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Observations on Indian High Rise Construction

By

Dr. Joseph Colaco & Vimal Parikh

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! Assessing the appropriateness of Indian Codes for Tall Building Design.

! Detailing the use and abuse of ETABS.

! Review of Indian Construction Practices

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Comparison of Indian and US Standards Codes and Standards Main Source of Information to Designers of Civil Engineering Structures. Indian Standards - IS 875, IS 1893, IS 456 US Standard - IBC - 2003
! Gravity Loads - Imposed / Live Load ! Lateral Loads Wind Load Seismic Loads

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LIVE LOADS
IS 875 - 1987 PART 2 IBC 2003 Table 16 A

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Live loads
SR. NO Item Live Loads as per IS 875 (Part 2) 1987 in KN/m^2 4.0 (With storage) 2.5 (Without storage) 4.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 No Specic Values Live Loads as per IBC 2003 in KN/m^2 2.5 5.0 2.0 5.0 2.5 26.7 KN

Ofce Typical Floor Ofce Corridors

Residential Typical Residential Corridors

3 4

Garages Car Bumper Loads

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WIND LOADS
IS 875 - 1987 PART 3 IBC 2003 SECTION 1609 ! (ASCE-7-02 - Section C6.0)

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Wind Sway Requirements

SR. NO

Item

IS 875 (Part 3) 1987

IBC 2003 (Section 1609) ASCE 7-02 (Section 6)

1 2 3 4 5

Drift Requirements Structural Properties P-Delta Effects Torsion GEF Method

H/500 Not specied (Not clear whether this Generally H/400 limit is applicable for (Under Design Wind Load) Not Specied Cracked Properties Design or Service Wind Load) Not Specied Required to be Included Not Specied ASCE-7-02 (pg.48)

Old & hard to read from ASCE-7-02 based on Latest charts research

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Wind Sway Drift Requirements
IS 875 (Part 3) 1987 As per IS 456 - 2000 Sec. 20.5, it shall not exceed H/ 500. (Not clear whether this limit is applicable for Design or Service Wind Load) IBC 2003 (Section 1609) ASCE 7-02 (Section 6) Not specied Generally H/400 (Under Design Wind Load)

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Wind Sway Structural Properties Requirements IS 875 (Part 3) 1987
IBC 2003 (Section 1609) ASCE 7-02 (Section 6)

Not specied

Members with Cracked Structural Properties as per Section 10.10.4.1 of ACI 318 shall be used.

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Wind Sway P-Delta Requirements :IS 875 (Part 3) 1987 Not specied IBC 2003 (Section 1609) ASCE 7-02 (Section 6) Required to be included

Wind Sway Torsion Requirements IS 875 (Part 3) 1987 Not specied


IBC 2003 (Section 1609) ASCE 7-02 (Section 6)

ASCE-7-02 (pg.48)

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Gust Effect Factor Method (GEF Method) IS 875 (Part 3) 1987
IBC 2003 (Section 1609) ASCE 7-02 (Section 6)

Old & hard to read from charts

ASCE-7-02 based on latest research

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SEISMIC LOADS
IS 1893 2002 IBC 2003 SECTION 1617 ! (ASCE -7-02 - Section C9.0)

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Fundamental Period of Structure
IS 1893 2002
*h

IBC 2003 SECTION 1617 (ASCE -7-02 - Section C9.0)

Very old - Leads to Large design forces for Low rise Structures and Smaller Forces for High-rise Structures

More Realistic

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Base Shear
IS 1893 2002
IBC 2003 SECTION 1617 (ASCE -7-02 - Section C9.0)

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Torsional Effects
IS 1893 2002
IBC 2003 SECTION 1617 (ASCE -7-02 - Section C9.0)

Accidental Torsion (Sec. 12.8.4.2) :! Design Eccentricity, ! ! Edi = 0.05 * bi Amplication of Accidental Torsion Moment (Sec. 12.8.4.2) :-

! With max. limit of Ax = 3.0

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Vertical Irregularities Weak Story
IS 1893 2002
IBC 2003 SECTION 1617 (ASCE -7-02 - Section C9.0)

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Vertical Irregularities Weak Story Examples of Weak Story Outrigger Floors MIVAN / TUNNEL FORM Systems Transferred above Ground Floor Major Transfer of Lateral Elements above Ground Floor

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Misuse of Shear Wall + Slab Frame System
IS 1893 2002 Misuse of Flat slab as OMRF in Shear Wall + Frame system in high seismic Zone
IBC 2003 SECTION 1617 (ASCE -7-02 - Section C9.0)
Table 12.2-1 DESIGN COEFFICIENTS AND FACTORS FOR SEISMIC FORCERESISTING SYSTEMS

NL No Limit NP Not Permitted

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Seismic Forces on Cantilever Projections
IS 1893 2002 As per Section 7.12.2.2 it shall be designed and checked for Five times the design vertical coefcient. (= 3.33 * Ah) For Zone III with R=5.0, Factor = 0.0533 W
IBC 2003 SECTION 1617 (ASCE -7-02 - Section C9.0)

As per Section 9.5.2.6.4.3 it shall be designed and checked for 0.2 * SDS*W.

For Zone III with R=5.0 Factor = 0.0373 W

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Drift Limitations
IS 1893 2002 As per Section 7.11.1 it shall not exceed 0.004 * Story Height
IBC 2003 SECTION 1617 (ASCE -7-02 - Section C9.0)

Drift Limitations are Close

As per Section 1630.9.2 of UBC 97, The Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement, !M, !M = 0.7 * R * !S Where, !S = Storey drift based on Analysis of the structure incl. PDelta Effects

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Comparison for a Sample Building
A Sample building 65-Story in Mumbai is analyzed for both Indian Standards and IBC- 2006.

Building Data H = 235m Building dimensions - 24.8m x 35.0m Structural System - Ductile Shear wall + OMRF Soil Type - Hard Soil/Rock

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Design Data - (As per IS 1893 2002)
! ! ! Total building Weight = 1066314 KN Zone Factor = 0.16 Importance Factor = 1.0 Soil Type = I (Hard Rock) Response reduction Factor = 4.0 Base Dimension, ! Dx = 24.8m ! ! ! ! Dy = 35.0m Code Specied Time Period, Tx = 4.247 sec! ! ! ! ! Ty = 3.575 sec Sa/g,x = 0.235 Sa/g,y = 0.280

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SR. NO. 1 ITEM Seismic Base shear, Vx Vy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS
AS PER INDIAN STANDARDS AS PER US STANDARDS

5332 KN (0.7 times) 5972 KN (0.78 times) 17133 KN 11179 KN

7617 KN 7617 KN 13673 KN 8680 KN 2.926 sec 2.926 sec 0.32m 0.19m 0.288m 0.107m

2 3 4

Wind Shear, Wx Wy Code Specied Time Periods, Tx Ty Displacements @ top, !x EQ

4.253 sec 3.575 sec 0.185m 0.115m 0.368m 0.140m

!y EQ
5 Displacements @ top, !x WIND

!y WIND

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Comparison for a Sample Building
Consider the same building 20-Stories tall now - in Mumbai. Analyzed for both Indian Standards and IBC- 2006.

Building Data H = 73m Building dimensions - 24.8m x 35.0m Structural System - Ductile Shear wall + OMRF Soil Type - Hard Soil/Rock

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Design Data - (As per IS 1893 2002)
! ! ! Total building Weight = 290076 KN Zone Factor = 0.16 Importance Factor = 1.0 Soil Type = I (Hard Rock) Response reduction Factor = 4.0 Base Dimension, ! Dx = 24.8m ! ! ! ! Dy = 35.0m Code Specied Time Period, Tx = 1.32 sec! ! ! ! ! Ty = 1.11 sec Sa/g,x = 0.76 Sa/g,y = 0.90

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SUMMARY OF RESULTS
SR. NO. 1 ITEM Seismic Base shear, Vx Vy AS PER INDIAN STANDARDS AS PER US STANDARDS

4409 KN (2.13 times) 5221 KN (2.52 times) 3186 KN 2046 KN

2071KN 2071 KN 2919 KN 1860 KN 2.926 sec 2.926 sec 0.011m 0.0077m 0.0097m 0.0039m

2 3 4

Wind Shear, Wx Wy Code Specied Time Periods, Tx Ty Displacements @ top, !x EQ

1.32 sec 1.11 sec 0.026m 0.017m 0.01m 0.0042m

!y EQ
5 Displacements @ top, !x WIND

!y WIND

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DESIGN ISSUES

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Design Load Factors and Combinations
IS 875 Part 5, IS 456 IBC 2003 SECTION
1.5 D + 1.5 L 1.5 D +1.5 (W or E) 1.2 D +1.2 L + 1.2(W or E) 0.9D 1.5(W or E) 1.2 D + 1.6 L 1.2 D + (1.3 W or 1.0 E) 1.2 D + 0.5 L+ (1.3 W or 1.0E) 0.9D (1.3W or 1.0E)

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Design Load For a Sample Residential Building
SR. NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 ITEM INDIAN STANDARD (KN/m2) 5.0 1.5 0.5 2.5 2.0 2.0 11.5 2.0 1.5 DL + 1.5 LL 20.25 (1.66 times) US STANDARD (KN/m2) 5.0 1.0 0.5 1.0 -2.0 7.5 2.0 1.2 DL + 1.6 LL 12.2

Self wt. of Slab (200mm thk.) Floor Finish Ceiling & Mechanical Partition Walls Sunk Areas Live Load Total DL Total LL Ultimate LC TOTAL (Ultimate)

IS 875 Part 5, IS 456

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Maximum Allowable Shear Stress
IS 456 Table 20

ACI - 318 05, Section 11.7.5-------0.2* fc or 5.52 N/mm^2(max.) Concrete Grade ! N/mm^2 M15! 3.0 M20! 4.0 M25! 5.0 M30! 5.52 M35! 5.52 M40 5.52

The values given above include a " factor of 0.75

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Design of Post Tensioned Concrete

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Design of Post Tensioned Concrete

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Design of Post Tensioned Concrete

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Design of Composite Columns

IS Codes

AISC Manual Chapter I

No Provisions available

Complete Procedure for Design of Composite Members

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Other Analysis/Design Issues

Outrigger Floors
- Differential Axial Shortening

Fundamental Periods
- Closeness or Combination of Torsional and Lateral Modes

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Detailing the Use and Abuse of ETABS Analysis

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PROGRAM LIMITATIONS
Over Estimation of Dead & Live Loads due to Common/ Overlapping areas of Beams & Columns with Slabs.

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PROGRAM LIMITATIONS

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COMPARISION OF LOADS - 3 STORY BUILDING

A 3-Story RCC building of 6.0m x 5.0m modeled in ETABS! Story Height = 3.0m Beam Size = 230mm x 300mm Column Size = 300mm x 300mm Slab Thickness = 120mm SDL = 1.5 KN/m^2 LL = 2.0 KN/m^2 Unit Weight of Concrete = 25 KN/m^3

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COMPARISION OF 3 STORY BUILDING

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COMPARISION OF 3 STORY BUILDING
Item Self Weight of Slab Self Weight of Columns Self Weight of Beams Total Dead Load ETABS results (KN) 1080.00 182.25 341.55 1603.8 MANUAL results (KN) 990.82 182.25 322.92 1495.99

Dead Load is over estimated by 7 % If Partition Walls are present, Uniform SDL & LL will also be Over Estimated by the Program. Dead Loads and Live Loads may be Over Estimated up to 20 % Depending Upon the Geometry of the Building.

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PROGRAM LIMITATIONS
BRACED FRAME STRUCTURE WITH RIGID DIAPHRAGM UNDER LATERAL LOAD

ZERO AXIAL LOADS in Beams since there is no relative displacement of end nodes of beams.

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PROGRAM LIMITATIONS
BRACED FRAME STRUCTURE WITH RIGID DIAPHRAGM UNDER LATERAL LOAD SOLUTION Release one node of the beam from the Rigid Diaphragm. Provide Semi-rigid Diaphragm - Parametric study with diaphragm exibility required to obtain correct amount of axial force.

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PROGRAM LIMITATIONS
CRACKED PROPERTIES OF COUPLED SHEARWALL

CAN NOT BE MODELED ACCURATELY due to inherent

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PROGRAM LIMITATIONS
CRACKED PROPERTIES OF COUPLED SHEARWALL ACI 318-05 Provisions

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PROGRAM LIMITATIONS
CRACKED PROPERTIES OF COUPLED SHEARWALL CORRECT WAY TO MODEL Reduce both Axial Area and Moment of Inertia. Add a Frame Element with only with missing axial area and Zero Moment of Inertia ( Like a Column).

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PROGRAM LIMITATIONS
INCORRECT DESIGN OF COLUMNS WITH SMALL AXIAL LOAD ETABS Column Design module for ACI-318 does not check it correctly when Ultimate axial load (phi * Pn) < (0.10 * fc * Ag) where: phi = Strength Reduction Factor Pn = Nominal Axial Load Strength fc' = Compressive Strength of Concrete Ag = Gross Area of Section The design shall be done like a flexural member (like a beam)

(Reference: ACI-318, Appendix B: B.10.3.3)

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MODELING AND ANALYSIS IN ETABS

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TYPES OF ELEMENTS MEMBRANE Use only when In-plane stiffness properties of member are desired. PLATE Use only when Out-of-plane bending stiffness properties of member are desired. SHELL Use when both In-plane and Out-of-plane stiffness properties of member are desired.

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LOAD TRANSFER FOR FLOOR AND RAMP SLAB Simple RC Solid Slab. By default modeled as 2-way slab. Can also be modeled as 1-way slab. DECK Used as 1-way load Transfer. Metallic Composite Slab. Filled Deck, Unlled Deck & Solid Slab Deck. PLANK By default use 1-way load transfer mechanism. Generally used to model pre-cast slabs. Can also be a simple RC solid slab.

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ELEMENT USED FOR WALLS

Walls can be modeled with membrane or shell elements depending on the desired type of behavior.

Shell type of elements are generally recommended.

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SUPPORT CONDITIONS

AT BASE For Typical RCC building, it is FIXED - All translational and rotational degrees of freedom are restrained. AT GROUND FLOOR Restrained in both Horizontal directions to account for the lateral restraint provided by Basement walls.

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SUPPORT CONDITIONS

Not Providing the restraint at the ground level will result in A Fictitious Structure that is more Flexible. Over design of Foundation Structure. May Result in Under Design of Basement Walls.

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OUTRIGGER FLOORS

Appropriate Modeling Technique shall be used for Outrigger Floors. A Separate Sequential Analysis Required for Axial Shortening and Transfer of Forces. Appropriate Cracking Coefcient shall be used.

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MODELING OF MAJOR TRANSFER ELEMENTS

Appropriate Modeling Technique shall be used to Account for Arching Action and Flow of Forces. A Separate Sequential Analysis required for Gravity Loads. Appropriate Cracking Coefcient shall be used.

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OTHER ANALYSES

P-Delta Analysis For Lateral and Torsional Deections. Temperature and Creep/Shrinkage Analysis. Construction Sequence Analysis for Correct Force transfer and Design of Structural Elements.

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OTHER ANALYSES

Column/Wall Axial Shortening Analysis and Column/ Wall Height Adjustments for Floor Levelness Especially For Tall structures. Performance Based Design and Non-Linear Analysis.

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REVIEW OF INDIAN CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES

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Review of Indian Construction Practices
Overall Dead Load of Structure
Structures in India ~ 25 KN/m^2 Structures in the US ~ 11 KN/m^2

Heavy Partition Load Brick Partitions. Screed of 50-100 mm is commonly used. Heavy Water Proong Load.

Impact on Seismic Loads, Structure and Foundations.

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Review of Indian Construction Practices Sunk Slabs at Toilets, Decks
Structurally Challenging. Does not Allow the use of Certain Types of Framing Systems such as Post-Tensioning, Flat Slabs. Difcult for Construction Complicated Formwork. More Cost and Time for Construction.

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Review of Indian Construction Practices

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Review of Indian Construction Practices Suggestions/Recommendations
Try to Reduce Overall Weight of Structure. Use of Light Weight Partitions Reduction in Wall Weight up to 50% with Siporex, AAC blocks, Gypsum Walls. Elimination of Screed Especially in garages. Elimination of Sunk Slabs.

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Review of Indian Construction Practices
Suggestions/Recommendations
Lower Weight results in - Lower Design Seismic Loads. - Lighter Structure. - Reduction in Foundation Sizes and Cost. Elimination of Sunk Areas - Easier Construction. - Easy Formwork System. - Flat Slabs and Use of PT Systems Possible. - Saves Cost and Time.

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