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# 1

:

() ,
- , ,
,
.
:

( . ., . . .
.- 5- ., . .- .: , 1988.- 544 .: .)
(. 5.23)
(. 5.24)
(. 5.25)
(. 5.26)
(. 5.27).

, . . ,
:
q

r
n1 ( r ) = n10 1
n(r) =

n = n (1 )
2
10

0 < r < a

(1.1)

r > a

## r - , ; a - , ; n10, n2 ( r = 0) ( r > a),

; q - ,
2; - ,
:
=

2
n10
- n22
2n12

(1.2)

,
<< 1.

SiO2. n1 .
GeO2.

,
.
:

, ,
z;
, .

. ()
,
,
.
:
B = n( r ) cos z ( r )
(1.3)
E = n( r ) sin z ( r ) cos f ( r )
(1.4)
: z(r) - z ; f(r) -
.
f(r) = / 2 = 0.

NA = n0 sin 0 , 0 z
,
n0.
r. :
NA( r ) = n0 n12 ( r ) n22 , 0 < r < a .
(1.5)

(). B
:
n2 ( ) < B < n10 ( ) .
(1.6)
:
V = 2

a
2
n10
n22

(1.7)

- .
()
:
V 2 q
,
M = INT
2 q +2

(1.8)

1 n10 g
( p + q ) n10 + ( 2 p ) B ,
t( B) =

c q+2
B
n10

(1.9)

INT(x) - x.
() z
, t, . .

. , t

:

= 3105 / - , p -
, :
p( ) =

n10 ( )
d ( )

n10 g ( ) ( ) d ,

(1.10)

n10g - 1:
dn10 ( )
.
d

(1.11)

( p + q )( 2 p )

(1.13)

n10 g ( ) = n10 ( )

, (1.10) (1.11) .
n10g :
Vg = c n10 g
(1.12)

:
1 2n
t ( Bm ) = 10 g
c q +2

:
Bm = n10

q+p
2p

(1.14)

m
(1.6),
. q
B = n1 n2.
t

t(n1), t(n2) t(Bm):
t = tmax tmin .
(1.15)
t(Bm) , Bm
.
t
t q

q = 2 (1 p ) ( 2 p ) ,
(1.16)
t

n10 g 2
=

c
8

(1.17)

.
c
,
, ,
().
c
,
,
(-, Fe2+, Cu2+, C 3+
2 ).
1

:.

:
= 0.1 / = 0.85 ;
= 0.05 / = 1.3 .
(1.18)
,
, /:
48.5
= 7.81 1011 exp
,

4.63
= 2.55 10 3 exp
,

0.8
= 4 .

(1.19)
(1.20)
(1.21)

(1.19-1.21) /,
.

, , - .
, = 0.1 - 0.3
/.
() :
= + + + + .
(1.22)

(. 1.1) :
();
- ();
(1 2);
();
();
();
(1, 2, 3);
().

()

()

. 1.1. () ()

(. 1.1), U , Uc,
t , U
U . U ,
P, 1
. , 1,
1, 2, 3, 1 2, t31
. , 2, 1, , 3, 1 2,
t32
. ,
,
.
,
.
0 .
(
2 ).
t31 t32,
Um1 Um2 t1 t2 .
: L, a
,
.

(. 1.2). ,

.
,
.

. 1.2.

1.
t311 =

t31
1 :

L1 + L2 + L3 + L24 + L67
Vg 1

(1.23)

## L1, L2, L3 - , ; L24, L67 -

, ; Vg1 -
, /.
:
a11 = 1 ( L1 + L2 + L3 + L24 + L67 ) + a1 + a2 + a4 + a6 + a7 + a8 + a24
(1.24)
1 - , 1, 2, 3
1 2, /; pi - i- , ;
24 - 1, .
t32
:
t 321 =

L1 + L3 + L23 + L57 L
+
V g1
Vg

(1.25)

L - , ; Vg , /.
:
a21 = 1 ( L1 + L2 + L3 + L23 + L57 ) + a1 + a2 + a3 + a5 + a7 + a8 + a23 + L ,
(1.26)
L23, L57 - , ; , /; a23 - 1,
.
2.
t 312 =

L1 + L2 + L3 + L23 + L57
Vg1

(1.27)

:
a21 = 1 ( L1 + L2 + L3 + L23 + L57 ) + a1 + a2 + a3 + a5 + a7 + a8 + a23
(1.28)

:
t322 =

L1 + L3 + L24 + L67 L
+
Vg1
Vg

(1.29)

## a22 = 1 ( L1 + L3 + L24 + L67 ) + a1 + a2 + a4 + a6 + a7 + a8 + a24 + L . (1.30)

3.
t313 =

L2
Vg1

(1.31)

:
a3 = 1L2 + a1 + a8 .

(1.32)

1.
L

2
: t321 t312 = V V = V t313 .
g
g1
g
:
L = ( t321 t312 + t313 ) Vg .

(1.33)

2.

, . . :
U m11 = U m 0 10 a11 10 U m 21 = U m 0 10 a 21 10
(1.34)
:
U m12 = U m 0 10 a12 10 U m 22 = U m 0 10 a 22 10
(1.35)
Um0 - , .
Um11, Um21, Um12, Um22
a1 a2:
U
a1 = 10 lg m11
U m 21

U
a2 = 10 lg m12 .
U m 22

(1.36)

## a1 = a21 a11 = ( a3 a4 ) + ( a5 a6 ) + 1 ( L23 L24 ) + 1 ( L57 L67 ) + ( a23 a24 ) +

+ ( a57 a67 ) + L

(1.37)

( a57 a67 ) + L

(1.38)

## a2 = a22 a12 = ( a3 a4 ) ( a5 a6 ) 1 ( L23 L24 ) 1 ( L57 L67 ) ( a23 a24 ) +

, :
a1 + a2 = 2L = 2a .
(1.39)
(1.35) ,
:
a =

a1 + a2
2

(1.40)

.
.
:
F1
F2
F3
F4
F8
. 1.3 .

, . 1.1.

. 1.3. .

. 1.4
, .

Enter.
() ()
.
.
. , Enter.

.

Lw

1.1

n1

n10

dn1 / dLw

dn10 / d

d / dLw

d / d

.
.
, Enter.

. 1.4. .

,
() () .
(
), F10 (.
1.5).

(
) .
,
.

. 1.5. .

: 1- F5, 2- F6, 3- F7.

.

.
F2.
.
.
F4
.

.

1. .
2.
, . ,
, F2.
3. :

n10g
(1.11),

Vg (1.12),

(1.22).

V (1.7),
25 ,

(1.8),

() t 1 (1.15),
,
,
. n10g t.

1.2.
1.2

,

n10

n2

dn10 / d d / d

n10g

,
Vg, /
V
/

t,
/

0.85
1.30

4. ,
3- , .

. F3.
5.
,
;
;
.
,
1.3 0.85 , ,
. 1.3.
F4.
6.
:
(1.36);
(1.40);
t = t2 t1 ;
L (1.33);
t = ( t1 + t2 ) 2 L , t1, t2
1 2 ;
: = a L .

1.3.
1.3

Um1,
,

1
0.85
2
3
1
1.30
2
3

Um2,

a,

a,

t1,

t2,

t,

t2,

t1,

,
t,
/ /

L,

7. , Um2 t2
1 q.
t2 q
q.
, 1.3 0.85 .
1.4. ""
.
1.4

q

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

,
/

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

,
/

t , /

q
.

t2,
,

0.85

Um2,

t , /

q
.

t2,
,

1.3

Um2,

8. t2 q,
t2, t
:
=

10 U m1
lg
L U m2

t =

t 2 t1
L

(1.41)

q t (1.16)
(1.17). . 1.4.

1. ,
2.

3. 1.2
4. 1.3

5. ,
6. 1.4
7. Um2(q) t2(q) 0.85 1.3

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