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High rise construction in India

High rise construction in India

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CBM Engineers

CBM Engineers

! Assessing the appropriateness of Indian Codes for Tall Building Design.

CBM Engineers

Comparison of Indian and US Standards Codes and Standards Main Source of Information to Designers of Civil Engineering Structures. Indian Standards - IS 875, IS 1893, IS 456 US Standard - IBC - 2003

! Gravity Loads - Imposed / Live Load ! Lateral Loads Wind Load Seismic Loads

CBM Engineers

LIVE LOADS

IS 875 - 1987 PART 2 IBC 2003 Table 16 A

CBM Engineers

Live loads

SR. NO Item Live Loads as per IS 875 (Part 2) 1987 in KN/m^2 4.0 (With storage) 2.5 (Without storage) 4.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 No Specic Values Live Loads as per IBC 2003 in KN/m^2 2.5 5.0 2.0 5.0 2.5 26.7 KN

3 4

CBM Engineers

WIND LOADS

IS 875 - 1987 PART 3 IBC 2003 SECTION 1609 ! (ASCE-7-02 - Section C6.0)

CBM Engineers

Wind Sway Requirements

SR. NO

Item

1 2 3 4 5

H/500 Not specied (Not clear whether this Generally H/400 limit is applicable for (Under Design Wind Load) Not Specied Cracked Properties Design or Service Wind Load) Not Specied Required to be Included Not Specied ASCE-7-02 (pg.48)

Old & hard to read from ASCE-7-02 based on Latest charts research

CBM Engineers

Wind Sway Drift Requirements

IS 875 (Part 3) 1987 As per IS 456 - 2000 Sec. 20.5, it shall not exceed H/ 500. (Not clear whether this limit is applicable for Design or Service Wind Load) IBC 2003 (Section 1609) ASCE 7-02 (Section 6) Not specied Generally H/400 (Under Design Wind Load)

CBM Engineers

Wind Sway Structural Properties Requirements IS 875 (Part 3) 1987

IBC 2003 (Section 1609) ASCE 7-02 (Section 6)

Not specied

Members with Cracked Structural Properties as per Section 10.10.4.1 of ACI 318 shall be used.

CBM Engineers

Wind Sway P-Delta Requirements :IS 875 (Part 3) 1987 Not specied IBC 2003 (Section 1609) ASCE 7-02 (Section 6) Required to be included

IBC 2003 (Section 1609) ASCE 7-02 (Section 6)

ASCE-7-02 (pg.48)

CBM Engineers

Gust Effect Factor Method (GEF Method) IS 875 (Part 3) 1987

IBC 2003 (Section 1609) ASCE 7-02 (Section 6)

CBM Engineers

SEISMIC LOADS

IS 1893 2002 IBC 2003 SECTION 1617 ! (ASCE -7-02 - Section C9.0)

CBM Engineers

Fundamental Period of Structure

IS 1893 2002

*h

Very old - Leads to Large design forces for Low rise Structures and Smaller Forces for High-rise Structures

More Realistic

CBM Engineers

Base Shear

IS 1893 2002

IBC 2003 SECTION 1617 (ASCE -7-02 - Section C9.0)

CBM Engineers

Torsional Effects

IS 1893 2002

IBC 2003 SECTION 1617 (ASCE -7-02 - Section C9.0)

Accidental Torsion (Sec. 12.8.4.2) :! Design Eccentricity, ! ! Edi = 0.05 * bi Amplication of Accidental Torsion Moment (Sec. 12.8.4.2) :-

CBM Engineers

Vertical Irregularities Weak Story

IS 1893 2002

IBC 2003 SECTION 1617 (ASCE -7-02 - Section C9.0)

CBM Engineers

Vertical Irregularities Weak Story Examples of Weak Story Outrigger Floors MIVAN / TUNNEL FORM Systems Transferred above Ground Floor Major Transfer of Lateral Elements above Ground Floor

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Misuse of Shear Wall + Slab Frame System

IS 1893 2002 Misuse of Flat slab as OMRF in Shear Wall + Frame system in high seismic Zone

IBC 2003 SECTION 1617 (ASCE -7-02 - Section C9.0)

Table 12.2-1 DESIGN COEFFICIENTS AND FACTORS FOR SEISMIC FORCERESISTING SYSTEMS

CBM Engineers

Seismic Forces on Cantilever Projections

IS 1893 2002 As per Section 7.12.2.2 it shall be designed and checked for Five times the design vertical coefcient. (= 3.33 * Ah) For Zone III with R=5.0, Factor = 0.0533 W

IBC 2003 SECTION 1617 (ASCE -7-02 - Section C9.0)

As per Section 9.5.2.6.4.3 it shall be designed and checked for 0.2 * SDS*W.

CBM Engineers

Drift Limitations

IS 1893 2002 As per Section 7.11.1 it shall not exceed 0.004 * Story Height

IBC 2003 SECTION 1617 (ASCE -7-02 - Section C9.0)

As per Section 1630.9.2 of UBC 97, The Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement, !M, !M = 0.7 * R * !S Where, !S = Storey drift based on Analysis of the structure incl. PDelta Effects

CBM Engineers

Comparison for a Sample Building

A Sample building 65-Story in Mumbai is analyzed for both Indian Standards and IBC- 2006.

Building Data H = 235m Building dimensions - 24.8m x 35.0m Structural System - Ductile Shear wall + OMRF Soil Type - Hard Soil/Rock

CBM Engineers

Design Data - (As per IS 1893 2002)

! ! ! Total building Weight = 1066314 KN Zone Factor = 0.16 Importance Factor = 1.0 Soil Type = I (Hard Rock) Response reduction Factor = 4.0 Base Dimension, ! Dx = 24.8m ! ! ! ! Dy = 35.0m Code Specied Time Period, Tx = 4.247 sec! ! ! ! ! Ty = 3.575 sec Sa/g,x = 0.235 Sa/g,y = 0.280

CBM Engineers

SR. NO. 1 ITEM Seismic Base shear, Vx Vy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

AS PER INDIAN STANDARDS AS PER US STANDARDS

7617 KN 7617 KN 13673 KN 8680 KN 2.926 sec 2.926 sec 0.32m 0.19m 0.288m 0.107m

2 3 4

!y EQ

5 Displacements @ top, !x WIND

!y WIND

CBM Engineers

Comparison for a Sample Building

Consider the same building 20-Stories tall now - in Mumbai. Analyzed for both Indian Standards and IBC- 2006.

Building Data H = 73m Building dimensions - 24.8m x 35.0m Structural System - Ductile Shear wall + OMRF Soil Type - Hard Soil/Rock

CBM Engineers

Design Data - (As per IS 1893 2002)

! ! ! Total building Weight = 290076 KN Zone Factor = 0.16 Importance Factor = 1.0 Soil Type = I (Hard Rock) Response reduction Factor = 4.0 Base Dimension, ! Dx = 24.8m ! ! ! ! Dy = 35.0m Code Specied Time Period, Tx = 1.32 sec! ! ! ! ! Ty = 1.11 sec Sa/g,x = 0.76 Sa/g,y = 0.90

CBM Engineers

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

SR. NO. 1 ITEM Seismic Base shear, Vx Vy AS PER INDIAN STANDARDS AS PER US STANDARDS

2071KN 2071 KN 2919 KN 1860 KN 2.926 sec 2.926 sec 0.011m 0.0077m 0.0097m 0.0039m

2 3 4

!y EQ

5 Displacements @ top, !x WIND

!y WIND

CBM Engineers

DESIGN ISSUES

CBM Engineers

Design Load Factors and Combinations

IS 875 Part 5, IS 456 IBC 2003 SECTION

1.5 D + 1.5 L 1.5 D +1.5 (W or E) 1.2 D +1.2 L + 1.2(W or E) 0.9D 1.5(W or E) 1.2 D + 1.6 L 1.2 D + (1.3 W or 1.0 E) 1.2 D + 0.5 L+ (1.3 W or 1.0E) 0.9D (1.3W or 1.0E)

CBM Engineers

Design Load For a Sample Residential Building

SR. NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 ITEM INDIAN STANDARD (KN/m2) 5.0 1.5 0.5 2.5 2.0 2.0 11.5 2.0 1.5 DL + 1.5 LL 20.25 (1.66 times) US STANDARD (KN/m2) 5.0 1.0 0.5 1.0 -2.0 7.5 2.0 1.2 DL + 1.6 LL 12.2

Self wt. of Slab (200mm thk.) Floor Finish Ceiling & Mechanical Partition Walls Sunk Areas Live Load Total DL Total LL Ultimate LC TOTAL (Ultimate)

CBM Engineers

Maximum Allowable Shear Stress

IS 456 Table 20

ACI - 318 05, Section 11.7.5-------0.2* fc or 5.52 N/mm^2(max.) Concrete Grade ! N/mm^2 M15! 3.0 M20! 4.0 M25! 5.0 M30! 5.52 M35! 5.52 M40 5.52

CBM Engineers

Design of Post Tensioned Concrete

CBM Engineers

Design of Post Tensioned Concrete

CBM Engineers

Design of Post Tensioned Concrete

CBM Engineers

Design of Composite Columns

IS Codes

No Provisions available

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Other Analysis/Design Issues

Outrigger Floors

- Differential Axial Shortening

Fundamental Periods

- Closeness or Combination of Torsional and Lateral Modes

CBM Engineers

CBM Engineers

PROGRAM LIMITATIONS

Over Estimation of Dead & Live Loads due to Common/ Overlapping areas of Beams & Columns with Slabs.

CBM Engineers

PROGRAM LIMITATIONS

CBM Engineers

COMPARISION OF LOADS - 3 STORY BUILDING

A 3-Story RCC building of 6.0m x 5.0m modeled in ETABS! Story Height = 3.0m Beam Size = 230mm x 300mm Column Size = 300mm x 300mm Slab Thickness = 120mm SDL = 1.5 KN/m^2 LL = 2.0 KN/m^2 Unit Weight of Concrete = 25 KN/m^3

CBM Engineers

COMPARISION OF 3 STORY BUILDING

CBM Engineers

COMPARISION OF 3 STORY BUILDING

Item Self Weight of Slab Self Weight of Columns Self Weight of Beams Total Dead Load ETABS results (KN) 1080.00 182.25 341.55 1603.8 MANUAL results (KN) 990.82 182.25 322.92 1495.99

Dead Load is over estimated by 7 % If Partition Walls are present, Uniform SDL & LL will also be Over Estimated by the Program. Dead Loads and Live Loads may be Over Estimated up to 20 % Depending Upon the Geometry of the Building.

CBM Engineers

PROGRAM LIMITATIONS

BRACED FRAME STRUCTURE WITH RIGID DIAPHRAGM UNDER LATERAL LOAD

ZERO AXIAL LOADS in Beams since there is no relative displacement of end nodes of beams.

CBM Engineers

PROGRAM LIMITATIONS

BRACED FRAME STRUCTURE WITH RIGID DIAPHRAGM UNDER LATERAL LOAD SOLUTION Release one node of the beam from the Rigid Diaphragm. Provide Semi-rigid Diaphragm - Parametric study with diaphragm exibility required to obtain correct amount of axial force.

CBM Engineers

PROGRAM LIMITATIONS

CRACKED PROPERTIES OF COUPLED SHEARWALL

CBM Engineers

PROGRAM LIMITATIONS

CRACKED PROPERTIES OF COUPLED SHEARWALL ACI 318-05 Provisions

CBM Engineers

PROGRAM LIMITATIONS

CRACKED PROPERTIES OF COUPLED SHEARWALL CORRECT WAY TO MODEL Reduce both Axial Area and Moment of Inertia. Add a Frame Element with only with missing axial area and Zero Moment of Inertia ( Like a Column).

CBM Engineers

PROGRAM LIMITATIONS

INCORRECT DESIGN OF COLUMNS WITH SMALL AXIAL LOAD ETABS Column Design module for ACI-318 does not check it correctly when Ultimate axial load (phi * Pn) < (0.10 * fc * Ag) where: phi = Strength Reduction Factor Pn = Nominal Axial Load Strength fc' = Compressive Strength of Concrete Ag = Gross Area of Section The design shall be done like a flexural member (like a beam)

CBM Engineers

CBM Engineers

TYPES OF ELEMENTS MEMBRANE Use only when In-plane stiffness properties of member are desired. PLATE Use only when Out-of-plane bending stiffness properties of member are desired. SHELL Use when both In-plane and Out-of-plane stiffness properties of member are desired.

CBM Engineers

LOAD TRANSFER FOR FLOOR AND RAMP SLAB Simple RC Solid Slab. By default modeled as 2-way slab. Can also be modeled as 1-way slab. DECK Used as 1-way load Transfer. Metallic Composite Slab. Filled Deck, Unlled Deck & Solid Slab Deck. PLANK By default use 1-way load transfer mechanism. Generally used to model pre-cast slabs. Can also be a simple RC solid slab.

CBM Engineers

ELEMENT USED FOR WALLS

Walls can be modeled with membrane or shell elements depending on the desired type of behavior.

CBM Engineers

SUPPORT CONDITIONS

AT BASE For Typical RCC building, it is FIXED - All translational and rotational degrees of freedom are restrained. AT GROUND FLOOR Restrained in both Horizontal directions to account for the lateral restraint provided by Basement walls.

CBM Engineers

SUPPORT CONDITIONS

Not Providing the restraint at the ground level will result in A Fictitious Structure that is more Flexible. Over design of Foundation Structure. May Result in Under Design of Basement Walls.

CBM Engineers

OUTRIGGER FLOORS

Appropriate Modeling Technique shall be used for Outrigger Floors. A Separate Sequential Analysis Required for Axial Shortening and Transfer of Forces. Appropriate Cracking Coefcient shall be used.

CBM Engineers

MODELING OF MAJOR TRANSFER ELEMENTS

Appropriate Modeling Technique shall be used to Account for Arching Action and Flow of Forces. A Separate Sequential Analysis required for Gravity Loads. Appropriate Cracking Coefcient shall be used.

CBM Engineers

OTHER ANALYSES

P-Delta Analysis For Lateral and Torsional Deections. Temperature and Creep/Shrinkage Analysis. Construction Sequence Analysis for Correct Force transfer and Design of Structural Elements.

CBM Engineers

OTHER ANALYSES

Column/Wall Axial Shortening Analysis and Column/ Wall Height Adjustments for Floor Levelness Especially For Tall structures. Performance Based Design and Non-Linear Analysis.

CBM Engineers

CBM Engineers

Review of Indian Construction Practices

Overall Dead Load of Structure

Structures in India ~ 25 KN/m^2 Structures in the US ~ 11 KN/m^2

Heavy Partition Load Brick Partitions. Screed of 50-100 mm is commonly used. Heavy Water Proong Load.

CBM Engineers

Review of Indian Construction Practices Sunk Slabs at Toilets, Decks

Structurally Challenging. Does not Allow the use of Certain Types of Framing Systems such as Post-Tensioning, Flat Slabs. Difcult for Construction Complicated Formwork. More Cost and Time for Construction.

CBM Engineers

Review of Indian Construction Practices

CBM Engineers

Review of Indian Construction Practices Suggestions/Recommendations

Try to Reduce Overall Weight of Structure. Use of Light Weight Partitions Reduction in Wall Weight up to 50% with Siporex, AAC blocks, Gypsum Walls. Elimination of Screed Especially in garages. Elimination of Sunk Slabs.

CBM Engineers

Review of Indian Construction Practices

Suggestions/Recommendations

Lower Weight results in - Lower Design Seismic Loads. - Lighter Structure. - Reduction in Foundation Sizes and Cost. Elimination of Sunk Areas - Easier Construction. - Easy Formwork System. - Flat Slabs and Use of PT Systems Possible. - Saves Cost and Time.

CBM Engineers

THANK YOU

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