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# GMATCLUBFLASHCARDS

ContributingtoEachOthersLearning
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GMAT Club 2011 1
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GMAT Club Marketplace
Findthisandothergreatfreeproductsareavailable
Findthebestfreeresourcesandalsothebest
dealstosavethemostmoneyonbooks,tests,
http://gmatclub.com/marketplace
GMAT Club 2011 2
GMAT MATH
GMAT Club 2011 3
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Percent
Whatisthepercentformula?
Howmuchis15percentof20?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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PercentFormula:
Part=PercentxWhole
Forexample,15%of20is:
1S
1uu
2u =
Suu
1uu
= S
MATH:ARITHMETIC
2
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Percent2
Whatistheformulaforpercentchange?
IfJackgotaraisefrom\$15perhourto\$18
perhour,whatwasthepercentincrease?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
3
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PercentChangeFormula:
omount o cbongc
originol omount
1uu%
JacksRaise:
18 -1S
1S
1uu% =
S
1S
1uu% =
1uu
S
= 2u%
! Makesureyouusetheoriginalamount(15),not
thenewone(18)
MATH:ARITHMETIC
4
GMAT Club 2011 4
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Percent3
Iftheproductionofhybridcarstripledlastyear,by
howmanypercentdiditincrease?
100%
200%
250%
300%
333%
MATH:ARITHMETIC
5
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Forexample,ifproductionwas10cars,andit
tripledto30cars,theincreasewas20cars,which
is200%of10
MATH:ARITHMETIC
6
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Percent4
50%of25is25%ofwhichnumber?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Thereare2solutionstothisproblem:
Longone:
50%of25is12.5
12.5*100=x*25
x=50
Shortonebutahardertocomeupwith:
50%*25=x*25%
50=x
MATH:ARITHMETIC
8
GMAT Club 2011 5
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Odd/EvenRules
CheckyourknowledgeofOdd/Evenrules
Odd+Odd=?
Odd Even=?
Even+Odd=?
OddxOdd=?
OddEven=?
OddxEven=?
Hint: trypickingnumbers
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Odd+Odd= 1+1=2(Even)
Odd Even=3 2=1(Odd)
Even+Odd=2+1=3(Odd)
OddxOdd= 3x3=9(Odd)
OddEven= 32=1.5(Notaninteger!)
OddxEven=3x2=6(Even)
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Odd/EvenRules2
Is0oddoreven?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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0(zero)isEven
Itisalsonotpositiveornegative
itisneutral
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Odd/EvenRules3
Ifb isanoddnumber,whichofthefollowing
mustbeeven?
A. 2b -S
B.
b-1
2
C.
b
2
-1
B. b
2
+2
E. 2b +2
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Usetheplugnumbersmethodtocheckeach
A. 2*1 3=1(Odd)
B.
1-1
2
=0(Even) however,justincase,letstry3.
3-1
2
= 1 (Odd).Itusuallyisagoodideatorun
through2differentnumbersifyougetzeroorsimilar
C.
1
2
- 1 = -
1
2
(Odd)
D. 1+2=3(Odd)
E. 2+2=4(Even)
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Odd/EvenRules4(UltraHard)
IsA+B+Cevenorodd?
A C Biseven

A-C
B
isodd
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Statements(1)and(2)combinedareinsufficient.
Donotassumethatthenumbersareintegersif
thequestiondoesnotmentionit.
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DivisibilityRules
Is54780divisibleby2?
Is1671divisibleby3?
Is5634divisibleby4?
Is3830divisibleby5?
Is2658divisibleby6?
Is396divisibleby9?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Yes.Divisibilityby2 lastdigitofanumberiseven
Yes.Divisibilityby3 sumofalldigitsisamultiple
of3
Yes.Divisibilityby4 last2digitsisamultipleof4
Yes.Divisibilityby5 thelastdigitiseither0or5
Yes.Divisibilityby6 thesumofdigitsisamultiple
of3andthelastdigitiseven
Yes.Divisibilityby9 thesumofdigitsisamultiple
of9
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Divisibility2(Hard)
Isintegerx
2
y
4
divisibleby9?
x isanintegerdivisibleby3
xy isanintegerdivisibleby9
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Thebestwaytoapproachthisquestionistoplug
inseveralsetsofnumbers
Manyaretemptedtoplug3forxandthenforS2,
theonlyvalueycanhaveis3;inthatcase,the
Butifwetryx=81andy=
1
9
,thenxisaninteger
divisibleby3,xy isanintegerdivisibleby9,but
x
2
y
4
= 1 andisnotdivisibleby9.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
20
GMAT Club 2011 8
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
NumberProperties
Whichofthefollowingintegersrepresentsasum
of3consecutiveevenintegers?
200
303
400
554
570
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
bothdivisibleby3(sincethereare3integers)and
iseven.Theonlynumberthatfallsintobothof
those2categoriesis570.
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NumberProperties2(Hard)
Ifx
2
= y + S, y = z - 2, onJ z =
2x, is x
3
+ y
2
+ z Ji:isiblc by 7.
x >0
y =4
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Substitutex,y,andzintheoriginalequationtogetthe
following:x
2
- 2x - S = u;Thesolutionstothis
equationarex=1andx=3.
Statement1issufficient.Ifx>0,thentheonlysolution
isx=3.Theresultis27+16+6=49,whichisdivisibleby
7
Statement2issufficient.Ify=4,plugginginthisvalue
intox
2
= y +S,givesusthatx=3orx=3.However,
basedontheabove,x=3orx=1.Thereforex=3.
Sufficient.
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NumberProperties3
Howmanydistinctintegersare
therebetween1and21inclusive?
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MostoftenGMATquestionswillsayinclusivebut
sometimestheydont needtorememberto
check
Theformulaforcalculatingthenumberofintegers
betweentwonumbersis:NM+1
Youcanalsowriteoutallofthenumbersthoughit
isnotalwayspossiblebutjustincase:
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,
18,19,20,21
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Multiples
Whatisamultiple?
Is5amultipleof55oris55a
multipleof5?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Themultiple ofanumberisthe
productofthenumberandany
otherwholenumber.(Forexample,
2,4,6,8aremultiplesof2)
Therefore55isamultipleof5
Forexample,6hasfactors1,2,3,6;
andmultiplesthatare5,12,24,36
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Multiples2
Is0(zero)amultipleof100?
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Yes,0(zero)isamultipleof
everything
However,itisunlikelythatGMAT
willtestthispropertybutithelpsto
remember
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Multiples3
HowtofindaLeastCommon
Multiple(LCM)?
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Option1:
Step1:Findtheprimefactorsofeachofthenumbers
Step2:Multiplytheuniquefactors(exclude
duplicates)
Option2:
Step1:Multiplythetwonumbers
Step3:DividetheproductinStep1bythefactors
thatthetwonumbershaveincommon
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Multiples4
WhatistheLeastCommon
Multipleof18and24?
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Option1
Findthefactorsof18and24:
18=3x3x2
24=3x2x2x2
Multiplytheuniquefactors:3x3x2x2x2=72
Option2
Multiplythe2numbers:18x24=432
Sharedfactors:2and3
Divide432by2and3=72
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Translate
Theproductofthreeandfourisreducedby
fiveandthenincreasedbythedifference
betweentheoriginalproductandeight=?
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3x4=12
12 5=7
12 8=4
7+4=11
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ArithmetictoMemorize

1
2
=

1
4
=

2
5
=

1
20
=

1
8
=

1
6
=
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning

1
2
= Su%

1
4
=25%

2
5
= 4u%

1
20
= S%

1
8
=12.5%

1
6
= 16.67%
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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ArithmetictoMemorize2

1
12
=

7
8
=

3
4
=
75%=
20%=
16
2
3
% =
87
1
2
% =
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning

1
12
= 8.33%

7
8
= 87.S%

3
4
= 7S%
75%=
20%=
1
5
16
2
3
% =
1
6
8S
1
3
% =
5
6
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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ArithmetictoMemorize3
2
2
=
2
3
=
2
4
=
2
5
=
2
6
=
2
7
=
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
2
2
=4
2
3
= 8
2
4
= 16
2
5
= 32
2
6
= 64
2
7
= 128
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize4
S
2
=
S
3
=
S
4
=
S
5
=
4
2
=
4
3
=
4
4
=
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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S
2
=9
S
3
= 27
S
4
= 81
S
5
= 243
4
2
= 16
4
3
= 64
4
4
= 256
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize5
S
2
=
S
3
=
11
2
=
12
2
=
1S
2
=
14
2
=
1S
2
=
16
2
=
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
S
2
=25
S
3
=125
11
2
=121
12
2
=144
1S
2
=169
14
2
=196
1S
2
=225
16
2
=256
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ArithmetictoMemorize6
Completethefollowing:
8,16,24,32,40,160
12,24,36. 120
15,30 150
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
8,16,24,32,40,48,56,64,72,80,88,96,104,
112,120
12,24,36,48,60,72,84,96,108,120
15,30,45,60,75,90,105,120
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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ArithmetictoMemorize7
2 =
S =
62S =
169 =
List all Piimes between 1 anu Su
ExtraHard&ExtraCredit
2
6
=
12S
3
=
24S
S
=
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
2 = 1.4
S =1.7
62S = 2S
169 = 1S
Piimes: 2, S, S, 7, 11, 1S, 17, 2S, 29, S1, S7, 41, 4S, 47
2
6
= 64
12S
3
= S
24S
S
= S
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Reciprocal
Whatisareciprocal?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Reciprocalforanumberx,denotedby
1
x
or
x
-1
,isanumberwhichwhenmultipliedbyx
yields.Thereciprocalofafractionis
u
b
is
b
u
.To
getthereciprocalofanumber,divide1bythe
number.Forexamplereciprocalof3is
1
3
,
reciprocalof
5
6
is
6
5
.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMAT Club 2011 16
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AbsoluteValue
Whatisthe3 stepapproachtosolving
equationsandinequalitieswithabsolute
value?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Step1: Openmodulusandsetconditions.
Tosolve/openamodulus,youneedto
consider2situationstofindallroots:
Positive(orrathernonnegative)
Negative
Step2: Solvenewequations fromStep1
Step3: Checkconditionsforeach
solutionfromStep2
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
AbsoluteValue2
If|x1|=4,whatisthevalueof
x?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Step1:Findpositive/negativeroots:
x - 1 u inourcase,x - 1 = 4
x - 1 < u inourcase,- x -1 = 4
Step2:Solvetheequations
x=5
x=3
Step3:Checkconditions(x -1 u &x -1 < u)
S - 1 = 4 u
3 1=4<0
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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AbsoluteValue3
WhatisthevalueofxIf|x 5|=10?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
|x 5|=10
Wemustevaluateboththepositiveandnegative
outcomesincetheabsolutevalueremovesthe
negativesign
Thus,wehave2equations:
X 5=10
X 5= 10(incaseitwasanegativeexpression)
Thusx=15and5.(Pluginbothtocheck)
Absolutevalueinequalitiesandequationswillalmost
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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AbsoluteValue4
IsM<0?
-H = |H|
H
2
= 9
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Statement(1)byitselfisnotsufficient.From
statement(1),M iseitheranegativenumberor
zero.IfM=3,then(3)=|3|or3=3,whichisnot
sufficient.
Statement(2)byitselfisnotsufficient.From
statement(2),Mcanbeeither3or3,whichisnot
sufficient.
Statements(1)and(2)combinedaresufficient.If
wecombinebothstatements,thenM=3.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Factors
Howmanytotalfactorsdoes462
have?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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factors:
Writeouteachprimefactorandtheirpower,for
example,12canbewrittenasfollows:
2
2
S
1
S
0
etc(allotherprimeswillhaveazeropower)
andthatsthenumberoffactors(1,2,3,4,6,12)
PrimeFactorsof462=2
1
, S
1
, 7
1
, 11
1
Totalnumberoffactors:2x2x2x2=2
4
=16
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Factors2
Dointegersusuallyhaveanoddor
evennumberoffactors?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Vastmajorityofintegershaveaneven numberof
Thuswhenfindingthetotalnumberoffactors,
makesureitisanevennumber
Theonlyintegersthathaveanodd numberof
4,9,16,25,36,etc).Try25forexample,ithas
factorsof1,5,and25.Factorsof36are1,2,3,4,
6,9,12,18,36.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Average
Iftheaverageof5consecutiveintegersis
12,whatistheaverageoftheevenonly
integers?
10
12
13.5
18
36
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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First,findtheconsecutiveintegers.Since
thereare5,theremaybeeither2or3even
integers.Theseintegersare10,11,12,13,14.
Theaverageoftheevenintegersis12aswell
(10+12+14=36.Divide36by3andyouwill
get12).
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Average2
Theaverageof10consecutiveintegersis12.
Then,9isdeductedfromthefirstconsecutive
number,8isdeductedfromthesecond,7is
deductedfromthethird,andsoonuntilthe
lastnumberwhichremainsunchanged.What
isthenewaverage?
A)55 B)50 C)6 D)7.5 E)7
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Youdontneedtofindeachofthenumbers.
averageofnumbersbetween0and9(thereisa
trapthough,thereshouldbe10numbersrather
than9andtheaverageis4.5,not5)oryoucan
findthesumofconsecutiveintegers(10*12=120)
andsubtractthesumofintegersfrom0to9(45)
anddividetheresult(75)by10.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Ratios
Whatistheratioofatodif
2a=3b,
1
2b
=2c,and3c=d?
A)1:2 B)2:1 C)2:3 D)4:3 E)1:5
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Ratios
Withquestionslikethese,unlessyoucanspota
shortcutrightaway,theeasiestwaytosolveisto
plugnumbers:letspicka=6,sincethereisa2and
3involved
2*6=3b;b=4
0.5*4=2c;c=1
3*1=d;d=3
Therefore,therationofatodis2:1
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Powers
2
2
+2
3
+2
4
+2 = .
A)2
9
+ 2
B)2
10
C)2
5
+ 2
D)2
5
E)30
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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2
2
+ 2
3
+ 2
4
+2 = .
subtractingpowers.Thisquestionis
solvedbybruteforce:
4+8+16+2=30
MATH:ARITHMETIC
72
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Powers2
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
5
2 = .
A)2
120
B)S2
15
C)2
15

D)2
14
E)62
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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2
2
2
3
2
4
2
5
2 = 2
15
Whenpowerswiththesamebase(2
inthiscase)aremultiplied,thepowers
aresummedandthebaseisheld
constant.Thus,itis2tothepowerof
2+3+4+5+1=15.
15
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Powers3

2
4
2
8
2
6
2
=.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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2
4
2
8
2
6
2
=
2
12
2

= 2
5
Divisionofpowerswiththesamebase
(2)ishandledsimilarlytomultiplication
exceptthepowervaluesarededucted.
Thebasestaysunchanged
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Powers4
(S
3
)
2
= .
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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(S
3
)
2
= S
6
Whenanumbertakentoapoweris
takentoanotherpower,youneedto
multiplytheexponents(2*3)
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Powers5
S
3
3
=?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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S
3
3
= S
27
Startoperationsfromoutsideandworkyourway
in:3takentothepowerof3is27.Thusthebaseof
3istakentothepowerof27.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
80
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Powers6
2
-2
2
-3
2
6
2
-4
=.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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2
-2
2
-3
2
6
2
-4
= 2
-3
=
1
2
3
=
1
8
Negativepowersturnanumbertoa
reciprocalnumbertakentothatpower.
Forexample2
-2
=
1
2
2
=
1
4
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Powers7
S
0
= .
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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S
0
= 1
Anynumber(positiveor
negative)takentothepowerof0
(zero)equalto1.
Zerotothepowerofzeroisalso
1.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Powers8
4
1
2
= .
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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4
1
2
= 4 = 2
Fractionpowersareinterpretedas
follows:thedenominatoristherootand
numeratoristhepower.Forexample
S
2
3
= S
3
2
or2
1
2
= 2
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Powers9(UltraHard)
Ifm andn arepositiveintegers,istheremainderof
10
m
+n
3
largerthantheremainderof
10
n
+m
3
?
m>n
Theremainderof
n
3
is2
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Statement(1)byitselfisinsufficient.Inexpression
1u
m
+ n,thesumofdigitsof1u
m
isalways1anditis
thevalueofn thatdeterminestheremainderof
10
m
+n
3
Statement(2)byitselfissufficient.Iftheremainderof
n
3
is2,asS2states,thenis2,5,or8andthesumofthe
digitsof
10
m
+n
3
isdivisibleby3.Therefore,the
remainderof
10
m
+n
3
is0,whichcannotbelargerthat
theremainderof
10
n
+m
3
nomatterwhatm is.
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Percentiles
Lenasfirsttestscorewasatthe80
th
percentilein
aclassof120students.Onanothertest,24outof
200studentsscoredbetterthanLena.Ifnobody
thetwotests?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
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Takeeachtestresultseparately:
Test1:120x80
th
=96(shescoredbetterthan96
students)
Test2:Shescoredbetterthan176students(200 24)
Sumuptheresults:
96+176=272
120+200=320

272
320
= 8S
th
percentile
MATH:ARITHMETIC
90
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ConsecutiveNumbers
Whatisthesumofconsecutiveintegers
8,9,7,6,5,4,3,2,1,0,1,2?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
91
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Sumofconsecutiveintegersequalsthemean
multipliedbythenumberofterms,n.Given
consecutiveintegers8,9,7,6,5,4,3,2,1,0,1,2
mcon =
-8+2
2
= -S (meanequalstotheaverage
ofthefirstandlastterms),sothesumequalsto
-S 12 = -S6 .
MATH:ARITHMETIC
92
GMAT Club 2011 26
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
EvenlySpacedSet
Whatisthesumofallmembersof
theset9,12,15,18,21,24?
MATH:ARITHMETIC
93
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Thesumofelementsofevenlyspacedsetisgiven
bytheformula
Sum =
u
1
+u
n
2
n
Therefore,
9+24
2
6 = 99
MATH:ARITHMETIC
94
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
RecurringDecimal
Express0.393939inafractionformat
MATH:ARITHMETIC
95
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Toconvertarecurringdecimaltofraction:
1.Separatetherecurringnumberfromthedecimal
fraction
2.Annexdenominatorwith"9"asmanytimesasthe
lengthoftherecurringnumber
3.Reducethefractiontoitslowestterms
Example#1: Convert0.3939toafraction
1:Therecurringnumberis39
2:
39
99
3:Reducingittolowestterms:
13
33
MATH:ARITHMETIC
96
GMAT Club 2011 27
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Fractions(ExtraHard)
Ifa,b,andcarepositivedistinct
integers,is
(
c
b
)
c
aninteger?
c=2
a=b+c
MATH:ARITHMETIC
97
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
StatementIisinsufficientsinceitdoesnotprovide
StatementII:Wecanrewrite
(
c
b
)
c
as
u
bc
NowpluginthevalueforafromS2:
b+c
bc
=
1
b
+
1
c
sincebandcaredisticnt positiveintegersandbis
notequaltoc,theexpressioncannotbeaninteger
MATH:ARITHMETIC
98
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
RecommendedArithmeticBooks
MATH:ARITHMETIC
99
Needtostartfromthebeginning?
MGMATMathFoundations
Needanaveragelevelofpractice?
KaplanMathWorkbook
Needthemostpractice?
MGMATMathGuidesorVeritas PrepMathGuides
QuantitativeGMATOfficialGuide2
nd
ed
GMATTotal Math
GMATbookreviews:http://gmatclub.com/books
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
BestMathGMATCourses
MATH:ARITHMETIC
100
KaplanMathRefresherCourse \$299 orFree
Get\$105 bonuswhenyousignuphere:
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Knewton fullcourseforonly\$299
Thebestdiscountcodeplus\$105 bonus(\$496 off)
http://gmatclub.com/knewton
GMAT Club 2011 28
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Algebra(Hard)
Ifeachexpressionunderthesquarerootisgreater
thanorequalto0,whatis x
2
- 6x + 9 +
2 - x + x - S?
2 - x
2x -6 + 2 - x
2 - x + x - S
2x -6 + x - 2
x + x - 2
MATH:ALGEBRA
1
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Basedonthesetup(andMathprinciplestestedon
theGMAT),(2 - x) hastobe u.Therefore
x 2.
x
2
- 6x + 9 = x - S
2
= S - x
Becausex 2,x - S < u
Therefore:S - x + 2 - x + x - S = 2 - x
MATH:ALGEBRA
2
GMAT Club 2011 29
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Average
Iftheaverageof5consecutiveintegersis
12,whatistheaverageoftheevenonly
integers?
10
12
13.5
18
36
MATH:STATISTICS
1
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
First,findtheconsecutiveintegers.Since
thereare5,theremaybeeither2or3even
integers.Theseintegersare10,11,12,13,14.
Theaverageoftheevenintegersis12aswell
(10+12+14=36.Divide36by3andyouwill
get12).
MATH:STATISTICS
2
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Average2
Theaverageof10consecutiveintegersis12.
Then,9isdeductedfromthefirstconsecutive
number,8isdeductedfromthesecond,7is
deductedfromthethird,andsoonuntilthe
lastnumberwhichremainsunchanged.What
isthenewaverage?
A)55 B)50 C)6 D)7.5 E)7
MATH:STATISTICS
3
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Youdontneedtofindeachofthenumbers.
averageofnumbersbetween0and9(thereisa
trapthough,thereshouldbe10numbersrather
than9andtheaverageis4.5,not5)oryoucan
findthesumofconsecutiveintegers(10*12=120)
andsubtractthesumofintegersfrom0to9(45)
anddividetheresult(75)by10.
MATH:STATISTICS
4
GMAT Club 2011 30
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Mean
HowtofindtheMean?
MATH:STATISTICS
5
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Mean
ArithmeticMean=Average=
Sum o clcmcnts
numbei of elements
MATH:STATISTICS
6
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Median
HowtofindtheMedian?
MATH:STATISTICS
7
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Arrangeallnumbersinanorder
fromthesmallesttothelargest.The
Median willbethemiddlenumber.
Ifthereisanevennumberof
elements,theMedian willbethe
averageofthe2middlenumbers
MATH:STATISTICS
8
GMAT Club 2011 31
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Mode
Howtofindthemode?
MATH:STATISTICS
9
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
TheModeofanarrayisthenumberthat
appearsmostoften.Forexample,inan
array1,2,3,3,4 theMode is3.It
appearedtwice.Inthearray1,2,3,3,4,4
theMode is3and4(therecanbemore
thanonemode).
MATH:STATISTICS
10
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Range
HowtofindtheRange?
MATH:STATISTICS
11
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Rangeisthedifferencebetweenthe
smallestandlargestelementsofan
array.Ifyouhavetofindmorethanjust
range,itisalwaysagoodideatorewrite
theelementsinancreasingorder
MATH:STATISTICS
12
GMAT Club 2011 32
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
StandardDeviation
HowtofindtheStandard
Deviation?
MATH:STATISTICS
13
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
YouwonthavetocalculateSDontheGMATbut
youneedtounderstandtheconceptofSD
membersofthearrayare.TofindtheStandard
Deviation:
Findthemean
Findthedifferencebetweeneachnumberandthe
mean
Squareeachofthedifferences
Findtheaverageofthesquareddifferences
Takeasquarerootoftheaverage
MATH:STATISTICS
14
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
StandardDeviation2
Whichofthesetshasahigherstandarddeviation?
SetA SetB

MATH:STATISTICS
15
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
SetAhasthehigherStandardDeviationbecause
theelementsaredistributedfurtherfromthe
mean
MATH:STATISTICS
16
GMAT Club 2011 33
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
StandardDeviation3
Whatisthefastestwaytoestimatestandard
deviation(withoutcalculatingit)?
Thereisaset{67,32,76,35,101,45,24,37}.Ifwe
createanewsetthatconsistsofallelementsof
theinitialsetbutdecreasedby17%,whatisthe
changeinstandarddeviation?
MATH:STATISTICS
17
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Wedon'tneedtocalculateasdecreaseinall
elementsofasetbyaconstantpercentagewill
decreasethestandarddeviationofthesetbythe
samepercentage(theaverageisdecreasedby17%
aswellasthedifferencebetweenaverage(mean)
andallelementsortheirsquares.Thusthe
decreaseinstandarddeviationis17%.
Youcanalwaystrytomodelasetof3numbers
P.S.the17%hasbeenverifiedinExcel
MATH:STATISTICS
18
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
StandardDeviation4
WhatistheStandardDeviationofaset
ofconsecutiveevenintegers?
(1)Thereare39elementsintheset.
(2)themeanofthesetis382
MATH:STATISTICS
19
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
findstandarddeviation?"consecutiveevenintegers"
meansthatallelementsstrictlyrelatedtoeachother.
itdoesnotchangethestandarddeviation.Onething
weshouldknowisthenumberofelementsintheset,
aredistributedrelativetothemean.Now,lookatDS
statements,allweneeditisjustfirststatement.So,A
issufficient.
MATH:STATISTICS
20
GMAT Club 2011 34
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
StandardDeviation5
SetAconsistsof19integerswithmean4and
standarddeviationof3.IfanewsetBisformedby
elementswilldecreasethestandarddeviationthe
most?
A)9and3
B)3and3
C)6and1
D)4and5
E)5and5
MATH:STATISTICS
21
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Solution:Theclosertothemean,thesmaller
thestandarddeviation,andtherefore,the
greaterthedecreaseinstandarddeviation.D
has4(equaltothemean)and5(differsfrom
meanonlyby1).
Allotheroptionshaveagreaterdeviation
fromthemean
MATH:STATISTICS
22
GMAT Club 2011 35
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CompoundInterest
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
If\$20,000isinvestedat12%annual
interest,compoundedquarterly,whatis
thebalanceafter1year?
1
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
CompoundInterestformula:
= principol 1 +
Intcrcst
C
cus c
whereC isthenumberofperiods
2u,uuu 1 +
0.12
4
1 4
= 2u,uuu 1.uS
4
1.03tothe4
th
poweris1.1255
Times20,000,thats\$22,510
(asopposedto22,400forsimpleinterest)
2
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Mixtures
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
14litersofapplejuiceismixedwithcranberry
juice.Iftheresultingmixcontains65%of
cranberryjuice,howmanylitersofthemix
wereproduced?
3
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Mixtureproblemsrequireattentiontodetailsto
boththeinformationgivenandthequestion.
Weknowthatthe14litersofapplejuiceis35%
(100%65%)ofthenewmixture.
ConstructanX:
14liters35%
Xliters100%

14100
35
= 4u liters
4
GMAT Club 2011 36
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
WorkProblems
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Whatistheformulaforawork
problem?
5
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Thekeytosolvingtheworkproblems,issettingthe
equationcorrectly.Theworkformulaisbasedonthe
principleofworkrates(inverseofthetimeitwould
taketocompletethejob).Theratealmostalwayswill
be
1
tmc (o] hous, dus, ctc)
Formula:SumoftheRatesofWorkers=thecombined
rate

1
w
1
+
1
w
2
=
1
C
;whereWistimerequiredbyworkers1
and2tocompletethejobandCisthetimerequired
forbothworkersworkingtogether(Combined)
6
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
WorkProblems2
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
in8hours.Doug,ontheotherhand,can
arehiredtogether,howmuchtimewillit
truckworkingtogether?
7
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
UsingtheWorkformula:
1
R
+
1

=
1
C

1
8
+
1
6
=
1
C

7
24
=
1
C
C=
24
7
= S.4hours(approximately)
8
GMAT Club 2011 37
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
GroupProblems
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Outof90conferenceattendees,50registered
forthebasicworkshopand60signedupfor
notsignedupforaworkshopyet,howmany
workshops?
9
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Thebestandeasiestapproachtosolvingthistype
ofproblemsisusingtheboth/neitherformula
(alternativeoptionisaVenndiagram).
Group1+Group2+Neither Both=Total
50+60+20 Both=90
130 Both=90
Both=40
Thekeyistomemorizetheformulaandone
samplequestionsoyoucanpluginnumberson
thetest
10
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
GroupProblems2
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Theofficeof120issplitbetweenmaleandfemale
employeesattheratioof3:5.If40%ofthe
employeesaremarriedand20ofthemarried
employeesintheofficearemen,howmanyofthe
womenworkingintheofficearesingle?
11
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
tabletogether:
Thus20+X=48;X=28.Wecandotherestofthe
mathandfillouttheentiretabletomakesureyour
calculationsarecorrect
Male Female Total
Married 20 X 48
Single X 3 X 75 72
Total 45 75 120
12
GMAT Club 2011 38
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Volume/MixtureProblems(Hard)
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Ifafarmersells15ofhischickens,hisstockoffeedwill
morechickens,hewillrunoutoffeed3daysearlier
thanplanned.Ifnochickensaresoldorbought,the
farmerwillbeexactlyonschedule.Howmanychickens
doesthefarmerhave?
12
24
48
55
60
13
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Veryhardproblem.Severalsolutionsexist;thisone
isprobablynotthemostcorrectbutthequickest:
LetXbethenumberofchickensandYbethedays
theycansurviveonthecurrentfeed:
(x15)(y+4)=(x+20)(y3)
xy +4x -1Sy -6u = xy -Sx +2uy -6u
4x -1Sy = 2uy -Sx
7x = SSy or x = Sy
Solvingthefirstequation,wegetx=60andy=12
14
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CountingProblems(UltraHard)
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Inagameofchess,themovesofwhitesandblacks
alternatewithwhiteshavingthefirstmove.During
movedidnotlose,whichofthefollowingcanbe
I.Blackslost5games
II.Blackswonmoregamesthanwhites
15
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Fromthestemitfollowsthattherewereonly4gamesin
responsibleforthedifferenceinthetotalnumberofmoves
knowthatthese4gameswerenotwonbyblacks(butthey
scenariosIIandIIIarepossible.
ScenarioIisimpossible.Itmeansthattherewereatleast5
thenthedifferencebetweenthetotalnumberofmovesof
whitesandblacksshouldbeatleast5.Infact,it'sonly4.
16
GMAT Club 2011 39
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Distance(UltraHard)
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Aswimmermakesaroundtripupanddownthe
riverwhichtakesherXhours.Ifthenextdayshe
stillwater,whichtakesherYhours,whichofthe
followingstatementsistrue?
X>Y
X<Y
X=Y
X =
1
2

17
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Picknumbersandthencheckthemagainstthe
options.Take12kmasthedistancetraveled
up/downtheriver,andassumetheswimmer's
speedtobe4km/h;thecurrentbeing2km/h,
whichmeans6km/hdowntheriverand2km/h
uptheriver.Goinguprivertakes2hours,return
journeytakes6,thusatotalof8hours.Instill
water,24kmrequires6hours.ThusX=8andY=6.
18
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Percent
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Ifapricewasincreasedbyx%andthen
decreasedbyy%,isthenewpricehigherthan
theoriginal?
x>y
x=1.2y
19
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
LetPdenotetheoriginalprice.
Statement(1)byitselfisinsufficient.Ifxismuchlarger
thany,thenewpriceishigherthantheoriginal.Butifxis
onlymarginallylarger,thenewpriceislower.Forexample,
ifx=20andy=19,thenewpriceisP*1.2*0.81=0.97P<P.
Statement(2)byitselfisinsufficient.Usethesame
reasoning.Ifyislarge,thenewpriceissmall(ify=100,the
newpriceis0).Ifyissmall,thenewpriceishigherthan
theoriginal(ifx=12andy=10,thenewpriceisP*1.12*0.9=
P*1.008>P).
S1toS2providesnonewinformation.
20
GMAT Club 2011 40
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Rate
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Acertainbacteriacolonydoublesinsizeeveryday
for20days,atwhichpointitreachesthelimitofits
habitatandcannolongergrow.Iftwobacteria
coloniesstartgrowingsimultaneously,howmany
dayswillittakethemtoreachthehabitatslimit?
6.33
7.5
10
15
19
21
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MATH:WORDPROBLEMS
Weknowthatthebacteriacolonydoublesinsize
everydayfor20days.Thereforeonthesecondday
itisdoublethesizeofthefirstday,andsoon.
Similarly,onthe20
th
day,itisat100%ofcapacity,
therefore,onthe19
th
day,itwillbeat50%.Since
wehave2colonies,bothwillbeoccupyinghalfof
thehabitatbythe19
th
day.Alternatively:
1colony=x 2
20
;2colonies=
x2
20
2
= x 2
19
22
GMAT Club 2011 41
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles
SumofanglesofANYtriangleequals?
Whatistherighttriangle(isthattheone
thatsnotwrong?)
MATH:GEOMETRY
1
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Sumofallanglesinanytriangleisalways180
Onesideisalwayssmallerthanthesumofthe
othertwoandisalwaysgreaterthanthedifference
oftheothertwo
Arighttriangleistheonethathasa90degree
angle(ithastherightangle).Atrianglecanonly
haveoneangleat90degreessincesumofthe3
anglesis180
MATH:GEOMETRY
2
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles2
Listallmethodsforfindinganarea
ofatriangle.
MATH:GEOMETRY
3
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
1.Area=
1
2
bosc bcigbt
2.Herosformula: s(s -o)(s -b)(s - c)
wherea,b,c aresidesofatriangleands issemi
perimeters =
u+b+c
2
3.Ifyouknow2sidesofatrianglebutnotitsheight,
square/rectangle/rhombusandfinditsarea(maybe
easier).Remembertodivideyourresultby2.
MATH:GEOMETRY
4
GMAT Club 2011 42
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles3
Theseare2sidesofarighttriangle,findthethird
side:
3,4,x
6,8,x
5,12,x
12,16,x
7,24,x
MATH:GEOMETRY
5
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
GMATreliesontheseeasytriangles.Ifyou
memorizethesecombinations,itwillsaveyoutime
ontheGeometrysection
3,4,5
6,8,10
5,12,13
12,16,20
7,24,25
MATH:GEOMETRY
6
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles4
Whatistherelationshipbetweensidesin
arightisoscelestriangle?
Whatistherelationshipbetween
angles?
MATH:GEOMETRY
7
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MATH:GEOMETRY
8
2
1
1
GMAT Club 2011 43
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles5
Nameasmanyproperties,
relationships,andformulasasyou
MATH:GEOMETRY
9
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MATH:GEOMETRY
10
Allsidesareequal
Allanglesareequal(60degrees)
Allheights,bisectorsandmedians
areequal:
Area:
Centersofcircumscribedand
inscribedcirclescoincide
4
3
2
s
2
3 s
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles6
Whatcanyouderivefromthisfigure?
(Misthecenterofacircle)
A
B
C
M
MATH:GEOMETRY
11
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MATH:GEOMETRY
12
GMAT Club 2011 44
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles7
Whatisthevalueofsidesina
306090triangle?
MATH:GEOMETRY
13
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
In306090triangle,thesidesarex,x S,
andthehypotenuseis2x(doublethe
sizeofthesmallestside)
MATH:GEOMETRY
14
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Triangles8(Hard)
MATH:GEOMETRY
15
a
4
Onthepicturebelow,istheareaofthetriangle
ABC greaterthan1?
1.AngleABC <90degrees
2.PerimeterofthetriangleABC isgreaterthan
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MATH:GEOMETRY
16
TheareaofthetriangleABC is
Statement(1)byitselfissufficient.Intheextreme
casewhenangleABC isright,thetriangleBOC is
isoscelesandthusandtheareaoftriangle
ABC is:
IfangleABC issmallerthan90degrees,thenthe
areaexceeds1duetotheincreaseoftheheight.
Statement(2)byitselfisinsufficient.Aslongas
isgreaterthan0,theperimeterofthetriangleABC
a a
a a

2
1 1
2
1
a
a
1
2

1 a
2
a
a
a
4
GMAT Club 2011 45
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Rectangles
Nameasmanyproperties,relationships,and
MATH:GEOMETRY
17
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Oppositesidesareparallelandequal
Thediagonalsbisect(divideintotwoequalparts)eachother
Thediagonalsareequal
Asquareisaspecialcaseofarectanglewhereallfoursidesarethesame
length.
Thetwodiagonalsareequal(samelength).
Eachdiagonalbisectstheother.Inotherwords,thepointwherethe
diagonalsintersect(cross),divideseachdiagonalintotwoequalparts.
Eachdiagonaldividestherectangleintotwoequalrighttriangles.Because
thetrianglesareequal,theyhavethesamearea,andeachtrianglehas
halftheareaoftherectangle.
Eachdiagonalequals(w iswidth,h isheight): w
2
+ b
2

Areaequals:w b
Perimeterequals:2w +2b
MATH:GEOMETRY
18
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Rectangles1
Nameasmanyproperties,relationships,and
MATH:GEOMETRY
19
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Asquareisbotharhombus(equalsides)andarectangle
(equalangles)andthereforehasallthepropertiesof
boththeseshapes,namely:
Thediagonalsofasquarebisecteachother.
Thediagonalsofasquarebisectitsangles.
Thediagonalsofasquareareperpendicular.
Oppositesidesofasquarearebothparallelandequal.
Allfouranglesofasquareareequal.(Eachis360/4=
90degrees,soeveryangleofasquareisarightangle.)
Thediagonalsofasquareareequal.
MATH:GEOMETRY
20
GMAT Club 2011 46
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Rectangles2 Continued
Nameasmanyproperties,relationships,and
MATH:GEOMETRY
21
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
withthesameperimeter.
Theareaisthewidthtimestheheight.Soinasquarethisis
simply:s
2
,wheres isthelengthofoneside.
The"diagonals"method.Ifyouknowthelengthsofthe
diagonals,theareaishalftheproductofthediagonals.Since
bothdiagonalsareequal,thissimplifiesto:
d
2
2
wheredisthe
lengthofeitherdiagonal.
Eachdiagonalofasquareistheperpendicularbisectorof
theother.Thatis,eachcutstheotherintotwoequalparts,
andtheycrossatrightangle(90).
ThelengthofeachdiagonalisS 2 whereS isthelengthof
anyoneside.
Perimeterequals:4S
MATH:GEOMETRY
22
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Circles
Center ?
Diameter ?
Circumference ?
Area ?
Chord ?
Tangent ?
Secant ?
MATH:GEOMETRY
23
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Center Apointinsidethecircle.Allpointsonthe
circleareequidistantfromthecenter
thecircle.Itishalfthediameter
Diameter achordpassingthroughthecenter
Circumference distancearoundthecircle
Area aregionenclosedbythecircle
circle
Tangent linetouchingthecircleatonepointonly;
Secant alinethatintersectsacirclein2points
MATH:GEOMETRY
24
GMAT Club 2011 47
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Circles2
MATH:GEOMETRY
25
Whataretheformulasfor
Circumferenceofacircle?
Areaofacircle?
Whatistheapproximatevalueofn?
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MATH:GEOMETRY
26
Areaequals: ar
2
a = 3. 14 =
22
7
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry
Whatistheequationofthe
slopeofaline?
MATH:GEOMETRY
27
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Slopeofalineequation:
risc
run
=
y
2
-y
1
x
2
- x
1
Wherexandyarecoordinatesof
point1andpoint2onthatline.
MATH:GEOMETRY
28
GMAT Club 2011 48
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry2
Ifalinehasanegativeslopeless
line?
MATH:GEOMETRY
29
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Negativeslope meanslinemovesfromtheupper
lefthandquarant (Q2)tothebottomrighthand
line.Positiveslopemeanstheopposite(duh)
Sincetheslopeislessthan1,itisaflatline(as
opposedtosteep).Sinceslopeisriseoverrun,in
thiscase,thereislessrisethanrun
MATH:GEOMETRY
30
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry3
WhatslopesdoLinesA,B,andChave?
Positive/Negative?
Less/Greaterthan1? A
B
C
MATH:GEOMETRY
31
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
LineA
PositiveSlope
Slopegreaterthan1
LineB
Slopeisneither
positiveornegative
SlopeisZero
LineC
Slopeisundefined
MATH:GEOMETRY
32
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry4
HowtofindtheXandYintercepts
ofaline?
MATH:GEOMETRY
33
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Bestoptionistopluginthevaluesintothe
equationoftheline
Forexample,alineisy=mx+b
TofindtheYintercept(thisiswhenthelinecrosses
theYaxisandthusXiszero)solve:y=b
TofindXintercept(thisiswhenthelinecrossesthe
XaxisandYiszero)solve:0=mx+b
ThetrickistouseY=0whenlookingforX
interceptandX=0whenlookingforYintercept
MATH:GEOMETRY
34
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry5
IflineM withaslopeof
5
9
goesthroughpointsA(5,
2)andB(4,3),whatisthelengthofthesegment
AB?
MATH:GEOMETRY
35
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Theslopeinformationinthis
irrelevant
TofinddistancebetweenA
andBiscalculatedusingthe
PythagoreanTheoremby
drawingatriangle
9
2
+S
2
= J
2
81 +2S = J
J = 1u6
MATH:GEOMETRY
36
GMAT Club 2011 50
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry6
Findtheequationofalinepassing
throughthepointsA(5,4) andB(2,6)
MATH:GEOMETRY
37
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
A(5,4) andB(2,6)
Tofindanequationofalinebasedontwo
points,usethisformula:
-
1
x-x
1
=

1
-
2
x
1
-x
2

-4
x-5
=
4 -2
4 -6
;
-4
x-5
=
2
-2
y -4 = S -x
y = -x +9
MATH:GEOMETRY
38
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry7
IflinesAandBareperpendiculartoeach
other,whatistherelationshipbetweentheir
slopes?
A. Inverse
B. Opposite
C. Positive
D. Reciprocal
E. ReciprocalandNegative
MATH:GEOMETRY
39
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Therelationshipbetween
slopesof2perpendicular
linesisnegativereciprocal
-
1
m
.Inotherwords,the
twolinesareperpendicular
ifandonlyiftheproductof
theirslopesis1.
E.g.S -
1
3
=1
MATH:GEOMETRY
40
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry8
Arethetwolinesbelowperpendicular?
MATH:GEOMETRY
41
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
checktoseeifoneslopeisthenegativereciprocal
oftheotheroriftheirproductequalsto1.
SlopeAB=
5-19
9-48
=
-14
-39
=
14
39
SlopeCD=
24-4
22-31
=
20
-9
= -
20
9
Multiplytheslopes:
14
39

20
9
= -1;
NotPerpendicular
MATH:GEOMETRY
42
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry9
Whatisthepointofintersectionoftwo
linesthathavethefollowingequations:
y=3x3andy=2.3x+4?
MATH:GEOMETRY
43
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Thekeytosolvingtheintersectionquestionsisthat
atthepointofintersection,bothlineswillhavethe
sameXandYcoordinates.
Thus,ifYcoordinatesarethesame,thenwecan
putthetwoequationstogether:3x3=2.3x+4
0.7x=7;x=10
NowwestillneedtofindtheYintercept.Plug10
intooneoftheequations:3*103=27
Intersectionpoint:(10,27)
MATH:GEOMETRY
44
GMAT Club 2011 52
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
CoordinateGeometry10(Hard)
Doesthecurve x -o
2
+ y -b
2
= 16
intersecttheYaxis?
1) o
2
+b
2
> 16
2) o = b +S
MATH:GEOMETRY
45
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
x -o
2
+ y -b
2
= 16 istheequationofacircle
Statement(1)byitselfisinsufficient.S1saysthatthe
centerofthecircleisfurtherthan4unitsawayfrom
theoriginbutitdoesn'tspecifywhetherthecircleis
farenoughfromtheaxisnottointersectit.
Statement(2)byitselfissufficient.FromS2itfollows
thatandthusthecenterofthecircleisatleast5units
units,wecanconcludethatthecircledoesnot
intersecttheaxis.
MATH:GEOMETRY
46
GMAT Club 2011 53
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Enumeration
Therearethreemarbles:1blue,1grayand1
green.Inhowmanywaysisitpossibletoarrange
marblesinarow?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
1
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Solution: Let'swriteoutallpossibleways
Total:6
Enumerationisamethodofcountingallpossiblewaystoarrange
elements.Althoughitisthesimplestmethod,itisoftenthefastest
methodtosolvehardGMATproblemsandisapivotalprincipleforany
othercombinatorialmethod.Infact,combinationandpermutationis
shortcutsforenumeration.Themainideaofenumerationiswritingdown
allpossiblewaysandthencountthem.
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
2
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Enumeration2
Therearethreemarbles:1blue,1grayand1
green.Inhowmanywaysisitpossibleto
arrangemarblesinarowifblueandgreen
marbleshavetobenexttoeachother?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
3
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Solution: Let'swriteoutallpossiblewaysto
arrangemarblesinarawandthenfindonly
arrangementsthatsatisfyquestion'scondition:
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
4
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Enumeration3
Inhowmanywayscan5dressesbe
arrangedinastoredisplay?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
5
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
1.Howmanyobjectswecanputat1stplace?5.
2.Howmanyobjectswecanputat2ndplace?4
andsoon:3,2,1
Therefore,thetotalnumberofarrangementsofn
differentobjectsinarowis
N = n n -1 n -2 2 1 = n!
5!=5*4*3*2*1=20*6=120
N!iscalledafactorial.Factorialequalstothe
productofnumbersfromNto1.
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
6
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Enumeration4(UltraHard)
IfN isapositiveinteger,whatisthelastdigit
of1!+2!+.N!?
Nisdivisibleby4

N
2
+1
5
isanoddinteger
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
7
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Thisisaveryhardquestionthatrequiresanon
GMATquestionsoftendo)
Analyzingfactorials,youwillnoticethatthesumof
factorialswillhave3asthelastdigitifN>3,(starting
with5!,eachsumendswithazerosince5!=120,
6!=720,andsoon.)
S1issufficientsinceweknowN>3andthuswecansay
withcertaintythatlastdigitequalsto3
S2tellsusthatNisnot1or3andiseither2orgreater
than3.Ineithercase,thelastdigitwillbe3
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
8
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations1
Whatisthenumberofpossiblearrangementsof
objectsk fromacollectionofdistinctobjectsn?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
9
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Acombinationisanunordered collectionofkobjects
takenfromasetofndistinctobjects.Thenumberof
wayshowwecanchoosekobjectsoutofndistinct
objectsisdenotedas:C
k
n
Totalnumberofarrangementsofn distinctobjectsis
n!
Nowwehavetoexcludeallarrangementsofkobjects
(k!) andremaining(nk) objects((nk)!) astheorderof
chosenk objectsandremained(nk) objectsdoesn't
matter.
C
k
n
=
n!
k! n-k !
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
10
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations2
Whatisthenumberofpossiblearrangementsof
objectsk inacertainorderfromacollectionof
distinctobjectsn?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
11
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Apermutationisanordered collectionofkobjects
takenfromasetofndistinctobjects.Thenumber
ofwayshowwecanchoosekobjectsoutofn
distinctobjectsisdenotedas:P
k
n
1.Thetotalnumberofarrangementsofndistinct
objectsisn!
2.Nowwehavetoexcludeallarrangementsof
remaining(nk)!Objects
P
k
n
=
n!
n-k !
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
12
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations3
Whatisthedifferencebetween
combinationsandpermutations?
Whentousewhichformula?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
13
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
PermutationsformulaP =
n!
n-k !
isusedwhen
sequenceofchoicematters(meaningagroupABC
isdifferentfromBACorCBA).Classicexampleis
choosingnomineesfor3specificpositionsfroma
poolof10candidates
CombinationsformulaC=
n!
k! n-k !
isusedwhen
orderofselectionhasnoimpactandonceasmall
groupisformed,itdoesnotmatterhowthey
arrivedthere.Classicexampleispicking3marbles
fromabagof10
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
14
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations4
aroundtable,howmanyseating
arrangementsarepossible?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
15
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Thedifferencebetweenplacementinarowand
thatinacircleisfollowing:ifweshiftallobjectby
oneposition,wewillgetdifferentarrangementin
arowbutthesamerelativearrangementina
circle.So,forthenumberofcirculararrangements
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
16
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations5
Ifthereare5chairsinaroomandBoband
RachelwanttositsothatBobisalwaysleftof
Rachel,inhowmanywaysthisseating
arrangementbeachieved?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
17
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
NotethatleftofRachel,doesnotmean
immediatelynexttoRachel,justleftofher.
Thisconditioniscalledsymmetrybecauseit
eliminateshalfofthepossibilities(Rachelcansit
onlyleftorrightofBob).
Therefore,thenumberofwaysthatBobisleftof
Rachelisexactly
1
2
ofallpossiblewaysor
N =
1
2
P
5
2
= 1u
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
18
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinations6(UltraHard)
Inhowmanydifferentwayscanagroupof8
peoplebedividedinto4teamsof2people
each?
90
105
168
420
2520
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
19
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Thesolutiontothisproblemisthenumberof
combinations.Firstwegetoneteamoutof8.The
numberofwaystodothiswouldbeC
8
2
.Thenext
combinationis2outof6orC
4
2
,andsoon.Havingall
fourcombinationsmultiplied,weneedtodividethe
totalnumberbythenumberofwaystheteamscanbe
chosen,sincewearenotinterestediftheteamwith
twocertainpeopleischosenfirst,secondorthird.
formula:
C
8
2
C
6
2
C
4
2
C
2
2
4!
= 1uS
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
20
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability1
Whatistheprobabilitythatan
eventn willoccur?
Whatistheprobabilitythatan
eventn willnot occur?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
21
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Theprobabilitythatanevenn willtakeplaceis
n
N
whereN isthetotalnumberofpossible
occurrences
Theprobabilitythatanevenn willnotoccuristhe
oppositeofitoccurring,so1 -
n
N
or1 p
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
22
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability2
WhatistheprobabilityofgettingTails when
flippingacoin?
Whatistheprobabilityofgettinga4whenrollinga
die?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
23
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
TheprobabilityofgettingTailswhenflippingacoin
is
1
2
or50%sincethereare2totalpossibilitiesand
onlyoneoutcomeeachtimethecoinisflipped
1
6
;thereareatotalof6potentialpossibilities
(1,2,3,4,5,6)andonlyonechancetorolloneof
them.
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
24
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability3
Abucketcontains10greenand90white
whatistheprobabilitythatitwillbegreen?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
25
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Thenumberofgreenmarbles:n=10
Thenumberofallmarbles:N=10+90=100
Probability:
10
100
=
1
10
= 1u%
Thereisoneimportantconceptinproblemswith
marbles/cards/balls.Whenthefirstmarbleisremoved
fromajarandnotreplaced,theprobabilityforthe
secondmarblediffers(
10
100
vs.
10
99
).Whereasincaseof
acoinordicetheprobabilitiesarealwaysthesame(
1
6
and
1
2
).Usually,aproblemexplicitlystates:itisa
problemwithreplacementorwithoutreplacement.
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
26
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability4
afteroneflipandonetoss?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
27
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
events (occurrenceofoneeventdoesnot
influenceoccurrenceofotherevents).Forn
independenteventstheprobabilityistheproduct
ofallprobabilitiesofindependentevent.
1
2
and
probabilityofgettinga"4"is
1
6
.Therefore,the
1
2

1
6
=
1
12
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
28
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability5
Ifthereisa20%chanceofrainonanaverage
day,whatistheprobabilitythatitwillrainon
thefirstdayandwillbesunnyonthesecond?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
29
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Theprobabilityofrainis0.2;thereforeprobability
ofsunshineisq=1 0.2=0.8.Thisyieldsthatthe
probabilityofrainonthefirstdayandsunshineon
theseconddayis:
P=0.2*0.8=0.16
Note: whenworkingwithpercents,itisimportant
for20%orafractionformatsuchas
1
5
for20%)
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
30
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability6
Therearetwosetsofcardswithnumbers:
{1,3,6,7,8}and{3,5,2}.IfRobertchooses
randomlyonecardfromthefirstsetandone
cardfromthesecondset,whatisthe
probabilityofgettingtwooddnumbers?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
31
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Thereisatotalof5cardsinthefirstsetand3of
themareodd:{1,3,7}.Therefore,theprobability
ofgettingoddcardoutofthefirstsetis
3
5
.
Thereare3cardsinthesecondsetand2ofthem
areodd:{3,5}.Therefore,theprobabilityofgetting
anoddcardoutofthesecondsetis
2
3
.Finally,the
probabilityofgettingtwooddintegersis:
3
5

2
3
=
2
5
or40%
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
32
GMAT Club 2011 61
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability7
probabilityofgettingatleasta"3"?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
33
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Twoeventsaremutuallyexclusiveiftheycannot
occuratthesametime.Fornmutuallyexclusive
eventstheprobabilityisthesumofallprobabilities
ofevents:
P(AorB)=P(A)+P(B)
Thereare4outcomesthatsatisfyourcondition(to
rollatleast3):{3,4,5,6}.Theprobabilityofeach
outcomeis
1
6
.
Theprobabilityofgettingatleasta"3"is:
1
6
+
1
6
+
1
6
+
1
6
=
4
6
=
2
3
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
34
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability8
Thereare8employeesincludingBoband
Rachel.If2employeesaretoberandomly
chosentoformacommittee,whatisthe
probabilitythatthecommitteeincludesboth
BobandRachel?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
35
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Combinatorialapproach:
ThetotalnumberofpossiblecommitteesisC
2
8
=28
ThenumberofpossiblecommitteethatincludesbothBob
andRachelis1
P=
1
28
Probabilityapproach:
TheprobabilityofchoosingBoborRachelasafirstperson
incommitteeis
2
8
.TheprobabilityofchoosingRachelor
is
1
7
.TheprobabilitythatthecommitteeincludesbothBob
andRachelis
1
28
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
36
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability8 Part2
Thereare8employeesincludingBoband
Rachel.If2employeesaretoberandomly
chosentoformacommittee,whatisthe
probabilitythatthecommitteeincludesboth
BobandRachel?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
37
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ReverseCombinatorialApproach:
event,sometimesitisbettertocalculatetheprobabilityof
theoppositeandthenuseformulap=1 q.
ThetotalnumberofpossiblecommitteesisC
2
8
=28
Thenumberofpossiblecommitteethatdoesnot includes
bothBobandRachelis:m = C
2
6
+2 C
1
6
where,C
2
6
is
thenumberofcommitteesformedfrom6remaining
people
2 C
1
6
isthenumberofcommitteesformedfromRobor
Rachelandoneoutof6otherpeople
P = 1 -
m
N
= 1 -
C
2
6
+2C
1
6
C
2
8
= 1 -
15+26
28
= 1 -
27
28
=
1
28
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
38
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability8 Part3
Thereare8employeesincludingBoband
Rachel.If2employeesaretoberandomly
chosentoformacommittee,whatisthe
probabilitythatthecommitteeincludesboth
BobandRachel?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
39
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Reverseprobabilityapproach:
Wecanchooseanyfirstperson.
Then,ifwehaveRachelorBobasthefirstchoice,we
canchooseanyotherpersonoutofthe6remaining
people.
IfwehaveneitherRachelnorBobasfirstchoice,we
canchooseanypersonoutoftheremaining7people.
TheprobabilitythatthecommitteeincludesbothBob
andRachelis:P = 1 -
2
8

6
7
+
6
8
1 = 1 -
27
28
=
1
28

MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
40
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Probability9
JuliaandBrainplayagameinwhichJulia
takesaballandifitisgreen,shewins.Ifthe
firstballisnotgreen,shetakesthesecond
ball(withoutreplacingfirst)andshewinsif
thetwoballsarewhiteorifthefirstballis
grayandthesecondballiswhite.Whatisthe
1gray,2whiteand4greenballs?
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
41
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Sometimes,at700+levelyoumayseecomplex
probabilityproblemsthatincludeconditionsor
todrawaprobabilitytreethatincludeallpossible
outcomesandtheirprobabilities.
Now,Itisprettyobvious:
P =
4
7
+
2
7

1
6
+
1
7

2
6
=
2
3
MATH:PROBABILITY&COMBINATIONS
42
GMAT Club 2011 64
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
RecommendedMathGMATBooks
MATH:ARITHMETIC
Needtostartfromthebeginning?
MGMATMathFoundations
Needagoodlevelofpractice?
KaplanMathWorkbook
Needthemostpractice?
MGMATMathGuides orVeritas PrepMathGuides
QuantitativeGMATOfficialGuide 2
nd
ed
GMATTotal Math
GMATbookreviews: http://gmatclub.com/books
GMAT Club 2011 65
VERBAL STRATEGIES
GMAT Club 2011 66
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ContentsofFlashCards
BasicStrategiesandPrinciplesofSentence
Comprehensionwithafewexamples
throughexamples
2
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 67
CriticalReasoning
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Contents
MainPoint/MustBeTrue
Weaken
Strengthen
Assumption
Reasoning
BoldFaced
NumbersandPercents
2
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
BasicDeconstruction
conclusion
thatmightberight
choices.Don'ttrytomakethemfit!
3
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MainpartsofaCRquestion
Conclusion
Premise Assumption
4
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 68
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MainpartsofaCRquestion
Conclusion:Thisisthefinalargumentthatthe
authormakes.
Premise:Theseareevidentiarystatementsthat
supporttheconclusion
Assumption:Theseareunstatedpremises,on
whichtheconclusionandsometimesthepremise
reston.
5
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Premise&Conclusion
PREMISE CONCLUSION
questionofWhy?
Hasatoneoffinality andconveysthefinal
messageofwhattheauthorissaying
Because Thus
Since Therefore
For/Forthereason Hence
Dueto So
Asindicatedby Asaresultof/Consequently
Furthermore Accordingly
Giventhat Itfollowsthat/Itmustbethat
6
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
TypeI AscertainConclusion
Thesearequestionswhereweassumethatthe
aresupportedbytheconclusion
PossibleQuestionTypes:
1. Inference
2. MainPoint
3. MustbeTrue
7
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
TypeII Strengthen&Support
Thesearequestionswhereweassumethatthe
bestonethatwillsupportthestimulus
PossibleQuestionTypes:
1. Strengthen
2. Assumption
8
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 69
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
TypeIII WeakenandHurt
Thisisbasicallytheoppositeoftheabovetypeand
aimstodisprovetheconclusionofthestimulus.
aswell.
PossibleQuestionTypes:
1. Strengthen
2. Assumption
9
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MostCommonMistakeTypes
supposedtodo
Peoplepickthembecausetheymightgetconfused
Soundsreallysimilartothestimulusbutdiffersbyjust
therightamounttobeincorrectbutstilllucrative.
Peoplepickthesewhentheyrenotpayingclose
attention
10
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
discussionathand.
Peopletendtopickthesewhentheyrecompletely
unsureofwhattheyresupposedtobedoing
Mightbetoostrongortooweakwhencomparedto
stimulus
MostCommonMistakeTypes
11
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
MainPoint/MustBeTrue
Whichofthefollowingrepresentsthemainideaoftheparagraph?
Whichofthefollowingcanbeinferredfromtheabove?
mainpointofthepassage,i.e.similartotheconclusion?
Shouldbevalidatedbythestimulus(Stimulusistakentobetrue)
Shouldbethemainpointofthestimulus,notjustapremise(for
MainPointquestions)
12
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 70
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Tobeconsideredforthisyearsmeritscholarshipaward,studentsneedto
haveperfectattendanceanda4.0GPA.Alexistheonlypersonintheclass
Theclaimsabove,iftrue,moststronglysupportwhichofthefollowing
conclusions?
A. Nostudentatthisschoolhasperfectattendancefortheyear
B. Somestudentsatthisschoolwhodidnothavea4.0alsodidnothave
perfectattendance
C. Alexistheonlystudentwhocouldbeconsideredfortheaward
D. Nostudentatthisschoolqualifiesfortheawardthisyear
E. Manystudentshaveachievedperfectattendancebutnever4.0GPAs.
ABCDE
13
VERBAL
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A:Exaggeration.
B:Possible,butnotnecessary
C:Thestimulusclearlysaysthatyouneedboth
perfectattendanceand4.0GPA.
D:Thisistrue.IfAlexistheonlyonewhohasa
4.0andhedoesnthaveaperfectattendance,it
meanstheentireschoolisbarredfrom
qualifyingfortheaward.Correctchoice.
ABCDE
14
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Weaken
Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,callsintoquestionthevalidityofthe
argument?
Whichofthefollowingmostseriouslyunderminestheconclusion?
alternatecause,showthatthecauseeffectrelationshipisnon
existentorreversed?
takentobetrue)
Couldbeinrelationtoagrossgeneralization,awrongconclusion
orincorrecthypothesisfromfacts.
15
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
16
VERBAL
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Thereare350brandsofcellphonesinthemarkettoday.However,ourstore
onlystocksthetop10brands.Inordertoincreaseoursales,weplanto
increasethesizeofourinventorytothetop50brands.
Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,pointsoutamajorflawintheplanabove?
A. Thecapabilitiesofthetopfivecellphonesarealmostthesame,withno
brandhavingconsistentsuperiorityinallrespects.
B. Thetop8brandsaccountforalmostallthecellphonessold
C. Asusersgetmoresophisticated,theywanttotryoutthelesserknown
brandswhichmightoffersomeothervaluetothem.
D. Lesspopularbrandsprovidelittleprofittothestorebecausetheyhaveto
bediscountedtobesold
similarfeaturesforalowercost
ABCDE
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A:Irrelevant.Doesthisaffectprofitmarginsforthe
storeiftheyweretoincreaseinventory?No
thatsellthemost.Increasinginventorywillhave
C:Thisalmoststrengthenstheargument.
D:Thistellsyouthatthelesserbrandswillprovide
lesserprofit.Butlessisarelativeterm.Thisisan
unclearstatement.
E: Thisalmoststrengthenstheargumentbyfavoring
anincreaseininventory.Henceincorrect.
ABCDE
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Strengthen
Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,strengthenstheargumentthemost?
Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,wouldmostsignificantlyhelpprovethe
scientistshypothesis?
causality?
tobetrue)
Needstodirectlystrengthenconclusionbybridginglogicalgaps,
directstrengthening,moveon!Donttrytomaketheconnections!
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portraysfromoneoffamilyvaluestooneconcernedmorewithsexandviolence.Surely
proprietythatoccasionallydrivestheiractions.
Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,wouldstrengthenthisconclusion?
simultaneouslyfromapublication.
familyvalues.
QuestionfromGMATClub(95810)

ABCDE
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A:Thisisirrelevanttothequestionofmoral
propriety.
B:Thisdoesntnecessarilypointtomoral
proprietydirectly.Dontmakeunnecessary
connections!
C:Onceagain,nocorrelationtowhatweretalking
D:Ifthisistrue,thenitshowsthattheagencies
ABCDE
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Assumption
Theauthorassumeswhichofthefollowinginsayingthat
Theargumentcannotbetrueunlesswhichofthefollowing
statementsareassumed?
logicalgaps
Defender:Eliminatesthealternativesandanychoicesthatmight
weakentheconclusion.
AssumptionNegationTechnique:Narrowitdowntothefinal
verb(suchthatthemeaningofthesentenceisreversed)andifthe
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werecarriedtoEarthbyameteorite.However,strainsofbacteriafromdifferent
planetswouldprobablyhavesubstantialdifferencesinproteinstructurethatwould
persistovertime,andnotwobacterialstrainsonEartharedifferentenoughtohave
musthavediedout.
Theargumentismostvulnerabletowhichofthefollowingcriticisms?
A.ItfailstoestablishwhetherbacteriaactuallydevelopedonMars.
B.ItfailstoestablishhowlikelyitisthatMartianbacteriaweretransportedtoEarth.
C.Itfailstoconsiderwhetherthereweremeansotherthanmeteoritesbywhich
MartianbacteriacouldhavebeencarriedtoEarth.
D.ItfailstoconsiderwhetherallbacterianowonEarthcouldhavearisenfrom
transportedMartianbacteria.
E.Itfailstoconsiderwhethertherecouldhavebeenstrainsofbacteriathat
originatedonEarthandlaterdiedout.
QuestionfromGMATClub(80726)
ABCDE
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A:Thisisirrelevanttotheargumentthatstatesthat
evenifbacteriacamefromMars,theymusthave
diedout.
B:OutofScope!
out
D:Ifthisistrue,thenthereneednothavetobeany
significantdifferencebetweenthestrainsfoundon
Earth,sincetheyalloriginatedfromMars.
ABCDE
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Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,helpsexplaintheapparent
discrepancyintheargument?
ActiveResolution:Donttrytodisprovethestimulus,takeitasa
given.
MUSTconformtothestimulus
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asagroup.Thegovernmentpaysfarmerstheamount,ifany,bywhichthemarketpriceat
whichcropsareactuallysoldfallsshortofapresettargetpriceperbushelforthecrops.
Thedroughtof1983,forexample,causedfarmprogrampaymentstodropby\$10billion.
Giventheinformationabove,whichofthefollowing,iftrue,bestexplainswhythe
droughtof1983resultedinareductioninfarmprogrampayments?
A. Priortothedroughtof1983,thegovernmentraisedthetargetpriceforcropsinorderto
B. Duetothedroughtof1983,UnitedStatesfarmersexportedlessfoodin1983thaninthe
precedingyear.
ahighermarketpriceforthe1983cropthanforthelargercropoftheprecedingyear.
D. Duetothedroughtof1983,UnitedStatesfarmersplannedtoplantsmallercropsin1984
E. Despitethedroughtof1983,retailpricesforfooddidnotincreasesignificantlybetween
1982and1983.QuestionfromGMATClub(80726)
ABCDE
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AmountPaid=Target Market.Wecantsay
anythingunlessweknowwhathappenedtothe
marketprice.
B:Exportsareirrelevanthere.
becomelesserifmarketbecomeshigher
D:Sizeofcropsisirrelevant.
E: Between19821983?Retailprice?OutofScope!
ABCDE
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Reasoning
Whichofthefollowingmostaccuratelydescribestheauthors
methodofdefendingthecase?
Whichofthefollowingismostparalleltotheargumentinlogical
structure?
Shouldfollowthesamepatternofreasoning.Focusonthelogic,
notthecontentoftheargument!
followsthesamepattern rightornot.
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Shakespearewastheworld'sgreatestplaywright,whichmeansthathemusthavewrittentheworld's
greatestplays.Thefactthathewrotethegreatestplaysintheworldonlygoestoprovethatheisthe
world'sgreatestplaywright.
Whichofthefollowingstatementsbestmatchestheargumentshownabove?
A. Dr.SmithistheonlymemberofthetwentystrongEnglishdepartmentwhothinksthatByronwrote
B. Amiscarriageofjusticeoccurswhenaninnocentpersonissenttoprison.However,thereareno
miscarriagesofjusticebecausepeopleinprisonareguilty.Otherwisetheywouldnothavebeensent
toprison.
C. Thepresenceofenlargedwhitecorpusclesinthebloodwouldindicatethatthepatientmustbe
sufferingfromdiseaseX.However,hisbloodsamplecontainsnoenlargedwhitecorpuscles,sohe
cannotbesufferingfromdiseaseX.
D. Blairdenieshavingcommittedtherobbery,buthasimplicatedBrown.Brownontheotherhand,
claimsthathewaselsewhereatthetime,andpointsthefingersquarelybackatBlair.
E. Ibelievethatthepresenceofthetartarsaucehelpstoaccentuatetheflavouroftheother
ingredients,buttheyinturnreleasechemicalswhichtendtoneutralisethetartarsauce.Therefore
thedishismuchlessspicythanpuretartarsaucewouldbe.
QuestionfromGMATClub(92697)
ABCDE
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A:Thiscallsformakingajudgmentbasedon
someonesopinion.Nottrue.
B: Thisistrue.Theargumentinthestimulusisa
circularargumentthatsaysAprovesBandthen
usesBtoproveA.Asimilarpatternexistshere.
C:Thishasanegationeffectinthereasoning.Not
relevant.
butitsactuallyjustacircularsequenceofevents.
ABCDE
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BoldFacedQuestions
Thetwoboldfacedsentencesplaywhichofthefollowing
roles?
Willbetruetothestimulusandmimicthereasoningin
thestimulus!
stimulus,anditshouldfollowthesamelogicalpatternin
ordertoarriveattheargumentofthestimulus..
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AlthoughtheearliestsurvivingGreekinscriptionswritteninanalphabetdatefromtheeighthcentury
centuriesearlier. Significantly,thetextoftheseearliestsurvivingGreekinscriptionssometimesruns
fromrighttoleftandsometimesfromlefttoright.Now,theGreekslearnedalphabeticwritingfrom
Intheargumentgiven,thetwoportionsinboldfaceplaywhichofthefollowingroles?
hasbeenusedtosupportapositionthattheargumentopposes.
B.Thefirstisthepositionthattheargumentseekstoestablish;thesecondpresentsanassumption
onwhichtheargumentrelies.
C.Thefirstpresentsevidencethatisusedinsupportofthepositionthattheargumentseeksto
establish;thesecondpresentsanassumptiononwhichtheargumentrelies.
D.Thefirstisanobjectionraisedagainstapositionthattheargumentopposes;thesecondisthe
positionthattheargumentseekstoestablish.
E.Thefirstisanobjectionraisedagainstapositionthattheargumentopposes;thesecondis
evidencethathasbeenusedtosupportthatposition.
QuestionfromGMATClub(98749)
ABCDE
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A:Thesecondboldfacedportiondoesntrepresenta
discovery;itsanassumption
B: Thisistrue.Thefirstpartisaclausethestimulus
wantstoproveandthesecondisanassumption
C:Thefirstboldfacedportiondoesntobjecttoany
statement.
D:Thefirstboldfacedportiondoesntobjecttoany
statement.
E: Thefirstboldfacedportiondoesntobjecttoany
statement.
ABCDE
38
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Numbers&Percents
Larger numbers doesnt mean larger percentage
and smaller number doesnt mean smaller
percentage. For example,
Increase in percentage is not the same as saying
there is an increase in absolute numbers. This
could merely be the result of a change in the
group size. For example, 5% of 100 > 10% of 50.
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ArecentsurveyofallautoaccidentvictimsinDoleCountyfoundthat,oftheseverelyinjured
driversandfrontseatpassengers,80percentwerenotwearingseatbeltsatthetimeoftheir
accidents.Thisindicatesthat,bywearingseatbelts,driversandfrontseatpassengerscangreatly
reducetheirriskofbeingseverelyinjurediftheyareinanautoaccident.
Theconclusionaboveisnotproperlydrawnunlesswhichofthefollowingistrue?
A. Ofallthedriversandfrontseatpassengersinthesurvey,morethan20percentwerewearingseat
beltsatthetimeoftheiraccidents.
B. Considerablymorethan20percentofdriversandfrontseatpassengersinDoleCountyalways
wearseatbeltswhentravellingbycar.
C. Moredriversandfrontseatpassengersinthesurveythanrearseatpassengerswereveryseverely
injured.
D. Morethanhalfofthedriversandfrontseatpassengersinthesurveywerenotwearingseatbelts
atthetimeoftheiraccidents.
E. MostoftheautoaccidentsreportedtopoliceinDoleCountydonotinvolveanyseriousinjury.
QuestionfromGMATClub(88036)
ABCDE
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A:Thisisatrickyquestion.Ouraimistoproveacorrelation.Letssay100
peoplewereseverelyinjuredand100werenot.Outofthe100
severelyinjured,80didntwearseatbelts.
Probabilityofapersonnotwearingseatbelttogetinjured=
Probabilityofapersonwearingseatbelttogetinjured=
B:Doesntestablishthecorrelationbetweenwhatsbeingsaid.Hence
incorrect.
C:Thisdoesntevengiveusarelativeindication.Incorrect.
E: Completelyirrelevanttothescopeofthediscussion.
ABCDE
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Contents
GlobalQuestions
MainPoint/PrimaryPurpose
PassageOrganization
AuthorsPerspective/PassageTone
LocalQuestions
SpecificReference
Function
StrengthenandWeaken
ParallelReasoningQuestion
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FourQuestionsforRC
Why?MainPointofthepassage.
How?Structureofthepassage Introduction,Exampleand
CounterExample.Andsoon.
What?Whatisbeingsaid?(MainPointofIndividualParagraphs)
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CONTINUATIONOFOLDIDEAS INTRODUCTION OFNEWIDEAS
Continues elaboratingonanideathats
Introducesanothernewidea, perhaps
tocontrastsomethingpresented.
Furthermore However
ForInstance But
ForExample Nevertheless
Similarly InContrast
Indeed Although
Infact Still
Newvs.ExistingIdeas
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CommonIndicators
VeryCommonQuestionType
point!
Main PointorStrongPurpose
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VeryCommonDistraction
Dontfocusonthedifficultyofthewordsor
terminologies
meaningofwhatitssaying
DifficultWords,Phrases&Concepts
CommonIndicators
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CommonIndicators
Paycloseattention!
Dontmemorize!
Verycommonquestionindicator.Makeamental
noteofwherethelistoccurs,soyoucanreturnto
it,ifnecessary.
ListofThings/Enumerations
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thisauthoritativeremarkisnecessary.
Mightrepresentconflictingviewpointsorideas.
Makenoteofwhateachauthoritysaysandwhytheir
authorityisrelevant.
Very,veryimportant,andveryeasytomisinterpret!
Reference withAuthority
CommonIndicators
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Matchthecorrectdateswiththeevents
mentioned
Perhaps,makeanoteofthedatesandashort
DatesandNumbers
CommonIndicators
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CommonIndicators
Ideasthatarementionedmorethanonceinthe
passage.
Evenifthequestioncitesalinenumberforoneof
thesameideamentionedelsewhere,oranother
partofthepassage.
HiddenReferences
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CommonIndicators
Ifseveralviewpointsarepresentedinthepassage,
makenoteofeachpointandwhossayingit/why
itsbeingsaid.
Understandingofthesecounterexamplesorviews
areveryimportant!Theywillbeindicatedby
wordssuchasHoweverorIncontrast
Contrasting Views
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Commonwhenthepassageisofscientificnature
Makeanoteofthedefinitionandexpecttobe
definition
Definitions
CommonIndicators
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Type
Global Local
BasicQuestionTypes
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QuestionTypes
MainPoint/PrimaryPurpose
PassageOrganization
AuthorsPerspective/PassageTone
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RepresentsCoreIdeas
passage,andwhatitseekstoconvey.
MainPoint/Primary Purpose
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Forinstance,thestructuremightbesomething
likethis:
Introduction
Example
CounterExample
Passage Organization
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perspective
Understandwhattheauthoristryingtosay,and
whereheorshestandswithrespecttotheviews
presented.
Istheauthoraggressive?Oristheauthordocile?
Whatisthetoneofthemessageconveyed?
AuthorsPerspective/ToneofPassage
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QuestionTypes
SpecificReference
Function
StrengthenandWeaken
ParallelReasoningQuestion
Local SpecificQuestions(FourTypes)
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LocalQuestions
Willrefertoaspecificlineorparagraphinthe
Mightinvolvecrossreferencingwithother
relevantinformationpresentedelsewhereinthe
passage
SpecificReference
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LocalQuestions
eitheraparagraph,alineorevenawordistrying
ofthepassage
Whatdoesthislinedo?
Function
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LocalQuestions
SimilartoCriticalReasoningQuestionsofthe
sametype.
conclusiveviewpointpresentedbytheauthor,
i.e.themainpoint
Strengthen/Weaken
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LocalQuestions
Again,similartoCriticalReasoningQuestionofthe
sametype
aviewpointthatmimicsthereasoningthatthe
authorfollows.
Identifyingthestructureofthepassageandthe
structureofalinewithinapassageasnecessary
wouldgreatlyhelp!
Parallel Reasoning
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RCinaNutshell
Therightmentality:ThepassageWILLbe
intentionallyconfusing.Getusedtoit!
Awarenessofcontent:Thepassagesmightbe
fromhumanities,socialsciencesorsciences.
Dontgetboggeddownbyonekindorget
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RCinaNutshell
Understandquestiontypes:GlobalorLocal
thatyouhavetomakeconnectionsfor.
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SentenceCorrection
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Contents
SubjectVerbAgreement
VerbTenseErrors
NounAgreement
Pronouns
Modifiers
Comparisons
Parallelism
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DeconstructingSC
sentence,subjectverbagreement,tensemismatchetc.
overallstructure.
Step3:Oneofthegroupswillcontainanerror.Eliminatethegroup
andresplitthenextgroup.
Don'ttrytomakethemfit!
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ofgrammarfollowedbyStandardEnglish.
Meaning Thesentencehastohavearelevant
meaningandconveyitproperly
Concision Ifwhatisbeingsaidcanbesaidinfive
(Activevs.Passivevoice,forexample)
WhatsTested?
ThreeQuestionTypesYouWillSee
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Spelling TheGMATwillnottestyouonyour
knowledgeofspellings
andsimilarthingswillnotbetested.Semicolons,
however,aretested.
Capitalization TheGMATdoesnttestyouon
yourknowledgeofcapitalizationeither.
Andwhatsnot?
ThreeQuestionTypesYouWontSee
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Thisdealswiththeissueofplurality.
Singularsubjectsmustusesingularverbs.For
example:Hewas eating.
PluralVerbsmustusepluralverbs.Forexample:
Theelephantswere walking.
ErrorsTested
SubjectVerbAgreement
72
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sentencewithoutthem.
amansarmor,JoanofArc,anilliteratepeasantgirl
fromtheFrenchcountryside,brokethesevenmonth
oldseizeofOrleansinninedays.
amansarmor,JoanofArc,brokethesevenmonthold
seizeofOrleansinninedays.
Trap1:
Phrasesbetweensubject andverb
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Ifthereareexpletives,thencheckforsubjectverb
agreement,byrearrangingthesentence.
Somecommonexpletives:
There
Here
It
Or
Trap2: SubjectFollows Verb
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Ifthereismorethanonenounortheusageofa
pronouninasentence,thenthesubjectverb
agreementMUSTbeconsistent!!
TwoExceptions:
Conjunctions(OR,NOR) AlwaysSINGULAR
UsageofEACHorEVERY AlwaysSINGULAR
Trap3: MultipleNounsorPronouns
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Pronounslikeall,any,more,most,somebody,nobody
andsoon.
Pluralityisbasedonwhattheindefinitepronounis
referringto!(Thisistheantecedent)
Exceptions:
Each,Either,Neither,Every,Number Alwayssingular
irrespectiveofwhatfollows!
Example:Anumberofreasons Singular!Anumberof
cars Singular!
Trap4: Indefinite Pronouns
76
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Tense
Past
Present
Future
Forms
Simple
Perfect
Progressive
PerfectProgressive
ErrorsTested
VerbTense
77
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
IncorrectVerbTense
ShiftinVerbTense
VerbVoice
VerbTense SubTypes
ErrorsTested
78
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Thenumberofnounsmustbeconsistentwithwhat
theyarereferencing.
Incorrect: MattandDavebelievedthattheirhard
workintheirengineeringclasswillhelpthemrealize
theirdreamofbecomingagreatengineer.
Correct:MattandDavebelievedthattheirhardwork
intheirengineeringclasswillhelpthemrealizetheir
dreamofbecominggreatengineers.
ErrorsTested
Noun Agreement
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PronounAntecedentDisagreement
IncorrectUseofRelativePronouns
AmbiguousandImpliedPronouns
UseofPronouns
ErrorsTested
80
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ThepronounMUSTrefertoitsantecedent.
Thepronounantecedentrelationshipshouldbe
consistentthroughoutthesentence.
Incorrect: Eachofthewomenselectedforthe
Correct: Eachofthewomenselectedforthe
PronounErrorSubTypes
PronounAntecedentDisagreement
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betweenthepronounandantecedentmakingiteasy
tolosetrackoftherelationshipbetweenpronouns
andtheirantecedents.
Incorrect:Thelibrary,withitsmanybooksand
databases,requireaspecialmembership.
Correct: Thelibrary,withitsmanybooksand
databases,requiresaspecialmembership.
Distancebtw.pronoun&antecedent
Trap 1:
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Theseareverygeneralpronouns many,few,
both,everyandsoon.
Incorrect:Manyofthestudentsweresurprisedto
Correct:Incorrect:Manyofthestudentswere
surprisedtolearnthattheirexamswasunfairly
Indefinite Pronouns
Trap 2:
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AntecedentsthatSOUNDSpluralbutactualare
singularorviceversa.
Forexample,familyissingular,andpersonsis
singulartoo.Itmightbeagroupofpeopleina
family,butbeingacollectivenoun,itsstill
singular!
Trap 3:
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Theyrelategroupsofwordstoanounorpronoun
which,whom,whomsoever,whereandwhy.
Twotrapsofincorrectusage:
IncorrectPronounChoiceforPeopleandThings
Differencebetweenwhoandwhom
PronounErrorSubTypes
Incorrectuseofrelativepronouns
85
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WhoandWhomwillalwaysrelatetopeople.
Thedoctorthat performedthesurgerywashonored
shouldbewho
ThatandWhichwillalwaysrelatetothings,i.e.
inanimateobjects.
Themachinewho performedthesurgerywas
showcasedintheexhibit shouldbethat
Trap 1:
PronounChoice
86
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Verysimpletrick!
Makethefollowingsubstitutions:
He Who
Him Whom
Thesubstitutionthatmakessensewillcorrespondwith
thecorrectwordinthatcontext.
Sometimesitmightbenecessarytorearrangethe
sentenceforittomakesense.
Trap 2:
Whovs.Whom?
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Forexample:ThenewBMWmodelisdesignedto
drivefasterandmoreefficientthantheprevious
model.
Theusageofthewordefficientiswrongheresinceits
modifyingtheverb.Thecorrectwordusagewouldbe
efficiently
Modifiers
ErrorsTested
88
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ErrorsinCountNouns(canbecounted trees,
bottles,billions).Quantifiersaremany,both,few,
several,acoupleandsoon.
ErrorsinNonCountNouns(cannotbecounted
water,liquid).Quantifiersaremuch,alittle,abit
andsoon.
Somemodifierslikeall,andsomecanbeusedfor
both.
Trap1:
89
Quantifiers
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Misplacedmodifiersaremodifiersthatareplacedin
thewrongpositiononasentence.
Incorrect:Shortonmoney,thecarwasthebestoneTanya
couldfind.
Correct:Shortonmoney,Tanyaknewthatthecarwasthe
bestoneshecouldfind.
DanglingModifiersarethosewherethereferentis
completelyabsent.
ofhiscat.
Trap2:
90
Placement
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GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Misplacedmodifierswithrelativeclauses(like
thatorwhich)
Incorrect:Accordingtothereport,bicycleswillbe
confiscatedthathavenotbeenregisteredwiththe
university.
Correct:Accordingtothereport,bicyclesthathave
notbeenregisteredwiththeuniversitywillbe
confiscated.
Trap2:
91
Placement
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Incorrectuseofcomparativedegree
IllogicalComparisons
Comparisons
ErrorsTested
92
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Whentherearetwoobjectsbeingcompared,youhave
touseacomparativeword.Whenmorethantwo
objectsarecompared,youhavetouseasuperlative
word.
Incorrect:Thoughthereportersfeltthatinjuryplayedapart
inTennesseeslosstoMinnesota,Tennesseescoachsaid
Correct:Thoughthereportersfeltthatinjuryplayedapart
inTennesseeslosstoMinnesota,Tennesseescoachsaid
ComparisonSubType
Degree ofComparison
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Onlysimilarobjectscanbecompared.Youcannot
Incorrect: ThoughtherecentLaysfoodpoisoning
theLayschipsaresoldmoreoftenthananyotherfood
company.
Correct: ThoughtherecentLaysfoodpoisoningincident
chipsaresoldmoreoftenthanthoseproducedbyany
otherfoodcompany.
ComparisonSubType
Illogical Comparison
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ParallelVerbsandVerbFormErrors
ParallelNounErrors
ParallelPrepositionsandArticles
ParallelConjunctions
ParallelComparisons
Parallelism
ErrorsTested
95
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Nounsarenaturallyparallel.Butwhentheyarein
theformwithaningattheend(gerunds),theyare
confusedforverbs.
Incorrect: Thecommonsymptomsofthestomachflu
areindigestion,vomitinganddrinkinglesswaterthan
usual.
Correct: Thecommonsymptomsofthestomachflue
areindigestion,vomitinganddecreasedwaterintake.
ParallelismSubType
VerbErrors
96
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Whenasentencehastwoormoresimilarparts
sameverbform.
Incorrect: Thenewexampatternrequiresstudentsto
entertheirstudentIDsandsigningtheirnamesonthe
roster.
Correct: Thenewexampatternrequiresstudentsto
entertheirstudentIDsandsigntheirnamesonthe
roster.
NounErrors
ParallelismSubType
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Aprepositionandanarticlemusteitherbeusedby
allpartsofasentenceorbyjustthefirstpart.
Incorrect: Bydoingeachassignment,turningin
homeworksontimeandby attendingalltheclasses,
class.
Correct: Bydoingeachassignment,turningin
homeworksontime,andattendingalltheclasses,one
Prepositional/Article Errors
ParallelismSubType
98
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Theconjunctionsusedmustbeparallelinstructure.
Someexamples:
Incorrect: Therestaurantnotonlyhiredanewchef,butit
also expandeditsseatingcapacity.
Correct: Therestaurantnotonlyhiredanewchef,butalso
expandeditsseatingcapacity.
ParallelConjunctions
Neither nor Eitheror
Notonly butalso Bothand
Whether or Asas
ParallelismSubType
99
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
ParallelComparisons
Whencomparisons areleftunparallel,thatcan
amount toanerroraswell.
Incorrect: In thebook,theauthormentionsthathe
foundeditingpicturesmuchmorearduousand
Correct: Inthebook,theauthormentionsthathe
foundeditingpictures muchmorearduousand
difficultthantakingpictures.
ParallelismSubType
100
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 92
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Usageoffragmentsordependentclauseson
eithersideofasemicolon
Incorrect:Theguineapigisnotatruepig;rather,a
rodentthatbelongstotheCaviidae family.
Correct: Theguineapigisnotatruepig,butrathera
rodentthatbelongstotheCaviidae family.
Correct: Theguineapigisnotatruepig;itsarodent
thatbelongstotheCaviidae family.
SemiColons
ErrorsTested
101
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
TheGMATwillpreferusageofthemostconcise
sentencespossible.
Incorrect: Hedecidedtonotpurchasethecarduetothe
factthat itwastooexpensive.
Correct: Hedecidedtonotpurchasethecarbecauseit
wastooexpensive.
theviola.
viola.
WordinessandRedundancy
ErrorsTested
102
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Very,verycommonerrortested.
Aphrasethatiscommonlyacceptedascorrect
eventhoughitsgrammaticallyinconsistent
Anidiomerrorwillmisrepresenttheidiom.
Idiomsareprovidedwithrightandwrongusage
inthecardsthatfollow.
Idioms
ErrorsTested
103
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Amongvs.Between
Among:
Used when more than two items are in question.
Example: He was the best among three candidates.
Between:
Used when two items are in question
Example: He was the best between the two of them.
ErrorsTestedIdiomRules
104
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 93
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Bothvs.Each
Both:
Used to point out similarities.
Example: Both of them were good at swimming.
Each:
Used to point out differences/dissimilarities. (Always
singular)
Example: Each girl had her own niche.
ErrorsTestedIdiomRules
105
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Twicevs.Double
Twice:
Twice/Thrice etc. are used for comparison
Example: The Toyota was twice as fast as the Honda.
Double:
Used as a verb only.
Example: He more than doubled his wealth by
investing in stocks.
ErrorsTestedIdiomRules
106
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
EachOthervs.OneAnother
Each Other:
Used to compare two things.
Example: They loved each other dearly.
One another:
Used to compare more than two things.
Example: The three brothers loved one another dearly.
ErrorsTestedIdiomRules
107
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Ifvs.Whether
If:
Primarily used only in If else sentences.
Example: If this is true, the market will collapse. Else, it will
be okay tomorrow.
Whether:
Used more frequently as a comparison.
Example: Whether or not he chooses to accept the prize is
up to him.
ErrorsTestedIdiomRules
108
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 94
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Likevs.SuchAs
Like:
Used when indicating similarities between things.
Example: Like John, Amy was a violinist too.
Such as:
Used to list examples.
Example: There are different kinds of tigers such as the
Bengal Tigers, white tigers and so on.
ErrorsTestedIdiomRules
109
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
AbilityTo
Correct:Dolphinshavetheabilitytoemitlowfrequency
whistles
Incorrect:Dolphinshavetheabilityofemittinglow
frequencywhistles.
Actas/like
Correct:Asignaturecanattackaslegalattestation.
Incorrect:Asignaturecanattacklikealegalattestation.
Correct:Hewasactinglikeachild.
Incorrect:Hewasactingasachild.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
110
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Agreeupon/to
Correct: Weagreeduponthedateofthemeeting
Incorrect:Weagreedtothedateofthemeeting.
Correct:Weagreedtoshareourroom.
Incorrect:Weagreeduponsharingourroom.
Allowfor
Correct: Onemustalwaysallowforamarginoferror
Incorrect:Onemustalwaysallowtohaveamarginof
ErrorsTestedIdioms
111
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Appealto
Correct:Iappealedtohissenseofjustice.
Incorrect:Iappealedforhissenseofjustice.
Areindangerof
Correct:Thegiantpandabearsareindangerof
extinction.
dyingfromdeforestation.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
112
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 95
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
disorder
attentiondisorder.
Asgoodas
Correct:Itsasgoodasnew.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
113
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Associatewith
Correct:Iassociatespringwithflowers.
Incorrect:IalwaysassociatewatertoNiagarafalls.
Attendto
Correct:Ihavetoattendtosomeduties
Incorrect:Ihavetoattendforsomeduties.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
114
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Attributeto
Correct:Iattributemysuccesstohardwork.
Incorrect:Iattributemysuccesswithhardwork.
Baseon
criteria.
criteria.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
115
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Begintoseedaylight
Correct:Afterworkingontheprojectallnight,Iam
finallybeginningtoseedaylight.
Incorrect:Afterworkingontheprojectallnight,Iam
finallybeginningtoviewthedaylight.
Between<>and<>
cakes.
cakes.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
116
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 96
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Correct:Idontcaremuchforsweets
Claimto/Claimthat
Correct:Ineverclaimedtopossessremarkablesinging
talent.
Incorrect:Ineverclaimedthatpossessremarkable
singingtalent.
Correct:IneverclaimedthatIpossessedremarkable
talent.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
117
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Compareto/with
Correct:Inevercomparedmyselftoher.
Incorrect:Inevercomparedmyselfforher.
Correct:Letscomparetheprosofthesituationwiththe
cons.
Incorrect:Letscomparetheprosofthesituationforthe
cons.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
118
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Consider(as)
Correct:Idontconsiderhimaseriouscontender
Incorrect:Idontconsiderhimwithaserious
contender
Conformto
Correct:Youmustconformtothestandards
Incorrect:Youmustconformwiththestandards
ErrorsTestedIdioms
119
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Contrastto/with
Correct:Incontrasttothepreviousreport,thisoneisbetter
Incorrect:Incontrastwiththepreviousreport,thisoneis
better.
Correct:Theredbackgroundcontrastsnicelywiththeblue
flowers
Incorrect:Theredbackgroundcontrastsnicelytotheblue
flowers.
Counton
Correct:IknewthatIcouldcountonyou.
Incorrect:IknewthatIcouldcountforyou.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
120
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 97
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Creditfor/to/with
Correct:Youshouldtakecreditforwhatyoudid.
Incorrect:Youshouldtakecredittowhatyoudid.
Correct:Icreditmysuccesstomyhardwork.
Incorrect:Icreditmysuccessformyhardwork.
Correct:Heiscreditedwiththediscoveryofpenicillin.
Incorrect:Heiscreditedfor/tothediscoveryofpenicillin.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
121
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Incorrect:Therewasaragingdebateforstandards.
Decideon
Correct:Iamyettodecideonacolorforthewall.
wall.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
122
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Declared<>
Correct:Theteacherdeclaredallexamsworthy.
Incorrect:Theteacherdeclaredallexamsasworthy.
Defineas
ErrorsTestedIdioms
123
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Delightedto
Correct:Iamdelightedtoacceptthisprize.
Incorrect:Iamdelightedforacceptingthisprize.
Differentfrom
Correct:Thissandwichisdifferentfromtheothers.
Incorrect:Thissandwichisdifferentwiththeothers.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
124
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 98
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Distinguishbetween/from
Drawaline
ErrorsTestedIdioms
125
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Drawattentionto
Correct:Ihatetodrawattentiontothefactthatthe
qualityoffoodhasgonedown.
Incorrect:Ihatetodrawattentionforthefactthatthe
qualityoffoodhasgonedown.
Drawupon
carrunning.
carrunning.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
126
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Drawto
Correct:Hewasdrawntoherfromthemomenthe
mether.
Incorrect:Hewasdrawnforherfromthemomenthe
mether.
Easiersaidthandone
Correct:Itsalwayseasiersaidthandone.
Incorrect:Itsalwayseasiersaidthantobedone.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
127
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Electas/to
Correct:Hewaselectedtooffice.
Incorrect:Hewaselectedtoofficer.
Correct:Hewaselectedasanofficer.
Incorrect:Hewaselectedasoffice.
Easiersaidthandone
Correct:Itsalwayseasiersaidthandone.
Incorrect:Itsalwayseasiersaidthantobedone.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
128
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 99
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Indicatethat
Correct:Studiesindicatethatstressisacommoncause
ofheartattacks.
causeofheartattacks.
Inorderto
intheclass.
Incorrect:Shebeganstudyinginorderthatshegota
ErrorsTestedIdioms
129
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Justas<>,so<>
Correct:JustasTyrawasconsideredforthescholarship,so
wasMia.
Incorrect:JustasTyrawasconsideredforthescholarship,
Miaasalsoconsidered.
Knownto
differently.
dothingsdifferently.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
130
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Left,rightandcenter
Correct:Shewasshootingemailstopeopleleft,rightand
center.
Incorrect:Shewas,leftrightandcenter,sendingemails.
Knownto
differently.
dothingsdifferently.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
131
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Ameansto
Correct:Sheonlyvieweditasameanstotheend.
Incorrect:Forsomepeople,moneyisconsidereda
meansfor/ofanend.
Mistakenfor
Correct:Thetwinswereoftenmistakenforone
another.
Incorrect:Thetwinswereoftenmistakenasone
another.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
132
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 100
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Morethanever
Correct:IregretnotgoingtoEurope,nowmorethanever.
Incorrect:IregretnotgoingtoEurope,nowmorethan
never.
Nativeof/to
Correct:SheisanativeofVienna.
Incorrect:SheisanativetoVienna.
Correct:TheBengalTigerisnativetoIndia.
Incorrect:TheBengalTigerisnativeofIndia.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
133
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Prohibitfrom
forminors,willwereducetheproblemofunderage
drinking.
minors,willwereducetheproblemofunderagedrinking.
Rangefrom
Correct:Thequalityoftheseproductsrangefromgoodto
excellent.
Incorrect:Thequalityoftheseproductsrangebetween
goodtoexcellent.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
134
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Reluctantto
Requireof
Correct:Itisrequiredofallcandidatestoreporthere
daily.
Incorrect:Itisrequiredfromallcandidatestoreport
heredaily.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
135
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Seemto
Correct:Heseemedtobehidingsomethinginhispocket.
Incorrect:Heseemedashewashidingsomethinginhis
pocket.
ErrorsTestedIdioms
136
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 101
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. WillFerrell'scameoscenesaresofunnyas
anythinghe'severdone.
B. WillFerrell'scameoscenesareasfunnythat
anythinghe'severdone.
C. WillFerrell'scameoscenesareasfunnyas
anythinghe'severdone.
137
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. WillFerrell'scameoscenesaresofunnyas
anythinghe'severdone.
B. WillFerrell'scameoscenesareasfunnythat
anythinghe'severdone.
C. WillFerrell'scameoscenesareasfunnyas
anythinghe'severdone.
138
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
back leveragetoincreaseprofits.
B. Themarkethasconfidencein thefirm'sabilityto
back leveragetoincreaseprofits.
139
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
back leveragetoincreaseprofits.
B. Themarkethasconfidencein thefirm'sabilityto
back leveragetoincreaseprofits.
140
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 102
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Whatthesescorestellusisthatrigorislackingin
someschools.
B. Whatthesescorestellusisthatsomeschools
lackof rigor.
C. Whatthesescorestellusisthatthere'salackof
rigorinsomeschools.
141
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Whatthesescorestellusisthatrigorislackingin
someschools.
B. Whatthesescorestellusisthatsomeschools
lackof rigor.
C. Whatthesescorestellusisthatthere'salackof
rigorinsomeschools.
142
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Thecityindustrialistshavedemanded thestate
ministerAshokChavan.
B. Thecityindustrialistshavedemandedthat the
chiefministerAshokChavan.
C. Thecityindustrialistshavedemandedthat the
chiefministerAshokChavan.
143
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Thecityindustrialistshavedemanded thestate
ministerAshokChavan.
B. Thecityindustrialistshavedemandedthat the
chiefministerAshokChavan.
C. Thecityindustrialistshavedemandedthat the
chiefministerAshokChavan.
144
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 103
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Tensionshaveflaredinsomepartsofthecountry
between blackswith Hispanics.
B. Tensionshaveflaredinsomepartsofthecountry
between blacksand Hispanics.
C. Tensionshaveflaredinsomepartsofthecountry
among blacksand Hispanics.
145
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Tensionshaveflaredinsomepartsofthecountry
between blackswith Hispanics.
B. Tensionshaveflaredinsomepartsofthecountry
between blacksand Hispanics.
C. Tensionshaveflaredinsomepartsofthecountry
among blacksand Hispanics.
146
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. TheproblemisDisney'sabilitytotake controlof
someofthebestknowncharactersquicklyisvery
limited.
B. TheproblemisDisney'sabilityoftaking control
ofsomeofthebestknowncharactersquicklyis
verylimited.
C. TheproblemisDisney'sabilityfortaking control
ofsomeofthebestknowncharactersquicklyis
verylimited.
147
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. TheproblemisDisney'sabilitytotake controlof
someofthebestknowncharactersquicklyisvery
limited.
B. TheproblemisDisney'sabilityoftaking control
ofsomeofthebestknowncharactersquicklyis
verylimited.
C. TheproblemisDisney'sabilityfortaking control
ofsomeofthebestknowncharactersquicklyis
verylimited.
148
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 104
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
manufacturingeconomytobe generally
expanding.
manufacturingeconomyis generallyexpanding.
manufacturingeconomyis generallyexpanding.
149
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
manufacturingeconomytobe generally
expanding.
manufacturingeconomyis generallyexpanding.
manufacturingeconomyis generallyexpanding.
150
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Incontrastto thefirsttwooptionscentralizing
B. Ascontrastedwith thefirsttwooptions,aCap
making.
C. Incontrastto thefirsttwooptions,aCapand
151
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Incontrastto thefirsttwooptionscentralizing
B. Ascontrastedwith thefirsttwooptions,aCap
making.
C. Incontrastto thefirsttwooptions,aCapand
152
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 105
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Thisreporthasbeenissuedbytheassociation
since1931,excepting afouryearinterruption
duringWorldWarII.
B. Thisreporthasbeenissuedbytheassociation
since1931,exceptfor afouryearinterruption
duringWorldWarII.
C. Thisreporthasbeenissuedbytheassociation
since1931,withtheexceptionof afouryear
interruptionduringWorldWarII.
153
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Thisreporthasbeenissuedbytheassociation
since1931,excepting afouryearinterruption
duringWorldWarII.
B. Thisreporthasbeenissuedbytheassociation
since1931,exceptfor afouryearinterruption
duringWorldWarII.
C. Thisreporthasbeenissuedbytheassociation
since1931,withtheexceptionof afouryear
interruptionduringWorldWarII.
154
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Itsgrossmarginrosefrom 22%upto 25%,butits
operatingmarginfellfrom 7%downto 4%.
B. Itsgrossmarginrosefrom 22%to 25%,butits
operatingmarginfellfrom 7%to 4%.
C. Itsgrossmarginrosefrom 22%until 25%,butits
operatingmarginfellfrom 7%till 4%.
155
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Itsgrossmarginrosefrom 22%upto 25%,butits
operatingmarginfellfrom 7%downto 4%.
B. Itsgrossmarginrosefrom 22%to 25%,butits
operatingmarginfellfrom 7%to 4%.
C. Itsgrossmarginrosefrom 22%until 25%,butits
operatingmarginfellfrom 7%till 4%.
156
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 106
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. "Ibelievethatwealthisameansfor anend,not
anendinitself".
B. "Ibelievethatwealthisameansof anend,not
anendinitself".
C. "Ibelievethatwealthisameansto anend,not
anendinitself".
157
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. "Ibelievethatwealthisameansfor anend,not
anendinitself".
B. "Ibelievethatwealthisameansof anend,not
anendinitself".
C. "Ibelievethatwealthisameansto anend,not
anendinitself".
158
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. TheancientChineseTaoistsdistinguished
intercourseand orgasm.
B. TheancientChineseTaoistsdistinguished
intercoursefrom orgasm.
C. TheancientChineseTaoistsdistinguished
between intercourseand orgasm.
159
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. TheancientChineseTaoistsdistinguished
intercourseand orgasm.
B. TheancientChineseTaoistsdistinguished
intercoursefrom orgasm.
C. TheancientChineseTaoistsdistinguished
between intercourseand orgasm.
160
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 107
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
ranchstylehousethatshecouldeasilyandlogically
decoratewithScandinavianstylefurniture.
B. Itwouldhavebeeneasyenoughsothat shebought
aranchstylehousethatshecouldeasilyandlogically
decoratewithScandinavianstylefurniture.
stylehousethatshecouldeasilyandlogically
decoratewithScandinavianstylefurniture.
161
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
ranchstylehousethatshecouldeasilyandlogically
decoratewithScandinavianstylefurniture.
B. Itwouldhavebeeneasyenoughsothat shebought
aranchstylehousethatshecouldeasilyandlogically
decoratewithScandinavianstylefurniture.
stylehousethatshecouldeasilyandlogically
decoratewithScandinavianstylefurniture.
162
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
manymore games,video,andotherWebdata
than othersmartphoneusers.
manymore games,video,andotherWebdataas
othersmartphoneusers.
many games,video,andotherWebdataas other
smartphoneusers.
163
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
manymore games,video,andotherWebdata
than othersmartphoneusers.
manymore games,video,andotherWebdataas
othersmartphoneusers.
many games,video,andotherWebdataas other
smartphoneusers.
164
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 108
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Wehaveonechanceinamillionof winningthe
WorldCup.
B. Wehaveoneinamillionchancesto winthe
WorldCup.
C. Wehaveonechanceinamillionfor winningthe
WorldCup.
165
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Wehaveonechanceinamillionof winningthe
WorldCup.
B. Wehaveoneinamillionchancesto winthe
WorldCup.
C. Wehaveonechanceinamillionfor winningthe
WorldCup.
166
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Oureconomicwellbeingisgenerallydetermined
from theamountofgoodsandservicesthatwe
consume.
B. Oureconomicwellbeingisgenerallydetermined
by theamountofgoodsandservicesthatwe
consume.
C. Oureconomicwellbeingisgenerallydetermined
through theamountofgoodsandservicesthat
weconsume.
167
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Oureconomicwellbeingisgenerallydetermined
from theamountofgoodsandservicesthatwe
consume.
B. Oureconomicwellbeingisgenerallydetermined
by theamountofgoodsandservicesthatwe
consume.
C. Oureconomicwellbeingisgenerallydetermined
through theamountofgoodsandservicesthat
weconsume.
168
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 109
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Sheiscreditedfor solvingnumerouscases.
B. Sheiscreditedwith solvingnumerouscases.
C. Sheiscreditedasbeing agreatdetective.
169
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Sheiscreditedfor solvingnumerouscases.
B. Sheiscreditedwith solvingnumerouscases.
C. Sheiscreditedasbeing agreatdetective.
170
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Whyhasn'tCongressmandatedthat thetotal
stubbutnottaxed?
B. Whyhasn'tCongressamandatefor thetotal
stubbutnottaxed?
C. Whyhasn'tCongressmandatedthat thetotal
stubbutnottaxed?
171
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Whyhasn'tCongressmandatedthat thetotal
stubbutnottaxed?
B. Whyhasn'tCongressamandatefor thetotal
stubbutnottaxed?
C. Whyhasn'tCongressmandatedthat thetotal
stubbutnottaxed?
172
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 110
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. A13yearoldgirlwasmistakenlyabductedinMarch
2008bytraffickerswhowerebelievedtohave
mistaken heras thenieceofasuspecteddrugdealer.
B. A13yearoldgirlwasmistakenlyabductedinMarch
2008bytraffickerswhowerebelievedtohave
mistaken herfor thenieceofasuspecteddrug
dealer.
C. A13yearoldgirlwasmistakenlyabductedinMarch
2008bytraffickerswhowerebelievedtohave
mistaken herto thenieceofasuspecteddrugdealer.
173
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. A13yearoldgirlwasmistakenlyabductedinMarch
2008bytraffickerswhowerebelievedtohave
mistaken heras thenieceofasuspecteddrugdealer.
B. A13yearoldgirlwasmistakenlyabductedinMarch
2008bytraffickerswhowerebelievedtohave
mistaken herfor thenieceofasuspecteddrug
dealer.
C. A13yearoldgirlwasmistakenlyabductedinMarch
2008bytraffickerswhowerebelievedtohave
mistaken herto thenieceofasuspecteddrugdealer.
174
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Butbothconsider theproblemsas necessary
inconveniencestofeaturetheirconferencesand
programs.
B. Butbothconsider theproblemstobe necessary
inconveniencestofeaturetheirconferencesand
programs.
C. Butbothconsider theproblemsnecessary
inconveniencestofeaturetheirconferencesand
programs.
175
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Butbothconsider theproblemsas necessary
inconveniencestofeaturetheirconferencesand
programs.
B. Butbothconsider theproblemstobe necessary
inconveniencestofeaturetheirconferencesand
programs.
C. Butbothconsider theproblemsnecessary
inconveniencestofeaturetheirconferencesand
programs.
176
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 111
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Thedrugmakerproposed thelitigationbe
centralizedintheUSDistrictCourtforthe
NorthernDistrictofOhio.
B. Thedrugmakerproposedthat thelitigationisto
be centralizedintheUSDistrictCourtforthe
NorthernDistrictofOhio.
C. Thedrugmakerproposedthat thelitigationbe
centralizedintheUSDistrictCourtforthe
NorthernDistrictofOhio.
177
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Thedrugmakerproposed thelitigationbe
centralizedintheUSDistrictCourtforthe
NorthernDistrictofOhio.
B. Thedrugmakerproposedthat thelitigationisto
be centralizedintheUSDistrictCourtforthe
NorthernDistrictofOhio.
C. Thedrugmakerproposedthat thelitigationbe
centralizedintheUSDistrictCourtforthe
NorthernDistrictofOhio.
178
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Theastronautswouldprobablybestusetheir
remainingtimelivingandworkingonMars
B. Theastronautswouldprobablybestusetheir
remainingtimelivingandworkingonMarsrather
dyingathome.
C. Theastronautswouldprobablybestusetheir
remainingtimelivingandworkingonMarsrather
than dyingathome.
179
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Theastronautswouldprobablybestusetheir
remainingtimelivingandworkingonMars
B. Theastronautswouldprobablybestusetheir
remainingtimelivingandworkingonMarsrather
dyingathome.
C. Theastronautswouldprobablybestusetheir
remainingtimelivingandworkingonMarsrather
than dyingathome.
180
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 112
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Thecompanyrequires himhold stockvaluedat
\$4.4million,fourtimeshisannualbasesalaryof
\$1.1million.
B. Thecompanyrequires himtohold stockvalued
at\$4.4million,fourtimeshisannualbasesalary
of\$1.1million.
C. Thecompanyrequires himholding stockvalued
at\$4.4million,fourtimeshisannualbasesalary
of\$1.1million.
181
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Thecompanyrequires himhold stockvaluedat
\$4.4million,fourtimeshisannualbasesalaryof
\$1.1million.
B. Thecompanyrequires himtohold stockvalued
at\$4.4million,fourtimeshisannualbasesalary
of\$1.1million.
C. Thecompanyrequires himholding stockvalued
at\$4.4million,fourtimeshisannualbasesalary
of\$1.1million.
182
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
embargo.
B. Theresultof theAmericanembargowas Cuba
impoverished.
C. Resultingfrom theAmericanembargo,Cuba
impoverished.
183
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
embargo.
B. Theresultof theAmericanembargowas Cuba
impoverished.
C. Resultingfrom theAmericanembargo,Cuba
impoverished.
184
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 113
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Arisingof electricitypricesfuelledthe18percent
yearonyearjumpinthecompany'srevenuesto
3.6billionzlotys.
B. Arisein electricitypricesfuelledthe18percent
yearonyearjumpinthecompany'srevenuesto
3.6billionzlotys.
C. Araisein electricitypricesfuelledthe18percent
yearonyearjumpinthecompany'srevenuesto
3.6billionzlotys.
185
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Arisingof electricitypricesfuelledthe18percent
yearonyearjumpinthecompany'srevenuesto
3.6billionzlotys.
B. Arisein electricitypricesfuelledthe18percent
yearonyearjumpinthecompany'srevenuesto
3.6billionzlotys.
C. Araisein electricitypricesfuelledthe18percent
yearonyearjumpinthecompany'srevenuesto
3.6billionzlotys.
186
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Itseemslike thecompanyis slowlyrunningout
B. Thecompanyseemsasifitis slowlyrunningout
C. Itseemsasif thecompanyis slowlyrunningout
187
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Itseemslike thecompanyis slowlyrunningout
B. Thecompanyseemsasifitis slowlyrunningout
C. Itseemsasif thecompanyis slowlyrunningout
188
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 114
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Sweetpotatoesarenativein CentralAmericaand
Peru.
B. Sweetpotatoesarenativefrom CentralAmerica
andPeru.
C. Sweetpotatoesarenativeto CentralAmericaand
Peru.
189
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Sweetpotatoesarenativein CentralAmericaand
Peru.
B. Sweetpotatoesarenativefrom CentralAmerica
andPeru.
C. Sweetpotatoesarenativeto CentralAmericaand
Peru.
190
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Everyproduct usesimilar recycledpapers,
B. Allproducts usesimilar recycledpapers,
C. Eachproduct usesimilar recycledpapers,
191
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Everyproduct usesimilar recycledpapers,
B. Allproducts usesimilar recycledpapers,
C. Eachproduct usesimilar recycledpapers,
192
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 115
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
high,andsotoo theexpectations.
high,andalso theexpectations.
high,andsotoowillbe theexpectations.
193
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
high,andsotoo theexpectations.
high,andalso theexpectations.
high,andsotoowillbe theexpectations.
194
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
A. Theaveragepricehasrisenatleast1centper
gallonperdayforeightconsecutivedaysto
\$2.952,10centsasmuchas aweekago.
B. Theaveragepricehasrisenatleast1centper
gallonperdayforeightconsecutivedaysto
\$2.952,10centsmorethan thatofaweekago.
C. Theaveragepricehasrisenatleast1centper
gallonperdayforeightconsecutivedaysto
\$2.952,10centsmorefrom aweekago.
195
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
A. Theaveragepricehasrisenatleast1centper
gallonperdayforeightconsecutivedaysto
\$2.952,10centsasmuchas aweekago.
B. Theaveragepricehasrisenatleast1centper
gallonperdayforeightconsecutivedaysto
\$2.952,10centsmorethan thatofaweekago.
C. Theaveragepricehasrisenatleast1centper
gallonperdayforeightconsecutivedaysto
\$2.952,10centsmorefrom aweekago.
196
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 116
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
directmediachanneltocustomers.
directmediachanneltocustomers.
mediachanneltocustomers.
197
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
directmediachanneltocustomers.
directmediachanneltocustomers.
mediachanneltocustomers.
198
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
Whichsentenceisidiomaticallycorrect?
givinginformationandmorelikewarningsand
omens.
givinginformationandmorelikewarningsand
omens.
informationandmorelikewarningsandomens.
199
VERBAL
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
Idioms
givinginformationandmorelikewarningsand
omens.
givinginformationandmorelikewarningsand
omens.
informationandmorelikewarningsandomens.
200
VERBAL
GMAT Club 2011 117
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
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GMAT Club 2011 118
GMATClub contributingtoeachotherslearning
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