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ContributingtoEachOthersLearning
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GMAT Club 2011 1
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GMAT Club 2011 2
GMAT MATH
GMAT Club 2011 3
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Percent
Whatisthepercentformula?
Howmuchis15percentof20?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
1
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Percent|Answers
PercentFormula:
Part=PercentxWhole
Forexample,15%of20is:
1S
1uu
2u =
Suu
1uu
= S
MATH:ARITHMETIC
2
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Percent2
Whatistheformulaforpercentchange?
IfJackgotaraisefrom$15perhourto$18
perhour,whatwasthepercentincrease?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
3
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Percent2|Answers
PercentChangeFormula:
omount o cbongc
originol omount
1uu%
JacksRaise:
18 -1S
1S
1uu% =
S
1S
1uu% =
1uu
S
= 2u%
! Makesureyouusetheoriginalamount(15),not
thenewone(18)
MATH:ARITHMETIC
4
GMAT Club 2011 4
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Percent3
Iftheproductionofhybridcarstripledlastyear,by
howmanypercentdiditincrease?
100%
200%
250%
300%
333%
MATH:ARITHMETIC
5
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Percent3|Answers
ThecorrectanswerisB increasedby200%
Forexample,ifproductionwas10cars,andit
tripledto30cars,theincreasewas20cars,which
is200%of10
MATH:ARITHMETIC
6
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Percent4
50%of25is25%ofwhichnumber?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
7
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Percent4|Answers
Thereare2solutionstothisproblem:
Longone:
50%of25is12.5
12.5*100=x*25
x=50
Shortonebutahardertocomeupwith:
50%*25=x*25%
50=x
MATH:ARITHMETIC
8
GMAT Club 2011 5
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Odd/EvenRules
CheckyourknowledgeofOdd/Evenrules
Odd+Odd=?
Odd Even=?
Even+Odd=?
OddxOdd=?
OddEven=?
OddxEven=?
Hint: trypickingnumbers
MATH:ARITHMETIC
9
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Odd/EvenRules|Answers
Odd+Odd= 1+1=2(Even)
Odd Even=3 2=1(Odd)
Even+Odd=2+1=3(Odd)
OddxOdd= 3x3=9(Odd)
OddEven= 32=1.5(Notaninteger!)
OddxEven=3x2=6(Even)
MATH:ARITHMETIC
10
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Odd/EvenRules2
Is0oddoreven?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
11
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Odd/EvenRules2|Answers
0(zero)isEven
Itisalsonotpositiveornegative
itisneutral
MATH:ARITHMETIC
12
GMAT Club 2011 6
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Odd/EvenRules3
Ifb isanoddnumber,whichofthefollowing
mustbeeven?
A. 2b -S
B.
b-1
2
C.
b
2
-1
B. b
2
+2
E. 2b +2
MATH:ARITHMETIC
13
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Odd/EvenRules3|Answers
Usetheplugnumbersmethodtocheckeach
answerchoice.Letstake1:
A. 2*1 3=1(Odd)
B.
1-1
2
=0(Even) however,justincase,letstry3.
3-1
2
= 1 (Odd).Itusuallyisagoodideatorun
through2differentnumbersifyougetzeroorsimilar
C.
1
2
- 1 = -
1
2
(Odd)
D. 1+2=3(Odd)
E. 2+2=4(Even)
MATH:ARITHMETIC
14
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Odd/EvenRules4(UltraHard)
IsA+B+Cevenorodd?
A C Biseven

A-C
B
isodd
MATH:ARITHMETIC
15
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Odd/EvenRules4|Answers
Statements(1)and(2)combinedareinsufficient.
ConsiderA=6,B=4,andC=2(theansweris"yes")
andA=0.5,B=0.3,andC=0.2(theansweris"no").
Donotassumethatthenumbersareintegersif
thequestiondoesnotmentionit.
ThecorrectanswerisE.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
16
GMAT Club 2011 7
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
DivisibilityRules
Is54780divisibleby2?
Is1671divisibleby3?
Is5634divisibleby4?
Is3830divisibleby5?
Is2658divisibleby6?
Is396divisibleby9?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
17
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
DivisibilityRules|Answers
Yes.Divisibilityby2 lastdigitofanumberiseven
Yes.Divisibilityby3 sumofalldigitsisamultiple
of3
Yes.Divisibilityby4 last2digitsisamultipleof4
Yes.Divisibilityby5 thelastdigitiseither0or5
Yes.Divisibilityby6 thesumofdigitsisamultiple
of3andthelastdigitiseven
Yes.Divisibilityby9 thesumofdigitsisamultiple
of9
MATH:ARITHMETIC
18
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Divisibility2(Hard)
Isintegerx
2
y
4
divisibleby9?
x isanintegerdivisibleby3
xy isanintegerdivisibleby9
MATH:ARITHMETIC
19
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Divisibility2|Answers
Thebestwaytoapproachthisquestionistoplug
inseveralsetsofnumbers
Manyaretemptedtoplug3forxandthenforS2,
theonlyvalueycanhaveis3;inthatcase,the
answerisYes.
Butifwetryx=81andy=
1
9
,thenxisaninteger
divisibleby3,xy isanintegerdivisibleby9,but
x
2
y
4
= 1 andisnotdivisibleby9.
TheanswerisE
MATH:ARITHMETIC
20
GMAT Club 2011 8
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
NumberProperties
Whichofthefollowingintegersrepresentsasum
of3consecutiveevenintegers?
200
303
400
554
570
MATH:ARITHMETIC
21
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
NumberProperties|Answers
Toanswerthequestion,checkwhichintegeris
bothdivisibleby3(sincethereare3integers)and
iseven.Theonlynumberthatfallsintobothof
those2categoriesis570.
CorrectanswerisE
MATH:ARITHMETIC
22
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
NumberProperties2(Hard)
Ifx
2
= y + S, y = z - 2, onJ z =
2x, is x
3
+ y
2
+ z Ji:isiblc by 7.
x >0
y =4
MATH:ARITHMETIC
23
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
NumberProperties2|Answers
Substitutex,y,andzintheoriginalequationtogetthe
following:x
2
- 2x - S = u;Thesolutionstothis
equationarex=1andx=3.
Statement1issufficient.Ifx>0,thentheonlysolution
isx=3.Theresultis27+16+6=49,whichisdivisibleby
7
Statement2issufficient.Ify=4,plugginginthisvalue
intox
2
= y +S,givesusthatx=3orx=3.However,
basedontheabove,x=3orx=1.Thereforex=3.
Sufficient.
ThecorrectanswerisD.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMAT Club 2011 9
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
NumberProperties3
Howmanydistinctintegersare
therebetween1and21inclusive?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
25
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
NumberProperties3|Answers
MostoftenGMATquestionswillsayinclusivebut
sometimestheydont needtorememberto
check
Theformulaforcalculatingthenumberofintegers
betweentwonumbersis:NM+1
Therefore,theansweris:21 1+1=21
Youcanalsowriteoutallofthenumbersthoughit
isnotalwayspossiblebutjustincase:
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,
18,19,20,21
MATH:ARITHMETIC
26
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Multiples
Whatisamultiple?
Is5amultipleof55oris55a
multipleof5?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
27
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Multiples|Answers
Themultiple ofanumberisthe
productofthenumberandany
otherwholenumber.(Forexample,
2,4,6,8aremultiplesof2)
Therefore55isamultipleof5
Forexample,6hasfactors1,2,3,6;
andmultiplesthatare5,12,24,36
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMAT Club 2011 10
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Multiples2
Is0(zero)amultipleof100?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
29
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Multiples2|Answers
Yes,0(zero)isamultipleof
everything
However,itisunlikelythatGMAT
willtestthispropertybutithelpsto
remember
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Multiples3
HowtofindaLeastCommon
Multiple(LCM)?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Multiples3|Answers
Option1:
Step1:Findtheprimefactorsofeachofthenumbers
Step2:Multiplytheuniquefactors(exclude
duplicates)
Option2:
Step1:Multiplythetwonumbers
Step2:Findanyfactorsthetwonumbersshare
Step3:DividetheproductinStep1bythefactors
thatthetwonumbershaveincommon
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMAT Club 2011 11
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Multiples4
WhatistheLeastCommon
Multipleof18and24?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Multiples2Answers
Option1
Findthefactorsof18and24:
18=3x3x2
24=3x2x2x2
Multiplytheuniquefactors:3x3x2x2x2=72
Option2
Multiplythe2numbers:18x24=432
Sharedfactors:2and3
Divide432by2and3=72
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Translate
Theproductofthreeandfourisreducedby
fiveandthenincreasedbythedifference
betweentheoriginalproductandeight=?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
TranslateAnswers
3x4=12
12 5=7
12 8=4
7+4=11
Answer:11
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMAT Club 2011 12
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize

1
2
=

1
4
=

2
5
=

1
20
=

1
8
=

1
6
=
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize|Answers

1
2
= Su%

1
4
=25%

2
5
= 4u%

1
20
= S%

1
8
=12.5%

1
6
= 16.67%
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize2

1
12
=

7
8
=

3
4
=
75%=
20%=
16
2
3
% =
87
1
2
% =
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize2|Answers

1
12
= 8.33%

7
8
= 87.S%

3
4
= 7S%
75%=
20%=
1
5
16
2
3
% =
1
6
8S
1
3
% =
5
6
MATH:ARITHMETIC
40
GMAT Club 2011 13
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize3
2
2
=
2
3
=
2
4
=
2
5
=
2
6
=
2
7
=
MATH:ARITHMETIC
41
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize3|Answers
2
2
=4
2
3
= 8
2
4
= 16
2
5
= 32
2
6
= 64
2
7
= 128
MATH:ARITHMETIC
42
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize4
S
2
=
S
3
=
S
4
=
S
5
=
4
2
=
4
3
=
4
4
=
MATH:ARITHMETIC
43
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize4|Answers
S
2
=9
S
3
= 27
S
4
= 81
S
5
= 243
4
2
= 16
4
3
= 64
4
4
= 256
MATH:ARITHMETIC
44
GMAT Club 2011 14
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize5
S
2
=
S
3
=
11
2
=
12
2
=
1S
2
=
14
2
=
1S
2
=
16
2
=
MATH:ARITHMETIC
45
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize5|Answers
S
2
=25
S
3
=125
11
2
=121
12
2
=144
1S
2
=169
14
2
=196
1S
2
=225
16
2
=256
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize6
Completethefollowing:
8,16,24,32,40,160
12,24,36. 120
15,30 150
MATH:ARITHMETIC
47
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize6|Answers
Completethefollowing(Answers):
8,16,24,32,40,48,56,64,72,80,88,96,104,
112,120
12,24,36,48,60,72,84,96,108,120
15,30,45,60,75,90,105,120
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMAT Club 2011 15
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize7
2 =
S =
62S =
169 =
List all Piimes between 1 anu Su
ExtraHard&ExtraCredit
2
6
=
12S
3
=
24S
S
=
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize7|Answers
2 = 1.4
S =1.7
62S = 2S
169 = 1S
Piimes: 2, S, S, 7, 11, 1S, 17, 2S, 29, S1, S7, 41, 4S, 47
2
6
= 64
12S
3
= S
24S
S
= S
MATH:ARITHMETIC
50
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Reciprocal
Whatisareciprocal?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
51
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ReciprocalAnswers
Reciprocalforanumberx,denotedby
1
x
or
x
-1
,isanumberwhichwhenmultipliedbyx
yields.Thereciprocalofafractionis
u
b
is
b
u
.To
getthereciprocalofanumber,divide1bythe
number.Forexamplereciprocalof3is
1
3
,
reciprocalof
5
6
is
6
5
.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
52
GMAT Club 2011 16
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
AbsoluteValue
Whatisthe3 stepapproachtosolving
equationsandinequalitieswithabsolute
value?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
53
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
AbsoluteValue|Answers
Step1: Openmodulusandsetconditions.
Tosolve/openamodulus,youneedto
consider2situationstofindallroots:
Positive(orrathernonnegative)
Negative
Step2: Solvenewequations fromStep1
Step3: Checkconditionsforeach
solutionfromStep2
MATH:ARITHMETIC
54
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
AbsoluteValue2
If|x1|=4,whatisthevalueof
x?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
55
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
AbsoluteValue2|Answers
Step1:Findpositive/negativeroots:
x - 1 u inourcase,x - 1 = 4
x - 1 < u inourcase,- x -1 = 4
Step2:Solvetheequations
x=5
x=3
Step3:Checkconditions(x -1 u &x -1 < u)
S - 1 = 4 u
3 1=4<0
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMAT Club 2011 17
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AbsoluteValue3
WhatisthevalueofxIf|x 5|=10?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
57
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AbsoluteValue3|Answers
|x 5|=10
Wemustevaluateboththepositiveandnegative
outcomesincetheabsolutevalueremovesthe
negativesign
Thus,wehave2equations:
X 5=10
X 5= 10(incaseitwasanegativeexpression)
Thusx=15and5.(Pluginbothtocheck)
Absolutevalueinequalitiesandequationswillalmost
alwayshave2answers/solutions!
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
AbsoluteValue4
IsM<0?
-H = |H|
H
2
= 9
MATH:ARITHMETIC
59
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
AbsoluteValue4|Answers
Statement(1)byitselfisnotsufficient.From
statement(1),M iseitheranegativenumberor
zero.IfM=3,then(3)=|3|or3=3,whichisnot
sufficient.
Statement(2)byitselfisnotsufficient.From
statement(2),Mcanbeeither3or3,whichisnot
sufficient.
Statements(1)and(2)combinedaresufficient.If
wecombinebothstatements,thenM=3.
ThecorrectanswerisC.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMAT Club 2011 18
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Factors
Howmanytotalfactorsdoes462
have?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
61
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Factors|Answers
Advancedmethodforfindingthenumberofallpossible
factors:
Writeouteachprimefactorandtheirpower,for
example,12canbewrittenasfollows:
2
2
S
1
S
0
etc(allotherprimeswillhaveazeropower)
Add1toallpowersandmultiply them:(inthiscase6)
andthatsthenumberoffactors(1,2,3,4,6,12)
PrimeFactorsof462=2
1
, S
1
, 7
1
, 11
1
Totalnumberoffactors:2x2x2x2=2
4
=16
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Factors2
Dointegersusuallyhaveanoddor
evennumberoffactors?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
63
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Factors2|Answers
Vastmajorityofintegershaveaneven numberof
factorssuchas12forexample:1,2,3,4,6,12.
Thuswhenfindingthetotalnumberoffactors,
makesureitisanevennumber
Theonlyintegersthathaveanodd numberof
factorsareperfectsquares(thatsnumberssuchas
4,9,16,25,36,etc).Try25forexample,ithas
factorsof1,5,and25.Factorsof36are1,2,3,4,
6,9,12,18,36.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMAT Club 2011 19
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Average
Iftheaverageof5consecutiveintegersis
12,whatistheaverageoftheevenonly
integers?
10
12
13.5
18
36
MATH:ARITHMETIC
65
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Average|Answers
First,findtheconsecutiveintegers.Since
thereare5,theremaybeeither2or3even
integers.Theseintegersare10,11,12,13,14.
Theaverageoftheevenintegersis12aswell
(10+12+14=36.Divide36by3andyouwill
get12).
ThecorrectanswerisB.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
66
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Average2
Theaverageof10consecutiveintegersis12.
Then,9isdeductedfromthefirstconsecutive
number,8isdeductedfromthesecond,7is
deductedfromthethird,andsoonuntilthe
lastnumberwhichremainsunchanged.What
isthenewaverage?
A)55 B)50 C)6 D)7.5 E)7
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Average2|Answers
Youdontneedtofindeachofthenumbers.
Instead,youhavetwooptions,youcandeductthe
averageofnumbersbetween0and9(thereisa
trapthough,thereshouldbe10numbersrather
than9andtheaverageis4.5,not5)oryoucan
findthesumofconsecutiveintegers(10*12=120)
andsubtractthesumofintegersfrom0to9(45)
anddividetheresult(75)by10.
ThecorrectanswerisE.7.5
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMAT Club 2011 20
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Ratios
Whatistheratioofatodif
2a=3b,
1
2b
=2c,and3c=d?
A)1:2 B)2:1 C)2:3 D)4:3 E)1:5
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Ratios
Withquestionslikethese,unlessyoucanspota
shortcutrightaway,theeasiestwaytosolveisto
plugnumbers:letspicka=6,sincethereisa2and
3involved
2*6=3b;b=4
0.5*4=2c;c=1
3*1=d;d=3
Therefore,therationofatodis2:1
ThecorrectanswerisB.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
70
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers
2
2
+2
3
+2
4
+2 = .
A)2
9
+ 2
B)2
10
C)2
5
+ 2
D)2
5
E)30
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers|Answers
2
2
+ 2
3
+ 2
4
+2 = .
Therearenorulesforaddingor
subtractingpowers.Thisquestionis
solvedbybruteforce:
4+8+16+2=30
Thecorrectansweris(E)
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMAT Club 2011 21
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers2
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
5
2 = .
A)2
120
B)S2
15
C)2
15

D)2
14
E)62
MATH:ARITHMETIC
73
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers2|Answers
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
5
2 = 2
15
Whenpowerswiththesamebase(2
inthiscase)aremultiplied,thepowers
aresummedandthebaseisheld
constant.Thus,itis2tothepowerof
2+3+4+5+1=15.
Thecorrectansweris(B)2
15
MATH:ARITHMETIC
74
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers3

2
4
2
8
2
6
2
=.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers3|Answers

2
4
2
8
2
6
2
=
2
12
2

= 2
5
Divisionofpowerswiththesamebase
(2)ishandledsimilarlytomultiplication
exceptthepowervaluesarededucted.
Thebasestaysunchanged
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers4
(S
3
)
2
= .
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers4|Answers
(S
3
)
2
= S
6
Whenanumbertakentoapoweris
takentoanotherpower,youneedto
multiplytheexponents(2*3)
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers5
S
3
3
=?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers5|Answers
S
3
3
= S
27
Startoperationsfromoutsideandworkyourway
in:3takentothepowerof3is27.Thusthebaseof
3istakentothepowerof27.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Powers6
2
-2
2
-3
2
6
2
-4
=.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
81
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers6|Answers
2
-2
2
-3
2
6
2
-4
= 2
-3
=
1
2
3
=
1
8
Negativepowersturnanumbertoa
reciprocalnumbertakentothatpower.
Forexample2
-2
=
1
2
2
=
1
4
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers7
S
0
= .
MATH:ARITHMETIC
83
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers7|Answers
S
0
= 1
Anynumber(positiveor
negative)takentothepowerof0
(zero)equalto1.
Zerotothepowerofzeroisalso
1.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
84
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers8
4
1
2
= .
MATH:ARITHMETIC
85
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers8|Answers
4
1
2
= 4 = 2
Fractionpowersareinterpretedas
follows:thedenominatoristherootand
numeratoristhepower.Forexample
S
2
3
= S
3
2
or2
1
2
= 2
MATH:ARITHMETIC
86
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers9(UltraHard)
Ifm andn arepositiveintegers,istheremainderof
10
m
+n
3
largerthantheremainderof
10
n
+m
3
?
m>n
Theremainderof
n
3
is2
MATH:ARITHMETIC
87
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers9|Answers
Statement(1)byitselfisinsufficient.Inexpression
1u
m
+ n,thesumofdigitsof1u
m
isalways1anditis
thevalueofn thatdeterminestheremainderof
10
m
+n
3
.Ifyoupluginm=2,n=1 (theansweris"yes")andm=3,
n=2 (theansweris"no").
Statement(2)byitselfissufficient.Iftheremainderof
n
3
is2,asS2states,thenis2,5,or8andthesumofthe
digitsof
10
m
+n
3
isdivisibleby3.Therefore,the
remainderof
10
m
+n
3
is0,whichcannotbelargerthat
theremainderof
10
n
+m
3
nomatterwhatm is.
ThecorrectanswerisB.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
88
GMAT Club 2011 25
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Percentiles
Lenasfirsttestscorewasatthe80
th
percentilein
aclassof120students.Onanothertest,24outof
200studentsscoredbetterthanLena.Ifnobody
hadLenasscore,whatisLenaspercentileafter
thetwotests?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
89
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Percentiles|Answers
Takeeachtestresultseparately:
Test1:120x80
th
=96(shescoredbetterthan96
students)
Test2:Shescoredbetterthan176students(200 24)
Sumuptheresults:
96+176=272
120+200=320

272
320
= 8S
th
percentile
MATH:ARITHMETIC
90
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ConsecutiveNumbers
Whatisthesumofconsecutiveintegers
8,9,7,6,5,4,3,2,1,0,1,2?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
91
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ConsecutiveNumbers|Answers
Sumofconsecutiveintegersequalsthemean
multipliedbythenumberofterms,n.Given
consecutiveintegers8,9,7,6,5,4,3,2,1,0,1,2
mcon =
-8+2
2
= -S (meanequalstotheaverage
ofthefirstandlastterms),sothesumequalsto
-S 12 = -S6 .
MATH:ARITHMETIC
92
GMAT Club 2011 26
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
EvenlySpacedSet
Whatisthesumofallmembersof
theset9,12,15,18,21,24?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
93
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
EvenlySpacedSet|Answers
Thesumofelementsofevenlyspacedsetisgiven
bytheformula
Sum =
u
1
+u
n
2
n
Therefore,
9+24
2
6 = 99
MATH:ARITHMETIC
94
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
RecurringDecimal
Express0.393939inafractionformat
MATH:ARITHMETIC
95
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
RecurringDecimal|Answers
Toconvertarecurringdecimaltofraction:
1.Separatetherecurringnumberfromthedecimal
fraction
2.Annexdenominatorwith"9"asmanytimesasthe
lengthoftherecurringnumber
3.Reducethefractiontoitslowestterms
Example#1: Convert0.3939toafraction
1:Therecurringnumberis39
2:
39
99
thenumberis2digitssotwoninesareadded
3:Reducingittolowestterms:
13
33
MATH:ARITHMETIC
96
GMAT Club 2011 27
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Fractions(ExtraHard)
Ifa,b,andcarepositivedistinct
integers,is
(
c
b
)
c
aninteger?
c=2
a=b+c
MATH:ARITHMETIC
97
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Fractions|Answers
StatementIisinsufficientsinceitdoesnotprovide
enoughinformationaboutborc
StatementII:Wecanrewrite
(
c
b
)
c
as
u
bc
NowpluginthevalueforafromS2:
b+c
bc
=
1
b
+
1
c
sincebandcaredisticnt positiveintegersandbis
notequaltoc,theexpressioncannotbeaninteger
ThecorrectanswerisB
MATH:ARITHMETIC
98
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
RecommendedArithmeticBooks
MATH:ARITHMETIC
99
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MGMATMathFoundations
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KaplanMathWorkbook
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nd
ed
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
BestMathGMATCourses
MATH:ARITHMETIC
100
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GMAT Club 2011 28
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Algebra(Hard)
Ifeachexpressionunderthesquarerootisgreater
thanorequalto0,whatis x
2
- 6x + 9 +
2 - x + x - S?
2 - x
2x -6 + 2 - x
2 - x + x - S
2x -6 + x - 2
x + x - 2
MATH:ALGEBRA
1
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Algebra|Answers
Basedonthesetup(andMathprinciplestestedon
theGMAT),(2 - x) hastobe u.Therefore
x 2.
x
2
- 6x + 9 = x - S
2
= S - x
Becausex 2,x - S < u
Therefore:S - x + 2 - x + x - S = 2 - x
ThecorrectanswerisA
MATH:ALGEBRA
2
GMAT Club 2011 29
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Average
Iftheaverageof5consecutiveintegersis
12,whatistheaverageoftheevenonly
integers?
10
12
13.5
18
36
MATH:STATISTICS
1
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Average|Answers
First,findtheconsecutiveintegers.Since
thereare5,theremaybeeither2or3even
integers.Theseintegersare10,11,12,13,14.
Theaverageoftheevenintegersis12aswell
(10+12+14=36.Divide36by3andyouwill
get12).
ThecorrectanswerisB.
MATH:STATISTICS
2
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Average2
Theaverageof10consecutiveintegersis12.
Then,9isdeductedfromthefirstconsecutive
number,8isdeductedfromthesecond,7is
deductedfromthethird,andsoonuntilthe
lastnumberwhichremainsunchanged.What
isthenewaverage?
A)55 B)50 C)6 D)7.5 E)7
MATH:STATISTICS
3
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Average2|Answers
Youdontneedtofindeachofthenumbers.
Instead,youhavetwooptions,youcandeductthe
averageofnumbersbetween0and9(thereisa
trapthough,thereshouldbe10numbersrather
than9andtheaverageis4.5,not5)oryoucan
findthesumofconsecutiveintegers(10*12=120)
andsubtractthesumofintegersfrom0to9(45)
anddividetheresult(75)by10.
ThecorrectanswerisE.7.5
MATH:STATISTICS
4
GMAT Club 2011 30
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Mean
HowtofindtheMean?
MATH:STATISTICS
5
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Mean
ArithmeticMean=Average=
Sum o clcmcnts
numbei of elements
MATH:STATISTICS
6
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Median
HowtofindtheMedian?
MATH:STATISTICS
7
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Median|Answers
Arrangeallnumbersinanorder
fromthesmallesttothelargest.The
Median willbethemiddlenumber.
Ifthereisanevennumberof
elements,theMedian willbethe
averageofthe2middlenumbers
MATH:STATISTICS
8
GMAT Club 2011 31
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Mode
Howtofindthemode?
MATH:STATISTICS
9
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Mode|Answers
TheModeofanarrayisthenumberthat
appearsmostoften.Forexample,inan
array1,2,3,3,4 theMode is3.It
appearedtwice.Inthearray1,2,3,3,4,4
theMode is3and4(therecanbemore
thanonemode).
MATH:STATISTICS
10
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Range
HowtofindtheRange?
MATH:STATISTICS
11
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Range|Answers
Rangeisthedifferencebetweenthe
smallestandlargestelementsofan
array.Ifyouhavetofindmorethanjust
range,itisalwaysagoodideatorewrite
theelementsinancreasingorder
MATH:STATISTICS
12
GMAT Club 2011 32
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
StandardDeviation
HowtofindtheStandard
Deviation?
MATH:STATISTICS
13
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
StandardDeviation|Answers
YouwonthavetocalculateSDontheGMATbut
youneedtounderstandtheconceptofSD
StandardDeviationmeasureshowspreadoutthe
membersofthearrayare.TofindtheStandard
Deviation:
Findthemean
Findthedifferencebetweeneachnumberandthe
mean
Squareeachofthedifferences
Findtheaverageofthesquareddifferences
Takeasquarerootoftheaverage
MATH:STATISTICS
14
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
StandardDeviation2
Whichofthesetshasahigherstandarddeviation?
SetA SetB

MATH:STATISTICS
15
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
StandardDeviation2|Answers
SetAhasthehigherStandardDeviationbecause
theelementsaredistributedfurtherfromthe
mean
MATH:STATISTICS
16
GMAT Club 2011 33
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
StandardDeviation3
Whatisthefastestwaytoestimatestandard
deviation(withoutcalculatingit)?
Thereisaset{67,32,76,35,101,45,24,37}.Ifwe
createanewsetthatconsistsofallelementsof
theinitialsetbutdecreasedby17%,whatisthe
changeinstandarddeviation?
MATH:STATISTICS
17
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
StandardDeviation3|Answers
Wedon'tneedtocalculateasdecreaseinall
elementsofasetbyaconstantpercentagewill
decreasethestandarddeviationofthesetbythe
samepercentage(theaverageisdecreasedby17%
aswellasthedifferencebetweenaverage(mean)
andallelementsortheirsquares.Thusthe
decreaseinstandarddeviationis17%.
Youcanalwaystrytomodelasetof3numbers
P.S.the17%hasbeenverifiedinExcel
MATH:STATISTICS
18
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
StandardDeviation4
WhatistheStandardDeviationofaset
ofconsecutiveevenintegers?
(1)Thereare39elementsintheset.
(2)themeanofthesetis382
MATH:STATISTICS
19
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
StandardDeviation4|Answers
BeforereadingDataSufficiencystatements,whatcan
wesayaboutthequestion?Whatshouldweknowto
findstandarddeviation?"consecutiveevenintegers"
meansthatallelementsstrictlyrelatedtoeachother.
Ifweshiftthesetbyaddingorsubtractinganyinteger,
itdoesnotchangethestandarddeviation.Onething
weshouldknowisthenumberofelementsintheset,
becausethemoreelementswehavethebroaderthey
aredistributedrelativetothemean.Now,lookatDS
statements,allweneeditisjustfirststatement.So,A
issufficient.
MATH:STATISTICS
20
GMAT Club 2011 34
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
StandardDeviation5
SetAconsistsof19integerswithmean4and
standarddeviationof3.IfanewsetBisformedby
adding2moreelementstothesetA,whattwo
elementswilldecreasethestandarddeviationthe
most?
A)9and3
B)3and3
C)6and1
D)4and5
E)5and5
MATH:STATISTICS
21
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
StandardDeviation5|Answers
Solution:Theclosertothemean,thesmaller
thestandarddeviation,andtherefore,the
greaterthedecreaseinstandarddeviation.D
has4(equaltothemean)and5(differsfrom
meanonlyby1).
Allotheroptionshaveagreaterdeviation
fromthemean
Answer:D
MATH:STATISTICS
22
GMAT Club 2011 35
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CompoundInterest
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
If$20,000isinvestedat12%annual
interest,compoundedquarterly,whatis
thebalanceafter1year?
1
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CompoundInterest|Answers
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
CompoundInterestformula:
= principol 1 +
Intcrcst
C
cus c
whereC isthenumberofperiods
2u,uuu 1 +
0.12
4
1 4
= 2u,uuu 1.uS
4
1.03tothe4
th
poweris1.1255
Times20,000,thats$22,510
(asopposedto22,400forsimpleinterest)
2
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Mixtures
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
14litersofapplejuiceismixedwithcranberry
juice.Iftheresultingmixcontains65%of
cranberryjuice,howmanylitersofthemix
wereproduced?
3
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Mixtures|Answers
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Mixtureproblemsrequireattentiontodetailsto
boththeinformationgivenandthequestion.
Weknowthatthe14litersofapplejuiceis35%
(100%65%)ofthenewmixture.
ConstructanX:
14liters35%
Xliters100%

14100
35
= 4u liters
4
GMAT Club 2011 36
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
WorkProblems
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Whatistheformulaforawork
problem?
5
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
WorkProblems|Answers
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Thekeytosolvingtheworkproblems,issettingthe
equationcorrectly.Theworkformulaisbasedonthe
principleofworkrates(inverseofthetimeitwould
taketocompletethejob).Theratealmostalwayswill
be
1
tmc (o] hous, dus, ctc)
Formula:SumoftheRatesofWorkers=thecombined
rate

1
w
1
+
1
w
2
=
1
C
;whereWistimerequiredbyworkers1
and2tocompletethejobandCisthetimerequired
forbothworkersworkingtogether(Combined)
6
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
WorkProblems2
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Robertworkingalonecanunloadatruck
in8hours.Doug,ontheotherhand,can
unloadthesametruckin6hours.Ifboth
arehiredtogether,howmuchtimewillit
takeRobertandDougtounloadthe
truckworkingtogether?
7
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
WorkProblems2|Answers
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
UsingtheWorkformula:
1
R
+
1

=
1
C

1
8
+
1
6
=
1
C

7
24
=
1
C
C=
24
7
= S.4hours(approximately)
8
GMAT Club 2011 37
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
GroupProblems
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Outof90conferenceattendees,50registered
forthebasicworkshopand60signedupfor
theadvancedworkshop.If20attendeeshave
notsignedupforaworkshopyet,howmany
signedupforbothadvancedandbasic
workshops?
9
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
GroupProblems|Answers
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Thebestandeasiestapproachtosolvingthistype
ofproblemsisusingtheboth/neitherformula
(alternativeoptionisaVenndiagram).
Group1+Group2+Neither Both=Total
50+60+20 Both=90
130 Both=90
Both=40
Thekeyistomemorizetheformulaandone
samplequestionsoyoucanpluginnumberson
thetest
10
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
GroupProblems2
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Theofficeof120issplitbetweenmaleandfemale
employeesattheratioof3:5.If40%ofthe
employeesaremarriedand20ofthemarried
employeesintheofficearemen,howmanyofthe
womenworkingintheofficearesingle?
11
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
GroupProblems2|Answers
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Toanswerthisquestionthefastest,wecanputthis
tabletogether:
Thus20+X=48;X=28.Wecandotherestofthe
mathandfillouttheentiretabletomakesureyour
calculationsarecorrect
Male Female Total
Married 20 X 48
Single X 3 X 75 72
Total 45 75 120
12
GMAT Club 2011 38
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Volume/MixtureProblems(Hard)
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Ifafarmersells15ofhischickens,hisstockoffeedwill
lastfor4moredaysthanplanned,butifhebuys20
morechickens,hewillrunoutoffeed3daysearlier
thanplanned.Ifnochickensaresoldorbought,the
farmerwillbeexactlyonschedule.Howmanychickens
doesthefarmerhave?
12
24
48
55
60
13
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Volume/MixtureProblems|Answers
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Veryhardproblem.Severalsolutionsexist;thisone
isprobablynotthemostcorrectbutthequickest:
LetXbethenumberofchickensandYbethedays
theycansurviveonthecurrentfeed:
(x15)(y+4)=(x+20)(y3)
xy +4x -1Sy -6u = xy -Sx +2uy -6u
4x -1Sy = 2uy -Sx
7x = SSy or x = Sy
Solvingthefirstequation,wegetx=60andy=12
14
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CountingProblems(UltraHard)
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Inagameofchess,themovesofwhitesandblacks
alternatewithwhiteshavingthefirstmove.During
achesstournament,whiteshavemade2319
movesaltogetherwhileblackshavemade2315
moves.Ifinanygamethesidethatmadethelast
movedidnotlose,whichofthefollowingcanbe
trueaboutthetournament?
I.Blackslost5games
II.Blackswonmoregamesthanwhites
III.Allgamesendedinadraw
15
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CountingProblems|Answers
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Fromthestemitfollowsthattherewereonly4gamesin
whichwhiteshadthelastmove.These4gameswere
responsibleforthedifferenceinthetotalnumberofmoves
madebywhitesandblacksduringthetournament.We
knowthatthese4gameswerenotwonbyblacks(butthey
couldwellhaveendedinadraw).Alltheothergames
couldhavebeenwonbyblacksorendedinadraw.Thus,
scenariosIIandIIIarepossible.
ScenarioIisimpossible.Itmeansthattherewereatleast5
gamesinwhichwhiteshadthelastmove.Ifthisweretrue
thenthedifferencebetweenthetotalnumberofmovesof
whitesandblacksshouldbeatleast5.Infact,it'sonly4.
16
GMAT Club 2011 39
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Distance(UltraHard)
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Aswimmermakesaroundtripupanddownthe
riverwhichtakesherXhours.Ifthenextdayshe
swimsthesamedistancewiththesamespeedin
stillwater,whichtakesherYhours,whichofthe
followingstatementsistrue?
X>Y
X<Y
X=Y
X =
1
2

17
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Distance|Answers
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Picknumbersandthencheckthemagainstthe
options.Take12kmasthedistancetraveled
up/downtheriver,andassumetheswimmer's
speedtobe4km/h;thecurrentbeing2km/h,
whichmeans6km/hdowntheriverand2km/h
uptheriver.Goinguprivertakes2hours,return
journeytakes6,thusatotalof8hours.Instill
water,24kmrequires6hours.ThusX=8andY=6.
Plugtheseintotheanswerchoices.(8>6).
ThecorrectanswerisA
18
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Percent
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Ifapricewasincreasedbyx%andthen
decreasedbyy%,isthenewpricehigherthan
theoriginal?
x>y
x=1.2y
19
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Percent|Answers
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
LetPdenotetheoriginalprice.
Statement(1)byitselfisinsufficient.Ifxismuchlarger
thany,thenewpriceishigherthantheoriginal.Butifxis
onlymarginallylarger,thenewpriceislower.Forexample,
ifx=20andy=19,thenewpriceisP*1.2*0.81=0.97P<P.
Statement(2)byitselfisinsufficient.Usethesame
reasoning.Ifyislarge,thenewpriceissmall(ify=100,the
newpriceis0).Ifyissmall,thenewpriceishigherthan
theoriginal(ifx=12andy=10,thenewpriceisP*1.12*0.9=
P*1.008>P).
Statements(1)and(2)combinedareinsufficient.Adding
S1toS2providesnonewinformation.
ThecorrectanswerisE.
20
GMAT Club 2011 40
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Rate
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Acertainbacteriacolonydoublesinsizeeveryday
for20days,atwhichpointitreachesthelimitofits
habitatandcannolongergrow.Iftwobacteria
coloniesstartgrowingsimultaneously,howmany
dayswillittakethemtoreachthehabitatslimit?
6.33
7.5
10
15
19
21
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Rate|Answers
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Weknowthatthebacteriacolonydoublesinsize
everydayfor20days.Thereforeonthesecondday
itisdoublethesizeofthefirstday,andsoon.
Similarly,onthe20
th
day,itisat100%ofcapacity,
therefore,onthe19
th
day,itwillbeat50%.Since
wehave2colonies,bothwillbeoccupyinghalfof
thehabitatbythe19
th
day.Alternatively:
1colony=x 2
20
;2colonies=
x2
20
2
= x 2
19
ThecorrectanswerisE.19days.
22
GMAT Club 2011 41
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles
SumofanglesofANYtriangleequals?
Whatcanwesayaboutsidesofatriangle?
Whatistherighttriangle(isthattheone
thatsnotwrong?)
MATH:GEOMETRY
1
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles|Answers
Sumofallanglesinanytriangleisalways180
Onesideisalwayssmallerthanthesumofthe
othertwoandisalwaysgreaterthanthedifference
oftheothertwo
Arighttriangleistheonethathasa90degree
angle(ithastherightangle).Atrianglecanonly
haveoneangleat90degreessincesumofthe3
anglesis180
MATH:GEOMETRY
2
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles2
Listallmethodsforfindinganarea
ofatriangle.
MATH:GEOMETRY
3
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles2|Answers
1.Area=
1
2
bosc bcigbt
2.Herosformula: s(s -o)(s -b)(s - c)
wherea,b,c aresidesofatriangleands issemi
perimeters =
u+b+c
2
3.Ifyouknow2sidesofatrianglebutnotitsheight,
youcanaddanequallysizedtriangletocreatea
square/rectangle/rhombusandfinditsarea(maybe
easier).Remembertodivideyourresultby2.
MATH:GEOMETRY
4
GMAT Club 2011 42
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles3
Theseare2sidesofarighttriangle,findthethird
side:
3,4,x
6,8,x
5,12,x
12,16,x
7,24,x
MATH:GEOMETRY
5
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles3|Answers
GMATreliesontheseeasytriangles.Ifyou
memorizethesecombinations,itwillsaveyoutime
ontheGeometrysection
3,4,5
6,8,10
5,12,13
12,16,20
7,24,25
MATH:GEOMETRY
6
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles4
Whatistherelationshipbetweensidesin
arightisoscelestriangle?
Whatistherelationshipbetween
angles?
MATH:GEOMETRY
7
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles4|Answers
MATH:GEOMETRY
8
2
1
1
GMAT Club 2011 43
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles5
Nameasmanyproperties,
relationships,andformulasasyou
knowaboutanequilateraltriangle
MATH:GEOMETRY
9
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles5|Answers
MATH:GEOMETRY
10
Allsidesareequal
Allanglesareequal(60degrees)
Allheights,bisectorsandmedians
areequal:
Area:
Centersofcircumscribedand
inscribedcirclescoincide
4
3
2
s
2
3 s
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles6
Whatcanyouderivefromthisfigure?
(Misthecenterofacircle)
A
B
C
M
MATH:GEOMETRY
11
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles6|Answers
MATH:GEOMETRY
12
GMAT Club 2011 44
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles7
Whatisthevalueofsidesina
306090triangle?
MATH:GEOMETRY
13
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles7|Answers
In306090triangle,thesidesarex,x S,
andthehypotenuseis2x(doublethe
sizeofthesmallestside)
MATH:GEOMETRY
14
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles8(Hard)
MATH:GEOMETRY
15
a
4
Onthepicturebelow,istheareaofthetriangle
ABC greaterthan1?
1.AngleABC <90degrees
2.PerimeterofthetriangleABC isgreaterthan
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles8|Answers
MATH:GEOMETRY
16
TheareaofthetriangleABC is
Statement(1)byitselfissufficient.Intheextreme
casewhenangleABC isright,thetriangleBOC is
isoscelesandthusandtheareaoftriangle
ABC is:
IfangleABC issmallerthan90degrees,thenthe
areaexceeds1duetotheincreaseoftheheight.
Statement(2)byitselfisinsufficient.Aslongas
isgreaterthan0,theperimeterofthetriangleABC
isalwaysgreaterthan.Aistheanswer.
a a
a a


2
1 1
2
1
a
a
1
2

1 a
2
a
a
a
4
GMAT Club 2011 45
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Rectangles
Nameasmanyproperties,relationships,and
formulasasyouknowaboutarectangle.
MATH:GEOMETRY
17
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Rectangles|Answers
Oppositesidesareparallelandequal
Thediagonalsbisect(divideintotwoequalparts)eachother
Thediagonalsareequal
Asquareisaspecialcaseofarectanglewhereallfoursidesarethesame
length.
Thetwodiagonalsareequal(samelength).
Eachdiagonalbisectstheother.Inotherwords,thepointwherethe
diagonalsintersect(cross),divideseachdiagonalintotwoequalparts.
Eachdiagonaldividestherectangleintotwoequalrighttriangles.Because
thetrianglesareequal,theyhavethesamearea,andeachtrianglehas
halftheareaoftherectangle.
Eachdiagonalequals(w iswidth,h isheight): w
2
+ b
2

Areaequals:w b
Perimeterequals:2w +2b
MATH:GEOMETRY
18
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Rectangles1
Nameasmanyproperties,relationships,and
formulasasyouknowaboutasquare
MATH:GEOMETRY
19
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Rectangles1|Answers
Asquareisbotharhombus(equalsides)andarectangle
(equalangles)andthereforehasallthepropertiesof
boththeseshapes,namely:
Thediagonalsofasquarebisecteachother.
Thediagonalsofasquarebisectitsangles.
Thediagonalsofasquareareperpendicular.
Oppositesidesofasquarearebothparallelandequal.
Allfouranglesofasquareareequal.(Eachis360/4=
90degrees,soeveryangleofasquareisarightangle.)
Thediagonalsofasquareareequal.
MATH:GEOMETRY
20
GMAT Club 2011 46
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Rectangles2 Continued
Nameasmanyproperties,relationships,and
formulasasyouknowaboutasquare
MATH:GEOMETRY
21
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Rectangles2|Answers
Asquarehasalargerareathananyotherquadrilateral
withthesameperimeter.
Theareaisthewidthtimestheheight.Soinasquarethisis
simply:s
2
,wheres isthelengthofoneside.
The"diagonals"method.Ifyouknowthelengthsofthe
diagonals,theareaishalftheproductofthediagonals.Since
bothdiagonalsareequal,thissimplifiesto:
d
2
2
wheredisthe
lengthofeitherdiagonal.
Eachdiagonalofasquareistheperpendicularbisectorof
theother.Thatis,eachcutstheotherintotwoequalparts,
andtheycrossatrightangle(90).
ThelengthofeachdiagonalisS 2 whereS isthelengthof
anyoneside.
Perimeterequals:4S
MATH:GEOMETRY
22
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Circles
Pleasedefinethefollowing:
Center ?
Radius ?
Diameter ?
Circumference ?
Area ?
Chord ?
Tangent ?
Secant ?
MATH:GEOMETRY
23
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Circles|Answers
Center Apointinsidethecircle.Allpointsonthe
circleareequidistantfromthecenter
Radius distancebetweenthecenterandanypointon
thecircle.Itishalfthediameter
Diameter achordpassingthroughthecenter
Circumference distancearoundthecircle
Area aregionenclosedbythecircle
Chord alinesegmentlinkinganytwopointsona
circle
Tangent linetouchingthecircleatonepointonly;
tangentlinesarealwaysat90degreestotheradius
Secant alinethatintersectsacirclein2points
MATH:GEOMETRY
24
GMAT Club 2011 47
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Circles2
MATH:GEOMETRY
25
Whataretheformulasfor
Circumferenceofacircle?
Areaofacircle?
Whatistheapproximatevalueofn?
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Circles2|Answers
MATH:GEOMETRY
26
Circumferenceequals: 2ar = ad
Areaequals: ar
2
a = 3. 14 =
22
7
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry
Whatistheequationofthe
slopeofaline?
MATH:GEOMETRY
27
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry|Answers
Slopeofalineequation:
risc
run
=
y
2
-y
1
x
2
- x
1
Wherexandyarecoordinatesof
point1andpoint2onthatline.
MATH:GEOMETRY
28
GMAT Club 2011 48
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry2
Ifalinehasanegativeslopeless
than1 whatdoesitsayaboutthe
line?
MATH:GEOMETRY
29
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry2|Answers
Negativeslope meanslinemovesfromtheupper
lefthandquarant (Q2)tothebottomrighthand
quadrant(Q4)orinsimpleterms,itisadecreasing
line.Positiveslopemeanstheopposite(duh)
Sincetheslopeislessthan1,itisaflatline(as
opposedtosteep).Sinceslopeisriseoverrun,in
thiscase,thereislessrisethanrun
MATH:GEOMETRY
30
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry3
WhatslopesdoLinesA,B,andChave?
Positive/Negative?
Less/Greaterthan1? A
B
C
MATH:GEOMETRY
31
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry3|Answers
LineA
PositiveSlope
Slopegreaterthan1
LineB
Slopeisneither
positiveornegative
SlopeisZero
LineC
Slopeisundefined
MATH:GEOMETRY
32
GMAT Club 2011 49
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry4
HowtofindtheXandYintercepts
ofaline?
MATH:GEOMETRY
33
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry4|Answers
Bestoptionistopluginthevaluesintothe
equationoftheline
Forexample,alineisy=mx+b
TofindtheYintercept(thisiswhenthelinecrosses
theYaxisandthusXiszero)solve:y=b
TofindXintercept(thisiswhenthelinecrossesthe
XaxisandYiszero)solve:0=mx+b
ThetrickistouseY=0whenlookingforX
interceptandX=0whenlookingforYintercept
MATH:GEOMETRY
34
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry5
IflineM withaslopeof
5
9
goesthroughpointsA(5,
2)andB(4,3),whatisthelengthofthesegment
AB?
MATH:GEOMETRY
35
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry5|Answers
Theslopeinformationinthis
irrelevant
TofinddistancebetweenA
andBiscalculatedusingthe
PythagoreanTheoremby
drawingatriangle
9
2
+S
2
= J
2
81 +2S = J
J = 1u6
MATH:GEOMETRY
36
GMAT Club 2011 50
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry6
Findtheequationofalinepassing
throughthepointsA(5,4) andB(2,6)
MATH:GEOMETRY
37
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry6|Answers
A(5,4) andB(2,6)
Tofindanequationofalinebasedontwo
points,usethisformula:
-
1
x-x
1
=

1
-
2
x
1
-x
2

-4
x-5
=
4 -2
4 -6
;
-4
x-5
=
2
-2
y -4 = S -x
y = -x +9
MATH:GEOMETRY
38
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry7
IflinesAandBareperpendiculartoeach
other,whatistherelationshipbetweentheir
slopes?
A. Inverse
B. Opposite
C. Positive
D. Reciprocal
E. ReciprocalandNegative
MATH:GEOMETRY
39
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry7|Answers
Therelationshipbetween
slopesof2perpendicular
linesisnegativereciprocal
-
1
m
.Inotherwords,the
twolinesareperpendicular
ifandonlyiftheproductof
theirslopesis1.
E.g.S -
1
3
=1
MATH:GEOMETRY
40
GMAT Club 2011 51
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry8
Arethetwolinesbelowperpendicular?
MATH:GEOMETRY
41
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry8|Answers
Toanswer,findtheslopeofeachlineandthen
checktoseeifoneslopeisthenegativereciprocal
oftheotheroriftheirproductequalsto1.
SlopeAB=
5-19
9-48
=
-14
-39
=
14
39
SlopeCD=
24-4
22-31
=
20
-9
= -
20
9
Multiplytheslopes:
14
39

20
9
= -1;
NotPerpendicular
MATH:GEOMETRY
42
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry9
Whatisthepointofintersectionoftwo
linesthathavethefollowingequations:
y=3x3andy=2.3x+4?
MATH:GEOMETRY
43
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry9|Answers
Thekeytosolvingtheintersectionquestionsisthat
atthepointofintersection,bothlineswillhavethe
sameXandYcoordinates.
Thus,ifYcoordinatesarethesame,thenwecan
putthetwoequationstogether:3x3=2.3x+4
0.7x=7;x=10
NowwestillneedtofindtheYintercept.Plug10
intooneoftheequations:3*103=27
Intersectionpoint:(10,27)
MATH:GEOMETRY
44
GMAT Club 2011 52
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry10(Hard)
Doesthecurve x -o
2
+ y -b
2
= 16
intersecttheYaxis?
1) o
2
+b
2
> 16
2) o = b +S
MATH:GEOMETRY
45
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry10|Answers
x -o
2
+ y -b
2
= 16 istheequationofacircle
centeredatwithradius4.
Statement(1)byitselfisinsufficient.S1saysthatthe
centerofthecircleisfurtherthan4unitsawayfrom
theoriginbutitdoesn'tspecifywhetherthecircleis
farenoughfromtheaxisnottointersectit.
Statement(2)byitselfissufficient.FromS2itfollows
thatandthusthecenterofthecircleisatleast5units
awayfromtheaxis.Astheradiusofthecircleisonly4
units,wecanconcludethatthecircledoesnot
intersecttheaxis.
ThecorrectanswerisB.Statement2issufficient.
MATH:GEOMETRY
46
GMAT Club 2011 53
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Enumeration
Therearethreemarbles:1blue,1grayand1
green.Inhowmanywaysisitpossibletoarrange
marblesinarow?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
1
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Enumeration|Answers
Solution: Let'swriteoutallpossibleways
Total:6
Enumerationisamethodofcountingallpossiblewaystoarrange
elements.Althoughitisthesimplestmethod,itisoftenthefastest
methodtosolvehardGMATproblemsandisapivotalprincipleforany
othercombinatorialmethod.Infact,combinationandpermutationis
shortcutsforenumeration.Themainideaofenumerationiswritingdown
allpossiblewaysandthencountthem.
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
2
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Enumeration2
Therearethreemarbles:1blue,1grayand1
green.Inhowmanywaysisitpossibleto
arrangemarblesinarowifblueandgreen
marbleshavetobenexttoeachother?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
3
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Enumeration2|Answers
Solution: Let'swriteoutallpossiblewaysto
arrangemarblesinarawandthenfindonly
arrangementsthatsatisfyquestion'scondition:
Answer:4
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
4
GMAT Club 2011 54
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Enumeration3
Inhowmanywayscan5dressesbe
arrangedinastoredisplay?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
5
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Enumeration3|Answers
1.Howmanyobjectswecanputat1stplace?5.
2.Howmanyobjectswecanputat2ndplace?4
andsoon:3,2,1
Therefore,thetotalnumberofarrangementsofn
differentobjectsinarowis
N = n n -1 n -2 2 1 = n!
5!=5*4*3*2*1=20*6=120
N!iscalledafactorial.Factorialequalstothe
productofnumbersfromNto1.
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
6
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Enumeration4(UltraHard)
IfN isapositiveinteger,whatisthelastdigit
of1!+2!+.N!?
Nisdivisibleby4

N
2
+1
5
isanoddinteger
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
7
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Enumeration4|Answers
Thisisaveryhardquestionthatrequiresanon
traditionalapproach(assomeofthehardestofficial
GMATquestionsoftendo)
Analyzingfactorials,youwillnoticethatthesumof
factorialswillhave3asthelastdigitifN>3,(starting
with5!,eachsumendswithazerosince5!=120,
6!=720,andsoon.)
S1issufficientsinceweknowN>3andthuswecansay
withcertaintythatlastdigitequalsto3
S2tellsusthatNisnot1or3andiseither2orgreater
than3.Ineithercase,thelastdigitwillbe3
ThecorrectanswerisD
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
8
GMAT Club 2011 55
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations1
Whatisthenumberofpossiblearrangementsof
objectsk fromacollectionofdistinctobjectsn?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
9
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations1|Answers
Acombinationisanunordered collectionofkobjects
takenfromasetofndistinctobjects.Thenumberof
wayshowwecanchoosekobjectsoutofndistinct
objectsisdenotedas:C
k
n
Totalnumberofarrangementsofn distinctobjectsis
n!
Nowwehavetoexcludeallarrangementsofkobjects
(k!) andremaining(nk) objects((nk)!) astheorderof
chosenk objectsandremained(nk) objectsdoesn't
matter.
C
k
n
=
n!
k! n-k !
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
10
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations2
Whatisthenumberofpossiblearrangementsof
objectsk inacertainorderfromacollectionof
distinctobjectsn?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
11
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations2|Answers
Apermutationisanordered collectionofkobjects
takenfromasetofndistinctobjects.Thenumber
ofwayshowwecanchoosekobjectsoutofn
distinctobjectsisdenotedas:P
k
n
1.Thetotalnumberofarrangementsofndistinct
objectsisn!
2.Nowwehavetoexcludeallarrangementsof
remaining(nk)!Objects
P
k
n
=
n!
n-k !
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
12
GMAT Club 2011 56
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations3
Whatisthedifferencebetween
combinationsandpermutations?
Whentousewhichformula?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
13
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations3|Answers
PermutationsformulaP =
n!
n-k !
isusedwhen
sequenceofchoicematters(meaningagroupABC
isdifferentfromBACorCBA).Classicexampleis
choosingnomineesfor3specificpositionsfroma
poolof10candidates
CombinationsformulaC=
n!
k! n-k !
isusedwhen
orderofselectionhasnoimpactandonceasmall
groupisformed,itdoesnotmatterhowthey
arrivedthere.Classicexampleispicking3marbles
fromabagof10
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
14
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations4
Ifsixbusinesspartnersarehavingadinnerat
aroundtable,howmanyseating
arrangementsarepossible?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
15
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations4|Answers
Thedifferencebetweenplacementinarowand
thatinacircleisfollowing:ifweshiftallobjectby
oneposition,wewillgetdifferentarrangementin
arowbutthesamerelativearrangementina
circle.So,forthenumberofcirculararrangements
ofn objects,insteadofn!,wehave (n1)!
Thus,theansweris5!or120
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
16
GMAT Club 2011 57
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations5
Ifthereare5chairsinaroomandBoband
RachelwanttositsothatBobisalwaysleftof
Rachel,inhowmanywaysthisseating
arrangementbeachieved?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
17
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations5|Answers
NotethatleftofRachel,doesnotmean
immediatelynexttoRachel,justleftofher.
Thisconditioniscalledsymmetrybecauseit
eliminateshalfofthepossibilities(Rachelcansit
onlyleftorrightofBob).
Therefore,thenumberofwaysthatBobisleftof
Rachelisexactly
1
2
ofallpossiblewaysor
N =
1
2
P
5
2
= 1u
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
18
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations6(UltraHard)
Inhowmanydifferentwayscanagroupof8
peoplebedividedinto4teamsof2people
each?
90
105
168
420
2520
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
19
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations6|Answers
Thesolutiontothisproblemisthenumberof
combinations.Firstwegetoneteamoutof8.The
numberofwaystodothiswouldbeC
8
2
.Thenext
combinationis2outof6orC
4
2
,andsoon.Havingall
fourcombinationsmultiplied,weneedtodividethe
totalnumberbythenumberofwaystheteamscanbe
chosen,sincewearenotinterestediftheteamwith
twocertainpeopleischosenfirst,secondorthird.
Therefore,theanswerisfoundbythefollowing
formula:
C
8
2
C
6
2
C
4
2
C
2
2
4!
= 1uS
ThecorrectanswerisB.
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
20
GMAT Club 2011 58
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability1
Whatistheprobabilitythatan
eventn willoccur?
Whatistheprobabilitythatan
eventn willnot occur?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
21
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability1|Answers
Theprobabilitythatanevenn willtakeplaceis
n
N
whereN isthetotalnumberofpossible
occurrences
Theprobabilitythatanevenn willnotoccuristhe
oppositeofitoccurring,so1 -
n
N
or1 p
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
22
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability2
WhatistheprobabilityofgettingTails when
flippingacoin?
Whatistheprobabilityofgettinga4whenrollinga
die?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
23
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability2|Answers
TheprobabilityofgettingTailswhenflippingacoin
is
1
2
or50%sincethereare2totalpossibilitiesand
onlyoneoutcomeeachtimethecoinisflipped
Theprobabilityofgettinga4whencastingadieis
1
6
;thereareatotalof6potentialpossibilities
(1,2,3,4,5,6)andonlyonechancetorolloneof
them.
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
24
GMAT Club 2011 59
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability3
Abucketcontains10greenand90white
marbles.IfAdamrandomlychoosesamarble,
whatistheprobabilitythatitwillbegreen?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
25
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability3|Answers
Thenumberofgreenmarbles:n=10
Thenumberofallmarbles:N=10+90=100
Probability:
10
100
=
1
10
= 1u%
Thereisoneimportantconceptinproblemswith
marbles/cards/balls.Whenthefirstmarbleisremoved
fromajarandnotreplaced,theprobabilityforthe
secondmarblediffers(
10
100
vs.
10
99
).Whereasincaseof
acoinordicetheprobabilitiesarealwaysthesame(
1
6
and
1
2
).Usually,aproblemexplicitlystates:itisa
problemwithreplacementorwithoutreplacement.
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
26
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability4
Ifthereisacoinandadie,whatisthe
probabilityofgettingheadsanda"4
afteroneflipandonetoss?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
27
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability4|Answers
Tossingacoinandrollingadieareindependent
events (occurrenceofoneeventdoesnot
influenceoccurrenceofotherevents).Forn
independenteventstheprobabilityistheproduct
ofallprobabilitiesofindependentevent.
So,theprobabilityofgettingheadsis
1
2
and
probabilityofgettinga"4"is
1
6
.Therefore,the
probabilityofgettingheadsanda"4"is:
1
2

1
6
=
1
12
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
28
GMAT Club 2011 60
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability5
Ifthereisa20%chanceofrainonanaverage
day,whatistheprobabilitythatitwillrainon
thefirstdayandwillbesunnyonthesecond?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
29
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability5|Answers
Theprobabilityofrainis0.2;thereforeprobability
ofsunshineisq=1 0.2=0.8.Thisyieldsthatthe
probabilityofrainonthefirstdayandsunshineon
theseconddayis:
P=0.2*0.8=0.16
Note: whenworkingwithpercents,itisimportant
toconvertthemintoadecimalformat(suchas0.2
for20%orafractionformatsuchas
1
5
for20%)
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
30
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability6
Therearetwosetsofcardswithnumbers:
{1,3,6,7,8}and{3,5,2}.IfRobertchooses
randomlyonecardfromthefirstsetandone
cardfromthesecondset,whatisthe
probabilityofgettingtwooddnumbers?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
31
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability6|Answers
Thereisatotalof5cardsinthefirstsetand3of
themareodd:{1,3,7}.Therefore,theprobability
ofgettingoddcardoutofthefirstsetis
3
5
.
Thereare3cardsinthesecondsetand2ofthem
areodd:{3,5}.Therefore,theprobabilityofgetting
anoddcardoutofthesecondsetis
2
3
.Finally,the
probabilityofgettingtwooddintegersis:
3
5

2
3
=
2
5
or40%
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
32
GMAT Club 2011 61
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability7
IfJessicarollsadie,whatisthe
probabilityofgettingatleasta"3"?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
33
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability7|Answers
Twoeventsaremutuallyexclusiveiftheycannot
occuratthesametime.Fornmutuallyexclusive
eventstheprobabilityisthesumofallprobabilities
ofevents:
P(AorB)=P(A)+P(B)
Thereare4outcomesthatsatisfyourcondition(to
rollatleast3):{3,4,5,6}.Theprobabilityofeach
outcomeis
1
6
.
Theprobabilityofgettingatleasta"3"is:
1
6
+
1
6
+
1
6
+
1
6
=
4
6
=
2
3
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
34
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability8
Thereare8employeesincludingBoband
Rachel.If2employeesaretoberandomly
chosentoformacommittee,whatisthe
probabilitythatthecommitteeincludesboth
BobandRachel?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
35
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability8|Answers
Combinatorialapproach:
ThetotalnumberofpossiblecommitteesisC
2
8
=28
ThenumberofpossiblecommitteethatincludesbothBob
andRachelis1
P=
1
28
Probabilityapproach:
TheprobabilityofchoosingBoborRachelasafirstperson
incommitteeis
2
8
.TheprobabilityofchoosingRachelor
Bobasasecondpersonwhenfirstpersonisalreadychosen
is
1
7
.TheprobabilitythatthecommitteeincludesbothBob
andRachelis
1
28
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
36
GMAT Club 2011 62
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability8 Part2
Thereare8employeesincludingBoband
Rachel.If2employeesaretoberandomly
chosentoformacommittee,whatisthe
probabilitythatthecommitteeincludesboth
BobandRachel?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
37
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability8 Part2|Answers
ReverseCombinatorialApproach:
Insteadofcountingprobabilityofoccurrenceofcertain
event,sometimesitisbettertocalculatetheprobabilityof
theoppositeandthenuseformulap=1 q.
ThetotalnumberofpossiblecommitteesisC
2
8
=28
Thenumberofpossiblecommitteethatdoesnot includes
bothBobandRachelis:m = C
2
6
+2 C
1
6
where,C
2
6
is
thenumberofcommitteesformedfrom6remaining
people
2 C
1
6
isthenumberofcommitteesformedfromRobor
Rachelandoneoutof6otherpeople
P = 1 -
m
N
= 1 -
C
2
6
+2C
1
6
C
2
8
= 1 -
15+26
28
= 1 -
27
28
=
1
28
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
38
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability8 Part3
Thereare8employeesincludingBoband
Rachel.If2employeesaretoberandomly
chosentoformacommittee,whatisthe
probabilitythatthecommitteeincludesboth
BobandRachel?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
39
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability8 Part3|Answers
Reverseprobabilityapproach:
Wecanchooseanyfirstperson.
Then,ifwehaveRachelorBobasthefirstchoice,we
canchooseanyotherpersonoutofthe6remaining
people.
IfwehaveneitherRachelnorBobasfirstchoice,we
canchooseanypersonoutoftheremaining7people.
TheprobabilitythatthecommitteeincludesbothBob
andRachelis:P = 1 -
2
8

6
7
+
6
8
1 = 1 -
27
28
=
1
28

MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
40
GMAT Club 2011 63
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability9
JuliaandBrainplayagameinwhichJulia
takesaballandifitisgreen,shewins.Ifthe
firstballisnotgreen,shetakesthesecond
ball(withoutreplacingfirst)andshewinsif
thetwoballsarewhiteorifthefirstballis
grayandthesecondballiswhite.Whatisthe
probabilityofJuliawinningifthejarcontains
1gray,2whiteand4greenballs?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
41
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability9|Answers
Sometimes,at700+levelyoumayseecomplex
probabilityproblemsthatincludeconditionsor
restrictions.Forsuchproblemsitcouldbehelpful
todrawaprobabilitytreethatincludeallpossible
outcomesandtheirprobabilities.
Now,Itisprettyobvious:
P =
4
7
+
2
7

1
6
+
1
7

2
6
=
2
3
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
42
GMAT Club 2011 64
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
RecommendedMathGMATBooks
MATH:ARITHMETIC
Needtostartfromthebeginning?
MGMATMathFoundations
Needagoodlevelofpractice?
KaplanMathWorkbook
Needthemostpractice?
MGMATMathGuides orVeritas PrepMathGuides
QuantitativeGMATOfficialGuide 2
nd
ed
GMATTotal Math
GMATbookreviews: http://gmatclub.com/books
GMAT Club 2011 65
VERBAL STRATEGIES
GMAT Club 2011 66
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ContentsofFlashCards
BasicStrategiesandPrinciplesofSentence
Correction,CriticalReasoning,andReading
Comprehensionwithafewexamples
Illustrationoferrorsandrightanswerchoices
throughexamples
2
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CriticalReasoning
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Contents
MainPoint/MustBeTrue
Weaken
Strengthen
Assumption
ResolvetheParadox
Reasoning
BoldFaced
NumbersandPercents
2
VERBAL
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BasicDeconstruction
Step1:Readthequestionstemandcategorizethequestion.
Step2:Readthestimulusandidentifythepremiseandthe
conclusion
Step3:Trytofocusontheconclusionandthinkofanswerchoices
thatmightberight
Step4:Useprocessofeliminationtoruleoutwronganswer
choices.Don'ttrytomakethemfit!
Step5:Makesureanswerchoicemakessense!
3
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MainpartsofaCRquestion
Conclusion
Premise Assumption
4
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MainpartsofaCRquestion
Conclusion:Thisisthefinalargumentthatthe
authormakes.
Premise:Theseareevidentiarystatementsthat
supporttheconclusion
Assumption:Theseareunstatedpremises,on
whichtheconclusionandsometimesthepremise
reston.
5
VERBAL
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Premise&Conclusion
PREMISE CONCLUSION
Supportstheconclusion Answersthe
questionofWhy?
Hasatoneoffinality andconveysthefinal
messageofwhattheauthorissaying
Because Thus
Since Therefore
For/Forthereason Hence
Dueto So
Asindicatedby Asaresultof/Consequently
Furthermore Accordingly
Giventhat Itfollowsthat/Itmustbethat
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TypeI AscertainConclusion
Thesearequestionswhereweassumethatthe
stimulusistrue andtrytofindanswerchoicesthat
aresupportedbytheconclusion
PossibleQuestionTypes:
1. Inference
2. MainPoint
3. MustbeTrue
7
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TypeII Strengthen&Support
Thesearequestionswhereweassumethatthe
givenanswerchoicesaretrue andtrytopickthe
bestonethatwillsupportthestimulus
PossibleQuestionTypes:
1. Strengthen
2. Assumption
8
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TypeIII WeakenandHurt
Thisisbasicallytheoppositeoftheabovetypeand
aimstodisprovetheconclusionofthestimulus.
Hencewetaketheanswerchoicetobetrue here
aswell.
PossibleQuestionTypes:
1. Strengthen
2. Assumption
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MostCommonMistakeTypes
OppositeAnswers
Doestheoppositeofwhattheanswerchoiceis
supposedtodo
Peoplepickthembecausetheymightgetconfused
aboutthequestiontype
ShellGameAnswers
Soundsreallysimilartothestimulusbutdiffersbyjust
therightamounttobeincorrectbutstilllucrative.
Peoplepickthesewhentheyrenotpayingclose
attention
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
OutofScope/IrrelevantAnswers
Talksaboutsomethingcompletelyirrelevanttothe
discussionathand.
Peopletendtopickthesewhentheyrecompletely
unsureofwhattheyresupposedtobedoing
ToneMismatchAnswers
Answersthatdontagreewiththetoneofthepassage
Mightbetoostrongortooweakwhencomparedto
stimulus
MostCommonMistakeTypes
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MainPoint/MustBeTrue
Whichofthefollowingrepresentsthemainideaoftheparagraph?
Whichofthefollowingcanbeinferredfromtheabove?
CorrectAnswerChoices
Canthisanswerchoicebeprovenorvalidatedbywhatisgivenin
thestimulus?IsthisanswerchoicetruetothestimulusANDthe
mainpointofthepassage,i.e.similartotheconclusion?
Shouldbevalidatedbythestimulus(Stimulusistakentobetrue)
Shouldbethemainpointofthestimulus,notjustapremise(for
MainPointquestions)
Willeitherrestateconclusionorpresentitinadifferentmanner
12
VERBAL
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Tobeconsideredforthisyearsmeritscholarshipaward,studentsneedto
haveperfectattendanceanda4.0GPA.Alexistheonlypersonintheclass
whohasa4.0buthehashad5absences.
Theclaimsabove,iftrue,moststronglysupportwhichofthefollowing
conclusions?
A. Nostudentatthisschoolhasperfectattendancefortheyear
B. Somestudentsatthisschoolwhodidnothavea4.0alsodidnothave
perfectattendance
C. Alexistheonlystudentwhocouldbeconsideredfortheaward
D. Nostudentatthisschoolqualifiesfortheawardthisyear
E. Manystudentshaveachievedperfectattendancebutnever4.0GPAs.
ABCDE
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A:Exaggeration.
B:Possible,butnotnecessary
C:Thestimulusclearlysaysthatyouneedboth
perfectattendanceand4.0GPA.
D:Thisistrue.IfAlexistheonlyonewhohasa
4.0andhedoesnthaveaperfectattendance,it
meanstheentireschoolisbarredfrom
qualifyingfortheaward.Correctchoice.
E: Outofscopeanswer.
ABCDE
14
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Weaken
Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,callsintoquestionthevalidityofthe
argument?
Whichofthefollowingmostseriouslyunderminestheconclusion?
CorrectAnswerChoices
Doesthisanswerchoicebreakdowncausality?Doesitgivean
alternatecause,showthatthecauseeffectrelationshipisnon
existentorreversed?
Answerchoiceshouldbreakdownstructureofstimulus(Answeris
takentobetrue)
Couldbeinrelationtoagrossgeneralization,awrongconclusion
orincorrecthypothesisfromfacts.
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16
VERBAL
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Thereare350brandsofcellphonesinthemarkettoday.However,ourstore
onlystocksthetop10brands.Inordertoincreaseoursales,weplanto
increasethesizeofourinventorytothetop50brands.
Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,pointsoutamajorflawintheplanabove?
A. Thecapabilitiesofthetopfivecellphonesarealmostthesame,withno
brandhavingconsistentsuperiorityinallrespects.
B. Thetop8brandsaccountforalmostallthecellphonessold
C. Asusersgetmoresophisticated,theywanttotryoutthelesserknown
brandswhichmightoffersomeothervaluetothem.
D. Lesspopularbrandsprovidelittleprofittothestorebecausetheyhaveto
bediscountedtobesold
E. Theleadingbrandsarenowlosingsalestolesspopularbrandsthatoffer
similarfeaturesforalowercost
ABCDE
17
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A:Irrelevant.Doesthisaffectprofitmarginsforthe
storeiftheyweretoincreaseinventory?No
B:Thismeansthatthestorealreadyhasthebrands
thatsellthemost.Increasinginventorywillhave
littleeffectonprofitmargins.CorrectAnswer.
C:Thisalmoststrengthenstheargument.
D:Thistellsyouthatthelesserbrandswillprovide
lesserprofit.Butlessisarelativeterm.Thisisan
unclearstatement.
E: Thisalmoststrengthenstheargumentbyfavoring
anincreaseininventory.Henceincorrect.
ABCDE
18
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Strengthen
Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,strengthenstheargumentthemost?
Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,wouldmostsignificantlyhelpprovethe
scientistshypothesis?
CorrectAnswerChoices
Doesthisanswerchoicereinforcetheconclusiondirectly?Doesit
validateanassumptionorruleoutadiscrepancy?Doesithelpestablish
causality?
Answerchoiceshouldstrengthenstructureofstimulus(Answeristaken
tobetrue)
Needstodirectlystrengthenconclusionbybridginglogicalgaps,
validatingreasonsorassumptionsorfindingmissinglinks.Ifitsnota
directstrengthening,moveon!Donttrytomaketheconnections!
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20
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Recently,severalcompanieshavewithdrawntheiradsfromMagazineA,becausethe
editorialboardofthemagazinehaddecidedtochangetheimagethatthemagazine
portraysfromoneoffamilyvaluestooneconcernedmorewithsexandviolence.Surely
thisindicatesthatthedecisionmakersinadvertisingagenciesdostillhaveasenseofmoral
proprietythatoccasionallydrivestheiractions.
Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,wouldstrengthenthisconclusion?
A)Theadvertisersregularlyreviewtheplacementoftheiradvertisements.
B)Itisarareeventforseveraladvertiserstowithdrawalltheiradvertisements
simultaneouslyfromapublication.
C)Theadvertisers,whenquestioned,admittedthattheirclientswouldloserevenueasa
resultoftheadvertisementsbeingwithdrawn.
D)Theadvertisersallplacednewadvertisementswithotherpublicationsthatemphasised
familyvalues.
E)AsurveyofthereadershipofMagazineXsuggestedthatthemajorityofthereadership
thinkthatthestandardofthemagazine'scontentshadfailedsinceitstransformation.
QuestionfromGMATClub(95810)

ABCDE
21
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
A:Thisisirrelevanttothequestionofmoral
propriety.
B:Thisdoesntnecessarilypointtomoral
proprietydirectly.Dontmakeunnecessary
connections!
C:Onceagain,nocorrelationtowhatweretalking
about
D:Ifthisistrue,thenitshowsthattheagencies
careaboutwheretheiradsgo.Hencecorrect.
E: Thisisaboutthemagazine.Nottheadvertisers.
ABCDE
22
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Assumption
Theauthorassumeswhichofthefollowinginsayingthat
Theargumentcannotbetrueunlesswhichofthefollowing
statementsareassumed?
CorrectAnswerChoices
Supporter:Linksunrelatedelementsinthestimulusandfillsin
logicalgaps
Defender:Eliminatesthealternativesandanychoicesthatmight
weakentheconclusion.
AssumptionNegationTechnique:Narrowitdowntothefinal
answerchoicesandthennegatethem themainmodifierora
verb(suchthatthemeaningofthesentenceisreversed)andifthe
negatedchoiceweakenstheconclusion,theanswerisright.
23
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
24
VERBAL
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Intheory,itspossiblethatbacteriadevelopedonMarsearlyinitshistoryandsome
werecarriedtoEarthbyameteorite.However,strainsofbacteriafromdifferent
planetswouldprobablyhavesubstantialdifferencesinproteinstructurethatwould
persistovertime,andnotwobacterialstrainsonEartharedifferentenoughtohave
arisenondifferentplanets.So,evenifbacteriadidarriveonEarthfromMars,they
musthavediedout.
Theargumentismostvulnerabletowhichofthefollowingcriticisms?
A.ItfailstoestablishwhetherbacteriaactuallydevelopedonMars.
B.ItfailstoestablishhowlikelyitisthatMartianbacteriaweretransportedtoEarth.
C.Itfailstoconsiderwhetherthereweremeansotherthanmeteoritesbywhich
MartianbacteriacouldhavebeencarriedtoEarth.
D.ItfailstoconsiderwhetherallbacterianowonEarthcouldhavearisenfrom
transportedMartianbacteria.
E.Itfailstoconsiderwhethertherecouldhavebeenstrainsofbacteriathat
originatedonEarthandlaterdiedout.
QuestionfromGMATClub(80726)
ABCDE
25
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
A:Thisisirrelevanttotheargumentthatstatesthat
evenifbacteriacamefromMars,theymusthave
diedout.
B:OutofScope!
C:Again,thisdoesnttalkaboutbacteriastrainsdying
out
D:Ifthisistrue,thenthereneednothavetobeany
significantdifferencebetweenthestrainsfoundon
Earth,sincetheyalloriginatedfromMars.
E: Wearenotconcernedaboutthis.
ABCDE
26
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ResolvetheParadox
Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,helpsexplaintheparadoxabove?
Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,helpsexplaintheapparent
discrepancyintheargument?
CorrectAnswerChoices
ActiveResolution:Donttrytodisprovethestimulus,takeitasa
given.
Doestheanswerchoiceaddressthefacts?Theanswerchoice
MUSTconformtothestimulus
TheanswershouldaddressBOTHsidesoftheparadox,and
resolveit.Itshouldntstrengthentheparadox.
27
VERBAL
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28
VERBAL
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AseveredroughtcanlessenthetotalamountofgovernmentaidthatUSfarmersreceive
asagroup.Thegovernmentpaysfarmerstheamount,ifany,bywhichthemarketpriceat
whichcropsareactuallysoldfallsshortofapresettargetpriceperbushelforthecrops.
Thedroughtof1983,forexample,causedfarmprogrampaymentstodropby$10billion.
Giventheinformationabove,whichofthefollowing,iftrue,bestexplainswhythe
droughtof1983resultedinareductioninfarmprogrampayments?
A. Priortothedroughtof1983,thegovernmentraisedthetargetpriceforcropsinorderto
aidfarmersinreducingtheirdebtloads.
B. Duetothedroughtof1983,UnitedStatesfarmersexportedlessfoodin1983thaninthe
precedingyear.
C. Duetothedroughtof1983,UnitedStatesfarmershadsmallerharvestsandthusreceived
ahighermarketpriceforthe1983cropthanforthelargercropoftheprecedingyear.
D. Duetothedroughtof1983,UnitedStatesfarmersplannedtoplantsmallercropsin1984
thantheyhadin1983.
E. Despitethedroughtof1983,retailpricesforfooddidnotincreasesignificantlybetween
1982and1983.QuestionfromGMATClub(80726)
ABCDE
29
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
A:Strengthenstheparadox.
AmountPaid=Target Market.Wecantsay
anythingunlessweknowwhathappenedtothe
marketprice.
B:Exportsareirrelevanthere.
C:Thistalksaboutthehighermarketprices.Thiscould
explaintheparadoxbecausetarget marketwill
becomelesserifmarketbecomeshigher
D:Sizeofcropsisirrelevant.
E: Between19821983?Retailprice?OutofScope!
ABCDE
30
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Reasoning
Whichofthefollowingmostaccuratelydescribestheauthors
methodofdefendingthecase?
Whichofthefollowingismostparalleltotheargumentinlogical
structure?
CorrectAnswerChoices
Shouldfollowthesamepatternofreasoning.Focusonthelogic,
notthecontentoftheargument!
Answerchoicemustbeadescriptionoftheauthorslogic!
Answerchoiceshouldnotbeinconsistentwiththestimulus,even
ifthestimulushasflawedlogic.Wearenotaskedtoevaluatethe
logicofthestimulus;wearemerelyaskedtofindananswerthat
followsthesamepattern rightornot.
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32
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Shakespearewastheworld'sgreatestplaywright,whichmeansthathemusthavewrittentheworld's
greatestplays.Thefactthathewrotethegreatestplaysintheworldonlygoestoprovethatheisthe
world'sgreatestplaywright.
Whichofthefollowingstatementsbestmatchestheargumentshownabove?
A. Dr.SmithistheonlymemberofthetwentystrongEnglishdepartmentwhothinksthatByronwrote
greaterpoetrythanKeats.ThereforeByronwasnotasgoodapoetasKeatswas.
B. Amiscarriageofjusticeoccurswhenaninnocentpersonissenttoprison.However,thereareno
miscarriagesofjusticebecausepeopleinprisonareguilty.Otherwisetheywouldnothavebeensent
toprison.
C. Thepresenceofenlargedwhitecorpusclesinthebloodwouldindicatethatthepatientmustbe
sufferingfromdiseaseX.However,hisbloodsamplecontainsnoenlargedwhitecorpuscles,sohe
cannotbesufferingfromdiseaseX.
D. Blairdenieshavingcommittedtherobbery,buthasimplicatedBrown.Brownontheotherhand,
claimsthathewaselsewhereatthetime,andpointsthefingersquarelybackatBlair.
E. Ibelievethatthepresenceofthetartarsaucehelpstoaccentuatetheflavouroftheother
ingredients,buttheyinturnreleasechemicalswhichtendtoneutralisethetartarsauce.Therefore
thedishismuchlessspicythanpuretartarsaucewouldbe.
QuestionfromGMATClub(92697)
ABCDE
33
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
A:Thiscallsformakingajudgmentbasedon
someonesopinion.Nottrue.
B: Thisistrue.Theargumentinthestimulusisa
circularargumentthatsaysAprovesBandthen
usesBtoproveA.Asimilarpatternexistshere.
C:Thishasanegationeffectinthereasoning.Not
relevant.
D:Shellgameanswer.Mightseemlikecircularlogic,
butitsactuallyjustacircularsequenceofevents.
E: Somekindofcontradictoryreasoning.Notrelevant.
ABCDE
34
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
BoldFacedQuestions
Thetwoboldfacedsentencesplaywhichofthefollowing
roles?
CorrectAnswerChoices
Shouldaddressboththeboldfacedportions,notjustone.
Willbetruetothestimulusandmimicthereasoningin
thestimulus!
Answerchoiceshouldnotbeinconsistentwiththe
stimulus,anditshouldfollowthesamelogicalpatternin
ordertoarriveattheargumentofthestimulus..
35
VERBAL
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36
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
AlthoughtheearliestsurvivingGreekinscriptionswritteninanalphabetdatefromtheeighthcentury
B.C.,astrongcasecanbemadethattheGreeksactuallyadoptedalphabeticwritingatleasttwo
centuriesearlier. Significantly,thetextoftheseearliestsurvivingGreekinscriptionssometimesruns
fromrighttoleftandsometimesfromlefttoright.Now,theGreekslearnedalphabeticwritingfrom
thePhoenicians,andintheprocesstheywouldsurelyhaveadoptedwhateverconventionthe
Phoenicianswerethenusingwithrespecttothedirectionofwriting. Originally,Phoenicianwriting
ranineitherdirection,butbytheeighthcenturyB.C.ithadbeenconsistentlywrittenfromrightto
leftforabouttwocenturies.
Intheargumentgiven,thetwoportionsinboldfaceplaywhichofthefollowingroles?
A.Thefirstisthepositionthattheargumentseekstoestablish;thesecondreportsadiscoverythat
hasbeenusedtosupportapositionthattheargumentopposes.
B.Thefirstisthepositionthattheargumentseekstoestablish;thesecondpresentsanassumption
onwhichtheargumentrelies.
C.Thefirstpresentsevidencethatisusedinsupportofthepositionthattheargumentseeksto
establish;thesecondpresentsanassumptiononwhichtheargumentrelies.
D.Thefirstisanobjectionraisedagainstapositionthattheargumentopposes;thesecondisthe
positionthattheargumentseekstoestablish.
E.Thefirstisanobjectionraisedagainstapositionthattheargumentopposes;thesecondis
evidencethathasbeenusedtosupportthatposition.
QuestionfromGMATClub(98749)
ABCDE
37
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
A:Thesecondboldfacedportiondoesntrepresenta
discovery;itsanassumption
B: Thisistrue.Thefirstpartisaclausethestimulus
wantstoproveandthesecondisanassumption
C:Thefirstboldfacedportiondoesntobjecttoany
statement.
D:Thefirstboldfacedportiondoesntobjecttoany
statement.
E: Thefirstboldfacedportiondoesntobjecttoany
statement.
ABCDE
38
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Numbers&Percents
Larger numbers doesnt mean larger percentage
and smaller number doesnt mean smaller
percentage. For example,
Increase in percentage is not the same as saying
there is an increase in absolute numbers. This
could merely be the result of a change in the
group size. For example, 5% of 100 > 10% of 50.
39
VERBAL
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40
VERBAL
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ArecentsurveyofallautoaccidentvictimsinDoleCountyfoundthat,oftheseverelyinjured
driversandfrontseatpassengers,80percentwerenotwearingseatbeltsatthetimeoftheir
accidents.Thisindicatesthat,bywearingseatbelts,driversandfrontseatpassengerscangreatly
reducetheirriskofbeingseverelyinjurediftheyareinanautoaccident.
Theconclusionaboveisnotproperlydrawnunlesswhichofthefollowingistrue?
A. Ofallthedriversandfrontseatpassengersinthesurvey,morethan20percentwerewearingseat
beltsatthetimeoftheiraccidents.
B. Considerablymorethan20percentofdriversandfrontseatpassengersinDoleCountyalways
wearseatbeltswhentravellingbycar.
C. Moredriversandfrontseatpassengersinthesurveythanrearseatpassengerswereveryseverely
injured.
D. Morethanhalfofthedriversandfrontseatpassengersinthesurveywerenotwearingseatbelts
atthetimeoftheiraccidents.
E. MostoftheautoaccidentsreportedtopoliceinDoleCountydonotinvolveanyseriousinjury.
QuestionfromGMATClub(88036)
ABCDE
41
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A:Thisisatrickyquestion.Ouraimistoproveacorrelation.Letssay100
peoplewereseverelyinjuredand100werenot.Outofthe100
severelyinjured,80didntwearseatbelts.
Probabilityofapersonnotwearingseatbelttogetinjured=
Probabilityofapersonwearingseatbelttogetinjured=
B:Doesntestablishthecorrelationbetweenwhatsbeingsaid.Hence
incorrect.
C:Thisdoesntevengiveusarelativeindication.Incorrect.
D:Thistellsusaboutthenumberofpeoplewhowerenotwearingseat
belts,butnotaboutthenumberofpeoplewhowereinjured.
E: Completelyirrelevanttothescopeofthediscussion.
ABCDE
42
VERBAL
ReadingComprehension
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Contents
GlobalQuestions
MainPoint/PrimaryPurpose
PassageOrganization
AuthorsPerspective/PassageTone
LocalQuestions
SpecificReference
Function
StrengthenandWeaken
ParallelReasoningQuestion
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FourQuestionsforRC
Readfromgeneraltospecificatthreelevels.Changeyourreading
strategy,notyourreadingspeed.Answerthefollowingquestions.
Why?MainPointofthepassage.
How?Structureofthepassage Introduction,Exampleand
CounterExample.Andsoon.
What?Whatisbeingsaid?(MainPointofIndividualParagraphs)
WhatTone?Makesureanswerchoicemakessense!
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CONTINUATIONOFOLDIDEAS INTRODUCTION OFNEWIDEAS
Continues elaboratingonanideathats
alreadybeenpresented
Introducesanothernewidea, perhaps
tocontrastsomethingpresented.
Furthermore However
ForInstance But
ForExample Nevertheless
Additionally Yet
Similarly InContrast
Indeed Although
Infact Still
Newvs.ExistingIdeas
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CommonIndicators
VeryCommonQuestionType
Primarygoalofreadingpassage Findthemain
point!
Main PointorStrongPurpose
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VeryCommonDistraction
Dontfocusonthedifficultyofthewordsor
terminologies
Instead,choosetofocusontheunderlying
meaningofwhatitssaying
DifficultWords,Phrases&Concepts
CommonIndicators
48
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CommonIndicators
Paycloseattention!
Dontmemorize!
Verycommonquestionindicator.Makeamental
noteofwherethelistoccurs,soyoucanreturnto
it,ifnecessary.
ListofThings/Enumerations
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Ifauthoritiesarementioned,thinkabouthowandwhy
thisauthoritativeremarkisnecessary.
Mightrepresentconflictingviewpointsorideas.
Makenoteofwhateachauthoritysaysandwhytheir
authorityisrelevant.
Very,veryimportant,andveryeasytomisinterpret!
Reference withAuthority
CommonIndicators
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Matchthecorrectdateswiththeevents
mentioned
Perhaps,makeanoteofthedatesandashort
handversionoftheeventonyournotepad.
DatesandNumbers
CommonIndicators
51
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CommonIndicators
Ideasthatarementionedmorethanonceinthe
passage.
Evenifthequestioncitesalinenumberforoneof
thereferences,theanswerchoicemightdrawon
thesameideamentionedelsewhere,oranother
partofthepassage.
HiddenReferences
52
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CommonIndicators
Ifseveralviewpointsarepresentedinthepassage,
makenoteofeachpointandwhossayingit/why
itsbeingsaid.
Understandingofthesecounterexamplesorviews
areveryimportant!Theywillbeindicatedby
wordssuchasHoweverorIncontrast
Contrasting Views
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VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Commonwhenthepassageisofscientificnature
Makeanoteofthedefinitionandexpecttobe
questionedaboutyourunderstandingofthe
definition
Definitions
CommonIndicators
54
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Type
Global Local
BasicQuestionTypes
55
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
QuestionTypes
MainPoint/PrimaryPurpose
PassageOrganization
AuthorsPerspective/PassageTone
Global BroadQuestions
56
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
BroadQuestions
RepresentsCoreIdeas
Willaskaboutthebroadermeaningofthe
passage,andwhatitseekstoconvey.
MainPoint/Primary Purpose
57
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Thiswillaskaboutthestructureofapassage
Forinstance,thestructuremightbesomething
likethis:
Introduction
Example
CounterExample
Passage Organization
BroadQuestions
58
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
BroadQuestions
Thesequestionsaskyoutoreflectonanauthors
perspective
Understandwhattheauthoristryingtosay,and
whereheorshestandswithrespecttotheviews
presented.
Istheauthoraggressive?Oristheauthordocile?
Whatisthetoneofthemessageconveyed?
AuthorsPerspective/ToneofPassage
59
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
QuestionTypes
SpecificReference
Function
StrengthenandWeaken
ParallelReasoningQuestion
Local SpecificQuestions(FourTypes)
60
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
LocalQuestions
Willrefertoaspecificlineorparagraphinthe
passageandaskforaquestionrelatingtothat.
Mightinvolvecrossreferencingwithother
relevantinformationpresentedelsewhereinthe
passage
SpecificReference
61
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
LocalQuestions
Questionsaboutwhatapieceofthepassage
eitheraparagraph,alineorevenawordistrying
toaccomplishwithrespecttothebroaderscope
ofthepassage
Trytoinfersomethingaboutthecontextandtone
ofthespecificreference,andaskyourself
Whatdoesthislinedo?
Function
62
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
LocalQuestions
SimilartoCriticalReasoningQuestionsofthe
sametype.
Therequiredanswerwilleitherhelporhurtthe
conclusiveviewpointpresentedbytheauthor,
i.e.themainpoint
Assumetheanswerchoicesgiventobetrue.
Strengthen/Weaken
63
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
LocalQuestions
Again,similartoCriticalReasoningQuestionofthe
sametype
Willasktoidentifyanaction,amonggivenactions,or
aviewpointthatmimicsthereasoningthatthe
authorfollows.
Identifyingthestructureofthepassageandthe
structureofalinewithinapassageasnecessary
wouldgreatlyhelp!
Parallel Reasoning
64
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
RCinaNutshell
Therightmentality:ThepassageWILLbe
intentionallyconfusing.Getusedtoit!
Awarenessofcontent:Thepassagesmightbe
fromhumanities,socialsciencesorsciences.
Dontgetboggeddownbyonekindorget
excitedaboutanother
ReadingPattern:GeneraltoSpecific
65
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
RCinaNutshell
Understandquestiontypes:GlobalorLocal
Prephrase:Framearoughanswerbeforeyou
pickanswerchoices!
ProcessofElimination:Dontkeepananswer
thatyouhavetomakeconnectionsfor.
66
VERBAL
SentenceCorrection
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Contents
SubjectVerbAgreement
VerbTenseErrors
NounAgreement
Pronouns
Modifiers
Comparisons
Parallelism
68
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
DeconstructingSC
Step1:Readthequestionstemandthinkofpossibleerrorsinthe
sentence,subjectverbagreement,tensemismatchetc.
Step2:Readtheanswerchoiceandsplititintotwogroupsbasedon
overallstructure.
Step3:Oneofthegroupswillcontainanerror.Eliminatethegroup
andresplitthenextgroup.
Step4:Useprocessofeliminationtoruleoutwronganswerchoices.
Don'ttrytomakethemfit!
Step5:Makesuretheanswerchoicemakessense!
69
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Grammar Thesentencehastoadheretotherules
ofgrammarfollowedbyStandardEnglish.
Meaning Thesentencehastohavearelevant
meaningandconveyitproperly
Concision Ifwhatisbeingsaidcanbesaidinfive
wordsinsteadoften,thentheformerispreferred
(Activevs.Passivevoice,forexample)
WhatsTested?
ThreeQuestionTypesYouWillSee
70
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Spelling TheGMATwillnottestyouonyour
knowledgeofspellings
Punctuation Addingacommaoranapostrophe
andsimilarthingswillnotbetested.Semicolons,
however,aretested.
Capitalization TheGMATdoesnttestyouon
yourknowledgeofcapitalizationeither.
Andwhatsnot?
ThreeQuestionTypesYouWontSee
71
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Thisdealswiththeissueofplurality.
Singularsubjectsmustusesingularverbs.For
example:Hewas eating.
PluralVerbsmustusepluralverbs.Forexample:
Theelephantswere walking.
ErrorsTested
SubjectVerbAgreement
72
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 85
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Removetheadditionalinformationandreadthe
sentencewithoutthem.
BarelyseventeenandleadingtheFrencharmywearing
amansarmor,JoanofArc,anilliteratepeasantgirl
fromtheFrenchcountryside,brokethesevenmonth
oldseizeofOrleansinninedays.
Readingthesentencewithoutthatpartwehave:
BarelyseventeenandleadingtheFrencharmywearing
amansarmor,JoanofArc,brokethesevenmonthold
seizeofOrleansinninedays.
Trap1:
Phrasesbetweensubject andverb
73
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Ifthereareexpletives,thencheckforsubjectverb
agreement,byrearrangingthesentence.
Somecommonexpletives:
There
Here
It
Or
Trap2: SubjectFollows Verb
74
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Ifthereismorethanonenounortheusageofa
pronouninasentence,thenthesubjectverb
agreementMUSTbeconsistent!!
TwoExceptions:
Conjunctions(OR,NOR) AlwaysSINGULAR
UsageofEACHorEVERY AlwaysSINGULAR
Trap3: MultipleNounsorPronouns
75
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Pronounslikeall,any,more,most,somebody,nobody
andsoon.
Pluralityisbasedonwhattheindefinitepronounis
referringto!(Thisistheantecedent)
Exceptions:
Each,Either,Neither,Every,Number Alwayssingular
irrespectiveofwhatfollows!
Example:Anumberofreasons Singular!Anumberof
cars Singular!
Trap4: Indefinite Pronouns
76
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Tense
Past
Present
Future
Forms
Simple
Perfect
Progressive
PerfectProgressive
ErrorsTested
VerbTense
77
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
IncorrectVerbTense
ShiftinVerbTense
VerbVoice
VerbTense SubTypes
ErrorsTested
78
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Thenumberofnounsmustbeconsistentwithwhat
theyarereferencing.
Incorrect: MattandDavebelievedthattheirhard
workintheirengineeringclasswillhelpthemrealize
theirdreamofbecomingagreatengineer.
Correct:MattandDavebelievedthattheirhardwork
intheirengineeringclasswillhelpthemrealizetheir
dreamofbecominggreatengineers.
ErrorsTested
Noun Agreement
79
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
PronounAntecedentDisagreement
IncorrectUseofRelativePronouns
AmbiguousandImpliedPronouns
UseofPronouns
ErrorsTested
80
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 87
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ThepronounMUSTrefertoitsantecedent.
Thepronounantecedentrelationshipshouldbe
consistentthroughoutthesentence.
Incorrect: Eachofthewomenselectedforthe
scholarshipwereaskedtosubmitanapplication.
Correct: Eachofthewomenselectedforthe
scholarshipwasaskedtosubmitanapplication.
PronounErrorSubTypes
PronounAntecedentDisagreement
81
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Thishappenswhenthereisadditionalinformation
betweenthepronounandantecedentmakingiteasy
tolosetrackoftherelationshipbetweenpronouns
andtheirantecedents.
Incorrect:Thelibrary,withitsmanybooksand
databases,requireaspecialmembership.
Correct: Thelibrary,withitsmanybooksand
databases,requiresaspecialmembership.
Distancebtw.pronoun&antecedent
Trap 1:
82
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Theseareverygeneralpronouns many,few,
both,everyandsoon.
Incorrect:Manyofthestudentsweresurprisedto
learnthathisorherexamwasunfairlygraded.
Correct:Incorrect:Manyofthestudentswere
surprisedtolearnthattheirexamswasunfairly
graded.
Indefinite Pronouns
Trap 2:
83
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
AntecedentsthatSOUNDSpluralbutactualare
singularorviceversa.
Forexample,familyissingular,andpersonsis
singulartoo.Itmightbeagroupofpeopleina
family,butbeingacollectivenoun,itsstill
singular!
Trap 3:
Misleading Antecedents
84
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Theyrelategroupsofwordstoanounorpronoun
which,whom,whomsoever,whereandwhy.
Twotrapsofincorrectusage:
IncorrectPronounChoiceforPeopleandThings
Differencebetweenwhoandwhom
PronounErrorSubTypes
Incorrectuseofrelativepronouns
85
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
WhoandWhomwillalwaysrelatetopeople.
Thedoctorthat performedthesurgerywashonored
shouldbewho
ThatandWhichwillalwaysrelatetothings,i.e.
inanimateobjects.
Themachinewho performedthesurgerywas
showcasedintheexhibit shouldbethat
Trap 1:
PronounChoice
86
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Verysimpletrick!
Makethefollowingsubstitutions:
He Who
Him Whom
Thesubstitutionthatmakessensewillcorrespondwith
thecorrectwordinthatcontext.
Sometimesitmightbenecessarytorearrangethe
sentenceforittomakesense.
Trap 2:
Whovs.Whom?
87
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Misplacementofadjectives(describesnouns
serene)andadverbs(describeverbs serenely)
Forexample:ThenewBMWmodelisdesignedto
drivefasterandmoreefficientthantheprevious
model.
Theusageofthewordefficientiswrongheresinceits
modifyingtheverb.Thecorrectwordusagewouldbe
efficiently
Modifiers
ErrorsTested
88
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 89
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ErrorsinCountNouns(canbecounted trees,
bottles,billions).Quantifiersaremany,both,few,
several,acoupleandsoon.
ErrorsinNonCountNouns(cannotbecounted
water,liquid).Quantifiersaremuch,alittle,abit
andsoon.
Somemodifierslikeall,andsomecanbeusedfor
both.
Trap1:
89
Quantifiers
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Misplacedmodifiersaremodifiersthatareplacedin
thewrongpositiononasentence.
Incorrect:Shortonmoney,thecarwasthebestoneTanya
couldfind.
Correct:Shortonmoney,Tanyaknewthatthecarwasthe
bestoneshecouldfind.
DanglingModifiersarethosewherethereferentis
completelyabsent.
Incorrect: Walkingtotheuniversity,thecathadtostop.
Correct:Walkingtotheuniversity,hehadtostopbecause
ofhiscat.
Trap2:
90
Placement
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Misplacedmodifierswithrelativeclauses(like
thatorwhich)
Incorrect:Accordingtothereport,bicycleswillbe
confiscatedthathavenotbeenregisteredwiththe
university.
Correct:Accordingtothereport,bicyclesthathave
notbeenregisteredwiththeuniversitywillbe
confiscated.
Trap2:
91
Placement
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Incorrectuseofcomparativedegree
IllogicalComparisons
Comparisons
ErrorsTested
92
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 90
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Whentherearetwoobjectsbeingcompared,youhave
touseacomparativeword.Whenmorethantwo
objectsarecompared,youhavetouseasuperlative
word.
Incorrect:Thoughthereportersfeltthatinjuryplayedapart
inTennesseeslosstoMinnesota,Tennesseescoachsaid
thatMinnesotahadthebest teamthatnight.
Correct:Thoughthereportersfeltthatinjuryplayedapart
inTennesseeslosstoMinnesota,Tennesseescoachsaid
thatMinnesotahadthebetterteamthatnight.
ComparisonSubType
Degree ofComparison
93
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Onlysimilarobjectscanbecompared.Youcannot
compareahumantoadog.
Incorrect: ThoughtherecentLaysfoodpoisoning
incidenthascausedsomebuyerstoquestionitsquality,
theLayschipsaresoldmoreoftenthananyotherfood
company.
Correct: ThoughtherecentLaysfoodpoisoningincident
hascausedsomebuyerstoquestionitsquality,theLays
chipsaresoldmoreoftenthanthoseproducedbyany
otherfoodcompany.
ComparisonSubType
Illogical Comparison
94
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ParallelVerbsandVerbFormErrors
ParallelNounErrors
ParallelPrepositionsandArticles
ParallelConjunctions
ParallelComparisons
Parallelism
ErrorsTested
95
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Nounsarenaturallyparallel.Butwhentheyarein
theformwithaningattheend(gerunds),theyare
confusedforverbs.
Incorrect: Thecommonsymptomsofthestomachflu
areindigestion,vomitinganddrinkinglesswaterthan
usual.
Correct: Thecommonsymptomsofthestomachflue
areindigestion,vomitinganddecreasedwaterintake.
ParallelismSubType
VerbErrors
96
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Whenasentencehastwoormoresimilarparts
linkedbyaconjunction,eachparthastobeofthe
sameverbform.
Incorrect: Thenewexampatternrequiresstudentsto
entertheirstudentIDsandsigningtheirnamesonthe
roster.
Correct: Thenewexampatternrequiresstudentsto
entertheirstudentIDsandsigntheirnamesonthe
roster.
NounErrors
ParallelismSubType
97
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Aprepositionandanarticlemusteitherbeusedby
allpartsofasentenceorbyjustthefirstpart.
Incorrect: Bydoingeachassignment,turningin
homeworksontimeandby attendingalltheclasses,
onemightbeabletoobtainthehighestgradeinthe
class.
Correct: Bydoingeachassignment,turningin
homeworksontime,andattendingalltheclasses,one
mightbeabletoobtainthehighestgradeintheclass.
Prepositional/Article Errors
ParallelismSubType
98
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Theconjunctionsusedmustbeparallelinstructure.
Someexamples:
Incorrect: Therestaurantnotonlyhiredanewchef,butit
also expandeditsseatingcapacity.
Correct: Therestaurantnotonlyhiredanewchef,butalso
expandeditsseatingcapacity.
ParallelConjunctions
Neither nor Eitheror
Notonly butalso Bothand
Whether or Asas
ParallelismSubType
99
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ParallelComparisons
Whencomparisons areleftunparallel,thatcan
amount toanerroraswell.
Incorrect: In thebook,theauthormentionsthathe
foundeditingpicturesmuchmorearduousand
difficultthanwhenhehadtotaketheactualpictures.
Correct: Inthebook,theauthormentionsthathe
foundeditingpictures muchmorearduousand
difficultthantakingpictures.
ParallelismSubType
100
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Usageoffragmentsordependentclauseson
eithersideofasemicolon
Incorrect:Theguineapigisnotatruepig;rather,a
rodentthatbelongstotheCaviidae family.
Correct: Theguineapigisnotatruepig,butrathera
rodentthatbelongstotheCaviidae family.
Correct: Theguineapigisnotatruepig;itsarodent
thatbelongstotheCaviidae family.
SemiColons
ErrorsTested
101
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
TheGMATwillpreferusageofthemostconcise
sentencespossible.
Incorrect: Hedecidedtonotpurchasethecarduetothe
factthat itwastooexpensive.
Correct: Hedecidedtonotpurchasethecarbecauseit
wastooexpensive.
Incorrect: Inadditiontoplayingtheguitar,Robalso plays
theviola.
Correct: Inadditiontoplayingtheguitar,Robplaysthe
viola.
WordinessandRedundancy
ErrorsTested
102
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Very,verycommonerrortested.
Aphrasethatiscommonlyacceptedascorrect
eventhoughitsgrammaticallyinconsistent
Anidiomerrorwillmisrepresenttheidiom.
Idiomsareprovidedwithrightandwrongusage
inthecardsthatfollow.
Idioms
ErrorsTested
103
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Amongvs.Between
Among:
Used when more than two items are in question.
Example: He was the best among three candidates.
Between:
Used when two items are in question
Example: He was the best between the two of them.
ErrorsTestedIdiomRules
104
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Bothvs.Each
Both:
Used to point out similarities.
Example: Both of them were good at swimming.
Each:
Used to point out differences/dissimilarities. (Always
singular)
Example: Each girl had her own niche.
ErrorsTestedIdiomRules
105
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Twicevs.Double
Twice:
Twice/Thrice etc. are used for comparison
Example: The Toyota was twice as fast as the Honda.
Double:
Used as a verb only.
Example: He more than doubled his wealth by
investing in stocks.
ErrorsTestedIdiomRules
106
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
EachOthervs.OneAnother
Each Other:
Used to compare two things.
Example: They loved each other dearly.
One another:
Used to compare more than two things.
Example: The three brothers loved one another dearly.
ErrorsTestedIdiomRules
107
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Ifvs.Whether
If:
Primarily used only in If else sentences.
Example: If this is true, the market will collapse. Else, it will
be okay tomorrow.
Whether:
Used more frequently as a comparison.
Example: Whether or not he chooses to accept the prize is
up to him.
ErrorsTestedIdiomRules
108
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Likevs.SuchAs
Like:
Used when indicating similarities between things.
Example: Like John, Amy was a violinist too.
Such as:
Used to list examples.
Example: There are different kinds of tigers such as the
Bengal Tigers, white tigers and so on.
ErrorsTestedIdiomRules
109
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
AbilityTo
Correct:Dolphinshavetheabilitytoemitlowfrequency
whistles
Incorrect:Dolphinshavetheabilityofemittinglow
frequencywhistles.
Actas/like
Correct:Asignaturecanattackaslegalattestation.
Incorrect:Asignaturecanattacklikealegalattestation.
Correct:Hewasactinglikeachild.
Incorrect:Hewasactingasachild.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
110
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Agreeupon/to
Correct: Weagreeduponthedateofthemeeting
Incorrect:Weagreedtothedateofthemeeting.
Correct:Weagreedtoshareourroom.
Incorrect:Weagreeduponsharingourroom.
Allowfor
Correct: Onemustalwaysallowforamarginoferror
whilecalculatingaxialloads.
Incorrect:Onemustalwaysallowtohaveamarginof
errorwhilecalculatingaxialloads.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
111
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Appealto
Correct:Iappealedtohissenseofjustice.
Incorrect:Iappealedforhissenseofjustice.
Areindangerof
Correct:Thegiantpandabearsareindangerof
extinction.
Incorrect:Thegiantpandabearshaveadangerof
dyingfromdeforestation.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
112
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Asanadolescent
Correct: Asanadolescent,hesufferedfromattention
disorder
Incorrect:Whileinadolescence,hesufferedfrom
attentiondisorder.
Asgoodas
Correct:Itsasgoodasnew.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
113
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Associatewith
Correct:Iassociatespringwithflowers.
Incorrect:IalwaysassociatewatertoNiagarafalls.
Attendto
Correct:Ihavetoattendtosomeduties
Incorrect:Ihavetoattendforsomeduties.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
114
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Attributeto
Correct:Iattributemysuccesstohardwork.
Incorrect:Iattributemysuccesswithhardwork.
Baseon
Correct:Thedecisionwasmadebasedonmultiple
criteria.
Incorrect:Thedecisionwasmadebasedofmultiple
criteria.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
115
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Begintoseedaylight
Correct:Afterworkingontheprojectallnight,Iam
finallybeginningtoseedaylight.
Incorrect:Afterworkingontheprojectallnight,Iam
finallybeginningtoviewthedaylight.
Between<>and<>
Correct:Ihadtochoosebetweenchocolatesand
cakes.
Incorrect:Ihadtochoosebetweenchocolateswith
cakes.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
116
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Carefor/about
Correct:Idontcaremuchforsweets
Correct:Icareaboutheralot.
Claimto/Claimthat
Correct:Ineverclaimedtopossessremarkablesinging
talent.
Incorrect:Ineverclaimedthatpossessremarkable
singingtalent.
Correct:IneverclaimedthatIpossessedremarkable
talent.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
117
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Cometoadeadend
Correct:Hecametoadeadendafterresearchingtopics.
Incorrect: Hecamebyadeadendafterresearchingtopics.
Compareto/with
Correct:Inevercomparedmyselftoher.
Incorrect:Inevercomparedmyselfforher.
Correct:Letscomparetheprosofthesituationwiththe
cons.
Incorrect:Letscomparetheprosofthesituationforthe
cons.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
118
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Consider(as)
Correct:Idontconsiderhimaseriouscontender
Incorrect:Idontconsiderhimwithaserious
contender
Conformto
Correct:Youmustconformtothestandards
Incorrect:Youmustconformwiththestandards
ErrorsTestedIdioms
119
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Contrastto/with
Correct:Incontrasttothepreviousreport,thisoneisbetter
Incorrect:Incontrastwiththepreviousreport,thisoneis
better.
Correct:Theredbackgroundcontrastsnicelywiththeblue
flowers
Incorrect:Theredbackgroundcontrastsnicelytotheblue
flowers.
Counton
Correct:IknewthatIcouldcountonyou.
Incorrect:IknewthatIcouldcountforyou.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
120
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Creditfor/to/with
Correct:Youshouldtakecreditforwhatyoudid.
Incorrect:Youshouldtakecredittowhatyoudid.
Correct:Icreditmysuccesstomyhardwork.
Incorrect:Icreditmysuccessformyhardwork.
Correct:Heiscreditedwiththediscoveryofpenicillin.
Incorrect:Heiscreditedfor/tothediscoveryofpenicillin.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
121
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Debateabout
Correct:Therewasaragingdebateaboutstandards.
Incorrect:Therewasaragingdebateforstandards.
Decideon
Correct:Iamyettodecideonacolorforthewall.
Incorrect:Iamyettodecideaboutacolorforthe
wall.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
122
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Declared<>
Correct:Theteacherdeclaredallexamsworthy.
Incorrect:Theteacherdeclaredallexamsasworthy.
Defineas
Correct:Lightisdefinedasradiation.
Incorrect:Lightisdefinedforradiation.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
123
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Delightedto
Correct:Iamdelightedtoacceptthisprize.
Incorrect:Iamdelightedforacceptingthisprize.
Differentfrom
Correct:Thissandwichisdifferentfromtheothers.
Incorrect:Thissandwichisdifferentwiththeothers.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
124
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Distinguishbetween/from
Correct:Ihadtodistinguishbetweengoodandbad.
Incorrect:Ihadtodistinguishfromgoodandbad.
Correct:Ihadtodistinguishgoodfrombad.
Incorrect:Ihadtodistinguishgoodwithbad.
Drawaline
Correct:Wehadtodrawalinesomewhere.
Incorrect:Wehadtodrawthelinebefore.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
125
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Drawattentionto
Correct:Ihatetodrawattentiontothefactthatthe
qualityoffoodhasgonedown.
Incorrect:Ihatetodrawattentionforthefactthatthe
qualityoffoodhasgonedown.
Drawupon
Correct:Wehadtodrawuponthereservestokeepthe
carrunning.
Incorrect:Wehadtodrawonthereservestokeepthe
carrunning.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
126
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Drawto
Correct:Hewasdrawntoherfromthemomenthe
mether.
Incorrect:Hewasdrawnforherfromthemomenthe
mether.
Easiersaidthandone
Correct:Itsalwayseasiersaidthandone.
Incorrect:Itsalwayseasiersaidthantobedone.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
127
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Electas/to
Correct:Hewaselectedtooffice.
Incorrect:Hewaselectedtoofficer.
Correct:Hewaselectedasanofficer.
Incorrect:Hewaselectedasoffice.
Easiersaidthandone
Correct:Itsalwayseasiersaidthandone.
Incorrect:Itsalwayseasiersaidthantobedone.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
128
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Indicatethat
Correct:Studiesindicatethatstressisacommoncause
ofheartattacks.
Incorrect:Studiesindicateaboutstressbeingacommon
causeofheartattacks.
Inorderto
Correct:Shebeganstudyinginordertogetagoodgrade
intheclass.
Incorrect:Shebeganstudyinginorderthatshegota
goodgradeintheclass.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
129
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Justas<>,so<>
Correct:JustasTyrawasconsideredforthescholarship,so
wasMia.
Incorrect:JustasTyrawasconsideredforthescholarship,
Miaasalsoconsidered.
Knownto
Correct:Evenasastudent,Rickwasknowntodothings
differently.
Incorrect:Evenasastudent,Rickwasknownaswantingto
dothingsdifferently.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
130
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Left,rightandcenter
Correct:Shewasshootingemailstopeopleleft,rightand
center.
Incorrect:Shewas,leftrightandcenter,sendingemails.
Knownto
Correct:Evenasastudent,Rickwasknowntodothings
differently.
Incorrect:Evenasastudent,Rickwasknownaswantingto
dothingsdifferently.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
131
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Ameansto
Correct:Sheonlyvieweditasameanstotheend.
Incorrect:Forsomepeople,moneyisconsidereda
meansfor/ofanend.
Mistakenfor
Correct:Thetwinswereoftenmistakenforone
another.
Incorrect:Thetwinswereoftenmistakenasone
another.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
132
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 100
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Morethanever
Correct:IregretnotgoingtoEurope,nowmorethanever.
Incorrect:IregretnotgoingtoEurope,nowmorethan
never.
Nativeof/to
Correct:SheisanativeofVienna.
Incorrect:SheisanativetoVienna.
Correct:TheBengalTigerisnativetoIndia.
Incorrect:TheBengalTigerisnativeofIndia.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
133
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Prohibitfrom
Correct:Onlywhenweprohibitpeoplefrombuyingdrinks
forminors,willwereducetheproblemofunderage
drinking.
Incorrect:Onlywhenweprohibitpeopletobuydrinksfor
minors,willwereducetheproblemofunderagedrinking.
Rangefrom
Correct:Thequalityoftheseproductsrangefromgoodto
excellent.
Incorrect:Thequalityoftheseproductsrangebetween
goodtoexcellent.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
134
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Reluctantto
Correct:Shewasreluctanttotakeonsuchahugetask.
Incorrect:Shewasreluctantabouttakingonsucha
hugetask.
Requireof
Correct:Itisrequiredofallcandidatestoreporthere
daily.
Incorrect:Itisrequiredfromallcandidatestoreport
heredaily.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
135
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Seemto
Correct:Heseemedtobehidingsomethinginhispocket.
Incorrect:Heseemedashewashidingsomethinginhis
pocket.
Takeadvantageof
Correct:Hetookadvantageofalltheopportunitieshehad.
Incorrect:Hetookadvantageforalltheopportunitieshe
had.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
136
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 101
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. WillFerrell'scameoscenesaresofunnyas
anythinghe'severdone.
B. WillFerrell'scameoscenesareasfunnythat
anythinghe'severdone.
C. WillFerrell'scameoscenesareasfunnyas
anythinghe'severdone.
137
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. WillFerrell'scameoscenesaresofunnyas
anythinghe'severdone.
B. WillFerrell'scameoscenesareasfunnythat
anythinghe'severdone.
C. WillFerrell'scameoscenesareasfunnyas
anythinghe'severdone.
138
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Themarkethasconfidencethat thefirmwilladd
back leveragetoincreaseprofits.
B. Themarkethasconfidencein thefirm'sabilityto
addback leveragetoincreaseprofits.
C. Themarkethasconfidencein thefirmtoadd
back leveragetoincreaseprofits.
139
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Themarkethasconfidencethat thefirmwilladd
back leveragetoincreaseprofits.
B. Themarkethasconfidencein thefirm'sabilityto
addback leveragetoincreaseprofits.
C. Themarkethasconfidencein thefirmtoadd
back leveragetoincreaseprofits.
140
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 102
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Whatthesescorestellusisthatrigorislackingin
someschools.
B. Whatthesescorestellusisthatsomeschools
lackof rigor.
C. Whatthesescorestellusisthatthere'salackof
rigorinsomeschools.
141
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Whatthesescorestellusisthatrigorislackingin
someschools.
B. Whatthesescorestellusisthatsomeschools
lackof rigor.
C. Whatthesescorestellusisthatthere'salackof
rigorinsomeschools.
142
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Thecityindustrialistshavedemanded thestate
governmenttomeet thepromisesmadebychief
ministerAshokChavan.
B. Thecityindustrialistshavedemandedthat the
stategovernmentmeet thepromisesmadeby
chiefministerAshokChavan.
C. Thecityindustrialistshavedemandedthat the
stategovernmentmet thepromisesmadeby
chiefministerAshokChavan.
143
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Thecityindustrialistshavedemanded thestate
governmenttomeet thepromisesmadebychief
ministerAshokChavan.
B. Thecityindustrialistshavedemandedthat the
stategovernmentmeet thepromisesmadeby
chiefministerAshokChavan.
C. Thecityindustrialistshavedemandedthat the
stategovernmentmet thepromisesmadeby
chiefministerAshokChavan.
144
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 103
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Tensionshaveflaredinsomepartsofthecountry
between blackswith Hispanics.
B. Tensionshaveflaredinsomepartsofthecountry
between blacksand Hispanics.
C. Tensionshaveflaredinsomepartsofthecountry
among blacksand Hispanics.
145
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Tensionshaveflaredinsomepartsofthecountry
between blackswith Hispanics.
B. Tensionshaveflaredinsomepartsofthecountry
between blacksand Hispanics.
C. Tensionshaveflaredinsomepartsofthecountry
among blacksand Hispanics.
146
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. TheproblemisDisney'sabilitytotake controlof
someofthebestknowncharactersquicklyisvery
limited.
B. TheproblemisDisney'sabilityoftaking control
ofsomeofthebestknowncharactersquicklyis
verylimited.
C. TheproblemisDisney'sabilityfortaking control
ofsomeofthebestknowncharactersquicklyis
verylimited.
147
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. TheproblemisDisney'sabilitytotake controlof
someofthebestknowncharactersquicklyisvery
limited.
B. TheproblemisDisney'sabilityoftaking control
ofsomeofthebestknowncharactersquicklyis
verylimited.
C. TheproblemisDisney'sabilityfortaking control
ofsomeofthebestknowncharactersquicklyis
verylimited.
148
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 104
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Areadingabove50percentindicates the
manufacturingeconomytobe generally
expanding.
B. Areadingabove50percentindicatesthat the
manufacturingeconomyis generallyexpanding.
C. Areadingabove50percentindicates the
manufacturingeconomyis generallyexpanding.
149
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Areadingabove50percentindicates the
manufacturingeconomytobe generally
expanding.
B. Areadingabove50percentindicatesthat the
manufacturingeconomyis generallyexpanding.
C. Areadingabove50percentindicates the
manufacturingeconomyis generallyexpanding.
150
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Incontrastto thefirsttwooptionscentralizing
decisionmaking,aCapandTradesystemwillnot.
B. Ascontrastedwith thefirsttwooptions,aCap
andTradesystemwilldecentralize decision
making.
C. Incontrastto thefirsttwooptions,aCapand
Tradesystemwilldecentralize decisionmaking.
151
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Incontrastto thefirsttwooptionscentralizing
decisionmaking,aCapandTradesystemwillnot.
B. Ascontrastedwith thefirsttwooptions,aCap
andTradesystemwilldecentralize decision
making.
C. Incontrastto thefirsttwooptions,aCapand
Tradesystemwilldecentralize decisionmaking.
152
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 105
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Thisreporthasbeenissuedbytheassociation
since1931,excepting afouryearinterruption
duringWorldWarII.
B. Thisreporthasbeenissuedbytheassociation
since1931,exceptfor afouryearinterruption
duringWorldWarII.
C. Thisreporthasbeenissuedbytheassociation
since1931,withtheexceptionof afouryear
interruptionduringWorldWarII.
153
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Thisreporthasbeenissuedbytheassociation
since1931,excepting afouryearinterruption
duringWorldWarII.
B. Thisreporthasbeenissuedbytheassociation
since1931,exceptfor afouryearinterruption
duringWorldWarII.
C. Thisreporthasbeenissuedbytheassociation
since1931,withtheexceptionof afouryear
interruptionduringWorldWarII.
154
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Itsgrossmarginrosefrom 22%upto 25%,butits
operatingmarginfellfrom 7%downto 4%.
B. Itsgrossmarginrosefrom 22%to 25%,butits
operatingmarginfellfrom 7%to 4%.
C. Itsgrossmarginrosefrom 22%until 25%,butits
operatingmarginfellfrom 7%till 4%.
155
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Itsgrossmarginrosefrom 22%upto 25%,butits
operatingmarginfellfrom 7%downto 4%.
B. Itsgrossmarginrosefrom 22%to 25%,butits
operatingmarginfellfrom 7%to 4%.
C. Itsgrossmarginrosefrom 22%until 25%,butits
operatingmarginfellfrom 7%till 4%.
156
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 106
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. "Ibelievethatwealthisameansfor anend,not
anendinitself".
B. "Ibelievethatwealthisameansof anend,not
anendinitself".
C. "Ibelievethatwealthisameansto anend,not
anendinitself".
157
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. "Ibelievethatwealthisameansfor anend,not
anendinitself".
B. "Ibelievethatwealthisameansof anend,not
anendinitself".
C. "Ibelievethatwealthisameansto anend,not
anendinitself".
158
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. TheancientChineseTaoistsdistinguished
intercourseand orgasm.
B. TheancientChineseTaoistsdistinguished
intercoursefrom orgasm.
C. TheancientChineseTaoistsdistinguished
between intercourseand orgasm.
159
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. TheancientChineseTaoistsdistinguished
intercourseand orgasm.
B. TheancientChineseTaoistsdistinguished
intercoursefrom orgasm.
C. TheancientChineseTaoistsdistinguished
between intercourseand orgasm.
160
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 107
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Itwouldhavebeeneasyenoughfor hertobuy a
ranchstylehousethatshecouldeasilyandlogically
decoratewithScandinavianstylefurniture.
B. Itwouldhavebeeneasyenoughsothat shebought
aranchstylehousethatshecouldeasilyandlogically
decoratewithScandinavianstylefurniture.
C. Itwouldhavebeeneasyenoughastobuy aranch
stylehousethatshecouldeasilyandlogically
decoratewithScandinavianstylefurniture.
161
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Itwouldhavebeeneasyenoughfor hertobuy a
ranchstylehousethatshecouldeasilyandlogically
decoratewithScandinavianstylefurniture.
B. Itwouldhavebeeneasyenoughsothat shebought
aranchstylehousethatshecouldeasilyandlogically
decoratewithScandinavianstylefurniture.
C. Itwouldhavebeeneasyenoughastobuy aranch
stylehousethatshecouldeasilyandlogically
decoratewithScandinavianstylefurniture.
162
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. iPhoneusersdownloadtwotofourtimesas
manymore games,video,andotherWebdata
than othersmartphoneusers.
B. iPhoneusersdownloadtwotofourtimesas
manymore games,video,andotherWebdataas
othersmartphoneusers.
C. iPhoneusersdownloadtwotofourtimesas
many games,video,andotherWebdataas other
smartphoneusers.
163
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. iPhoneusersdownloadtwotofourtimesas
manymore games,video,andotherWebdata
than othersmartphoneusers.
B. iPhoneusersdownloadtwotofourtimesas
manymore games,video,andotherWebdataas
othersmartphoneusers.
C. iPhoneusersdownloadtwotofourtimesas
many games,video,andotherWebdataas other
smartphoneusers.
164
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 108
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Wehaveonechanceinamillionof winningthe
WorldCup.
B. Wehaveoneinamillionchancesto winthe
WorldCup.
C. Wehaveonechanceinamillionfor winningthe
WorldCup.
165
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Wehaveonechanceinamillionof winningthe
WorldCup.
B. Wehaveoneinamillionchancesto winthe
WorldCup.
C. Wehaveonechanceinamillionfor winningthe
WorldCup.
166
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Oureconomicwellbeingisgenerallydetermined
from theamountofgoodsandservicesthatwe
consume.
B. Oureconomicwellbeingisgenerallydetermined
by theamountofgoodsandservicesthatwe
consume.
C. Oureconomicwellbeingisgenerallydetermined
through theamountofgoodsandservicesthat
weconsume.
167
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Oureconomicwellbeingisgenerallydetermined
from theamountofgoodsandservicesthatwe
consume.
B. Oureconomicwellbeingisgenerallydetermined
by theamountofgoodsandservicesthatwe
consume.
C. Oureconomicwellbeingisgenerallydetermined
through theamountofgoodsandservicesthat
weconsume.
168
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 109
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Sheiscreditedfor solvingnumerouscases.
B. Sheiscreditedwith solvingnumerouscases.
C. Sheiscreditedasbeing agreatdetective.
169
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Sheiscreditedfor solvingnumerouscases.
B. Sheiscreditedwith solvingnumerouscases.
C. Sheiscreditedasbeing agreatdetective.
170
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Whyhasn'tCongressmandatedthat thetotal
premiumcostbe shownaswagesoneverypay
stubbutnottaxed?
B. Whyhasn'tCongressamandatefor thetotal
premiumcosttobe shownaswagesoneverypay
stubbutnottaxed?
C. Whyhasn'tCongressmandatedthat thetotal
premiumcostare shownaswagesoneverypay
stubbutnottaxed?
171
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Whyhasn'tCongressmandatedthat thetotal
premiumcostbe shownaswagesoneverypay
stubbutnottaxed?
B. Whyhasn'tCongressamandatefor thetotal
premiumcosttobe shownaswagesoneverypay
stubbutnottaxed?
C. Whyhasn'tCongressmandatedthat thetotal
premiumcostare shownaswagesoneverypay
stubbutnottaxed?
172
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 110
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. A13yearoldgirlwasmistakenlyabductedinMarch
2008bytraffickerswhowerebelievedtohave
mistaken heras thenieceofasuspecteddrugdealer.
B. A13yearoldgirlwasmistakenlyabductedinMarch
2008bytraffickerswhowerebelievedtohave
mistaken herfor thenieceofasuspecteddrug
dealer.
C. A13yearoldgirlwasmistakenlyabductedinMarch
2008bytraffickerswhowerebelievedtohave
mistaken herto thenieceofasuspecteddrugdealer.
173
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. A13yearoldgirlwasmistakenlyabductedinMarch
2008bytraffickerswhowerebelievedtohave
mistaken heras thenieceofasuspecteddrugdealer.
B. A13yearoldgirlwasmistakenlyabductedinMarch
2008bytraffickerswhowerebelievedtohave
mistaken herfor thenieceofasuspecteddrug
dealer.
C. A13yearoldgirlwasmistakenlyabductedinMarch
2008bytraffickerswhowerebelievedtohave
mistaken herto thenieceofasuspecteddrugdealer.
174
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Butbothconsider theproblemsas necessary
inconveniencestofeaturetheirconferencesand
programs.
B. Butbothconsider theproblemstobe necessary
inconveniencestofeaturetheirconferencesand
programs.
C. Butbothconsider theproblemsnecessary
inconveniencestofeaturetheirconferencesand
programs.
175
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Butbothconsider theproblemsas necessary
inconveniencestofeaturetheirconferencesand
programs.
B. Butbothconsider theproblemstobe necessary
inconveniencestofeaturetheirconferencesand
programs.
C. Butbothconsider theproblemsnecessary
inconveniencestofeaturetheirconferencesand
programs.
176
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 111
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Thedrugmakerproposed thelitigationbe
centralizedintheUSDistrictCourtforthe
NorthernDistrictofOhio.
B. Thedrugmakerproposedthat thelitigationisto
be centralizedintheUSDistrictCourtforthe
NorthernDistrictofOhio.
C. Thedrugmakerproposedthat thelitigationbe
centralizedintheUSDistrictCourtforthe
NorthernDistrictofOhio.
177
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Thedrugmakerproposed thelitigationbe
centralizedintheUSDistrictCourtforthe
NorthernDistrictofOhio.
B. Thedrugmakerproposedthat thelitigationisto
be centralizedintheUSDistrictCourtforthe
NorthernDistrictofOhio.
C. Thedrugmakerproposedthat thelitigationbe
centralizedintheUSDistrictCourtforthe
NorthernDistrictofOhio.
178
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Theastronautswouldprobablybestusetheir
remainingtimelivingandworkingonMars
insteadof dyingathome.
B. Theastronautswouldprobablybestusetheir
remainingtimelivingandworkingonMarsrather
dyingathome.
C. Theastronautswouldprobablybestusetheir
remainingtimelivingandworkingonMarsrather
than dyingathome.
179
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Theastronautswouldprobablybestusetheir
remainingtimelivingandworkingonMars
insteadof dyingathome.
B. Theastronautswouldprobablybestusetheir
remainingtimelivingandworkingonMarsrather
dyingathome.
C. Theastronautswouldprobablybestusetheir
remainingtimelivingandworkingonMarsrather
than dyingathome.
180
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 112
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Thecompanyrequires himhold stockvaluedat
$4.4million,fourtimeshisannualbasesalaryof
$1.1million.
B. Thecompanyrequires himtohold stockvalued
at$4.4million,fourtimeshisannualbasesalary
of$1.1million.
C. Thecompanyrequires himholding stockvalued
at$4.4million,fourtimeshisannualbasesalary
of$1.1million.
181
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Thecompanyrequires himhold stockvaluedat
$4.4million,fourtimeshisannualbasesalaryof
$1.1million.
B. Thecompanyrequires himtohold stockvalued
at$4.4million,fourtimeshisannualbasesalary
of$1.1million.
C. Thecompanyrequires himholding stockvalued
at$4.4million,fourtimeshisannualbasesalary
of$1.1million.
182
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Cubanpovertyisaresultof theAmericantrade
embargo.
B. Theresultof theAmericanembargowas Cuba
impoverished.
C. Resultingfrom theAmericanembargo,Cuba
impoverished.
183
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Cubanpovertyisaresultof theAmericantrade
embargo.
B. Theresultof theAmericanembargowas Cuba
impoverished.
C. Resultingfrom theAmericanembargo,Cuba
impoverished.
184
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 113
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Arisingof electricitypricesfuelledthe18percent
yearonyearjumpinthecompany'srevenuesto
3.6billionzlotys.
B. Arisein electricitypricesfuelledthe18percent
yearonyearjumpinthecompany'srevenuesto
3.6billionzlotys.
C. Araisein electricitypricesfuelledthe18percent
yearonyearjumpinthecompany'srevenuesto
3.6billionzlotys.
185
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Arisingof electricitypricesfuelledthe18percent
yearonyearjumpinthecompany'srevenuesto
3.6billionzlotys.
B. Arisein electricitypricesfuelledthe18percent
yearonyearjumpinthecompany'srevenuesto
3.6billionzlotys.
C. Araisein electricitypricesfuelledthe18percent
yearonyearjumpinthecompany'srevenuesto
3.6billionzlotys.
186
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Itseemslike thecompanyis slowlyrunningout
ofnewfeaturestoadd.
B. Thecompanyseemsasifitis slowlyrunningout
ofnewfeaturestoadd.
C. Itseemsasif thecompanyis slowlyrunningout
ofnewfeaturestoadd.
187
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Itseemslike thecompanyis slowlyrunningout
ofnewfeaturestoadd.
B. Thecompanyseemsasifitis slowlyrunningout
ofnewfeaturestoadd.
C. Itseemsasif thecompanyis slowlyrunningout
ofnewfeaturestoadd.
188
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 114
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Sweetpotatoesarenativein CentralAmericaand
Peru.
B. Sweetpotatoesarenativefrom CentralAmerica
andPeru.
C. Sweetpotatoesarenativeto CentralAmericaand
Peru.
189
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Sweetpotatoesarenativein CentralAmericaand
Peru.
B. Sweetpotatoesarenativefrom CentralAmerica
andPeru.
C. Sweetpotatoesarenativeto CentralAmericaand
Peru.
190
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Everyproduct usesimilar recycledpapers,
cardboardandothermaterials,inadditionto
leadfreepaints,nontoxicgluesandinks.
B. Allproducts usesimilar recycledpapers,
cardboardandothermaterials,inadditionto
leadfreepaints,nontoxicgluesandinks.
C. Eachproduct usesimilar recycledpapers,
cardboardandothermaterials,inadditionto
leadfreepaints,nontoxicgluesandinks.
191
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Everyproduct usesimilar recycledpapers,
cardboardandothermaterials,inadditionto
leadfreepaints,nontoxicgluesandinks.
B. Allproducts usesimilar recycledpapers,
cardboardandothermaterials,inadditionto
leadfreepaints,nontoxicgluesandinks.
C. Eachproduct usesimilar recycledpapers,
cardboardandothermaterials,inadditionto
leadfreepaints,nontoxicgluesandinks.
192
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 115
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Theleadinfrom'DancingWiththeStars'willbe
high,andsotoo theexpectations.
B. Theleadinfrom'DancingWiththeStars'willbe
high,andalso theexpectations.
C. Theleadinfrom'DancingWiththeStars'willbe
high,andsotoowillbe theexpectations.
193
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Theleadinfrom'DancingWiththeStars'willbe
high,andsotoo theexpectations.
B. Theleadinfrom'DancingWiththeStars'willbe
high,andalso theexpectations.
C. Theleadinfrom'DancingWiththeStars'willbe
high,andsotoowillbe theexpectations.
194
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Theaveragepricehasrisenatleast1centper
gallonperdayforeightconsecutivedaysto
$2.952,10centsasmuchas aweekago.
B. Theaveragepricehasrisenatleast1centper
gallonperdayforeightconsecutivedaysto
$2.952,10centsmorethan thatofaweekago.
C. Theaveragepricehasrisenatleast1centper
gallonperdayforeightconsecutivedaysto
$2.952,10centsmorefrom aweekago.
195
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Theaveragepricehasrisenatleast1centper
gallonperdayforeightconsecutivedaysto
$2.952,10centsasmuchas aweekago.
B. Theaveragepricehasrisenatleast1centper
gallonperdayforeightconsecutivedaysto
$2.952,10centsmorethan thatofaweekago.
C. Theaveragepricehasrisenatleast1centper
gallonperdayforeightconsecutivedaysto
$2.952,10centsmorefrom aweekago.
196
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 116
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. SponsorsincreasinglyusetheInternetlikea
directmediachanneltocustomers.
B. SponsorsincreasinglyusetheInternettobea
directmediachanneltocustomers.
C. SponsorsincreasinglyusetheInternetasa direct
mediachanneltocustomers.
197
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. SponsorsincreasinglyusetheInternetlikea
directmediachanneltocustomers.
B. SponsorsincreasinglyusetheInternettobea
directmediachanneltocustomers.
C. SponsorsincreasinglyusetheInternetasa direct
mediachanneltocustomers.
198
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Hazhadawayofspeaking thatwaslesslike
givinginformationandmorelikewarningsand
omens.
B. Hazhadawayforspeaking thatwaslesslike
givinginformationandmorelikewarningsand
omens.
C. Hazhadawaytospeak thatwaslesslikegiving
informationandmorelikewarningsandomens.
199
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Correctanswer:
A. Hazhadawayofspeaking thatwaslesslike
givinginformationandmorelikewarningsand
omens.
B. Hazhadawayforspeaking thatwaslesslike
givinginformationandmorelikewarningsand
omens.
C. Hazhadawaytospeak thatwaslesslikegiving
informationandmorelikewarningsandomens.
200
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 117
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
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GMAT Club 2011 121