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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.

12* 2%13

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Bioclimatic Design Principle a Solution to Thermal Discomfort in Minna Residences, Niger State Nigeria
+deda,o (latunde -olaranmi .orres"onding author# /e"artment of +rchitecture* -ederal 0niversit, of 1echnolog,* 2inna* Niger State* Nigeria. e-mail3 arcadeda,o4gmail.com +,u5a !hili". /e"artment of +rchitecture* -ederal 0niversit, of 1echnolog,* 2inna* Niger State* Nigeria e-mail3 arca,u5a6624,ahoo.com (,etola Ste"hen /e"artment of +rchitecture* -ederal 0niversit, of 1echnolog,* 2inna* Niger State* Nigeria e-mail3 ste"heno,etola4futminna.edu.ng 7uhari +mina /e"artment of +rchitecture* -ederal 0niversit, of 1echnolog,* 2inna* Niger State* Nigeria e-mail3 rammahgal4,ahoo.com Abstract 8esidential 5uildings are "laces where "eo"le find themselves to 5e for a 5etter "art of their da,. -or a lot of individuals* this should serve as a comfort 9one 5ut is 5eing defeated 5, a num5er of factors that range from construction materials choices* ina""ro"riate design conce"t to suite 5uilding location* lac: of consideration of e6isting site features* micro climate of the 5uilding location and im"ro"er orientation of 5uilding. -rom the sim"le random sam"ling in Niger State Nigeria drawn from /utsen ;ura* 1unga and .hanchaga in 2inna* it was deduced from the stud, 5, administering 2$ <uestionnaires in /utsen ;ura* 14 in .hanchaga and 1$ in 1unga that 4&= of residents are uncomforta5le in their homes during the da,* while the rest 26= find it to 5e fair while 24= sa, it is good. 1he aim of this "a"er is to determine wa,s in which thermal comfort can 5e achieved in houses within 2inna. 1he methodolog, ado"ted was 5oth structured surve, and o5servation. It was deduced that 5ioclimatic design through the use of readil, availa5le materials can reduce the effect of heat gain into the 5uilding* incor"oration of natural landsca"e* and micro climate of the environment will 5e considered. It is recommended that individuals in their various ca"acities ado"t such design "rinci"les in order to have a serene* energ, efficient and less "olluted environment. Key ords! 7ioclimatic /esign* >ocal 2aterials* 1hermal .omfort. "# $ntroduction In ever, localit, around the world* 5uildings are erected on dail, 5asis as there is alwa,s a need for one form of structure or the other. +mongst the various 5uilding t,"es which range from industrial* commercial* educational* institutional* office structures* the most dominant of them all is the residential 5uilding. -or an, 5uilding to 5e effective and serve the occu"ant ade<uatel,* a num5er of 5asic amenities will have to 5e in "lace such as electricit,* "i"e 5orne water* cooling and heating s,stems and other amenities that ma:es life more comforta5le. 7uildings consume a lot of natural resources due to various utilities and fittings used in the 5uilding s,stem. 1he environment is "olluted from the waste "roduced 5, these utilities. 1he used u" energ, determines the amount of waste generated* Edem* 2%1%#. Sustaina5le architecture "romotes 5uilding materials to 5e reused. It is im"erative therefore* to 5e a5le to s,nergi9e our 5uilding designs comforta5l, with the local environment and the micro climate where the, are to 5e 5uilt there5, ado"ting the 5ioclimatic design a""roach. 7ioclimatic consists of two words* ?5io@ meaning the natural form of living things and ?climate@ the regular "attern of weather conditions of a "articular "lace Aorn5,* 2%%%# 7ioclimatic architecture according to !roharam o"timi9es interactions 5etween 5uilding and its environment* thus reduces heating and cooling needs* im"roving 5, the same wa, inha5itant comfort !roharam* 2%%'#. It is defined 5, 2artine9 as the architecture of a "lace* ta:ing into consideration the s"ecific climatic conditions of the "lace* using free resources to reduce environmental im"acts and energ, consum"tion 2artine9* 2%12#. Aouses are therefore* e6"ected to 5e in tune with the local climate of the region where the, are 5uilt* and incor"orating the environment into it. Its focus is to integrate 5uildings into their natural environment considering the climatic factors of the location for a "articular design. + 5ioclimatic home is a 5uilding individual or communal# designed and 5uilt on the 5asis of local climate and resources energ, and materials#. 7ioclimatic 5uildings ma:e efficient use of solar radiation energ, from the sun# and ma:e less use of concrete and aluminum materials that involve lots of energ, "roduction* favoring stone* earth and wood materials. 0niverscience* 2%%6#. 1he essence of an, 5ioclimatic design is to 5e a5le to attain a degree of thermal comfort within an, structure. 1hermal comfort according to +NSIB+SA8+E is the

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

www.iiste.org

cognitive state which determines contentment with the thermal environment and is evaluated 5, individual assessment +SA8+E* 2%1%#. It is further defined 5, 7ritish standard 7S EN IS( CC3% as DThat condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environmentE 1hermal comfort is therefore an im"ortant as"ect of an, designs enclosure as this determines the effectiveness of the 5uildings occu"ants. 1he term ?thermal comfort@ therefore is determined 5, the state of mind of an individual whether he or she is hot* cold or sim"l, comforta5le in their environment ASE* 2%12#. Aowever* a num5er of 5uildings use A)+. Aeating )entilation +ir .onditioning# s,stems to :ee" chec: of their thermal environment. In recent times however* more energ, efficient and environmentall, friendl, methods are used to heat and cool 5uildings. Natural ventilation reduces or eliminates the amount of mechanical s,stems re<uired to cool the 5uilding if ade<uatel, designed. 1em"erature could either rise to 5e too hot or too cold de"ending on season of the ,ear. 1herefore* the factors 5elow should 5e considered when designing to achieve good thermal comfort (mer* 2%%'#. 7uilding orientation .ross ventilation .onstruction materials 8oof* walls and floor insulation Findow si9es and location +dditional cooling re<uired during heat "eriods 1he :e, elements of a 5uilding is to "rotect the occu"ants and indoor s"ace from drastic weather conditions as e6cessive sun* wind and rainfall. 7ut when this function is defeated* occu"ants 5ecome thermall, uncomforta5le and alternative sources of heating and cooling are sort. 1his can 5e resolved 5, ado"ting climate res"onsive designs. It has 5een identified that C$= of 5uildings in 2inna do not conform to the chec:list of 5ioclimatic design indicators. Some of the reasons highlighted 5eing the difference of geogra"hical regions* and var,ing climate ma:es a "articular design suita5le onl, to the climate of that region. 1he same "ro5lem goes for ada"ting to other 5uilding t,"es that do not fall within the same climatic 9one although* within the same countr,. 1he aim of this "a"er is to "roffer solution to some of the "ro5lems of thermal discomfort in residences in 2inna 5, ado"ting 5ioclimatic design a""roach from design to construction and in renovation of houses. 1his s,stem entails that ever, construction 5e ada"tive to its location in terms of terrain* climate* locall, availa5le 5uilding materials* and orientation of 5uilding on site* "assive design "rinci"les and efficient use of eco friendl, and renewa5le energ, s,stems. In order to do this* there is need to3 1. 1o determine the e6tent of thermal discomfort of residents in their houses 2. 1o identif, the "ossi5le causes of thermal discomfort in houses 1.1 Bioclimatic Design Principle 1he term 5ioclimatic architecture is a term coined in the earl, 6%s 5, the (lg,a, 5rothers* the, 5rought into e6istence the 5ioclimatic chart* which uses the "s,chrometr, chart as a 5asis to relate climate as strategies to 5e used to determine thermal comfort of a "articular location. 1he "s,chrometric chart of 2inna as determined 5, +Gi5ola 2%%%# is illustrated in fig 1. +ccording to ;ane .res 2%12#* using the micro climate of a region to "rovide 5oth thermal and visual comfort for occu"ants with renewa5le energ, solar# as a means of generating electricit, and geothermal s,stem for heating and cooling is an efficient s,stem of eco friendl, design. (ther "arameters as 5uilding materials and "assive design s,stems are e<uall, considered. 1he 5ioclimatic design "rinci"le a""roaches 5oth interior and e6terior as"ects of construction. 1his is achieved 5, using the essential feature of 5ioclimatic design to ensure landsca"e* construction materials and micro climate of a "lace are integrated activel, with the e6isting environment 2artine9* 2%12#. 7ioclimatic 5uildings can 5e achieved 5, considering the whole 5uilding life from design "rocess through to construction. 2aterials used for construction and the methods used are im"ortant as"ects of 5uilding sustaina5ilit,* the 5uilding orientation* sun shading devices and si9e of o"enings must e<uall, 5e considered in the design "rocess. 7uildings affect the surrounding during their active "eriods* this is due to their necessit, to heat* and cool and also "rovide lighting needs. /uring the life s"an of a 5uilding* onl, a5out 1%= of its im"act on the surrounding is cor"oral to 5uilding materials Earth +rchitecture* 2%12#. Energ, efficient designs can reduce engaged energ, costs 5, sa, C$=. 1he materials used in a 5uilding should have less .(2 discharges on the life c,cle of the 5uilding Earth +rchitecture* 2%12#. 7ioclimatic design measures are centered "rimaril, on the climate of a s"ecific area as thus3 1. Building en%elope and orientation3 1he 5uilding needs to 5e "rotected from heat gain into the structure es"eciall, during the hot "eriods. 1his can 5e reduced 5, the orientation of the 5uilding and materials used for construction 2artine9* 2%12#. 2. &nergy source3 Solar energ, should 5e used as an alternative source of energ, and also for lightning u" the 5uildings all through the ,ear. 7uilding orientation towards the south and "lacement of o"enings is also to 46

Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

www.iiste.org

5e considered ;ane .res* 2%12#. Sun shading de%ices3 Aeat gain into the 5uilding during "eriods of high tem"erature can also 5e reduced 5, using sun shading devices and materials and "aints that would "ermit less "enetration of the solar ra,s. 4. Passi%e design3 +ccumulated heat during the da, can also 5e given out or 5alanced naturall, 5, night time through the use of large window o"enings which will allow natural ventilation and a""ro"riate choice of window t,"es. $. $ndoor air 'uality3 1hrough the use of greenBliving walls* indoor air <ualit, can also 5e im"roved as this will ca"ture air5orne "articles while "roviding o6,gen to liven u" s"aces. +ir loc:s can also 5e installed in doors as it reduces the effect of heat on the 5uilding envelo"e 2oon* 2%%C#. 6. (eating and cooling3 Ensure that materials used for gla9ing allow minimum solar radiation glare# and ade<uate light in the interior s"aces. C. )andscape3 !lanting trees and incor"orating artificial water 5odies can also im"rove the micro climate of the environment. 1.1.1 Selected 7ioclimatic Aouses in other 8egions 1his section see:s to identif, how 5ioclimatic designs have wor:ed efficientl, in other regions of the world and to determine the effectiveness of the designs in achieving thermal comfort considering the micro climate of those regions. 3. *ase Study "! The *asa Blasco (ouse in +andia ,alencia Design )ocation! 1he house is located in a small lot near the 5each of Handia. It is oriented diagonall, on site to face south* this is to ena5le ma6imum solar radiation in winter* and less of it in summer.

!late 13 +""roach facade of the 7lasco Aouse Source3 7ehance.net 2%12# Design -eatures Fide full height o"enings for ma6imum heat gain into the 5uilding. )ertical sun shading devices are used to reduce solar radiation and heat gain during summer 2echanical s,stem of cooling is ado"ted through the use of "hotovoltaic cells. ("enings in are onl, in the south and east walls in order to ma6imi9e heat tra""ed. 1he geothermal and wind s,stems are used for cooling 5, means of underground galleries. Solar chimne, is used to evacuate hot air and mechanical cooling s,stem 5, eva"oration. *ase Study .! &/perimental 0rban (ouse Design )ocation! 1he house is located in Hranadilla 1enerife S"ain. It is 5uilt to 5e a self-sufficient house incor"orated in the scener, of the island and 5lends in with the to"ogra"h,. 1he ins"iration of the design is the 5asalt stone wall on which a light structure of "l,wood with galvani9ed steel walls and glass su""orts.

!late 23 +""roach facade of the Aouse Source3 /IHN.co 2%12# 4C

!late 33 Interior view of the Aouse Source3 /IHN.co 2%12#

Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

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Design -eatures (eat storage3 5asalt stone wall connects the slee"ing areas to the living room allowing heat gained during the da, to dis"erse in 5oth wa,s at night )ocal materials were used in the construction of the house for energ, efficienc, as the3 5asalt wall* wooden floors and the solar glass were used in the living area. 1he use of materials as !).* )(.* s,nthetic "aints and vanishes were avoided. 1he building orientation is inclined in the north-south direction to allow minimum heat "enetration and it also integrates the use of solar "anels for electricit, and hot water allowing 9ero .(2 emissions while geothermal is used to heat and cool the 5uilding. Deductions *ase study "! It was deduced from case stud, one that the diagonal orientation of 5uilding on site was to utili9e the solar radiation in winter and the vertical shading devices were used o reduce solar radiation and heat gain in summer. !) cells were used to enhance cooling s,stems in "lace an also com"limented 5, geothermal and wind s,stems from the underground galleries. *ase study .! Stone wall was used to connect the living area to the 5edroom there5, storing heat during the da, and dis"ersing at night. In order to achieve energ, efficienc,* most materials used were locall, sourced and do not contain volatile organic com"ounds. .#1 Study Area 8esidential develo"ments constitute a good "ercentage of the structures in 2inna* and 2inna falls within the tem"erate humid regions of the countr,. /ue to location of 2inna in the tro"ics* it is necessar, when designing to reduce the amount of heat gain into the 5uilding during the da, and ma6imi9e eva"orative cooling for ade<uate thermal comfort of occu"ants. + cross sectional surve, was drawn from 1unga* /utsen ;ura and .hanchaga. 1hese areas were chosen strategicall, 5ased on their a6ial locations in the town* are well "o"ulated and fall among the maGor areas. 1he, constitute various housing t,"es as different cali5er of individuals live in these areas. 1unga is located in the heart of 2innaJ .hanchaga is located at the maGor entrance to the town while /utsen ;ura lies along the western 5,e-"ass. 2inna is characteri9ed 5, various t,"es of housing designed to meet the needs of various individuals. It was o5served from surve, that the design of residential houses in 2inna do not "ut into consideration the natural setting of the environment 5ut 5uild houses according to intra glo5al trend of construction in Nigeria. Some of the houses studied are shown in "lates $-' 5elow. +lthough it was o5served that houses at the outs:irts of 2inna town still conform to using local materials availa5le and 5uild with materials that are favora5le of the climatic conditions of the area* a lot of changes are 5eing made as the, are also ado"ting the conventional 5uilding materials and modern wa,s of construction as illustrated in "late $. 2.1 8esearch 2ethodolog, !rimar, data was gathered from o5servation of residential develo"ments within 1unga* /utsen ;ura and .hanchaga. 1his ena5led 5oth <ualitative and <uantitative data collation on the "erce"tion of the users to assessment of thermal comfort in their houses. Kuestionnaires were used for the <uantitative data* while o5servation of 5uilding states served the <ualitative as"ect. 8andom sam"ling techni<ue was used in order to get the re<uired information. 1he "o"ulation sam"les for this research were ta:en from different household t,"es and <uestionnaires were administered to gain data on the "ossi5le causes of discomfort to residents and 5uilding units that 5ring a5out these "ro5lems. 2#1 Discussion of -indings 1he surve, ena5led first hand information to 5e gathered on the "h,sical form of the 5uildings. 8esidential houses in 2inna have 5een identified to "ose significant level of thermal discomfort to occu"ants. 1he "lates 4 and $ shows the traditional method of which houses were 5uilt to 5e ada"tive of the climate through materials used for construction while "lates 6 and C shows the modern construction materials which do not give the thermal satisfaction re<uired 5, occu"ants. !late ' shows a 5uilding* 5uilt with modern 5uilding material 5ut used vertical sun shading device to reduce heat gain indoors.

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

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!late 43 1raditional walling material Source3 +uthor@s fieldwor: 2%12#

!late $3 1raditional Hwari settlement in 2inna Source3 +uthor@s fieldwor: 2%12#

Aouses at the outs:irts of 2inna used natural earth with a mi6ture of sand* stone and water with cla, as a 5inding agent to 5uild their homes. 1his "rovided them with a more comforta5le indoor tem"erature during the da, while d house was :e"t warm at night. 1he traditional houses of the Hwari "eo"le were 5uilt with com"ressed earth strengthened with straw to :ee" it dura5le over a long "eriod of time. 1he roofing material is thatch. Earthen 5uildings have the a5ilit, to :ee" a cool tem"erature of indoor s"aces during the da,.

!late 63 + residential house in tunga Source3 +uthor@s fieldwor: 2%12#

!late C3 + residential house Source3 +uthor@s fieldwor: 2%12#

1he residences seen in the "lates a5ove are 5uilt with 9inc as roofing material which allows heat "enetration into the 5uildings* window o"enings are not wide enough to allow for ma6imum ventilation and the living area is not cross ventilated. 1here is also no form of soft landsca"e to 5oost the atmos"here to a suita5le tem"erature.

!late '3 + residential house with sun shading device Source3 +uthor@s fieldwor: 2%12# It was o5served from surve, that the amount of solar radiation that reaches the indoor s"ace is at a minimum due to use of vertical fins as sun shading devices. 1he indoor and outdoor tem"erature can 5e enhanced 5, "lanting trees and "roviding soft landsca"e as the surroundings lac: an, form of soft landsca"e. 3.1 !erce"tion of 8es"ondents on Sources of 1hermal /iscomfort 1he res"onse from occu"ants identified thermal discomfort to 5e as a result of heat "enetration through the roof* gla9ing and walls. It is illustrated in ta5le 3. (ther factors that 5ring a5out heat gain indoors are materials used for construction* the orientation of 5uildings on the site* the si9e of o"enings* the t,"e of window s,stem and the cooling s,stems ado"ted. 1he occu"ants rating on thermal comfort were also identified as shown in ta5le 3.

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

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1a5le 23 (ccu"ants rating of thermal comfort in their houses )ocation ,ery Poor Poor /utsen ;ura 1% 6 1unga 6 3 .hanchaga ' 4 1otal 24 13 !ercentage =# 4&.% 26.$

+ood $ 3 1 & 1'.4 2%12#

,ery +ood Total 2 23 % 12 1 14 3 4& 6.1 1%% Source3 +uthor@s fieldwor:

Occupants rating of thermal comfort


Very Poor Poor 6% Good Very Good

18% 27%

49%

-ig 13 1he chart shows occu"ants rating of thermal comfort in their houses Source3 +uthor@s fieldwor: 2%12# 7ased on the results shown a5ove* it can 5e seen that in all three 9ones* 4&= of occu"ants rated thermal comfort within their houses to 5e "oor while 26.$= rated fair* 1'.4= said thermal comfort is good while the rest 6.1= said it is ver, good. 1a5le 33 !ercentage of units that allow heat gain to the house (eat +ain ,ery )o )o Hla9ing 1.'$ C.41 8oof 22.22 24.%' -loor 46.3% 1'.$2 Falls C.41 12.&6

(igh ,ery high 22.22 6'.$2 2%.3C 33.33 11.11 24.%C 2%.3C $&.26 Source3 +uthor@s fieldwor: 2%12# It can 5e seen from fig 2 a5ove that 6&= of heat indoor is accumulated from gla9ing in various houses. It is therefore identified that gla9ing is a maGor source of heat gain indoors. 8oof is a contri5uting factor to heat gain indoor as the sun has a direct effect on it from a5ove. 1he nature of material used can reduce the amount of heat "enetration indoors. 1he floor in the houses also contri5utes to the amount of heat indoors 5ut minimal as it is 46= "oor heat retainer and onl, 11= good. 1he t,"e of material used for flooring also determines the amount of heat that is tra""ed therein. Falls are a maGor source of heat gain indoor as seen from fig $ a5ove. $&= of heat gain indoor from the surve, was attri5uted to wall 5eing a ver, good retainer of heat. 1his can 5e reduced 5, using materials that allow less heat to indoors during the da,. Recommendation It has 5een identified from the surve, that some units of the house allow more heat "enetration indoor than others* it is therefore recommended that for effective design and good thermal achievement in 2inna houses* the following factors should 5e considered3 1# 7uilding orientation3 5uildings should 5e inclined on site to face the north-east* south-west a""roach to allow minimum solar radiation into the 5uildings 2# Findow o"enings3 the o"enings should 5e wide enough to allow ma6imum natural ventilation into the indoor s"ace at a minimum of sa, 1$%%mm 6 1$%%mm. 3# Hla9ing3 solar glasses that are dou5le "aneled and well laminated that allow light 5ut reduce heat $%

Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

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4# $# 6# C#

"enetration should 5e used. +nd casement window s,stems allow 1%%= ventilation rather than sliding which allows onl, $%= ventilation. Natural materials3 should 5e used for construction such as ado5e* com"ressed earth* and wood as the, have 5etter thermal inertia than most conventional 5uilding materials. 8enewa5le energ,3 these energ, sources as solar and geothermal energ, are more energ, efficient and do not contri5ute to .(2 emission which "ollutes the environment. >andsca"e3 trees should 5e "lanted around the houses as the, hel" im"rove the surrounding air and :ee"s the environment cool. .ross ventilation3 houses should 5e cross ventilated for effective air flow in and out of the 5uilding.

*onclusion It was esta5lished from the surve, that 4&= of the occu"ants of houses within 2inna do not find their homes to 5e thermall, comforta5le. +nd 26= onl, thin: its fair while 1'= of the "o"ulation sa,s it@s good. + meager 6= of the occu"ants live in a comforta5le house in 2inna* this is an indicator that maGorit, of the houses in 2inna do not conform to the design "arameters of 5ioclimatic houses of the environment where the, are. Aowever* if all house 5uilders and owners wor: towards 5uilding houses that are more environmentall, friendl,* there will 5e less issues of thermal discomfort and the cost of maintaining houses and the environment will 5e greatl, reduced. References +. 2ichael* .. A. 2%1%#. 7ioclimatic !arameters in the /esign of .ontem"orar, 7uildings3 1he !ro"osal for the new 1own Aall of /er,neia* .,"rus. International Conference on Renewable Energ and Power !"alit * "". 1-$#. .,"rus. +dele:e* :. 2%1%#. Hreen 7uilding .odes3 + !riorit, for Sustaina5le /evelo"ment. #rchitects Collo$"i"m. +5uGa3 Nigerian Institute of +rchitects. +Gi5ola* ;. 2%%%#. Design for Comfort in %igeria& # Bioclimatic #pproach. (sun* Nigeria3 +rchitecture /e"artment* (5afemi +wolowo 0niversit,* Ile-Ife. +ntonia /iamanta:i* a. I. 2%1%#. '"stainable B"iding. 8etrieved (cto5er 1$* 2%12* from Euro"ean Sustaina5ilit, +cadem,3 htt"3BBwww.eurosustaina5ilit,.org +SA8+E* +. 2%1%#. 1hermal Environmental .onditions for Auman (ccu"anc,. $$-6%. 7u:ar* +. 2%11#. '"stainable (o"sing Design& #n #lternative #pproach to #chieving )ow*cost (o"sing in #b"+a, %igeria. >incoln3 -acult, of +rt* +rchitecture and /esign* 0niversit, of >incoln. Earth +rchitecture. 2%12* (cto5er 1%#. Bioclimatic #rchitect"re. 8etrieved (cto5er 13* 2%12* from Eco Aomes3 htt"3BBwww.ecohomes.gr Edem* E. E. 2%1%#. -reen #rchitect"re and the %igerian Climate. +:wa I5om3 /e"artment of +rchitecture* 0niversit, of 0,o. -ordham. 2%%%#. Natural )entilation3 8enewa5le Energ,. Aorn5,* +. S. 2%%%#. .xford #dvanced )earners Dictionar . New Lor:3 (6ford 0niversit, !ress. ASE. 2%12#. /hat is Thermal Comfort. 8etrieved (cto5er 1C* 2%12* from www.hse.gov.u:3 htt"3BBwww.hse.gov.u: ;ane .res. 2%12* Se"tem5er#. Center for Renewable Energ 'o"rces and 'avings. 8etrieved Se"tem5er &* 2%12* from htt"3BBwww.cres.com 2artine9* 2. !. 2%12#. Bioclimatic #rchitect"re. /enmar:3 )I+ 0niversit, .ollege. 2oon* H. 2%%C#. '"stainable #rchitect"re& #n .verview of E$"ittable and Efficient 'paces . !ortland. (mer* (. 2%%'#. 8enewa5le 7uilding Energ, S,stems and !assive Auman .omfort Solutions. Renewable '"stainable Energ Reviews* ". 12 6#1$62#. !roharam* -. a. 2%%'#. Aow to define a M5ioclimaticM .onstructionN International -as 0nion Research Conference !aris3 8esearch and Innovative /ivision* -rance. "". 1-1%#.

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