800 rounds per minute, and was used singly or in groups of up to eight guns for aircraft ranging from the P-47 Thunderbolt to the B-25 Mitchell bomber, which in the last J-version of the Mitchell could have upwards of fourteen M2s firing forward for ground attack missions - eight in a solid metal-structure nose, four more mounted in a pair of conformal twin-gunned gun pods on the lower cockpit sides, and two more if the forward dorsal turret's pair of M2 guns were also aimed straight forward. In the dual-purpose vehicle mount, the M2HB (heavy barrel) proved extremely effective in U.S. service: the Browning's .50 caliber AP and API rounds could easily penetrate Daimler-Benz DB 605the engine block or fuel tanks of a German Bf 109 fighter attacking at low altitude,Bird, James, Recollections of James R. Bird, A Battery, 160th F.A., 45th Inf. Div., Article or perforate the hull plates and fuel tanks of a German SdKfz 251half-track or Leichter Panzerspahwagenlight armored car.Green, Michael, and Green, Gladys, Weapons of Patton's Armies, Zenith Imprint Press (2000), ISBN 0-7603-0821-7, ISBN 978-0-7603-0821-9, p. 34Bishop, Chris, The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. (2002), ISBN 1-58663-762-2, ISBN 978-1-58663-762-0, p. 86 While the dual-purpose mounting was undeniably useful, it did normally require the operator to stand when using the M2 in a ground role, exposing him to return fire.Green, Michael, and Green, Gladys, Weapons of Patton's Armies, Zenith Imprint Press (2000), ISBN 0-7603-0821-7, ISBN 978-0-7603-0821-9, pp.3234 Units in the field often modified the mountings on their vehicles, especially tanks and tank destroyers, to provide more operator protection in the anti-vehicular and anti-personnel role.Yeide, 2004. p. 185 The weapon was particularly hated by the Germans, whose attacks and ambushes against otherwise helpless stalled motor convoys were frequently broken up by .50 caliber machine gun fire.Burgett, Donald, Seven Roads To Hell, Dell Publishing (1999), ISBN 0-440-23627-4, p. 129Jarymowycz, Roman J., Tank Tactics: From Normandy to Lorraine, Lynne Rienner Publishers (2001), ISBN

M2 Browning 1-55587-950-0, ISBN 978-1-55587-950-1, p. 212 Vehicles would frequently "recon by fire" with the M2 Browning i.e. firing continuously at suspected points of ambush while moving through areas still containing enemy forces. One vehicle would fire exclusively to the right, the following vehicle to the left, the next one to the right, and so on in order to cover both flanks of the advancing convoy. Besides vehicle-mounted weapons, the heavy weapons companies in a World War II U.S. Army infantry battalion or regiment were each issued one M2 Browning with tripod (ground) mount.Rush, Robert S., GI: The US Infantryman in World War II, Osprey Publishing Ltd. (2003), ISBN 1-84176-739-5, p. 33 Mounted on a heavily sandbagged tripod, the M2HB proved very useful in either a defensive role or to interdict or block road intersections from use by German infantry and motorized forces.Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), pp. 225, 311-312 The hammering of a heavy Browning could usually be relied upon to put a German infantry company face-down in the dirt.Henry, Mark R., The US Army in World War II (2): The Mediterranean, Osprey Publishing (2000), ISBN 1-84176-085-4, ISBN 978-1-84176-085-8, p. 20 There are numerous instances of the M2 Browning being used against enemy personnel, particularly infantry assaultsAbramski, Anthony V. (Pfc.), Eyewitness Account of Pfc. Anthony V. Abramski, Citation In Support Of Congressional Medal of Honor Award to 2nd Lt. Audie Murphy at Holtzwihr, France, 26 January 1945 or for interdiction or elimination of enemy artillery observers or snipers at distances too great for ordinary infantry weapons.Wolfe, Clarence B., I Kept My Word, AuthorHouse Press (2006), ISBN 1-4259-6951-8, ISBN 978-1-4259-6951-6, p. 68The United States Army in World War II, Ch. XXI: Artillery & Armored Units in the ETO, Washington, D.C.: Historical Division, U.S. Army (1993), p. 645Jarymowycz, Roman J., Tank Tactics: From Normandy to Lorraine, Lynne Rienner Publishers (2001), ISBN 1-55587-950-0, ISBN 978-1-55587-950-1, p. 212: The M2HB fitted to tanks and M3 half-tracks was frequently employed against German rearguard forces including snipers and anti-tank teams, often firing into locations merely suspected of hiding such forces (so-called speculative fire).An M2 overlooking the Korengal Valley at Firebase Phoenix, Afghanistan, in 2007 The M2HB was not widely used in the Pacific campaign, due to several factors, including weight, the inherent nature of infantry jungle combat, and because road intersections were usually easily outflanked.George, John B., Shots Fired In Anger, NRA Press (1981), p. 404 However, it was used by fast-moving motorized forces in the Philippines to destroy Japanese blocking units on the advance to Manila. The M45 Quadmountquad mount .50 was also used to destroy Japanese emplacements.AAA Weapons of the U.S. Army, Part I: The "Quad 50" Machine Gun Mount, 225th AAA Searchlight Battalion (Skylighters) ArticleThe M2HB was used in Korean WarKorea and Vietnam WarVietnam, and later in both Gulf WarOperation Desert Storm, the Afghan theater of War in Afghanistan (2001present)Operation Enduring Freedom and in Iraq WarIraq. In 2003, U.S. Army SFC Paul Ray Smith used his M2HB mounted on an M113 armored personnel carrier to kill 20 to 50 enemies who were attacking a U.S. outpost, preventing an aid station from being overrun and allowing wounded soldiers to be evacuated,Schmitt, Eric, Medal of Honor to Be Awarded to Soldier Killed in Iraq, a First, New York Times, 30 March 2005 SFC Smith was killed during the firefight and was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. M45 QuadmountM16 .50 AA Quad aka the 'Meat Chopper' The M45 Quadmount was a quadruple mounting of four .50 M2HB guns with a single gunner situated behind an armored housing. This was used by U.S. AA battalions, fitted either on a towed trailer or mounted in a half-track carrier (M16 AA half-track). With 200 rounds per gun in a powered tracking mount, the guns proved very effective against low-flying aircraft. The use of four guns adequately compensated for the fact that the individual M2HB's rate of fire (450-550 rounds per minute) was low for an effective antiaircraft weapon.Rottman, Gordon L., Browning .50-Caliber Machine Guns, Osprey Publishing (2010), ISBN 978-1-84908-331-7, p.1920Towards the end of the war, as Luftwaffe attacks became less frequent, the quad .50 (nicknamed the Meat Chopper or Krautmower) was increasingly used in an anti-personnel role, similarly to the earlier-introduced (1940) and more powerful German 20mm 2 cm FlaK 30#2 cm Flakvierling 38Flakvierling. Snipers firing from trees were engaged by the quad gunner at trunk level - the weapon would cut down and destroy the entire tree, and the sniper with it.The M45 Quadmount was still in use during the Vietnam War. Commonwealth and other forcesAustralian M113 with twin mounted M1919 Browning machine gunM1919 Browning and M2 Browning Quick Change Barrel machine guns.Commonwealth of NationsCommonwealth use of the M2 Browning .50 caliber machine gun (known as the .5

M2 Browning Browning in British and Commonwealth service) was limited in the Second World War, though from 1942 it was standard armament on US-built AFVs provided under lend-lease such as the M4 Sherman, M7 Priest, M8 Greyhound, or M10 Wolverine variously used by United KingdomBritish, Canadian, Australian, South African and New Zealand units. Nevertheless, the heavy Browning's effectiveness was praised by many British and Commonwealth soldiers in infantry, armored, and ordnance branches.Shore, C. (Capt.), With British Snipers to the Reich, Boulder: Lancer Militaria, p.197198Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), p. 35, 145 Many commanders thought the .50 Browning the best weapon in its class, certainly the best of the American weapons, including the M1 Garand and carbine.Shore, C. (Capt.), With British Snipers to the Reich, Boulder: Lancer Militaria, p.197198: They especially liked the "hell's brew" of AP, API, and APIT ammunition. In North Africa, after Commonwealth units began to obtain sufficient parts, manuals, gauges, and ammunition for the new weapon, the .50 Browning was increasingly used, eventually replacing the 15mm Besa, but in Italy was often deleted from top turret mountings because the mount exposed the operator to low branches and enemy fire.Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), p. 153: The New Zealand and South African divisions in particular loved the big Browning, and were frequently encountered trading for spare parts and gauges. All Long Range Desert GroupLRDGs, and some Special Air ServiceSAS units used the aircraft (AN/M2) version of the gun, while beam-mounted and turret-mounted .5 Brownings were used later in the war in such aircraft as the Short Sunderland and Avro LancasterLancaster bomber respectively. USMC M2 fitted with a Leupold CQBSS variable power scope.After the Second World War, the .50 Browning continued to see action in Korean WarKorea and other theaters, in aircraft, tripod (ground), ground AA (hip-ring), and vehicle mounts. One of its most notable actions in a ground role was in a fierce battle with a nine-man SAS team at the Battle of Mirbat in Oman in July 1972, where the heavy Browning and its API ammunition was used to help repulse an assault by 250 Yemeni Popular Front for the Liberation of OmanAdoo guerrillas, though the more famous weapon from the battle is a 25 pounder gun.Kennedy, Michael Paul, Soldier I: SAS, London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC (1990), ISBN 0-7475-0750-3A .50 caliber Browning was installed along with a .30 caliber Browning machine gun in each compact one-man turret on M113 APCs used by the Royal Australian Armoured Corps in South Vietnam. M2 as a sniper rifle The M2 machine gun has also been used as a long-range sniper rifle, when equipped with a telescopic sight. Soldiers during the Korean War used scoped M2s in the role of a sniper rifle, but the practice was most notably used by US Marine Corps sniper Carlos Hathcock during the Vietnam War. Using an Unertl telescopic sight and a mounting bracket of his own design, Hathcock could quickly convert the M2 into a sniper rifle, using the traversing-and-elevating (T&E) mechanism attached to the tripod (weapon)tripod and a bolt on pistol grip kit that converts the M2 to fire semi-automatically by activating the trigger on the side plate to assist in aiming at stationary targets.[citation needed] When firing semi-automatically, Hathcock hit man-size targets beyond 2000 yardstwice the range of a standard-caliber sniper rifle of the time (a .30-06 Winchester Model 70). In fact, Hathcock set the record for the longest confirmed kill at 2,460 yards or 1.3 miles (2,250 m), a Longest recorded sniper kills#Confirmed kills 1,250 m (1,367 yd) or greaterrecord which stood until 2002.Variants and derivativesM2 variantsAn M2HB in the 2nd Foreign Infantry RegimentFrench Foreign Legion's 2nd Infantry Regiment during an exercise.The basic M2 was deployed in US service in a number of subvariants, all with separate complete designations as per the US Army system. The basic designation as mentioned in the introduction is Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, with others as described below. The development of the M1921 Browning machine gunM1921 water-cooled machine gun which led to the M2, meant that the initial M2s were in fact water-cooled. These weapons were designated Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, Water-Cooled, Flexible. There was no fixed water-cooled version. Improved air-cooled heavy barrel versions came in three subtypes. The basic infantry model, Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, Flexible, a fixed developed for use on the M6 Heavy Tank designated Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, Fixed, and a "turret type" whereby "Flexible" M2s were modified slightly for use in tank turrets. The subvariant designation Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, TT was only used for manufacturing, supply, and administration identification and separation from flexible M2s. M2HB heavy machine gunA number of additional subvariants were developed after the end of the Second World War. The Caliber .50 Machine Gun, Browning, M2,

M2 Browning Heavy Barrel, M48 Turret Type was developed for the commander's cupola on the M48 Patton tank. The cupola mount on the M48A2 and M48A3 was thoroughly disliked by most tankers, as it proved unreliable in service.Zumbro, Ralph, Tank Sergeant, Presidio Press (1986), p. 92 An externally mounted M2 was later adopted for the commander's position on the M1 Abrams tanks. Three subvariants were also developed for use by the United States NavyUS Navy on a variety of ships and watercraft. These included the Caliber .50 Machine Gun, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Soft Mount (Navy) and the Caliber .50 Machine Gun, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Fixed Type (Navy). The fixed types fire from a solenoid trigger and come in left or right hand feed variants for use on the Mk 56 Mod 0 dual mount and other mounts. M2A1The M2E2 modification with quick-change barrelOn October 15, 2010, the M2A1 heavy machine gun was type classified by the U.S. Army. The M2A1, formerly known as the M2E2, incorporates improvements the design including a quick change barrel (QCB) with removable carrying handle, a new flash suppressor that reduces muzzle flash by 95 percent, fixed headspace and timing, a modified bolt, and a manual trigger block safety. "Headspace" is the distance between the face of the bolt and the base of the cartridge case, fully seated in the chamber. "Timing" is the adjustment of the gun so that firing takes place when the recoiling parts are in the correct position for firing. When a standard M2 had a barrel change, the headspace and timing had to be manually set. Improper adjustment could damage the weapon and cause serious injury to the user. Fixed headspace and timing reduces risk, and the carrying handle allows the barrel to be switched in seconds. MA DEUCE version M2A1-Proven Performer gets an Upgrade - PEOSoldier.mil, January 3, 2011 Ma Deuce Still Going Strong Defenseindustrydaily.com In June 2011, the Army began conversion of M2HB machine guns to M2A1s. Army to convert Browning M2 to M2A1 - Thefirearmblog.com, August 6, 2011 In February 2012, the Army announced that it will upgrade all 45,000 M2s to M2A1 standard. M2A1 conversion - Strategypage.com, Feb 2, 2012 The M2A1 was named one of the greatest Army inventions of 2011. M2A1 Among Greatest Army Inventions of 2011 Thefirearmblog.com, September 21, 2012 As of November 30, 2012, 8,300 built or converted M2A1s have been fielded by the U.S. Army. M2A1 Machine Gun Features Greater Safety, Heightened Lethality Defense-Aerospace.com, November 30, 2012Aircraft gunsAN/M2P-47 firing its eight M2 .50 machine guns during night gunneryU.S. Marines man pintle-mounted M2HB machine gunsA German Army door gunner mans an M3M on board a Sikorsky CH-53 Sea StallionCH-53 helicopterThe M2 machine gun was widely used during World War II and in later postwar conflicts as a remote or flexible aircraft gun. For fixed (offensive) or flexible (defensive) guns used in aircraft, a dedicated M2 version was developed called the .50 Browning AN/M2. The "AN" stands for "Army/Navy", since the gun was developed jointly for use by both services (unusual for the time, when the delineations between the Army and Navy were much stricter, and relations between armed services were often cool, if not outright hostile[citation needed]). The AN/M2 had a cyclic rate of 750850 rounds per minute, with the ability to be fired from an electrically operated remote-mount solenoid trigger when installed as a fixed gun. Cooled by the aircraft's slip-stream, the air-cooled AN/M2 was fitted with a substantially lighter 36 inch (91.4cm) length barrel, lightening the complete unit to 61 pounds (27.7kg), which also had the effect of increasing the rate of fire. The official designation for this weapon was Browning Machine Gun, Aircraft, Cal. .50, AN/M2 (Fixed) or (Flexible). The XM296/M296 is a further development of the AN/M2 machine gun for the Bell OH-58 KiowaOH-58 Kiowa Warrior helicopter. The M296 differs from previous remote firing variants in that it has adjustable firing rate (500850rpm), while lacking a bolt latch (allowing single-shot operation).M296 .50 cal. (12.7 mm) Machine Gun Article As an air-cooled gun used aboard a relatively slow rotary-wing aircraft, the M296 has a burst restriction rate of 50 rounds per minute sustained fire or 150 rounds per minute maximum while conducting peacetime training requirements; the combat firing rate is unrestricted but does mandate a ten-minute cooling period after prolonged firing to avoid stoppages due to overheating.M296 .50 cal. (12.7 mm) Machine GunXM213/M213, XM218, GAU-15/A, GAU-16/A, and GAU-18/AThe XM213/M213 was a modernization and adaptation of existing .50 caliber AN/M2s in inventory for use as a pintle mounted door gun on helicopters using the U.S. Helicopter Armament Subsystems#UH-1 IroquoisM59 armament subsystem. The GAU-15/A, formerly identified as the XM218, is a lightweight member of the M2/M3 family. The GAU-16/A was an improved GAU-15/A with modified grip and sight assemblies for similar applications. Both of these weapons were used as a part of the U.S. Helicopter

M2 Browning

Armament Subsystems#UH-1 IroquoisA/A49E-11 armament subsystem (also known as the Defensive Armament System). The GAU-18/A, is a lightweight variant of the M2/M3, and is used on the USAF's MH-53 Pave Low and HH-60 Pave Hawk helicopters. These weapons do not use the M2HB barrel, and are typically set up as left-hand feed, right-hand charging weapons, but on the HH-60 Pavehawks that use the EGMS (External Gun Mount System) the gun is isolated from the shooter by a recoil absorbing cradle and all weapons are set up as right hand charge but vary between left and right hand feed depending on what side of the aircraft it is on. A feed chute adapter is attached to the left or right hand feed pawl bracket allowing the weapon to receive ammunition through a feed chute system connected to externally mounted ammunition containers holding 600 rounds each. AN/M3, GAU-21/A, and M3PDuring World War II, a faster-firing Browning was developed for aircraft use. The AN/M3 features a mechanical or electrically boosted feed mechanism to increase the rate of fire to around 1,200 rounds per minute. The AN/M3 was used in Korea on the F-86 Sabre, and in Vietnam in the U.S. aircraft gun podsXM14/SUU-12/A gun pod. Today, it can be found on the Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano. The FN Herstal license-produced M3-series is used by the U.S. military in two versions; the M3M and M3P. The fixed, remote-firing version, the FN M3P, is employed on the AN/TWQ-1 AvengerAvenger Air Defense System, and is currently being used on the OH-58 KiowaOH-58D; augmenting the XM296 .50 cal. machine gun. 6-6 Cavalry aircrews field new Kiowa Warrior weapons system. US Army. The M3M flexible machine gun has been adopted by USN under the designation GAU-21/A for use on helicopters. The GAU-21/A is also being used by the United States Marine Corps to upgrade from the XM-218/GAU-16 .50 cal. machine gun for the CH-53E, Sea Stallions Implement New Ramp Mount Weapon System. USMC on the UH-1Y Venom, and on the Canadian Forces' CH-146 Griffon via the INGRESS upgrade.[citation needed]Users The M2 family has been widely used abroad, primarily in its basic infantry configuration. A brief listing of designations for M2 family weapons follows: Country NATO Member Designation Description ArgentinaArgentinaJones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.No M2HB 12.7 99mm Browning M2HB machine gun AustraliaAustraliaM2HB-QCBAustriaAustriasMG M2 BahrainBahrain(p77)BelgiumBelgiumYes BeninBeninNo BoliviaBoliviaBrazilBrazilMtr .50 M2 HB "BROWNING" BulgariaBulgariaYes Burkina FasoBurkina FasoNo BurundiBurundiCameroonCameroonCanadaCanadaYes FN M2HB-QCB, GAU-21 ChadChadNo ChileChileColombiaColombiaIvory CoastCote d'IvoireCroatiaCroatiaYes Democratic Republic of the CongoDemocratic Republic of CongoNo DenmarkDenmarkYes M/50 TMG ? 12.7 99mm FNH M3M machine gunDjiboutiDjiboutiNo 12.7 99mm Browning M2HB machine gun Dominican RepublicDominican RepublicEcuadorEcuadorEgyptEgyptEl SalvadorEl SalvadorEstoniaEstoniahttp://www.mil.ee/?menu=tehnika1&sisu=browningYes Browning M2 sometimes as Raskekuulipilduja Browning M212.7 99mm Browning M2HB. Usually mounted on vehicles, such as the Patria Pasi#OperatorsPasi XA-180 and XA-188, but the tripod version is also in use. EthiopiaEthiopiaNo 12.7 99mm Browning M2HB machine gun FranceFranceYes FinlandFinlandNo 12,7 RSKK 2005 12.7 99mm Browning M2A1 machine gun GabonGabon12.7 99mm Browning M2HB machine gun The GambiaGambiaGhanaGhanaGermanyGermany "Die CH-53 als Brcke in die Zukunft" (The CH-53 as a bridge to the future)Yes M3M, MG50 GreeceGreeceGuatemalaGuatemalaNo HondurasHondurasHungaryHungary[citation needed]Yes IndiaIndiaNo IndonesiaIndonesiaIranIranRepublic of IrelandIreland.5 Heavy Machine Gun (HMG) Army Weapons - Heavy Machine Gun (HMG)IsraelIsrael 99 12.7 0.5 "mm M2HB-QCB, used by all ground forces (infantry, armored fighting vehicles and tanks) ItalyItalyYes 12.7 99mm Browning M2HB machine gun JamaicaJamaicaNo JapanJapan12.7mm Heavy Machine Gun M2 JordanJordanSouth KoreaRepublic of KoreaK6 12.7 99mm Browning M2HB with additional modification; licensed by S&T DynamicsYeohwa ShotgunKuwaitKuwait12.7 99mm Browning M2HB machine gun LebanonLebanonLiberiaLiberiaLibyaLibya[citation needed]No LithuaniaLithuaniaYes LuxembourgLuxembourgMitrailleuse .50 M2 HB ArmementMadagascarMadagascarNo MalaysiaMalaysiaMauritaniaMauritaniaMexicoMexicoMoroccoMoroccoMyanmarMyanmarNetherlandsNetherlandsYes

M2 Browning New ZealandNew ZealandNo NicaraguaNicaraguaNigerNigerNigeriaNigeriaNorwayNorwayYes 12,7 mitraljse OmanOmanNo PakistanPakistanPanamaPanamaParaguayParaguayPeruPeruPhilippinesPhilippinesPortugalPortugalYes QatarQatarNo RomaniaRomaniaYes RwandaRwandaNo Saudi ArabiaSaudi ArabiaSenegalSenegalSerbiaSerbiaSingaporeSingaporeSomaliaSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth AfricaSoviet UnionSoviet UnionNo M2 AA variant, Lend-Lease, 3100 pieces Lend&Lease deliveries on ibiblio.orgSpainSpainYes SwedenSwedenNo Kulspruta 88 (Ksp 88)SwitzerlandSwitzerlandTaiwanTaiwanThailandThailandTogoTogoTongaTongaTunisiaTunisiaTurkeyTurkeyYes United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab EmiratesNo United KingdomUnited KingdomYes L2A1 L6, L6A1 12.7 99mm Browning M2HB machine gun; ranging gun for the Royal Ordnance L7L7 105 mm tank gun on the Centurion tankL11, L11A1 12.7 99mm Browning M2HB machine gun; ranging gun L21A1 12.7 99mm Browning M2HB machine gun; ranging gun for the 120mm tank gun on the Chieftain tankL111A112.7 99mm M2QCB machine gun M3MMOD Defence News report of M3M acquisition for CHC mod.co.uk defence news accessed 26 Sept 201012.7 99mm Browning M2HB machine gun; Upgraded M2 for use on Commando Helicopter Force and other units as helicopter door guns. United StatesUnited StatesBrowning Caliber .50 M2, M2HB, XM218/GAU-16, GAU-21 12.7 99mm Browning M2HB machine gun UruguayUruguayNo 12.7 99mm Browning M2HB machine gun VenezuelaVenezuelaYemenYemenZimbabweZimbabweReferencesNotes Bibliography Chinn, George M. (1951), The Machine Gun: History, Evolution and Development of Manually Operated, Full Automatic, and Power Driven Aircraft Machine Guns 1, Department of the Navy, Bureau of OrdnanceDunlap, Roy F. (1948), Ordnance Went Up Front: Some Observations and Experiences of a Sergeant of Ordnance, who served throughout World War II with the United States Army in Egypt, the Philippines and Japan, including way stations, A Samworth Book on Firearms, Plantersville, SC: Small-Arms Technical Publishing Co., OCLCOCLC 6081851 George, John B. (1981). Shots Fired In Anger, NRA Press, ISBN 0-935998-42-X Gresham, John D. (December 2001). "Weapons". Military Heritage. Volume 3, No. 3: 22, 24, 26, 28, 30 (John Browning's (M2) .50-caliber). Hogg, Ian. (2001). The American Arsenal. Ian Hogg, ed. London, UK: Greenhill Books, ISBN 978-1-85367-470-9 MCWP 3-15.1: Machine Guns and Machine Gun Gunnery USMC (requires client certificate). Alternative via scribd Yeide, Harry. (2004). The Tank Killers. Havertown, Penn.: Casemate, ISBN 978-1-932033-26-7 Zaloga, Steven J. (2002). M8 Greyhound Light Armored Car 194191. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1-84176-468-9External links Aircraft Gunnery_.50 cal. M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun at Federation of American Scientists Browning M2HB & M2HQCB (USA) M2 .50 cal. Machine Gun at Olive-Drab.com Quad-50 M2 .50 cal. Machine Gun at Olive-Drab.com Browning M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun at Gary's Olive Drab Page Browning M2 HB .50 Caliber Heavy Machine Gun, "Ambush in Mogadishu", Frontline (U.S. TV series)Frontline, Public Broadcasting ServicePBS Can you use the .50-caliber on human targets?, Stars and Stripes (newspaper)Stars & Stripes Video of Operation on YouTube U.S. Army FM 23-65 Browning Machine Gun Caliber .50 HB, M2 Browning .50 Cal. M2 Aircraft dimensionsRecords PrecededbyLongest confirmed combat sniper-shot kill19672002 1.42 mi (2,286 m) using .50 BMG by Carlos Hathcock SucceededbyMcMillan Tac-50

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Flag of Cte d'Ivoire.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Cte_d'Ivoire.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Jon Harald Sby File:Flag of Croatia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Croatia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Nightstallion, Elephantus, Neoneo13, Denelson83, Rainman, R-41, Minestrone, Lupo, Zscout370, MaGa (based on Decision of the Parliament) File:Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo.svg License: unknown Contributors: User:Nightstallion File:Flag of Denmark.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Denmark.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Madden File:Flag of Djibouti.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Djibouti.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: ElmA, EugeneZelenko, Fry1989, Homo lupus, Klemen Kocjancic, Martin H., Mattes, Neq00, Nightstallion, Nishkid64, Pymouss, Ratatosk, Str4nd, TFCforever, ThomasPusch, Thyes, Tomasdd, Zscout370, , , 8 anonymous edits File:Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Nightstallion File:Flag of Ecuador.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Ecuador.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: President of the Republic of Ecuador, Zscout370 File:Flag of Egypt.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Egypt.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Open Clip Art File:Flag of El Salvador.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_El_Salvador.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: user:Nightstallion File:Flag of Estonia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Estonia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Originally drawn by User:SKopp. Blue colour changed by User:PeepP to match the image at . File:Flag of Ethiopia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Ethiopia.svg License: unknown Contributors: Aaker, Anime Addict AA, Antemister, Cycn, F l a n k e r, Fry1989, GoodMorningEthiopia, Happenstance, Homo lupus, Huhsunqu, Ixfd64, Klemen Kocjancic, MartinThoma, Mattes, Mozzan, Neq00, OAlexander, Pumbaa80, Rainforest tropicana, Reisio, Ricordisamoa, SKopp, Smooth O, Spiritia, ThomasPusch, Torstein, Wsiegmund, Xoristzatziki, Zscout370, 16 anonymous edits File:Flag of France.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_France.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Finland.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Finland.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Drawn by User:SKopp File:Flag of Gabon.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Gabon.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Gabbe, User:SKopp File:Flag of The Gambia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_The_Gambia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Vzb83 File:Flag of Ghana.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Ghana.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Benchill, Cycn, Fry1989, Henswick, Homo lupus, Indolences, Jarekt, Klemen Kocjancic, Magasjukur2, Neq00, OAlexander, SKopp, ThomasPusch, Threecharlie, Torstein, Zscout370, 5 anonymous edits File:Flag of Germany.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Germany.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Greece.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Greece.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: (of code) cs:User:-xfi- (talk) File:Flag of Guatemala.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Guatemala.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:K21edgo File:Flag of Honduras.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Honduras.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: D1990, Denelson83, ECanalla, Feydey, Fred J, Homo lupus, Klemen Kocjancic, Mattes, Matthew hk, Neq00, Oak27, Pumbaa80, Rocket000, RubiksMaster110, SKopp, ThomasPusch, Tocino, Vzb83, Yuval Madar, ZooFari, Zscout370, 10 anonymous edits File:Flag of Hungary.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Hungary.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of India.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_India.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie, Mifter File:Flag of Indonesia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Indonesia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Drawn by User:SKopp, rewritten by User:Gabbe File:Flag of Iran.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Iran.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Various File:Flag of Ireland.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Ireland.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Israel.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Israel.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: The Provisional Council of State Proclamation of the Flag of the State of Israel of 25 Tishrei 5709 (28 October 1948) provides the official specification for the design of the Israeli flag. The color of the Magen David and the stripes of the Israeli flag is not precisely specified by the above legislation. The color depicted in the current version of the image is typical of flags used in Israel today, although individual flags can and do vary. The flag legislation officially specifies dimensions of 220 cm 160 cm. However, the sizes of actual flags vary (although the aspect ratio is usually retained). File:Flag of Italy.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Italy.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Jamaica.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Jamaica.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anime Addict AA, Boricuaeddie, Bruce1ee, Davepape, Duduziq, Fred J, Fry1989, Herbythyme, KBarnett, Kilom691, Klemen Kocjancic, Kounoupidi, Krnerbrtchen, Ludger1961, Mattes, Nishkid64, Odder, Reisio, SKopp, Sarang, SiBr4, The Evil IP address, Wknight94, Zscout370, 31 anonymous edits File:Flag of Japan.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Japan.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Jordan.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Jordan.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of South Korea.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_South_Korea.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Various File:Flag of Kuwait.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Kuwait.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Lebanon.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Lebanon.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Traced based on the CIA World Factbook with some modification done to the colours based on information at Vexilla mundi. File:Flag of Liberia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Liberia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Government of Liberia File:Flag of Libya.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Libya.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Various File:Flag of Lithuania.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Lithuania.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Luxembourg.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Luxembourg.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Madagascar.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Madagascar.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Malaysia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Malaysia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Achim1999, Ah Cong Strike, AnonMoos, Arteyu, Avala, Cycn, DarknessVisitor, Duduziq, Er Komandante, Fibonacci, Fred J, Fry1989, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, Juiced lemon, Klemen Kocjancic, Ludger1961, Morio, Nick, Reisio, Rocket000, SKopp, Sarang, SiBr4, Tryphon, VAIO HK, Zscout370, , 20 anonymous edits File:Flag of Mauritania.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Mauritania.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alkari, Anime Addict AA, AnonMoos, Cactus26, Cycn, Docu, Flad, Fred J, Fry1989, Gabbe, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, Juiced lemon, Klemen Kocjancic, Mattes, SKopp, SiBr4, TFCforever, ThomasPusch, 9 anonymous edits File:Flag of Mexico.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Mexico.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alex Covarrubias, 9 April 2006 Based on the arms by Juan Gabino. File:Flag of Morocco.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Morocco.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Denelson83, Zscout370 File:Flag of Myanmar.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Myanmar.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: *drew, AnonMoos, CommonsDelinker, Cycn, Duduziq, Fry1989, Gunkarta, Homo lupus, Idh0854, Josegeographic, Klemen Kocjancic, Legnaw, Mason Decker, Mattes, Neq00, Nightstallion, Pixeltoo, Rfc1394, Rodejong, SeNeKa, SiBr4, Stevanb, ThomasPusch, UnreifeKirsche, Vividuppers, WikipediaMaster, Winzipas, Xiengyod, Zscout370, , 10 anonymous edits File:Flag of the Netherlands.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Zscout370 File:Flag of New Zealand.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Achim1999, Adabow, Adambro, Arria Belli, Avenue, Bawolff, Bjankuloski06en, ButterStick, Cycn, Denelson83, Donk, Duduziq, EugeneZelenko, Fred J, Fry1989, George Ho, Hugh Jass, Ibagli, Jusjih, Klemen Kocjancic, Mamndassan, Mattes, Nightstallion, O, Peeperman, Poromiami, Reisio, Rfc1394, Sarang, Shizhao, Tabasco, Transparent Blue, Vsk, Xufanc, Zscout370, 38 anonymous edits File:Flag of Nicaragua.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Nicaragua.svg License: Attribution Contributors: User:C records File:Flag of Niger.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Niger.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Made by: Philippe Verdy User:verdy_p, see also fr:Utilisateur:verdy_p. File:Flag of Nigeria.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Nigeria.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Jhs File:Flag of Norway.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Norway.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Dbenbenn

11

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Flag of Oman.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Oman.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: *drew, Alkari, Cycn, Duduziq, Fry1989, Happenstance, Homo lupus, Ittihadawi, Jetijones, Klemen Kocjancic, Liftarn, Mattes, Neq00, Nightstallion, NikNaks, OAlexander, Orange Tuesday, Pumbaa80, Rfc1394, Ricordisamoa, ThomasPusch, Zscout370 File:Flag of Pakistan.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Pakistan.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Zscout370 File:Flag of Panama.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Panama.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: -xfi-, Addicted04, Alkari, Cycn, Duduziq, Fadi the philologer, Fry1989, Huhsunqu, Hystrix, Klemen Kocjancic, Liftarn, Mattes, Nightstallion, Ninane, Pumbaa80, Reisio, Rfc1394, SiBr4, TFCforever, Thomas81, ThomasPusch, Zscout370, , , 19 anonymous edits File:Flag of Paraguay.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Paraguay.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Republica del Paraguay File:Flag of Peru.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Peru.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Dbenbenn File:Flag of the Philippines.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Achim1999 File:Flag of Portugal.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Portugal.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1910; generic design); Vtor Lus Rodrigues; Antnio Martins-Tuvlkin (2004; this specific vector set: see sources) File:Flag of Qatar.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Qatar.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: (of code) cs:User:-xfiFile:Flag of Romania.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Romania.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: AdiJapan File:Flag of Rwanda.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Rwanda.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: . File:Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unknown File:Flag of Senegal.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Senegal.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original upload by Nightstallion File:Flag of Serbia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Serbia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: sodipodi.com File:Flag of Singapore.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Singapore.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Various File:Flag of Somalia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Somalia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: see upload history File:Flag of South Africa.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_South_Africa.svg License: unknown Contributors: Adriaan, Anime Addict AA, AnonMoos, BRUTE, Daemonic Kangaroo, Dnik, Duduziq, Dzordzm, Fry1989, Homo lupus, Jappalang, Juliancolton, Kam Solusar, Klemen Kocjancic, Klymene, Lexxyy, Mahahahaneapneap, Manuelt15, Moviedefender, NeverDoING, Ninane, Poznaniak, Przemub, Ricordisamoa, SKopp, Sarang, SiBr4, ThePCKid, ThomasPusch, Tvdm, Ultratomio, Vzb83, Zscout370, 37 anonymous edits File:Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: A1, Ahmadi, Alex Smotrov, Alvis Jean, Art-top, BagnoHax, Beetsyres34, Brandmeister, Counny, Cycn, Denniss, Dynamicwork, ELeschev, Endless-tripper, Ericmetro, EugeneZelenko, F l a n k e r, Fred J, Fry1989, G.dallorto, Garynysmon, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, Jake Wartenberg, MaggotMaster, MrAustin390, Ms2ger, Nightstallion, Palosirkka, Patrickpedia, PeaceKeeper97, Pianist, R-41, Rainforest tropicana, Sebyugez, Skeezix1000, Solbris, Storkk, Str4nd, Tabasco, ThomasPusch, Toben, Twilight Chill, Xgeorg, Zscout370, , 4, 64 anonymous edits File:Flag of Spain.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Spain.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Sweden.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Sweden.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Switzerland.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Switzerland.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Marc Mongenet Credits: User:-xfiUser:Zscout370 File:Flag of the Republic of China.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: 555, Abner1069, Bestalex, Bigmorr, Denelson83, Ed veg, Gzdavidwong, Herbythyme, Isletakee, Kakoui, Kallerna, Kibinsky, Mattes, Mizunoryu, Neq00, Nickpo, Nightstallion, Odder, Pymouss, R.O.C, Reisio, Reuvenk, Rkt2312, Rocket000, Runningfridgesrule, Samwingkit, Sasha Krotov, Shizhao, SiBr4, Tabasco, Theo10011, Vzb83, Wrightbus, ZooFari, Zscout370, 75 anonymous edits File:Flag of Thailand.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Thailand.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Zscout370 File:Flag of Togo.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Togo.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Aaker, Ahsoous, Alkari, Cycn, EugeneZelenko, Fry1989, Homo lupus, Klemen Kocjancic, Mattes, Mxn, Neq00, Nightstallion, Reisio, ThomasPusch, Vzb83 File:Flag of Tonga.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Tonga.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: AnonMoos, Badseed, Fry1989, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, Klemen Kocjancic, Krun, Liftarn, Mattes, Neq00, Nightstallion, Pumbaa80, Trockennasenaffe, Wrightbus, 5 anonymous edits File:Flag of Tunisia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Tunisia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: entraneur: BEN KHALIFA WISSAM File:Flag of Turkey.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Turkey.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: David Benbennick (original author) File:Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anime Addict AA, Avala, Dbenbenn, Duduziq, F l a n k e r, Fry1989, Fukaumi, Gryffindor, Guanaco, Homo lupus, Kacir, Klemen Kocjancic, Krun, Madden, Neq00, Nightstallion, Piccadilly Circus, Pmsyyz, RamzyAbueita, Ricordisamoa, Zscout370, 5 anonymous edits File:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie, Good Olfactory, Mifter File:Flag of the United States.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Uruguay.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Uruguay.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Reisio (original author) File:Flag of Venezuela.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Venezuela.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alkari, Bastique, Cycn, Denelson83, DerFussi, Fry1989, George McFinnigan, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, Huhsunqu, Infrogmation, K21edgo, Klemen Kocjancic, Ludger1961, Neq00, Nightstallion, Reisio, Rupert Pupkin, Sarang, SiBr4, Sparkve, ThomasPusch, Vzb83, Wikisole, Zscout370, 13 anonymous edits File:Flag of Yemen.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Yemen.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:Flag of Zimbabwe.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Zimbabwe.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Madden

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License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/