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SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG.

AND
TECHNOLOGY,ALIYASPUR,AMBALA

SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED

SIX WEEKS INDUSTRIAL TRAINING


AT THE WORKS OF

M/S SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED


Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the B.TECH in
Mechanical Engineering

SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF
ENGINEERING AND
TECHNOLOGY,ALIYASPUR
,AMBALA

Session 2011-2014

SUBMITTED BY:
JAGJEET SINGH

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SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. AND


TECHNOLOGY,ALIYASPUR,AMBALA

SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Training is an investment and hence one should be able to get
due returns in terms of better quality of workmen and engineers for
future.
I am doing my training at SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED,
derabassi. During this one month period of my training I learn many
things related to forging industry and its documentation work. This has
increased my knowledge and practicability about the vast field of
Forging industry.
I am extremely grateful to the management of SFL for giving me an
opportunity to pursue practical training in their plant. I am thankful to Mr.
SUKHWINDER SINGH (Management Representative & Er. Q.A.) who
really supported me during this month of training.
I am also thankful to all the staff and workers of the plant for their
support and help.
JAGJEET SINGH
MECHANICAL ENGG.
3111788

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TECHNOLOGY,ALIYASPUR,AMBALA

SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED

CONTENTS
TOPIC

PAGE

COMPANY PROFILE
PLANT PHOTOGRAPH

4
6

PROCESS FLOW CHART

MAIN COMPONENTS
FORGING
HEAT TREATMENT

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SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. AND


TECHNOLOGY,ALIYASPUR,AMBALA

SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED

COMPANY PROFILE

Samrat Forgings Limited is one of the Largest Suppliers of


Quality Forgings in the country. Recognized as one of the
prime supplier of forgings of various dimensions and profile,
our band of extremely satisfied customers has already
classified us as a 'Zero Defects' supplier. Of course, we are
accredited with AD-2000 Merkblatt W 0 certification from one
of the renowned international agency.
Situated about 16 miles from Chandigarh in an area more than
40,000 sq. metres, our factory having an installed capacity of
around 8400 MT per annum, is fully self-contained with
modern facilities for Tool Room, Heat Treatment, Material
Testing etc. We have excellent facilities for in-house
development of Dies and Toolings. A large contingent of
experienced engineers and Technicians take up the task of
supplying quality products to our esteemed customers on their
toes with a dedicated motto of "Quality in time".

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SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED


Our most modern Unit-II has highly sophisticated specialized
CNC machines. We can also offer to our esteemed customers
fully machined components. Swaraj group (Punjab Tractors
Limited, Mazda, Combines, Engines), Ashok Leyland,
Mahindra & Mahindra (Trator Division & Automobile Division),
Bharat Earth Movers Ltd., TATA Hitachi, TELCON, H.M.T.,
Diesel Locomotive Works, Diesel Loco-modernization Works &
Twin Disc, Belgium etc. are some of our valued customers
whom we are really proud to be associated with. We are also
registered with Director of Quality Assurance (Armaments),
DGQA, Ministry of Defence for various ammunition items like
empty shell of 105 mm IFG illg. /84mm HE, empty bodies of
Bomb 120mm/81mm/51mm HE and various such items.
Samrat Forgings Limited is one of the Largest Suppliers of
Quality Forgings in the country. Recognised as one of the
prime supplier of forgings of various dimensions and profile,
our band of extremely satisfied customers have already
classified us as a 'Zero Defect' supplier. Of course, we are
accredited with AD-2000 certification from one of the renowned
international agency.

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SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED

PLANT PHOTOGRAPHS

CUTTING SHOP

TOOL ROOM

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SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED

COMPONENTS
PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR FORGING OPERATION:

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MAIN COMPONENTS

CONNECTINGROD

SPINDLES

ROLLER

CRANKSHAFT

CROSSES

STAINLESSSTEELFLANGES

TIEROD

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SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED

TOOL ROOM OF SFL

CUTTING SHOP OF SFL

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HEAT TREATMENT SHOP OF SFL

RAW MATERIAL STOCK YARD

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TECHNOLOGY,ALIYASPUR,AMBALA

SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED

FORGING
PROCESS:
Forging is a metal forming process used to produce large
quantities of identical parts, as in the manufacture of
automobiles, and to improve the mechanical properties of the
metal being forged, as in aerospace parts or military
equipment.

The design of forged parts is limited when

undercuts or cored sections are required. All cavities must be


comparatively straight and largest at the mouth, so that the
forging die may be withdrawn.
The products of forging may be tiny or massive and can be
made of steel (automobile axles), brass (water valves),
tungsten

(rocket

nozzles),

aluminum

(aircraft

structural

members), or any other metal. More than two thirds of forging


in the United States is concentrated in four general areas: 30
percent in the aerospace industry, 20 percent in automotive
and truck manufacture, 10 percent in off-highway vehicles, and
10 percent in military equipment. This process is also used for
coining, but with slow continuous pushes.

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The forging metal forming process has been practiced since
the Bronze Age. Hammering metal by hand can be dated back
over 4000 years ago. The purpose, as it still is today, was to
change the shape and/or properties of metal into useful tools.
Steel was hammered into shape and used mostly for carpentry
and farming tools. An ax made easy work of cutting down
trees and metal knives were much more efficient than stone
cutting tools. Hunters used metal-pointed spears and arrows
to catch prey. Blacksmiths used a forge and anvil to create
many useful instruments such as horseshoes, nails, wagon
tires, and chains.
Militaries used forged weapons to equip their armies, resulting
in many territories being won and lost with the use and
strength of these weapons. Today, forging is used to create
various and sundry things. The operation requires no cutting
or shearing, and is merely a reshaping operation that does not
change the volume of the material.

Forging:

Forging changes the size and shape, but not the

volume, of a part. The change is made by force applied to the


material so that it stretches beyond the yield point. The force
must be strong enough to make the material deform. It must
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not be so strong; however, that it destroys the material. The
yield point is reached when the material will reform into a new
shape. The point at which the material would be destroyed is
called the fracture point.
In forging, a block of metal is deformed under impact or
pressure to form the desired shape. Cold forging, in which the
metal is not heated, is generally limited to relatively soft
metals.

Most metals are hot forged; for example, steel is

forged at temperatures between 2,100oF and 2,300oF (1,150oC


to 1,260oC). These temperatures cause deformation, in which
the grains of the metal elongate and assume a fibrous
structure of increased strength along the direction of flow.

Flow lines in a forged part

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Normally this results in metallurgical soundness and improved
mechanical properties.

Strength, toughness, and general

durability depend upon the way the grain is placed. Forgings


are somewhat stronger and more ductile along the grain
structure than across it. The feature of greatest importance is
that along the grain structure there is a greater ability to resist
shock, wear, and impact than across the grain.
Material properties also depend on the heat-treating process
after forging. Slow cooling in air may normalize work pieces,
or they can be quenched in oil and then tempered or reheated
to achieve the desired mechanical properties and to relieve
any internal stresses. Good forging practice makes it possible
to control the flow pattern resulting in maximum strength of the
material and the least chances of fatigue failure.

These

characteristics of forging, as well as fewer flaws and hidden


defects, make it more desirable than some other operations
(i.e. casting) for products that will undergo high stresses.

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TYPES OF FORGING:
Forging is divided into three main methods: hammer, press,
and rolled types.
(1)

Hammer Forging (Flat Die): Preferred method for


individual forgings. The shaping of a metal or other
material, by an instantaneous application of pressure to
a relatively small area. A hammer or ram, delivering
intermittent blows to the section to be forged, applies
this pressure.

The hammer is dropped from its

maximum height, usually raised by steam or air


pressure. Hammer forging can produce a wide variety
of shapes and sizes and, if sufficiently reduced, can
create a high degree of grain refinement at the same
time. The disadvantage to this process is that finish
machining is often required, as close dimensional
tolerances cannot be obtained.

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(2)

Press Forging: This process is similar to kneading,


where a slow continuous pressure is applied to the area
to be forged.

The pressure will extend deep into the

material and can be completed either cold or hot. A cold


press forging is used on a thin, annealed material, and a
hot press forging is done on large work such as armor
plating, locomotives and heavy machinery. Press Forging
is more economical than hammer forging (except when
dealing with low production numbers), and closer
tolerances can be obtained. A greater proportion of the
work done is transmitted to the work piece, differing from
that of the hammer forging operation, where much of the
work is absorbed by the machine and foundation. This
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method can also be used to produce larger forgings, as
there is no limitation in the size of the machine.
(3) Die Forging: Open and closed die operations can be
used in forging. In open-die forging the dies are either flat
or rounded. Large forgings can be formed by successive
applications of force on different parts of the material.
Hydraulic presses and forging machines are both
employed in closed die forging. In closed-die forging the
metal is trapped in recessed impressions, which are
machined into the top and bottom dies. As the dies press
together, the material is forced to fill the impressions.
Flash, or excess metal, is squeezed out between the dies.
Closed-die forging can produce parts with more complex
shapes than open-die forging. Die forging is the best
method, as far as tolerances that can be met, and also
results in a finished part that is completely filled out and is
produced with the least amount of flashing.

The final

shape and the improvement in metallurgical properties


are dependent on the skill of the operator.

Closer

dimensional tolerances can be held with closed die


forgings than with open die forgings and the operator
requires less skill.
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HEAT TREATMENT:
Materials can be improved before or after manufacturing by
different heat treatment processes.

Forging is usually

performed to hot metals, allowing for smoother flow and easier


deformation. Steel is heated to varying temperatures, usually
between 1700oF to 2000oF but can reach as high as 2400oF,
depending on the carbon content. Depending on the amount
of work required to the piece, it may be necessary to reheat
the piece one or more times. The temperature of the metal
when completely forged is called the finishing temperature.
After forging, the material must be cooled uniformly and
protected from moisture or cold air. This is done by placing the
material into dry ashes, lime or mica dust in order to retard the
rate of cooling.
(1)

Preheating: Preheating of materials is done to help


prevent cracking or distortion of the material.

This is

done by placing the metal in a series of furnaces of


increasing temperatures instead of throwing it directly
into the furnace used to heat the metal for forging,
annealing, normalizing or hardening. Another way to

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achieve this is to start in a cold furnace and slowly bring
it to temperature.
(2) Annealing: Annealing should follow forging as soon as
possible whenever machining is required.

Annealing is the

heating and then


cooling of metal to make the metal less brittle, or more
malleable and ductile.

This will soften the steel that was

previously hardened and reduce internal stresses. Annealing


is done by heating the metal to a temperature beyond the
critical temperature and holding it there for a period of time.
The metal is then cooled with the furnace and not removed
until the furnace is cold. It can also be cooled to a temperature
within the furnace that is known to be below the lower critical
temperature, at which the annealing is complete.

Slower

cooling rates are required as carbon content increases in the


metal.
(2)

Normalizing: Normalizing is done to improve the


crystalline structure of the steel, thus obtaining superior
properties.

Heating the forged part just beyond the

critical temperature and then allowing it to air-cool

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completes normalizing. This allows the grain-size to be
refined and, if not held at that temperature too long, will
result in a newly formed crystalline structure.

The

internal stresses, if any, will be relieved, hardened steels


will be softened, overheated steels will have a more
favorable, normal fine-grained structure, and structural
distortion will be removed.
(4) Hardening: Hardening of steels can also be done after
forging. The workpiece is heated slowly, to obtain the finest
grain-sizes, to its hardening temperature - much higher than
annealing temperatures. The metal is kept at this temperature
only until uniform heat distribution and completion of the
thermal

transformation.

Prolonged

exposure

at

these

elevated temperatures will result in increased grain growth and


surface decarbonization, if no protection from oxidation is
provided. Oxidation can be avoided by surrounding the metal
with some material that will use up the oxygen that is present
in the furnace. Once the metal has been uniformly heated to
temperature, it is removed from the furnace and placed directly
into a quenching tank. This rapidly cools the metal and the
metal retains its new qualities.

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MAIN PROCESSES AT SFL


1. New Product Development Engineering Cell
2. Tool Room
3. Inward Inspection of Raw Material
4. Cutting
5. Hot Forging
6. Heat Treatment
7. Shot Blasting and Grinding
8. Magna-flux Crack Detection
9. Final Inspection
10. Packaging & Dispatch

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FORGE SHOP
In forge shop they have to follow following procedure:
1. Supervisor receives the monthly and weekly production
planning from GM (Works).
2. Supervisor draws the die appropriate to the product planned
for forging in the production plan
3. Appropriate hammer is selected based on production
planning.
4. Forging die is setup on selected hammer as per work
instructions for die setup.
5. Supervisor ensure that air pressure build up to 7 Kg/cm2 as
indicated in the pressure gauge.
6. Maintain temperature between 1150-1250C as indicated by
the digital temp indicator.
7. Forging operator heat up the die with die warmer.
8. Material for forging is pushed into the furnace with the help
of pusher , it is kept in the furnace for 60 min and then checked
the metal temperature which should be within the range of
1150-1250C

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9. Forging operator moves the hot material with the help of
tong and places on the hammer and simultaneously releases
the hammer to forge the material into desired product.
10. Forged product is removed from DIE with the help of tong
and moved onto trimming press for flash removal.
11. Forging operator removes the flash in the trimming press.
12. Supervisor arranges first piece inspection of the forged
product.
13. Supervisor checks for any special requirement specified by
the customer.
14. As and when prod of lot comes to an end, layout inspection
on the last piece is carried out. The product is subjected to
visual inspection by the supervisor or his inspector and record
maintained.

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HEAT TREATMENT
In heat treatment department they have to follow following
procedure:
1. Supervisor refers to the heat treatment production plan for
selecting one of the following processing:
a) Hardening & Tempering
b) Normalizing
c) Iso-Annealing
2. Supervisor carries out the following checks before starting
the heat treatment of the products:
a) Furnace temperature
b) Quenching oil temperature
c) Tempering furnace temperature
d) SCADA system
3. Proceed with the heat treatment as follows:
For hardening & tempering cycle:
a) Ensure that requisite process parameter are
achieved before starting the heat treatment process
b) Place no. of product in the tray as per HTM process
cycle chart.
c) Operator will push the tray manually to match the
total cycle time.

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For Quenching Operation:
a) Select the appropriate quenching process as given
against the type of product.
b) Move the product from furnace in least possible time
quench delay to prevent, raise the tray from
quenching tank after 5 min and hold it for 5 min for
quench media to drain off.
For Tempering Operation:
a) Move the tray holding the quenched holding the
quenched product into the temp. furnace and
maintain a cycle time.
b) After tempering material is handed over for
hardness testing.
4. Supervisor HTM checks microstructure of one piece by
cutting a product slice on microscope.
The entire product which have undergone Hardening,
Tempering, Normalizing, iso-annealing are subjected to
hardening tests.

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Bibliography
1.

www.google.com (Forging)

2.

www.samratforgings.com

3.

www.wikipedia.com

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