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I . Constitutional Underpinnings of United States Government A .

Considerations that influenced the formulation and adoption of the Constitution Enlightenment - reason, natural laws, social progress, liberty, toleration John Locke: government to protect natural rights; consent of governed social contract Charles de Montesquieu: Spirit of the Laws-separation of powers between leg/exec/judicial Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Social Contract-power in state from general will of community, rulers servants of community Articles of Confederation Unicameral Congress, 1 vote/state; congressional committees no exec/jud Congress could not: tax, executive/judicial, regulate commerce; unanimous amendment Constitutional Convention Rhode Island refused to send delegate; 55/74 selected delegates attended Beliefs: people selfish; unequal property -> rival factions that need to be checked; government to preserve property Virginia Plan: bicameral legislature New Jersey Plan: unicameral legislature Connecticut Compromise: bicameral Constitution prohibits suspension habeas corpus, bills of attainder, ex post facto laws, religious qualifications for office; upholds right to trial by jury B . Separation of powers C . Checks and balances Amendment process: (1a) both houses (1b) national convention called at request of state legislatures (2a) legislatures in states (2b) conventions in states D . Federalism Unitary system: all power in central government [GB, France, China] Confederacy: decentralized system [UN] Federalism: 2/more levels of govt have formal authority [US, Mexico, Canada, Germany, India] Advantages: diverse policies, experimentation/creativity, difficult for factions to dominate Disadvantages: inequality between states, local interests can thwart majority support, confusion for citizens John Calhoun of South Carolina: state can nullify act of Congress it considers unconstitutional; Civil War forcibly refuted doctrine of nullification Devolution [Welfare Reform Act of 1996 $ -> states to run own programs] E . Theories of democratic government

Federalist Papers: Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay Federalist No 10: James Madison, factions Federalist No 51: James Madison, ambition to counteract ambition Federalist No 78: Alexander Hamilton, judicial review II . Political Beliefs and Behaviors A . Beliefs that citizens hold about their government and its leaders Since 1950s, Americans become less trusting (inefficacy) B . Processes by which citizens learn about politics C . The nature, sources, and consequences of public opinion D . The ways in which citizens vote and otherwise participate in political life 1789: property and tax qualifications: white male property owners (1/15 white males) Jacksonians eliminate property and tax qualifications -> 1850 almost all white males could vote Voting Rights Act of 1965: (1) govt cannot deny vote based on race/color (2) no literacy requirements for ppl who completed 6th grade (3) federal registrars to protect AA in South Women vote at higher percentages (gender gap helps Dems then) Jews and Catholics (Dem) more likely to vote than Protestants (Rep) Cross pressures when voters belong to more than one group; reduces voter turnout Maj of US does not vote in nonpres election; 60% in 2008 pres election Except North Dakota, voters have burden to register National Voter Registration Act of 1993 = Motor Voter Act E . Factors that influence citizens to differ from one another in terms of political beliefs and behaviors Family most important agent of political socialization Historically increased education=Republican; 2008 exception III . Political Parties, Interest Groups, and Mass Media A . Political parties and elections 1 . Functions Win elections; hold public offices; operate government; determine public policy Recruit/nominate candidates; run campaigns; articulate issues; critique policies of party in power; linking institution 2 . Organization One-party [China, North Korea, Iran] or Multiparty [Italy, France, Israel] or Two-Party [US, 15 total] Minor Parties: (1) charismatic leaders [Teddy Roosevelt Bull Moose/Progressive Party; George Wallace American Independent Party; Ross Perot politics as usual] (2) single issue [Free Soil-anti slavery; Know Nothings-anti Irish-Catholic immigration; Right to Life] (3) ideology [Socialist, Libertarian]

Express strong views, push major parties to adopt ideas, spoiler role 3 . Development Critical election triggers party realignment [Lincoln, McKinley, FDR [Urban, labor unions, Catholics/Jews, Southerners, AA]] 1800 Jefferson antiFed defeated Fed John Adams; first time party in power peacefully gave up power Nixon marked beginning of era of divided government 4 . Effects on the political process 5 . Electoral laws and systems Dem/Rep candidates automatically placed on state ballots but minor party candidates need petition to place name on ballot B . Interest groups, including political action committees (PACs) 1 . The range of interests represented 1959 -> 2010 6000 -> 22000 Business Groups [National Association of Manufacturers - labor laws, minimum wages, corporate taxes, trade regulations; Chamber of Commerce - largest business federation; Business Roundtable - 150 CEOs of leading US corporations] Labor Groups: peaked in 1956, today 13% non-agricultural in a Union [AFL-CIO largest, 10M ppl] Agricultural Groups [Farm Bureau, National Milk Producers Federation] Professional Associations [National Education Association; American Medical Association; American Bar Association] Environmental Groups [Sierra Club, Audubon Society, World Wildlife Fund] Public Interest Groups [Common Cause, League of Women Voters Equality Interests [NAACP, NOW] Single-Issue Groups [NRA, Planned Parenthood] 2 . The activities of interest groups Support officials, influence public policies; gain access to policymakers Lobbying: 30,000 lobbyists in DC, testify, give Congress members info Success depends on (1) size - grassroots vs free-rider (2) intensity (3) money -> power elite theory 3 . The effects of interest groups on the political process 4 . The unique characteristics and roles of PACs in the political process Max $5,000 per candidate per election; 4,600 PACs; support incumbent House members C . The mass media 1 . The functions and structures of the news media 20% adults regularly purchase newspapers NBC, CBS, ABC networks -> CNN, Fox, MSNBC cable news Kennedy v Nixon debates televised watershed event (98% Amer have

TV) 2 . The impacts of the news media on politics Candidate-Centered campaigns: sound bites, gaffes, scandals, negative commercials, horse-race journalism 3 . The news media industry and its consequences IV . Institutions of National Government: The Congress, the Presidency, the Bureaucracy, and the Federal Courts Income tax 46%, corporate taxes 12%, social insurance taxes 36%, excise taxes 2.7%, estate/gift taxes 1.2%, custom duties 1.1% Before income tax, custom duties most important source of income Uncontrollable spending: >60% total [entitlement] Discretionary spending not required, 20% budget Incrementalism: small but regular increases in budgets of federal agencies A. Congress Delegate time vs trustee; mostly politico House: 435 members, 2-yr terms, 25 yrs/7yr citizen 1842: Congress said seats in House from single-member districts Constitution does not define/discuss districts House Rules Committee: Closed rule sets strict time limits, forbids amendments from floor; open rule less strict and permits amendments from floor House Committee on Ways and Means: members cannot serve on other committees; jurisdiction on tax, tarriffs, other revenue-raising Committee Chairs call meetings, schedule hearings, hire staff, recommend members, select subcommittee chairs, are elected but seniority is still the norm Discharge petition works if signed by majority Senate: 100 members, 6-yr terms, 30 yrs/9yr citizen Ratifies around 70% of treaties Members introduce bills by dropping it into the hopper on clerk's desk Reapportionment Act of 1929 fixed size of House Incumbents win 90% House, 75% Senate because (1) outspend 2:1 (2) visibility (3) constituent service (4) franking privilege (5) gerrymandering Discourages radical change, encourages close relations w/ interest groups Oversight: guidelines for new agencies, budget control, hearings and investigations, reorganizing and agency, evaluating agencys programs War Powers Resolution: Pres must notify Congress w/in 48 hrs of deploying troops, remove 60-90 days unless Congress extends time B. Presidency

Election-Primary Caucuses -> Jackson said elite -> conventions -> party bosses dominate -> progressive reformers promote primary elections 2008: 40 states had primaries, first New Hampshire Frontloading: primaries btwn Feb and mid-March Dem proportional, Rep winner-take-all and proportional rep 25% adult citizens participate in primaries Iowa best known and most influential caucus Only 4 since Johnson left office w/ >50% support Federal Election Reform Act of 1974: created Federal Election Commission, public funding, limit individual contributions Pres cannot dismiss federal judges or commissioners of independent regulatory agencies Cabinet members divided loyalty since (1) career beyond single administration -> strong loyalty to department (2) interest groups Executive Office of the President Office of Management and Budget: largest office, oversees preparation of federal budget, >500 career officials National Security Council: principal foreign/military advisers, VP, sec of state/treasury/defense Council of Economic Advisors: 3 leading economists, prepares annual Economic Report of the President <10% vetoes overridden 1996 Line-Item Veto Act struck down in Clinton v City of New York Work w/ divided government by (1) using media (2) threatening to veto (3) making deals w/ key leaders (4) building coalitions (5) increasingly rely on White House staff Executive orders based on constitutional/statutory authority, have the force of law C. Bureaucracy 2.7M civilian, 1.4M military federal government employees(1/2 Dept of defense, 28% postal service) Hierarchial authority, job specialization, formal rules Pendleton Act 1883: federal civil service by merit Office of Personnel Management administers civil service laws/regulations, in charge of hiring 15 Cabinet departments, secretaries strong deparment loyalty -> often not close presidential advisors Independent Regulatory Agencies: [ICC, SEC, FRB] led by small commissions Government Corporations provide service that could be provided by private sector [Amtrak, USPS] Independent Executive Agencies: non-cabinet departments [NASA, NSF,

EPA] Munn v Illinois upheld right of govt to regulate business Pres can use OMG to cut/increase agencys budget; Congress has sole power to appropriate funds Iron Triangle between administrative agency, interest group, congressional committee (subgovernments, very pervasive/powerful) Issue Networks: policy experts, media pundits, interest groups who regularly debate and issue Hatch Act prohibited civil servants from being directly involved w/ political candidates; Federal Employees Political Activities Act let employees run for office in nonpartisan elections, contribute $, campaign, cannot engage in political activity while on duty/solicit contributions from general public D. Courts Concurrent jurisdiction: can be heard in either federal or state court Supreme Court only court specifically mentioned in Constitution Nomination criteria: (1) competence (2) ideology/policy (3) race/ethnicity/gender Original jurisdiction in (1) 2/more states (2) US v state govt (3) US and foreign ambassador/diplomat Rule of Four to hear a case Judiciary Act of 1789 (1) established 3-tiered structure of federal courts (94 District -> appeals -> Supreme Court) (2) set size of SC to 6 justices Solicitor general is 4th ranking member of Dept of Justice; handles all appeals on behalf of US govt to SC V . Public Policy A . Policymaking in a federal system Foreign Policy Monroe Doctrine that said US would oppose European attempts to extend political control into Western Hemisphere Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: US responsibility to assure stability in Latin America and the Caribbean Wilson: collective security, League of Nations Bretton Woods Agreement at end of WWII, created IMF to stabilize exchange rates and World Bank to help world recover economically from destruction of WWII Cold War: Truman Doctrine-econ assistance and military aid to countries fighting against communism; Marshall Plan: extend US aid to Western Europe after WWII; both were containment; also NATO Vietnam War raised doubts about if containment was worth it, if US was morally superior Reagan Doctrine: US gave military assistance to anti-communist groups against

pro-Soviet govts [Afghanistan, Mozambique, Nicaragua] Powell Doctrine: all-or-nothing approach to military intervention: over-whelming force for quick and decisive victory; adoption of exit strategy before intervention Bush Doctrine: preemptive military action against perceived threat to US interests Eisenhower: military-industrial complex could lead to disastrous rise of misplaced power B . The formation of policy agendas Systemic agenda: discussion agenda Governmental/institutional agenda: problems to which legislators/public officials feel obliged to devote active and serious attention C . The role of institutions in the enactment of policy Types of implementation Authoritative techniques: govt restrains/directs peoples actions to eliminate unsafe/unfair/immoral activities or products Incentive techniques: encouragement by offering payoffs or financial inducements Capacity techniques: provide info, education, training, resources to enable people to participate in desired activities Hortatory techniques: appeal to peoples better instincts D . The role of the bureaucracy and the courts in policy implementation and interpretation E . Linkages between policy processes and the following: 1 . Political institutions and federalism 2 . Political parties 3 . Interest groups 4 . Public opinion 5 . Elections 6 . Policy networks VI . Civil Rights and Civil Liberties A . The development of civil liberties and civil rights by judicial interpretation Civil liberties: protection from arbitrary acts of government Webster v Reproductive Health Services upheld Missouri law prohibiting abortions in publicly operated hospital/clinic Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v Casey: state can place reasonable limits that do not place undue burden [24-hr waiting period, parental consent for minors] Civil rights: protection against discrimination or arbitrary treatment by officials/individuals Reasonable classification okay [voting age, excise tax for smokers] Civil Rights Act of 1964 (1) ended Jim Crow segregation (2) prohibited discrimination in employment for race/color/national

origin/religion/gender (3) created Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to monitor/enforce protections against job discrimination (4) authorized Dept of Justice to initiate lawsuits to desegregate Voting Rights Act of 1965: (1) outlaw literacy tests (2) federal oversight of voter registration (3) improved voter registration disparity btwn whites and AA Shaw v Reno: oddly shaped min-maj districts held to standard of strict scrutiny Reed v Reed: new standard for judging constitutionality in sex discrimination; Idaho law preferring father over mother as executor of sons estate not okay 1965 Johnson affirmative action Title VII prohibits discrimination in employment B . Knowledge of substantive rights and liberties Substantive due process: 5th and 14th amendment used to protect citizens from arbitrary/unjust laws Strict scrutiny/heightened standard: fundamental freedoms based on suspect classification: necessary and least restrictive means for state goal Intermediate standard [gender]: important objective and substantially relate Minimum rationality [gays, age, wealth]: rational foundation C . The impact of the Fourteenth Amendment on the constitutional development of rights and liberties Privileges & immunities clause, due process clause, equal protection clause Used in incorporation

1.Amendment 1: Freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and petition. 2.Amendment 2: Right to bear arms. 3.Amendment 3: Citizens do not have to house soldiers. 4.Amendment 4: No unreasonable search or arrest. 5.Amendment 5: No double jeopardy or no witness against yourself. 6.Amendment 6: Rights of accused in criminal cases. 7.Amendment 7: Trial by jury. 8.Amendment 8: No excessive bail or cruel punishment. 9.Amendment 9: People get rights not listed in Constitution. 10.Amendment 10: Any rights not given to federal government are given to the states and people. 11.Amendment 11: Individual cannot sue a state in a federal court. 12.Amendment 12: Separate ballots for President and Vice President. 13.Amendment 13: Abolish slavery. 14.Amendment 14: If you are born or naturalized in the U.S. then you are a citizen of the U.S. 15.Amendment 15: You cannot prevent a person from voting because of race, color, or creed. 16.Amendment 16: Income tax. 17.Amendment 17: Popular election of U.S. Senators. 18.Amendment 18: Prohibition. 19.Amendment 19: Women get the right to vote. 20.Amendment 20: President takes office on January 20th instead of March 4th. 21.Amendment 21: Repeal prohibition. 22.Amendment 22: President can only serve two terms. 23.Amendment 23: Washington D.C. residents can vote for president. 24.Amendment 24: Anti poll tax. 25.Amendment 25: How president turns duties over to V.P. due to illness. 26.Amendment 26: 18 year olds get to vote. 27.Amendment 27: Congress cannot accept a pay raise until next term.