You are on page 1of 20

Research Methodology

Meaning of Research Research is Repetitive Search For Knowledge For an answer to a Question For Solution to a Problem For Handling any inquiry For purposive Investigation Search for facts !o unrevealed the mysteries of nature

How to search for facts" 1. Arbitrary Method #ased on imagination$ opinion$ blind belief and impression Problem of vagueness and inaccuracy 2. Scientific method Systematic rational approach to see% facts It is ob&ective precise and arrives conclusion based on evidences What make people to undertake Research ' ) + . / 0 1 Human being distinctive feature( curiosity and inquisitiveness *oncern over practical problems to initiate research ,esire to get intellectual &oy of doing some creative wor% ,esire to be of service to society ,esire to get respectability ,esire to understand causal relationship ,esire to get research degree along with its consequential benefits ,esire to face the challenges in solving the unsolved problems

!b"ecti#es of Research !o gain familiarity with the phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it 2 Studies with this ob&ect in view are termed as e3ploratory or formulative research studies4 !o portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual$ situation or a group 2 Studies with this ob&ect in view are %nown as descriptive research studies4 !o determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else 2 studies with this ob&ect in view are %nown as diagnostic research studies4 !o test a hypothesis of causal relationship between variables 2such as studies are Known as hypothesis(testing research studies4 $efinition of Research Redman and Mory 5Systemati6ed effort to gain new %nowledge 7 %he Webter&s 'nternational $ictionary 58 careful critical inquiry or e3amination in see%ing facts or principles9 diligent investigation in order to ascertain something 7 (lifford Woddy 58ccording to him the research comprises defining and redefining problem$ formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions$ organi6ing and evaluating data$ ma%ing deductions and reaching conclusions$ and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis Robert Ross 5Research is essentially an investigation$ a recording and evidence for the purpose of gaining %nowledge 7 an analysis of

$. Slesinger and M. Stephenson in the :ncyclopedia of Social Science 5!he manipulation of things$ concepts or symbols for the purpose of generali6ing to e3tend$ correct or verify %nowledge$ whether that %nowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art7 %he ad#ance learner&s $ictionary 58 careful Investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of %nowledge

%ypes of Research $escripti#e Research !al%s about what has happened and what is happening Purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it e3ists at present :3(post facts Research ' !he main characteristic of this method is researcher doesn;t have control over variables ) Includes attempt by researcher to discover causes even when they cannot control variables + !he method utili6e in descriptive research are survey method including comparative analysis and correlation Analytical Research Researcher Has to use facts or information already available 8naly6e the facts to ma%e a critical evaluation Applied Research 8ction <riented research 8ims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing by a society= <rgani6ation Researcher comes out to a conclusion for immediate action

)undamental Research Pure and #asic Research >athering %nowledge for the sa%e of %nowledge is termed as pure and basic research It is mainly concerned with the generali6ation and formulation of theories It is directly towards finding Information that has a broad base of application *uantitati#e Research It is based on the measurement of measurement of quantity 8pplied to phenomenon that can be :3pressed in terms of quantity *ualitati#e Research It is concerned with qualitative Phenomenon i e Phenomenon relating to or involving quality or %ind (onceptual Research Related to some abstract$ ideas or theory >enerally used by philosopher and thin%ers to develop new concept or to re(interpret the e3isting ones

+mperical Research

Relies on e3perience or observation alone ,ata #ased research coming up with conclusion which are capable of being verified by observation or e3periment ?e get is also called as e3perimental type of research :mperical research is appropriate when proof is sought that certain variables affect other variables in some way

!ther type of Research #ased on either the purpose of Research #ased on time require to accomplish research #ased on environment in which research in alone 1. !ne time Research , -ongitudinal Research *onfined to single time period *arried over several time period 2. )ield setting research,laboratory research,Simulation research #ased on environment in which they are carried out Simulation @( building artificial environment within which relevant information A data to be generated .. (linical or $iagnostic Research Follow case study method Having small sample si6e Bery deep probing data gathering devices /. +0ploratory Research ,evelopment of hypothesis rather than their testing - )ormali1ed Research ,evelopment of Hypothesis followed by hypothesis testing 2. Historical Research !al%s about history Ctili6e historical source li%e document remains etc Includes the philosophy of person A group at any remote point of time 3. (onclusion oriented Research Pic% up the problem Redesign enquiry Prepare a conceptuali6e as he wishes 4. $ecision oriented Research 8lways done for a need of decision ma%er

Researcher in this care is not free to embar% upon research according to his own inclination

Significance of Research ' ) + . Research inculcates scientific and inductive thin%ing and it promotes the development of logical habits of thin%ing and organi6ation !he role of research in several fields of applied economics whether related to business or economy as a whole has greatly increased in modern times Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system Research has its special significance in solving various operational A planning problems of business A industry Research is equally important for social scientists in studying social relationship A in see%ing answers to various social problems

'n addition to these Research is significant ' ) + . !o those students who are write a master;s or Ph, thesis$ research may mean careerism or a way to attain a high positioning the social structure !o professionals in research methodology$ research may mean a source of livelihood !o philosophers A thin%ers$ research may mean the outlet for new ideas or insight !o literary men A women$ research may mean the development of new styles A creative wor% !o analysts and intellectuals$ research may mean the generali6ation of new theories

Method !he term DEethod; means an apt way of doing something $efinition of Scientific Method According to -. -. 5ernard 5Science may be defined in terms of its ma&or process that ta%es place within it !hese are testing$ verification$ definition$ classification$ organi6ation including predication and application 7 According to -undberg 5!he scientific methods consist of systematic observation$ classification$ and interpretation of data 7

Assumptions of Scientific Method !he scientific method is based on certain assumptions !here assumptions are given below@ ' ) + . / 0 1 Regularities@ scientific method believes that the world is regular and phenomena occur in pattern9 for e3ample$ H)< indicates water at all times and at all places Berification@ Berification is the prime condition of methods as science is empirical study !echniques@ Scientific method presupposes a great deal of importance to the adoption of correct techniques and interpretation Quantification@ Science is always based on mathematical formulas and measurements !o be precise and accurate$ all observations must be quantified Balues@ Science is often value free It has nothing to do with moral or ethical consideration Systemati6ation@ !he Scientific method is always based on well( organi6ed$ logical$ inter(related and theory oriented study of analysis Pure Science@ !he social scientists insist on pure science approach for analy6ing a social problem Integration@ 8n integration of each social science is needed to get a clear$ correct and wor%able picture of the problem

Steps in Scientific Method !here are five ma&or steps in scientific method !hey are@ ' Planning$ ) Research design$ + ,ata gathering$ - ,ata analysis and . Interpretation of results ' 6lanning for Research7 Cseful and meaningful social research should be planned carefully in every respect$ including what to do with the information after it has been gathered Planning involves %nowing beforehand not only e3actly what you are going to do and how you are going to do it$ but also what you e3pect to find out and possible alternative e3planation of the results Research $esign7 !he term research design refers to the process of planning an entire study so that specific elaborations may be tested It requires that you %now what you wish to %now in advance $ata 8athering7 <nce a social researcher has already formulated his research design$ he must decide how to gather the information called for by that design !here are two basic types of data gathering ,ata can be gathered from primary sources9 such techniques include participant and direct observation and survey techniques such as interviews$

questionnaires$ attitude scales Fo matter how collected$ data must be valid$ reliable and representative if sound conclusions are to be based on them $ata Analysis7 <nce the data has been gathered$ it will be sub&ected to data analysis !his process may involve very complicated statistical manipulation and the use of punched cards or computers It includes counting$ tabulation and cross(tabulation through which different variable are organi6ed and compared 'nterpretation7 8fter the data of the study has been quantified and ordered through analysis$ the researcher ma%es an interpretation of the results

6roblems +ncountered by Researcher in 'ndia ' ) ,epartment + . / 0 places 1 H 'I !here is also a Problem that many of our libraries are not able to get copies of old A new acts=rules$ reports A other government publications in time !here is also a difficulty of timely availability of published data !here may at times ta%es place the problem of conceptuali6ation A also problem relating to the process of data collection A related things !here is the need for generating the *onfidence that the information=data obtained from the business unit will not be misused Research studies overlapping one another are underta%en quite often for want of adequate information !here does not e3ist a code of conduct for researchers Eany Researchers in our country also face the difficulty of adequate A timely secretarial assistance Gibrary Eanagement A functioning is not satisfactory at many !he lac% of scientific training in the methodology of Research !here is insufficient interaction between the university A Research

Research $esign ,ecision regarding what$ where$ when$ how much$ by what means concerning an inquiry or a research study constitute a research design 58 research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure 7 $efinition of Research design According to 6rof. Miller Research design is 5!he planned sequence of the entire process involved in conducting a research study7 According to 9ohoda:$eutsch and (ook 5Research design is the arrangement of conditions for collections and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure7 In a simple language$ 8eneral $ef has defined Research design as 5!he plan$ structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions and control variance7

Research design is split into the following parts7 2a4 Sampling $esign7 it deals with the method of selecting items to be observed for the given study9 2b4 %he obser#ational design7 It is related to the conditions under which the observations are to be made9 2c4 %he Statistical $esign7 which concerns with the question of how many items are to be observed and how the information and data gathered are to be analy6ed9 and 2d4 %he !perational $esign@ which deals with the techniques by which the procedures specified in the sampling$ statistical and observational designs can be carried out +ssentials of a Research $esign !he above definitions give the essentials of a good research design !hey are@ ' It is a plan that specifies the ob&ectives of the study and the hypotheses to be tested ) + It is an outline that specifies the sources and types of information relevant to the research questions It is a blue print specifying the method to be adopted for gathering and analy6ing the data

It is a scheme defining the domain to generalisability$ i e whether the obtained information can be generali6ed to a larger population or to different situations

In brief$ research design must$ at least$ containJ 2a4 8 clear statement of the research problems9 2b4 Procedures and techniques to be used for gathering information9 2c4 !he population to be studied9 and 2d4 Eethods to be used in processing and analy6ing data ;eed of Research $esign ' ) Research ,esign is needed because it facilities smooth$ effective and economical wor%ing of various research problem It is useful to prepare an advance plan for collecting and analysing the information$ %eeping in view the ob&ectives of the research and availability of men$ money and time It helps the researcher to organise his ideas in a form It provides an opportunity to the critic to evaluate the pro&ected study

+ -

(oncept of Research $esign 1. $ependent < 'ndependent #ariable 8 concept which can ta%e on different quantitative value is called variable !he concepts li%e weight$ height$ income are all e3amples of variables Phenomenon which can ta%e different quantitative values even in decimal points are called continuous #ariable If the variable can be e3pressed in integer value they are non= continuous #ariable or discrete #ariable 8ge is an e3ample of continuous variable but number of children is an e3ample of ,iscrete variable If one variable is depend upon or is a consequence of the other variable it is termed as a $ependent >ariable$ and the variable that is antecedent to the dependent variable is an 'ndependent #ariable 2. +0traneous #ariable Independent variables that are not related to the purpose of study$ but may affect the dependent variable are termed as e3traneous variable !he effect noticed on the dependent variable as a result of e3traneous variable is technically described as 5+0perimental +rror7 .. (ontrol !he term control is used in Research ,esign to minimi6e the influence or effect of e3traneous variable /. (onfounded Relationship ?hen the dependent variable is not free from the influence of e3traneous variable$ the relationship between dependent A independent variable is said to be confounded by an :3traneous Bariable 2. Research Hypothesis ?hen a prediction or a hypothesi6ed relationship is to be tested by scientific methods$ it is termed as research Hypothesis !he Research Hypothesis is a predictive statement that relates an independent variable to a dependent variable

3. +0perimental < ;on=e0perimental Hypothesis testing research ?hen the purpose of Research is to test a Research Hypothesis it is termed as Hypothesis testing Research It can be of :3perimental ,esign or Fon( e3perimental ,esign Research in which independent variable is manipulated is %nown as +0perimental Hypothesis testing research. Research in which independent variable is not manipulated is %nown as ;on=+0perimental Hypothesis testing research. 0 +0perimental < (ontrol 8roups7 In e3perimental Hypothesis testing research when a group is e3posed to usual conditions$ it is termed a (ontrol 8roup but when a group is e3posed to some novel or special condition$ it is termed an +0perimental 8roup. ?. %reatment7 !he different condition under which the e3perimental A control group are put are usually referred to as !reatments @. +0periment7 !he process of e3amining the truth of a statistical Hypothesis$ relating to some research problem$ is %nown as an e3periment 1A. +0perimental Bnits7 !he predetermined plots or bloc%s$ where different treatments are used$ are %nown as :3perimental Cnits $ifferent Research $esign 1C Research $esign in case of e0ploratory studies7 :3ploratory studies are also termed as formulati#e research studies !he main purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation or of developing the wor%ing hypothesis from an operational point of view !he ma&or emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas A insights !he Research ,esign for such studies is fle3ible enough to provide opportunity for considering different aspects of the problem because the problem broadly defined initially is transformed into more precise meaning in e3ploratory studies )ollowing three methods are used in the conte0t of research design. 84 Sur#ey of concerning literature7 Researcher has to formulate research problem or develop hypothesis Hypothesis stated by earlier researcher may be reviewed A their usefulness be evaluated as a basis for further research It may also be considered whether the earlier stated hypothesis suggests new hypothesis Researcher should review A build upon the wor% already done by others$ but in the cases where hypothesis is not made the wor% of researcher is to review the available material for deriving the relevant hypothesis #4 +0perience Sur#ey7 is the survey of people who have had practical e3perience with the problem to be studied !he ob&ect

of such surveys is to obtain insight into the relationship between variables and new ideas relating to research problem For such a survey people who are competent and can contribute new ideas may be carefully selected as respondents to ensure a representation of different types of e3perience !he respondent so selected may then be interviewed by the investigator !he researcher must prepare an interview schedule for the systematic questioning of informants !he investigator must be e3perienced collecting interview is li%ely to be long and may last for few hours !he copy of the questions to be discussed to the respondent must be send in advance as it will give the opportunity to respondent for doing some advance thin%ing over the issues involved so that they may contribute effectively at the time of interview !hus e3perience survey helps the researcher to define the problem concisely and help in the formulation of research hypothesis *4 Analysis of 'nsight=Stimulation7 It is particularly suitable in the areas where there is little e3perience to serve as a guide !his method consist of intensive study of selected instances of the phenomenon in which one is interested For this purpose e3isting records were e3amined and the unstructured interview may ta%e place 8ttitude of the investigator$ the intensity of the study and the ability of the researcher to derive information into a uniform interpretation are the main features of this method 2C Research $esign in case of $escripti#e < $iagnostic research studies@ ,escriptive research studies are those which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual or a group whereas diagnostic research studies determine the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else In descriptive as well as diagnostic studies the researcher must be able to define clearly what he wants to measure and must find adequate method of measuring it definition of population he want to study to obtain complete A accurate information

it must ma%e enough provision for protection against bias and must ma3imi6e reliability the design must be rigid A not fle3ible

%he design should focus the attention on following7 84 Formulating the ob&ective of study #4 ,esigning the method of data collection *4 Selecting the sample ,4 *ollecting the data :4 Processing and analy6ing the data F4 Reporting the findings +4 Research design in case of Hypothesis testing Research studies7 Hypothesis testing research studies are those where the researcher tests the hypothesis of causal relationship between the variable Such studies procedures that will not only reduce bias A increase reliability but will permit drawing inferences about causality !he e3perimental research design meet such requirements 5asic principles of +0perimental $esign Professor Fisher has enumerated three Principles of :3perimental ,esigns@ %he principle of Replication %he 6rinciple of Randomi1ation and %he principle of -ocal control 8ccording to the 6rinciple of Replication$ the :3periment should be repeated more than once !hus each treatment is applied in many :3perimental units instead of one #y doing so the statistical accuracy of the e3periment is increased %he 6rinciple of Randomi1ation provides protection$ when we conduct an e3periment against the effect of e3traneous factors by Randomi6ation In other words this principle indicates that we should design the e3periment in such a way that the variation caused by e3traneous factor can all be combined under the general heading of 5*hance7 According to the 6rinciple of -ocal (ontrol$ we first divide the field into several homogeneous parts$ %nown as bloc%s$ and then each bloc% is divided into parts equal to the number of treatment !hen the treatments are randomly assigned to these parts of a bloc% ,ividing the field into several parts is %nown as bloc%ing #loc%s are the level at which we hold an :3traneous factor fi3ed$ so that we can measure its contribution to the total variability of the data by two(way analysis of Bariance In brief$ through the principle of local control we can eliminate the variability due to e3traneous factors from the :3perimental error +0perimental $esigns is classify into two broad categories 'nformal +0perimental $esigns )ormal +0perimental $esigns

'nformal +0perimental designs are those designs that are normally use a less sophisticated form of analysis based on differences in magnitudes$whereas formal +0perimental designs offers relatively more control and use precise statistical procedures for analysis Important :3perimental ,esigns are as follows@ 'nformal +0perimental $esigns7 5efore < after without control $esign After only with control $esign 5efore < after with control $esign. )ormal +0perimental $esigns7 (ompletely Randomi1ed $esign D(.R.$esignC Randomi1ed 5lock $esign DR.5.$esignC -atin SEuare $esign D-.S.$esignC )actorial $esign

5efore < after without control $esign In such a design a single test group or area is selected and the dependent variable is measured before the introduction of the treatment !he treatment is then introduced and the dependent variable is measure again after the treatment has been introduced !he effect of the treatment is equal to the level of the phenomenon after the treatment minus level of the phenomenon before the treatment !he main difficulty of such a design is that with the passage of time considerable e3traneous variations may be there in its !reatment effect !he ,esign can be represented thus@

!est 8rea@ Gevel of Phenomenon !reatment before !reatment2K4 introduced !reatment :ffect M 2L4 N 2K4

Gevel of Phenomenon after !reatment2L4

After=only with control $esign In this design two groups or areas are selected and the treatment is introduced into the test area only !he dependent variable is then measured in both the areas at the same time !reatment impact is assessed by subtracting the value of the dependent variable in the control area from its value in the test area !he basic assumption in such a design is that the two areas are identical with respect to their behaviour towards the phenomenon considered If the assumption is not true$ there is a possibility of e3traneous variation entering into the treatment effect !his can be e3hibited in the following form@

!est 8rea *ontrol 8rea

!reatment Introduced Gevel of Phenomenon after !reatment2L4 Gevel of Phenomenon without !reatment 2O4 !reatment :ffect M 2L4 N 2O4
5efore < after with control $esign

!est 8rea@ Gevel of Phenomenon !reatment Gevel of Phenomenon In this design two areas are selected and the dependent variable is measured in before !reatment2K4 introduced after !reatment2L4

*ontrol 8rea@

both the areas for an identical time(period before the treatment !he treatment is then introduced into the test area only$ and the dependent variable is measured in both for an identical time period after the introduction of treatment !he treatment effect is determined by subtracting the change in the dependent variable in the control area from the change in the dependent variable of in test area !his design avoid e3traneous variation resulting both Gevel Phenomenon Gevel of Phenomenon from the passage of time and from Fon(*omparability of the test A control without !reatment284 without !reatment2O4 areas

!reatment :ffect M 2L(K4 N 2O(84

(ompletely Randomi1ed $esign D(.R.$esignC Involves only two principles i e the principle of replication A the principle of Randomi6ation of e3perimental design the essential characterstics of this design is sub&ects are randomly assigned to :3perimental !reatments A vice( versa Such designs are generally used when the e3perimental areas happen to be homogeneous !echnically when when all the variations de to uncontrolled e3traneous factors are included under the heading of *hance Bariation ?e refer to the design of e3periment as * R ,esign %wo 8roup of simple Randomi1ed $esign7 In two group of simple randomi6ed design$ first of all population is defined A then from the population a sample is selected randomly Items after being selected randomly from the population are randomly assigned to the :3perimental A control group !he two groups of such a design are given different treatments of the independent variable !he merits of such design is that it is simple A randomi6es the differences among the sample items but the limitations of it is that the individual differences among those conducting the treatment cannot be eliminated i e it does not control the e3traneous variable and as such the result of the e3periment may not depict a correct picture !his design can be shown in this way@

Random replication $esign7 !he limitation of two group randomi6ed design is usually eliminated within the random replication design In random replication design the effect of such differences are reduced by providing a number of repetition for each treatment :ach repition is technically called a 5Replication7 Random Replication design serves two purposes i e it provide control for the differential effects of the e3traneous independent variables and secondly it randomi6es any individual differences among those conducting the treatments

Randomi1ed 5lock $esign DR.5.$esignC It is an improvement over * R ,esign In the R # design Principle of local control can be applied along with the other two principles of e3perimental designs In the R # ,esign$ sub&ect are first divided into groups %nown as bloc%s such that within each group the the sub&ect are relatively homogeneous in respect to some selected variables the variable selected for grouping the sub&ect is one that is believed to be related to the measures to be obtained in respect of the dependent variable !he number of sub&ect in a given bloc% would be equal to the number of treatment and one sub&ect in each bloc% would be randomly assigned to each treatment In general$ bloc%s are the levels at which we hold the e3traneous factor fi3ed$ so that its contribution to the total variability of data can be measured !he main feature of the R # ,esign is that in this each treatment appears the same number of times in each bloc%s the R # ,esign is analy6ed by the two way analysis of variance technique -atin SEuare $esign D-.S.$esignC G S ,esign is an e3perimental design very frequently used in agricultural researches

Sampling $esign Bni#erse or 6opulation7=8ll the items in any field of inquiry constitute a universe or population %he uni#erse can be finite or infinite In finite universe number of items is certain but in case of infinite universe number of items is infinite or uncertain e g Population of a class$ population of city$ number of wor%ers in a factory are e3amples of finite population whereas the number of stars in the s%y$ the viewers of bali%a badhu$listers of Fm $throwing of dice etc are e3amples of Infinite population +lement7 = 8 member of population is an element (ensus7=8 complete enumeration of all items in the population is %nown as a census inquiry it is assumed that in such an inquiry$ when all the items are covered$ no element of chance is left A highest accuracy is obtained but in practice this may not be true :ven the slightest element of bias in such inquiry will get larger A larger as the number of observation increases Eoreover there is no way of chec%ing the element of bias or its e3tent e3cept through the resurvey !his type of inquiry involves a great deal of time$ money A energy !herefore$ when the field of inquiry is large this method become difficult to adopt because the resources involved 8t times this method is practically beyond the reach of ordinary Researchers Eany a times it is not possible to e3amine every item in the population and sometimes it is possible to obtain sufficiently accurate result by studying only a part of population In such a case there is no utility of *ensus Survey

Sample7 = 8 part of population is a sample or selection of few items from total population is %nown as sample !he representative selected should be a representative of total population and the selection process is called sampling technique Simple Random Sampling !his type of sampling is also %nown as probability sampling or chance sampling In it each A every item in the population has equal chance of inclusion in the sample A each one of the possible sample in case of finite universe has the same probability of being selected In case of finite population the selection of each item is controlled by the same probability A that successive selection are independent of one another Stratified Random Sampling If the population from which sample has to be drawn does not constitute homogeneous group$ then stratified sampling is applied so as to obtain a representative sample If the items selected from each stratum is based on simple random sampling is %nown as stratified random sampling Systematic Random Sampling In systematic Random Sampling every nth element is selected until the desired number is secured 8n element of Randomness is usually introduced into the %ind of sampling by using random number to pic% up the unit with which to start !his procedure is useful when sampling frame is available in the form of list (luster Sampling *luster sampling involves grouping the population and then selecting the groups or clusters rather than individual elements for the inclusion of sample !he sample si6e must often be larger than the simple random sample to ensure the same level of accuracy because in cluster sampling procedural potential for order bias and other sources of error is usually accentuated It ma%es the sampling procedure easier and increase the efficiency of field wor% Area sampling Cnder the area sampling we first divide the total area into a number of smaller Fon(<verlapping areas generally called as geographical clusters 8rea sampling is especially helpful where we do not have the list of population concerned Multistage sampling !his technique is meant for big enquiries e3tending to a considerably large geographical area li%e an entire country If the technique of random sampling is applied at all stages$ the sampling procedure is described as Eultistage Random Sampling (haracteristics of a good Sample $esign ' sample design must result in truly representative sample ) sample design must be such which result in small sampling error + sample design must be viable in the conte3t of fund available for research study - sample design must be such so that systematic bias can be controlled in a better way . Sample should be such that the result of the sample study can be applied$ in general$ for the reasonable level of confidence

Hypothesis ?hen a researcher observes %nown facts A ta%es up the problem for analysis$ he first has to start somewhere A this point of start is the hypothesis ,efinition of Hypothesis >eorge 8 Gundberg 58 hypothesis is a tentative generali6ation$ the validity of which remains to be tested in its most elementary stage the hypothesis may be every hunch$ guess$ imaginative data$ which becomes the basis for action or investigation 7 ?ebster 58 hypothesis is a proposition$ condition or principle which is assumed$ perhaps without belief$ in order to draw out its logical consequences and by this method to test its accord with facts which are %nown or may be determined Rummel A #alline 8 hypothesis is a statement capable of being tested A thereby verified or re&ected It is clear now that a hypothesis is a provisional formulation or possible solution or tentative e3planation or suggested answer to the problem facing the scientist If the hypothesis is proved$ the problem of which it was a tentative solution is answered If it is not proved$ alternative hypothesis or situation would need to be formulated A tested 8 hypothesis thus stands somewhat at the midpoint of research9 from here one can loo% bac% to the problem A also loo% forward to data Sources of Hypothesis ' 8 hypothesis may originate in different ways 8 cultural environment may give rise to it many situation could give rise to any number of hypothesis li%e sociological$cultural$political A economic ) 8 second source of hypothesis is fol% wisdom or current popular beliefs A practices suggesting both the problems A the hypothesis + 8nalogies are often a spring of valuable hypotheses students of sociology in course of their studies would have come across analogies wherein a society is compared to biological organism$ the natural law to the social law$ thermodynamics to social dynamics etc - !he history of science provides the testing of facts A e3periences of scientist contribute a great deal to the type A form of questions he may as% as also the %ind of tentative answers to these questions that can be provide . Hypothesis may also rest on finding of other studies the researcher on the basis of finding of other studies may hypothesi6e that similar relationship between specified variables will hold good in the present study $too / 8nother source of hypothesis formulation is cases which are e3ceptions to accepted theory 0 personal e3periences A individual reaction may give rise to hypothesis

8 hypothesis may turn from a body of theory which by way of logical deduction$ may lead to the prediction that if certain conditions are present$ certain result will follow !heory is indeed an e3tremely fertile seed(bed of hypothesis

*ontrol >roup

!reatment 8

!reatment #

Independent Bariable