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# Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4 4.

1 INTRODUCTION

## 1 / 18 S;.1R /ORC.S > 0.NDIN< MOM.NTS

In the preceding sections foc!s "as on a#iall\$ loaded %ars&.that is str!ct!ral 'e'%ers loaded along the longit!dinal a#is (tension co'pression or torsion a%o!t the longit!dinal a#is) *e "ill no" consider %ea's&.that is str!ct!ral 'e'%ers "ith lateral loads&..forces or 'o'ents perpendic!lar to the longit!dinal a#is. 4.+ T,-.S O/ 0.1MS SIM-2, SU--ORT 0.1M -1 1 % 2O1D T,-.S= 6 0 R1 % + R0 /R.. 0OD, DI1<R1M -1 6%

## -1 3 concentrated load 4 force 5 6 3 !nifor' load 4 force / distance 5 ( !nifor'l\$ distri%!ted )

1 +

C1NTI2.7.R 0.1M 61 6+ 0 % M1

q1b
R1 a
% +

( q + q1 ) b
b :
% +

1 a

2O1D T,-.S=
1 +

( q + q1 ) b

## acts at centroid ( i.e.

b ) of geo'etr\$ :

## Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4 2et?s loo@ at the Cantile9er 0ea'. 61 6+ 0 %

1 +

+ / 18

Fy = A

1 a

( ) R A q1b 1 + q + q1 b = A
1 R A = q1b + 1 + q + b + q1b 1 =1 + q1b + + q + b

RA =

1 +

( q1 + q+ ) b

q1b
M1 R1 a
% + +% :

( q + q1 ) b
b :
% +

M A = A

## D b M A q1b a + 1 ( q+ q1 )b( a + + b) = A : + + M A = q1ab + 1 q b+ + ( 1 q b1 q b )( a + + b) + 1 + + + 1 :

= q1ab + 1 q b+ + 1 q ab + 1 q b+ 1 q ab 1 q b+ + 1 + + : + + 1 : 1 =1 q ab + 1 q b+ + 1 q ab + 1 q b+ + 1 B 1 + + : + MA = q1b b q b +b a + + + a + + : + :

4.: S;.1R /ORC. and 0.NDIN< MOM.NT 1s %efore to find the internal stresses and strains "e '!st first find the internal forces and 'o'ents. C1NTI2.7.R 0.1M ' n # C!t at 'Cn = M 7 OR 7 M
Fy = A P V = A V =P

D M m n = A
P( x) M = A M = Px

## 7 3 shear /orce M 3 %ending 'o'ent (co!ple)

Stress Res!ltants

## Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4 Defor'ation Sign Con9ention= OMIT

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7
acts C* against 'aterial

7
acts CC* against 'aterial

F M M

## co'presses %otto' side of %ea'

M /RO*NS

SMI2.S NOTE=

Initiall\$ the act!al "eight of the %ea' itself is o'itted in the pro%le's presented in this section. ;o"e9er in s!%se6!ent sections the %ea'?s "eight is a factor to %e considered in the sol!tion approach to the pro%le'. In realClife engineering there 'a\$ %e cases "here the "eight of the %ea' is insignificant ".r.t. to the applied loading and other cases "here it "ill %e i'portant or necessar\$ to factor in the %ea'?s "eight to acc!ratel\$ anal\$Ee the design.

EXAMPLE No. 1
1 0

## +AAA l%s 4AA l%s / ft C D

+?

4?

+?

Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4 <I7.N= 1 %ea' is loaded and s!pported as sho"n. /IND= a.) The Shear /orce 7 in section 0C %.) The 0ending Mo'ent M in section 0C SO2n=

4 / 18

6 (!nifor' load) is con9erted to concentrated load (62) to ONLY find reactions at s!pports. Use 6 to find 7 > M.

## Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4 EXAMPLE No. 2 (-ro%. 4.: 8 H) <I7.N= 0 1 O r C 1 N M 7 O

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/IND= a.) a#ial force N %.) shear force 7 c.) %ending 'o'ent M SO2n=

## Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4

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4.4 R.21TIONS;I- 0.T*..N 2O1D S;.1R /ORC. and 0.NDIN< MOM.NT 6 M D\$ 7 d# 7 D d7 M D dM Us!all\$ %oth the shear force and the 'o'ent 9ar\$ "ith # 6 is negati9e K

Fy = A V (V + dV ) qdx = A dV = qdx dV = q dx

(1)

## d7d# are + s'all n!'%ers.

dM =Vdx dM =V dx

1lso negligi%le

(+)

.6ns ( 1 ) > ( + ) are onl\$ 9alid "here distri%!ted loads or no loads act on the %ea'. What does eqn ( 1 ) mean=
dV = q dx

## The rate of change of 7 is e6!al to the intensit\$ of loading.

;O* /1ST 7 C;1N<.S D.-.NDS ON ;O* 21R<. 6 IS

## .J1M-2.= If there is no load on part of the %ea' (i.e. 6 3 A)

then

dV = A and dx

Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4 the Shear /orce is constant in this part of the %ea'. If 6 is @no"n as a f!nction of #=
dV = qdx

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dV = qdx
A B A

VB V A = qdx

## 70 8 71 3 8 4 area of loadCintensit\$ diagra' %et"een 1 and 0 5

T;. C;1N<. IN S;.1R /ORC. 0.T*..N + -OINTS 12ON< 1JIS O/ 0.1M = N.<1TI7. O/ TOT12 DO*N*1RD 2O1D 0.T*..N T;OS. -OINTS

dM =V dx

## The rate of change of M is e6!al to the Shear /orce.

T;. S2O-. O/ T;. MOM.NT CUR7. = T;. 712U. O/ T;. S;.1R

## Slope 3 rise o9er r!n 3 opp o9er adM 3 tan = N 3 C O / 3 D

1 Shear 7is decreasing so 7al!e of shear slope of Mo'ent MUST decrease. If 7 is @no"n as a+f!nction of #=

dM =Vdx

dM = Vdx
A B A

M B M A = Vdx

## M0 8 M1 3 4 area of ShearC/orce Diagra' %et"een 1 and 0 5

1R.1 O/ S;.1R /ORC. DI1<R1M 0.T*..N + -OINTS 3 C;1N<. IN 712U. O/ T;. MOM.NT 0.T*..N T;OS. -OINTS.

0o!ndar\$ conditions e#ist at %ea' %o!ndaries. Si'ilar concept to co'pati%ilit\$ e6ns "ith indeter'inate str!ct!res. EXAMPLE No. 1

\$ <I7.N= 1 %ea' is loaded and s!pported as sho"n. Use the coordinate a#is sho"n.
#

1A?

## Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4

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/IND= a.) the e6ns for the shear force 7 and %ending 'o'ent M for an\$ section of the %ea'. %.) Use the res!lts of (a) to deter'ine the 'agnit!des and locations of the 'a#i'!' shear and the 'a#i'!' %ending 'o'ent in the %ea'. SO2n=

4.G S;.1RC/ORC. 1ND 0.NDIN< MOM.NT DI1<R1MS One thing "e engineers do is de9ise graphic 'ethods to con9e\$ concepts. I... dra"ings sche'atics /0D?s stress ele'ents. *h\$P 0eca!se 1 diagra' is "orth 1AB calc!lations.

## Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4

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In general 7 and M are f!nctions of #&.the distance 'eas!red along the longit!dinal a#is of the %ea'. *hen designing or anal\$Eing a %ea' it is desira%le to @no" the 9al!es of 7 and M at all crossCsection. *e do this %\$ graphing 7 and M 9s # and these are called= S;.1R > MOM.NT DI1<R1MS The te#t disc!sses : general %ea's and loading conditions "hich "e "ill also consider. 1 0

a
<O TO N.JT -1<. D.7.2O.QNS > -2OT CUR7.S 1S ,OU <O 12ON<

F !
1

R A = P RB

= P

RA =

Pb L 7

RB =

Pa L

Pa L

La = P L

RA =

Pb L

Pb L

AC

Pa L
M
dM =V dx dM = Vdx M = Vdx area under shear curve RR

Pab L
AC

## Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4 AI#Ia

+ M cut = A
+ Fy = A V = Pb ( constant ) L

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Pb x =A L Pb M = x L M

2./T of aI#I2 1 -% 2 a #

M 7

+ Fy = A Pb P V = A L Pb PL P(b L) V = = L L Pa V = L
ALTE"NATE ANALYS#S=

+ M cut = A Pb x =A L Pb M = Pa Px + x = L M + P( x a ) x M = Pa1 L

28%3a
L b Pa Px L

## Need to "or@ this o!t. M 7 # -a 2

+ M A = A M + V ( L x) = A M = V ( L x ) = x M = Pa1 L Pa ( L x) L

2./T of AI#I%

+ Fy = A Pa V = L

It is left as an e#ercise to sho"n fro' % I # I 2 the sa'e res!lts for 7 > M are o%tained as fro' A I # I a a%o9e. 2et?s tal@ a%o!t these c!r9es. Note that= a.)
dV =A dx

aI#I2

## Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4

;O* /1ST 7 C;1N<.S D.-.NDS ON ;O* 21R<. 6 IS

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## "hich it sho!ld %e according to

dV = q dx

q = A ( No un form load )

%.)

dM =V dx

## 2eft Side Slope

Pab Pb m= L = a L

## Right Side Slope

m= Pab L = Pa b L

c.)

1R.1

Pb (a) L

Right Side
Pa (b) L

## The D.CR.1S. in %ending 'o'ent fro' a to 2

1R.1 O/ S;.1R /ORC. DI1<R1M 0.T*..N + -OINTS 3 C;1N<. IN 712U. O/ T;. MOM.NT 0.T*..N T;OS. -OINTS.

## No" let?s loo@ at another 0ea' 1

6 0 2

/0D

2 +

62

6 (!nifor' load) is con9erted to concentrated load (62) ONLY to find reactions at s!pports. Use 6 to find 7# > M# and to dra" diagra's.

R1

R0

## Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4

1+ / 18

2 + 6

#!#AL L!A" = qL qL qL RA = RB = + +

62 + 62 +
D 1R.1

62 + 73A 62 3 TOT12
C 1R.1 2O1D

62 + 62+ 8 O" \$

slope 3 A

dM =V dx

M = V dx

## Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4

+ Fy = A qL qx V = A + qL V = qx + +
dM qL = qx + dx + 'a# M S dM qL = A = qx + dx + L x= +
+

1: / 18

+ M A = A Vx + M = A M = qx + qL + x + +

qL qL L M = + ++ + + M 'a# = qL+ 8

qL+ qL+ + 8 4

OR
1 L qL AR\$A of V = 1 + bh = + + + qL+ = 8

The degree of the Shear c!r9e is D 1 higher than 6 !nifor' load. i.e. if 6 3 A then Shear is constant. If 6 is constant Shear is 2inear. The degree of the Mo'ent c!r9e is D 1 higher than the shear c!r9e. i.e. if Shear is 1st order (linear) then Mo'ent is +nd order (6!adratic) EXAMPLE No. 1 <I7.N= The %ea' sho"n %elo" /IND= a.) Dra" co'plete shear and 'o'ent diagra's %.) *rite the e6ns for shear and %ending 'o'ent for an\$ distance in the inter9al 0C. SO2n= 1 4? GAA l% 0 +AA l% / ft B? C

## Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4

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EXAMPLE No. 2 <I7.N= The %ea' sho"n %elo" /IND= Dra" co'plete shear and 'o'ent diagra's SO2n= 1
B? 0 1? +AAA ftl% 1+AA l% +AA l% / ft C :? D 4?

## Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4

1G / 18

Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4 EXAMPLE No. % (-ro% 4.G 8 ++) <I7.N= The %ea' sho"n %elo". /IND= Dra" the shearCforce > 'o'ent diagra's for this %ea'. SO2n= 1 A.8 ' A.8 ' 1.B ' : @N 1.A @N / ' 0

1B / 18

Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4 EXAMPLE No. & (-ro% 4.G 8 +:) <I7.N= The %ea' sho"n %elo" is s!%Mected to a linearl\$ 9ar\$ing load of 'a#i'!' intensit\$ 18A l% / ft. /IND= Dra" the shearCforce > 'o'ent diagra's for this %ea'. SO2n=
18A l%/ft

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1 C B.A ft L.A ft

## Mechanics of Solids Chapter 4 Chapter 4 SUMM1R, Shea' ( Moment !)a*'ams

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The follo"ing state'ents regard shear and 'o'ent diagra's for %ea's. Deter'ine if each state'ent is TRU. or /12S.. 1. T or / +. T or / :. T or / 4. T or / G. T or / B. T of / L. T or / If 6 3 A for a portion of a %ea' then 7 3 constant and M 3 linear. If 6 3 constant for a portion of a %ea' then 7 3 linear and M 3 6!adratic.
M AB = VAAB (change in 'o'ent fro' 1 to 0 3 shear area fro' 1 to 0)

The slope of the 'o'ent 3 the 9al!e of 7 load or point load acting do"n"ard) ca!ses a TUO<V in 7 do"n"ard %!t does not ca!se a TUO<V in the M. *here 7 crosses its a#is M has 'a# 9al!e for that section of the %ea'.
VR + R y = A
P (concentrated

7R 3 9al!e of shear at right end of %ea'. R\$ 3 Reaction at s!pport at right end of %ea' (no o9erhang)

8. T or / H. T or / 1A. T or /

1pplied 'o'ent ca!ses a TUO<V in M %!t not in 7. OR OR If the s!pport at the %ea' end is and there is no applied 'o'ent at that end then M at that end is Eero.
M cut (s!''ing 'o'ents at the c!t) \$o! o%tain an e6!ation for the 0\$ 'o'ent independent of 7cut (shear force at the c!t) and there%\$ pre9ent co'po!nding an error if the e6!ation for 7cut "as "rong.

11. T or / 1+. T or /

The slope of the shear diagra' depends on the 9al!e of the distri%!ted load 6. The larger the distri%!ted load 9al!e ( 6 ) the greater the slope of the shear diagra'.
V AB = qAAB

dV = q dx

1:. T or / 14. T or /

(change in shear fro' 1 to 0 3 load distri%!tion area fro' 1 to 0) load or point load acting !p"ard) ca!ses a TUO<V in 7 !p"ard %!t does not ca!se a TUO<V in the M.
P (concentrated