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Soil Moisture Based Automatic Plant Irrigation Sytem Measurement

Introduction: This project Microcontroller Based Soil Moisture Measurement is useful in analyzing the moisture level present in any particular land plot. This tool is a low cost solution for moisture measurement which is of utmost importance in the agricultural sector. The circuit is capable of generating an alarm if the moisture level of the soil under consideration goes low. The circuit also provides relay interface which can be used to apply any automatic and immediate control action in case the moisture in the soil is less. or e!ample" if the moisture is low in a grape field" then a solenoid valve switched by a relay can be opened" which would turn #$ all the drips of the region under consideration.

Block Diagram The circuit hardware consists of a general purpose microcontroller to measure and compare the moisture levels with a preset threshold value. The soil moisture sensor is a simple conductivity sensor connected to the microcontroller through an %&' which converts the analog value of the sensor to a digital value. This digital value is then compared with the preset threshold value and an appropriate control action is ta(en. The circuit is e)uipped with a (eypad for the user to enter or preset a threshold value on which the system is supposed to ta(e a control action. The circuit also has an *'& display which displays the current moisture level and the current state of control action.

Soil Moisture Sensor probe: Soil moisture sensors measure the water content in soil. % soil moisture probe is made up of multiple soil moisture sensors. #ne common type of soil moisture sensors in commercial use is a re)uency domain sensor such as a capacitance sensor. %nother sensor" the neutron moisture gauge" utilize the moderator properties of water for neutrons.

In This sensor +e are using , -robes to be dipped into the Soil %s per Moisture +e will get %nalog #utput variations from ../.volts 0 1,volts Input 2oltage 1, 2&'

or many applications soil moisture measurement devices li(e time domain reflect meters are too e!pensive and offer more features than really needed. Therefore a prototype for a simple and economical soil moisture probe has been developed" which allows measuring the mean moisture. %nother important state variable besides moisture is temperature. MICRO-CONTROLLER Used: This is the most important segment of the project" i.e. the microcontroller 3.4,. The controller is responsible for detection and polling of the peripherals status. It is responsible for ma(ing. It is responsible for prioritizing all the devices attached to it. +5 have used the %TM5* 36s41 microcontroller. The %T36S41 is a low0power" high0 performance 'M#S 70bit microcontroller with 38 bytes of in0system programmable lash memory. It has got 9, I:# lines" +atchdog timer" two data pointers" two 1/0bit timer:counters" si!0vector two0level interrupt architecture" a full duple! serial port" on0 chip oscillator" and a cloc( circuitry.

FEATURES OF 8 !"#$ 3 bit '-; for control application. /7 8B flash memory 1 8B <%M 9, I:# lines

%&D Dis'lay$ It will display the time" date as well as current room temperature. #utput of microcontroller is applied to the *'& display.

Software ;sed 1= (eil I&5 for %<M ,= lash magic or %<M

%dvantages: 1= +ater Supply can be adjusted as per moisture level in soil. ,= Moisture readings > effect can be useful for research in agriculture 9= Better use of water will help to save water also improve fertility of soil.

%pplications: 1= It can be used for many crops to manage water supply. ,= Soil moisture can be measured > monitored. 9= It can be used in regions where water problem e!ists to improve efficient use of water uture Scope:

1= Soil -? can be measured to test the soil. ,= Soil parameters li(e nitrogen" potassium can be measured for soil analysis. 9= &ata collection can be done for research purpose.