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August Moore Professor Wolcott ENC 1102 22 October 2013 The Cost Efficiency Search in the Development of Photovoltaic systems This annotated bibliography The Cost Efficiency Search in the Development of Photovoltaic systems. is intended to examine the conversation and answers provided by different sides in the hope of answering the question of making photovoltaics more cost efficient. The term photovoltaic is a system that converts light given off by the sun into useable energy. This annotated bibliography contains primarily academic journals to fulfill its purpose. Academic journals are an important part of researching cost efficiency in photovoltaics due to the extensive research done by Universities, companies, and other institutions on the efficiencies of conversion rates and lowering the cost of production of solar cells in photovoltaics, as well as the different techniques developed. These journals are not from prior to five years past, and some journals ranging from last year to this year. The vantage point of these journals being produced from less than five years ago is that photovoltaics have improved more recently and as such any journal from more than five years ago could no longer be cost efficient by the standards of Photovoltaics today. The sources of the views shown are broad in the fact that they are not narrowed to organic cells or inorganic cells, and they are a collection of many ideas developed with potential to be widely different from any other idea presented from another source. The goal is to explain to potential readers the various techniques being developed and tested by different organization from universities to companies selling in the open market, in the hope of sparking interest and promoting the buying of photovoltaic systems. These techniques used are from less than five years ago, but according to Moores law which is an observation in about eighteen months technology doubles, and therefore even with the slowing of this observation in some aspects these recent years potential buyers should perform their own research in the efforts of buying photovoltaics that have desired cost and efficiency. Terms seen within this annotated bibliography include band gaps which are ranges of photon frequencies where no photons can be transmitted through a material. A multijunction solar cell is a solar cell that is comprised of many solar cells of different band gaps. Trackers are the part of the system that tracks sunlight and follows the path to optimize solar input. To be calcined is to reduce, oxidize, or desiccate by roasting or strong heat. Heterojunction is the interference between two materials of different band gaps. An organic photovoltaic system or also a plastic solar cell uses organic molecules to absorb light. An anode is an electrode that allows current to flow through to enter a polarized electronic device. A cathode is an electrode that allows current to flow out of a polarized electronic device. Screen printing is a process by which you use a screen to apply paste to the surface of the cell. Photolithography transfers geometric shapes on a mask onto a wafer which is a thin piece of semiconductor material. An algorithm is a step by step procedure. A transistor is a device that amplifies signals and electrical power. A transformer is a device that transfers energy between its winding circuits.

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Chandrasekaran, S. "A Novel Single Step Synthesis, High Efficiency And Cost Effective Photovoltaic Applications Of Oxidized Copper Nano Particles." Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 109.(2013): 220-226. Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.

The data gathered was acquired by the Gandhigram Rural Institute of Tamilnadu, India, within the Department of Physics. The department pursued a goal that led them to photovoltaics, and then came the question how to make cost and conversion efficient systems. The department decided to use copper nano particles to accomplish this. During the experiment quoted from the journal a 1 M of solution was prepared by dissolving the salt in oleic acid under constant stirring from 10-12 hours. Then the solution was dried at 200 degrees Celsius. Finally, the copper oxide powders were calcined at 300 degree Celsius and 400 degree Celsius for 5 hours (Chandrasekaran). In the data gathered the absorption spectra of copper oxide nano particles calcined at 300 degrees Celsius and light with a wavelength of 600 nm had the best results. One of the reasons to perform the calcined process is to improve the efficiency of copper oxide in a cost efficient method, however there has never been a significant improvement in copper oxide solar cells and the highest conversion efficiency is only two percent. The system does not use any surfactant, capping agent and solvent, which therefore makes it possible to decrease production costs. The journal makes good use of the copper oxide solar cells that do not have good efficiency to demonstrate the decrease in cost by eliminating solvents and other methods and only using a calcined process to improve the efficiency. This process could be utilized in other methods to decrease the cost of production. This journal fits into the conversation as it does not only focus on increasing efficiency but looks toward using a cheaper method in the production of the solar cells.

Edward H. Sargent, et al. "Materials Interface Engineering For Solution-Processed Photovoltaics." Nature 488.7411 (2012): 304-312. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. From the Institute of Photonics and Interfaces, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, these writers discuss how to make solar energy, or photovoltaics more affordable. They believe the first step to take in the field is making them more efficient first. The problem facing these writers is that this task is difficult, which is due to when you make cells more specialized you will get a specific wavelength for the material used that will by their standards reach thirty-nine percent efficiency. Now it is true that this is good efficiency of cells by standards, but this means that not even half of the light given off by the sun is being used efficiently. Therefore they decided to use a different method which involves the staking of cells which are set to absorb different wavelengths to further increase the efficiency. They writers of this journal have come to the conclusion however that solution-processed photovoltaics will continue to gain higher performance at lower costs.

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This journal deals with how effectively converting the suns light we can then lower the costs of photovoltaics. This thought process is the reason for including this journal within this annotated bibliography.

Tze Sum, et al. "Resonant Aluminum Nanodisk Array For Enhanced Tunable Broadband Light Trapping In Ultrathin Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaic Devices." Plasmonics 7.4 (2012): 677-684. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. According to two collages within the Nanydnig Technological University one way of making a cost efficient approach to enhancing broadband light trapping in ultra-thin bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic or (opv) is made. This approach is By inserting an array of AI nano disks at the interface of the Indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and the organic active layer ( Tze). Explained by the journal. The problem facing organic cells in photovoltaics is that they have a much lower conversion rate than inorganic systems. Therefore light trapping techniques can be utilized to promote the absorption rate of organic systems. Plasmonic nanocavities , which have an unique characteristic of concentrating light, are formed between A1 nanodisks and A1 cathodes allow light trapping properties. Other inorganic systems have begun finding cost-efficiency and conversion efficiency in many forms. The reason that this journal is in this annotated bibliography is due to the fact that instead of giving up on organic systems the writers are looking toward the use of the different methods being developed by inorganic systems as inspiration to further develop organic systems.

Finot, Marc, Aster Mayo, and Bob MacDonald. "Silicon Cell Technology Enabling Cost Effective CPV System." AIP Conference Proceedings 1407.1 (2011): 141-145. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. The credibility from this journal is created due to the companys credibility behind the writers. The company is the Skyline Solar Inc. which is a company in the CPV industry of cell technology. They are looking toward two different ideas for the photovoltaic fields. The first deals with the highest cell efficiency, and the second is to produce the lowest system cost. The cells developed by Skyline use standard technology and all cells have been screen printed with silver paste. To further the development of the two options proposed by Skyline they have done tests on different cells from suppliers which were tested under the 11 suns efficiency test, and Skyline has come to the conclusion that cells with finger widths below 100 microns, together with selective emitter cells have a potential cell efficiency of 18.5%. Cells with black passivation of an n-type wafer have the potential for higher efficiency, than currently seen, however N-type heterojunction cells have higher resistance losses which makes efficiency suffer. This journal is included into this annotated bibliography to allow the work and ideas of a company selling photovoltaics to be compared along with other ideas in the photovoltaic field.

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Luque, Antonio. "Will We Exceed 50% Efficiency In Photovoltaics?." Journal Of Applied Physics 110.3 (2011): 031301. Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. This journal is from The Solar Energy Institute in the Technical University of Madrid. Antonio Luque is the chairman from the institute and the data is collected by the institute. The argument stated by Antonio Luque is that to decrease the cost of photovoltaic systems the first step may be to increase the efficiency of conversion rates. Another argument made by Luque is that High Concentration PV has the opportunity to become the cheapest of the PV technologies. Efficiencies above forty percent are being seen within the development and testing of concentrator solar cells. Although these efficiencies can be reached one problem was the limits of solar cells in response to solar cell band gaps, as the cell cannot capture energy from a lower band gap than it has. However, this is not true for multijunction solar cells, due to the many solar cells that make up a multijunction solar cell, with each solar cell having a different band gap many portions of the solar spectrum can be used. Another concept that could provide results is IB solar cells which are comprised of IB material between p and n-type semiconductors. The material includes a band of permitted election states in the band gap. A relationship seen in this is an increase in current when voltage increases. The current can be increased in conventional solar cells when one reduces the band gap, but when there is a decrease in band gap voltage also increases not seen in IB solar cells. High values of efficiency are only cost efficient if the cells are producing a high electric power due to a high luminous power input, which concentrators are necessary for. Trackers in the system represent about a third of the system cost. This journal does not sell out its own project and type of photovoltaic system, as it looks at the existing photovoltaic systems and explains why they see High Concentration Photovoltaics as a future option that will decrease in cost and increase in efficiency. The journal provides data from research and the institute was created to bring up Spain as a major user of photovoltaics.

Rajgor, Gail. "Closing In On The Grail Of Grid Parity." Renewable Energy Focus 13.3 (2012): 28-32. Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. The writer of this article is Gail Rajgor who writes about the energy and environment sector. She once was the publisher of Sustainable Energy Developments. As a writer who is not affiliated with an institution or photovoltaic company where credibility comes from her prior knowledge from the Sustainable Energy Developments magazine. Within the PV technology sector generous subsidies have played a large role to decrease the costs of demand and push. The market of PV goods has exploded recently and the market value has increased from 71 billion to 91 billion, and the market is expected to continue increasing. Major advances in PV technology have extended system life-spans, and cell efficiency, while driving down production costs. This has in turn lowered installation cost

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of PV and increased demand. The cost of PV seem to have little chance to correct themselves by increasing price due to the many suppliers available. The cost of PV technology has many influences according to the argument made the above is one influence and another influence is location. How costly a PV system is depends largely on the location of the installation worldwide, as local climatic and environmental conditions heavily play on the availability for solar energy. The article goes as far as declaring that only one percent of the PV demanded globally is not incentive-driven. However, PV technology ranks relatively well in many regions which is due to the low system and installation costs and its ability to have longer shelf lives and output efficiencies. It is clear that PV is cheaper than conventional electricity generation and even through these places are small in number this could soon become the majority. This article brakes away from other academic journals, but it is needed to give the view point of a writer who has written about other energy sources. These other sources were included in the article, however summarizing the cost effectiveness of locations and other aspects that relate to cost effectiveness were the primary objective of including this article. When studying journals of researchers who mostly work with their type of technology and their methods of development learning of an outside idea from a source that only finds out from others what is happening and leaves a summary of what they find can be useful to not only onlookers but also to remind the participants of a conversation what was done or said in the past, as the past often shapes the future.

Junsin Yi, et al. "Double Screen Printed Metallization of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells As Low As 30m Metal Line Width for Mass Production." Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 100.(2012): 204-208. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Oct. 2013. The work and data presented in this academic journal come from the School of Information and Communication Engineering, SungKyunKwan University in South Korea. In c-si photovoltaic research known as silicon cell research the main goal is to enhance solar cell efficiency using the low cost approach. One of the basic ways to increase efficiency is to enhance the absorption of light to the maximum possible. In the study conducted the journal notes that the finger width pattern was reduced from 80 to 30 micrometers and double printed to minimize shadow loss with no increase in series resistance. This method is simple and can be easily duplicated, as it uses a double screen printing process. Screen printing is less expensive than the photolithography methods, in industrial processes the minimum width of the screen printed front-side finger is limited to 30 micrometers. The goal set by the journal is to improve the efficiency of mass producible standard front junction screen-printed silicon solar cells through reduces in shading loss and no increase in resistance. For the experiment the methods are explained by the journal in part 2. Experimental methods. The results for the experiment are compared against the assumption made that a decrease in shadow loss wound increase Jsc which is the curve of current vs. voltage

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and cell efficiency. There were four samples and the finger width with 30 micrometer width had less percentage of shading loss and the highest efficiency percentage. Therefore in conclusion by decreasing the finger width the shadow loss is reduced and efficiency is increased. The finger height is increased by double screen printing the metal, which double printing does not over broaden the fingers due to the stabilization of the wet print thickness after drying. This journal goes about improving efficiency in a cost effective manner. By using the print screening process twice instead of using other costly methods this method becomes easily adaptable in mass production, which is a fair goal for photovoltaics to strive for.

Houssamo, Issam, Fabrice Locment, and Manuela Sechilariu. "Experimental Analysis Of Impact Of MPPT Methods On Energy Efficiency For Photovoltaic Power Systems." International Journal Of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 46.(2013): 98-107. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Oct. 2013. The author has affiliations with the University of Technology of Compigne in France. In photovoltaic systems tracking components greatly increase the efficiency of the system. There have been many algorithms, a step by step procedure, proposed and developed to accomplish this, and many methods vary in what is increased or decreased in a system. To obtain the maximum output power in a photovoltaic system, a maximum power point tracking method (MPPT) is used. Fixed-step MPPT algorithms such as P&O and INC operate in real time on the voltage reference variable. The algorithm acts periodically by giving a perturbation to operating voltage v and observing the power variation p = vi in order to deduct the direction of evolution to give to the voltage reference v ( Houssamo). This algorithm tracks the operating point at the MPP, and measures at each z instant the variables i and v in relation to z to calculate p in relation to z. The power is compared between (z-1) and p(z-1). Then there is the variable-step algorithm This section proposes an improved P&O algorithm whose tracking step is variable following to the operating meteorological conditions. As one of the most common MPPT with variablestep tracking, the FL method is also studied in this section (Houssamo). The different MPPT algorithms are compared in this journal. A linear control is applied to each power converter as the work is more focused on energy performance than the control efficiency. Some algorithms create larger power envelopes than other algorithms, thus the total oscillation rate, on each of the four electrical power signals, was performed (Houssamo). So the conclusions made by the journal in the effort to select the best algorithm for energy performance and implementation cost, show that fixed-step algorithms could have difficulties when the couple tracking step-sample time is incorrectly chosen. Therefore to avoid this problem variable-step tracking are proposed. The energy performance comparison state that the algorithms have almost identical extracted energies, with ImP&O in the variable-step tracking having an advantage.

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However P&O has low cost effectiveness with similar energy efficiency for a long period of time. This journal is important to include in the annotated bibliography due to its focus not on the development of solar cells, but on the development of algorithms for tracking systems. Tracking systems are very important for the photovoltaic system and improving efficiency and decreasing cost. The journal discusses how to decrease the cost of the whole system through the testing of algorithms.

Wang, Xiaoting, and Allen Barnett. "The Value Of CPV Module Efficiency." AIP Conference Proceedings 1407.1 (2011): 274-277. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Oct. 2013. The journals author is affiliated with the University of Delaware. If photovoltaics is to replace more conventional types of electricity sources then a reduction in energy cost must be provided. Levelized cost of Energy (LCOE) is how this journal prepossess to evaluate photovoltaics. The LOCE is analyzed as dependence on the module efficiency of PV systems. The assumption decided on is that to attain low cost PV energy high module efficiency is required. A reference system is used to compare systems with the same baseline conditions. The LCOE is proportional to the unit capital system cost, so LCOE is equal to the LCOEref times the unit capital cost (UCC) divided by the UCCref. Data concludes that LCOE increases as module price increases, while LCOE decreases as module efficiency increases. In CPV to obtain LCOE under 7.8 /kWh (the operating cost of house hold appliances) the module unit price must be below a flat plate PV unless the module efficiency is above thirty-five percent. To equal an LCOE of 7.8 /kWh the CPV module can be $120/m2 more than flat plate PV but must also be five percent more efficient. This journal uses the Levelized cost of energy also known as the cost of electricity generated by different sources to analyze the cost with efficiency. As the module efficiency increases the LCOE decreases which is an important concept in many other journals. It is important to see these relations shown in this journal to realize the steps taken to decrease cost of photovoltaic systems.

Edgardo Saucedo, et al. "On The Formation Mechanisms Of Zn-Rich Cu2znsns4 Films Prepared By Sulfurization Of Metallic Stacks." Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 112.(2013): 97-105. Academic Search Premier. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. The author of this journal is affiliated with IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research. The argument that this journal is invested in states that the future development of CZTS has the potential to be an alternative absorber for low cost and high efficiency in photovoltaic modules, if the formation of secondary phases in this system are understood and controlled. CIGS holds the highest record efficiencies of 20.3 for thin film photovoltaic absorber materials, however the problem with using CIGS is that indium,

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gallium, and selenium are used which indium and gallium are scarce elements and selenium is toxic. Therefore a potential solution to this problem is to use CZTSSe due to its components such as zinc and tin which are more abundant. Its band gap is between 1.0 eV to 1.5 eV. Unfortunately in the process of using CZTSSe instead of CIGS the knowledge of the material decreases. With using the new CZTSSe the research must back track to learn more of the material to increase the efficiency. The efficiency obtained using CZTSSe is only 11.1. Other problems arise too including but not limited to decomposition during annealing, control of secondary phase formations, and film characterization. The precursor was annealed, which is a heating method to increase ductility, at different temperatures for different amounts of time. This creates high Zn and low Cu CZTS films, excess Zn settles toward the back at higher temperatures, becoming ZnS. Annealing conditions of 550 degrees Celsius for 30 minutes produces CZTS at optimum levels. The lower the temperature and time create insufficient crystallization or undesirable phase formation. This method is promising to create a 5.5 percent efficiency device, and the efficiency can be improved by preventing the ZnS from forming on the back. This journal relates to the idea of changing the material of absorption to effect the efficiency of the photovoltaic system. If this low cost method was made more efficient then it could be more than a possibility of lowering photovoltaic costs. This process can even be mass produced to further accomplish the goal of cheap photovoltaics.

Agrawal Rakesh, et al. "Sulfide Nanocrystal Inks For Dense Cu(In1Xgax)(S1Ysey)2Absorber Films And Their Photovoltaic Performance." Nano Letters 9.8 (2009): 3060-3065. Academic Search Premier. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. The authors of this academic journal are affiliated with the University of Oviedo, Department of Electrical Engineering in Spain. There are two categories for commercial regulators, the first which modulate the input voltage using pulse-width modulation (PWM) to generate the voltage needed to charge the batteries, and the second which makes the PV operate in their maximum power point (MPP). PWM works well for low power while MPP can increase the power. This journal proposes a regulator, a device that limits the voltage transferred, which uses the MPP through the use of a microcontroller, a computer on an integrated circuit. This low cost microcontroller uses a highly accurate algorithm to help PV arrays track and function in their MPP. Photovoltaic installations consist of PV panels, a regulator, batteries, and an inverter. The regulators goal is to not only make sure the batteries are charged, but also to make sure the batteries are not overcharged. The regulator that is proposed can operate no matter the thermal or meteorological conditions and their effects in the dispersion of the PV array characteristics. The regulator can run parallel and therefore new installations can be made without changing the old regulator. The method of making the converter operate at MPP uses two blocks. The first uses analog circuitry, which is continuous time voltages and currents, to drive the MOSFET which is a transistor used to amplify or switch electronic

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signals. The second block is digital and modifies the current reference of the analog control in order to increase the power delivered to the load until this power cannot be increased any more (dP/dV= 0). Due to the simplicity of this method low cost microcontrollers can be used, the software is also simple. This method is important to consider in the conversation due to the different parts that make the overall system cost. The solar cells are not the only part of photovoltaics. The methods of each piece should be analyzed to increase efficiency and decrease cost.

M. Hamiruce Marhaban, et al. "A Current And Future Study On Non-Isolated DCDC Converters For Photovoltaic Applications." Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 17.(2013): 216-227. Academic Search Premier. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. This author is affiliated with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, and the Department of Engineering, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, Iran. Photovoltaic systems are developing at a fast past, however output of the systems is still low and costs are high. This paper reviews non-isolated DCDC buck, boost, buckboost, Cuk and SEPIC converters and their characteristics, to nd a solution best suiting an application with Maximum Power Point Tracking (M. Hamiruce Marhaban). The assumption made is that DV=C-DC converters are the best choice as they can achieve the optimal operation at any load value with little change in efficiency and cost. If a sun tracking method is included in a PV system thirty to forty percent more energy can be obtained compared to a PV system without sun tracking. The maximum power extracted form PV panels depends on the solar irradiation and the operating point of the energy conversion system. The first step to achieve this is to find the maximum power point then change the systems operation point towards it. Boost and Buck converters are developed to meet different operational purpose. Boost converters have an advantage of being cheaper and more dynamic. When comparing the three DC-DC converters it was found that buck- boost DCDC converter topology is the only capable of tracking of PV MPP at any temperature, irradiance, and load connection condition, and two, connecting a PV buckboost DCDC converter to the PV panel output possibly improves performance (M. Hamiruce Marhaban). Only buck-boost, CUK, and SEPIC converters are seen with the potential of meeting the optimal operation regardless of the load values. The Cuk and SEPIC converters have the highest efficiency, however they also have the highest cost which is their disadvantage. In the end the assumption was proven to be the best at this time, with buckboost DC/DC converters having the capability to reach optimum MPPT operation during many different conditions. This journal is imperative to include due to the converter being a vital part of drawing out power from the cells. The converter is one of the many parts making one system work at optimal efficiency.

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Sepeai, Suhaila, M. Y. Sulaiman, and Kamaruzzaman Sopian. "Optimization Of Rapid Thermal Firing On Silver Metal Contact For Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells." AIP Conference Proceedings 1328.1 (2011): 196-198. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. The authors of this journal have relations with the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). Silver metallization screen printing is used for the front side of the emitter contacts for crystalline silicon solar cells, which increases its cost effectiveness and throughput. This is the answer this journal provides through research on the formation of silver pastes. The best silver paste will conduct in an experiment of firing temperature in the hopes of increasing efficiency. Paste A has a good I-V curve. The best firing temperature is 800qC with an open circuit voltage at 0.492V and efficiency of 10.49% (Sepeai). To achieve high efficiency in the screen printed solar cells having good front contact formation must happen. The journal considers issues on metal contacts on the n-side of the silicon solar cell major importance. In cell manufacturing the contact firing is usually done in infrared heated conveyor belt furnaces. This rapid firing at a high temperature is done to avoid the degradation of the electrical quality of the Ag metal contact (Sepeai). Paste A yields the better results of the two pastes with an efficiency of 9.82 percent. The best firing temperature was 800 and yielded an efficiency of 10.49 percent. High temperature firing produces active metallization in which the metal (or some component of alloy) is subsequently incorporated into the n-silicon by diffusion or alloy-regrowth to form the n+ layer which enhances tunneling transport. The n+ layer sets up an electric field that reflects the minority carrier hole from the front electrode (Sepeai). This research on firing temperature will be used in later studies and more research must be done on the subject and its effect on contact adhesion and thickness. This journal is included in this annotated bibliography with the reasoning of using firing temperature to increase efficiency. This source is a part of the cell production process and effects the solar cells as it yields new data in the overall system.

Buticchi, Giampaolo, Emilio Lorenzani, and Giovanni Franceschini. "A DC Offset Current Compensation Strategy In Transformerless Grid-Connected Power Converters." IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery 26.4 (2011): 2743-2751. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.

The authors have affiliations with University of Parma, Italy. This journal works with the transformer of the photovoltaic system. Specifically a simple solution to reduce the DC current component injected into the grid in the case of a full-bridge, single-phase, transformerless converter (Buticchi). This could end up with issues developing later on. However, the results state the theoretical behavior of the solution is true, and the experimental ones are showing effectiveness. The laboratory prototype is a full-bridge converter that is connected to the grid. The proposed solution compensated for the dc

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offset makes the reactor current symmetric. The actual reactor current wave form presented the effect of the magnetic core hysteresis, which is a property that could cause energy loss by letting the core retain magnetization with no applied field, but the magnetic core hysteresis did not affect the performance of the proposed solution (Buticchi). With a transformerless power converter production costs of converters in a system will decrease allowing cheaper and more widely used systems to be produced. This journal is robust and novel therefore it is included in this annotated bibliography to give a new idea of achieving cost effectiveness.

J. Murphy, et al. "Fabrication Of 'Finger-Geometry' Silicon Solar Cells By Electrochemical Anodisation." Journal Of Materials Science 48.7 (2013): 2977-2985. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.

This author is affiliated with Department of Materials, University of Oxford. Silicon cell are the leading type of cells in the market of photovoltaics. This journal joins the conversation of making more efficient and cost effective photovoltaics by investigating the fabrication of cell structure, to create cheap low purity silicon substrates. In this paper we explore the feasibility of fabricating a solar cell geometry which may allow impure silicon to be used for photovoltaics (Murphy). The goal of using electrochemical anodisation, a process of increasing the thickness of the oxide layer of metal parts, to produce a macroporous, silicon template to acquire the finger geometry n-p junction needed. This process was found to be controllable and producing produce pores with limited branching with the required densities and depths was achievable (Murphy). However it was found that forming pores normal to the surface is unachievable in many grain types. The characteristics of the junction are not desirable. The growth rate of the pores could be too slow for the practical use in public, and reproducing may be inhibited by the characteristics which could hurt industrial production. Importantly Nucleation of pores was found to be strongly inuenced by pre-existing surface defects, such as texturing features and grain boundaries (Murphy). The problems need to be overcome if the finger geometry solar cells are to be used with low cost substrates. This means that impure silicon may not be practical for moderate efficiency solar cells. These junctions could however be implicated in silicon detectors. This experiment did not end up producing the desired results. The different complications and problems withered down the idea and may never be put to use in solar cells. However, this journal is one of the important and indirect journal included as not every test will go as planned, and these junctions could be implicated in silicon based detectors or give rise to new ideas elsewhere, which could help solve the seeming struggle to the conversation and question in photovoltaic systems of decreasing cost and increasing efficiency.