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TSP-POGC-NIGC 1

COURSE OIL AND GAS TECHNOLOGY CODE


SUBJECT INTRODUCTION TO TRANSFORMERS P/TM/TRG/E.TR/001

Objectives: Upon completion of this unit, the trainees should be able to:
Have a general familiarization with the concept of transformers as electrical equipment.
Know about different types of transformers.
Know about the principal components and fittings of a transformer.
Know about winding connections.
Know about transformer nameplate.
Know about transformer losses.
Know about different methods of cooling system for transformers.
Know about the temperature, pressure and oil level in transformers.


Content:
1. Basic of transformers
1.1. Principles of transformers.
1.2. A simple and ideal transformer.
1.3. Type of transformers

2. Power transformers.
2.1. Type of power transformers.
2.2. Ratio of power transformers.
2.3. Vector grows and winding connections.
2.4. Impedance voltage.
2.5. Cooling methods.
2.6. Components of transformers
2.7. Transformers diagram and nameplate
2.8. Transformer losses
2.9. Transformer bashings
2.10. Major notes for transformer operation and maintenance















Prepared by Ali Reza
Farzi
Checked by Yeganeh
Larijani
Checked by
Date 21 Oct. 2000 Date Date

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GENERAL
The purpose of this training document is to provide a general introduction on power
transformer to those who shall be in close operation with the equipment electrical
maintenance department personnel as well as power generation plant operators who are
directly involved with the transformers. Other non electrical personnel in an oil and gas
complex such as production operators, mechanical / instrument maintenance people and
safety officers, however, need to be familiar with power transformers to help them establish
the best cooperation with the electrical operators, particularly for safety reasons. In
preparation of this document, attempts have been made to introduce the subjects,
particularly the technical language of the text, as easy and convenient as possible, in order
to make it useful and applicable for trainees of all disciplines. However, for the specialized
training material on transformers, which shall be provided and dedicated to electrical
trainees during the specific course program, detailed technical documents shall be included
in the training program. In this respect, those subjects, which are marked with asterisk (*) in
this document, are regarded more or less specialized and therefore are subject to being
skipped during the common course sessions and left for the period of specific electrical
course.

A separate document shall be developed for special type of transformers used in electrical
systems such as control transformers, current & voltage transformers, autotransformers,
etc.

Here, in this document (P/TM/TRG/E.TR/001), the term transformer solely refers to power
transformers.

1. BASIC OF TRANSFORMERS
1.1. Principles of Transformers
Electromechanical machines are categorized to two kinds: the first one is rotary
electromagnetic machines, and the second is static electromagnetic machines.

Transformer is actually a static electromagnetic machine. The purpose of transformer is to
transfer electrical energy from systems of one voltage V
1
to systems of another voltage V
2
.

In electrical power distribution networks, there are certain areas, where the operating
voltage level should necessarily be increased or decreased as per design specification of
the relevant electrical power system. Transformers, as electrical equipment, are capable of
both increasing and decreasing the voltage level as per required.

Transformers are primarily comprised of two set of separated winding assembles, as
primary winding & secondary winding, and a common laminated iron core into which the
above-mentioned windings are geared. Figure1 illustrates the general drawings of
transformer.

Transformers actually function under alternating current (AC) power system, and provide
increase or decrease of the voltage in their secondary windings without any change in the
frequency of the power supply system.


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Fig. 1












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1.2. A Simple and Ideal Transformer
A transformer consists of a magnetic system in which a time-varying flux links two or more
coils. Its purpose is to transfer electrical energy from one circuit to another, usually without
any electrical connection between the two circuits. Usually the potential difference at which
the energy leaves one circuit is different from the potential difference at which it enters the
other.

In transformers employed in power circuits, it is necessary to ensure that energy shall not
be wasted. To this end, the coils are arranged on a ferromagnetic core. Figure 2 represents
a transformer consisting of two coils on a ferromagnetic core.



Figure 2 Primitive two-winding power transformer.

In an ideal transformer, it is assumed that:
1. The electric fields produced by the windings are negligible.
2. The winding resistances are negligible.
3. All magnetic flux is confined to the ferromagnetic core.
4. The relative permeability of the core material is so high that negligible mmf is
required to establish the flux in the core.
5. The core losses are negligible.

And we should know that:
Instantaneous power = Instantaneous power
Input output

If potential difference V
1
is a sinusoidal function of time, then the system made up of the
source, the transformers, and the connected passive circuit may be represented by a
diagram showing the rms or effective magnitudes of the variables. Such a diagram is given
in figure 3, where the ideal transformer is represented simply as two coils, N
1
and N
2
.

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Figure 3 Ideal Transformer

Voltage Ratio in Transformers
The voltage ratio in transformers depends on the number of winding turns on the primary and
secondary and is calculated by using the following relationship:

.V V
N
N
2
2
1
= 1 V
As seen from the above relationship, the higher number of turns of secondary winding, the
higher the voltage induced and vice-versa.

Current Ratio in Transformers:
The current ratio in transformers also depends on the number of winding turns on the primary
and secondary and is calculated by using the following relationship:
A I
N
N
I 2
1
2
1 =
1.3. Types of Transformers.
1.3.1. Power Transformers.
Power transformers are essentially used in power distribution systems are referred to
as low voltage (LV.) or medium voltage (MV.) or high voltage (HV.) transformers with
respect to the operating voltage they are designed for.

1.3.2. Control Transformers
Control transformers are essentially used in control circuits. They are generally low
power rated and provide the low voltage power supply for the control system. Control
transformers are employed mostly over the range of 12v, 24v, 4v, 110v and 220v
(secondary out put voltage) according to the designed control voltage.

1.3.3. Measuring Transformers
The purpose of this type of transformers is to measure current and voltage of an
electrical circuit, so they can be divided into the following categories:

A) CTs (current transformers): which samples of current. (See figure 2)
B) PTs (potential transformers): which sample of electrical potential. It shall be
noted that, electrical energy, which is transferred by a measuring transformer, is not
noticeable.



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Fig. 4
















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Fig. 5


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Fig. 6


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2. POWER TRANSFORMERS
2.1. Type of Power Transformers
Depending on the type of insulation material used, method of cooling and the environment
where the transformers are to be used, different types of transformers are designed and
manufactured to meet the requirements. Following categories may be found for power
transformer:

2.1.1. Class A: Dry-Type Transformer (e.g. Cast-Resin Transform):
Core and windings are not contained in an insulating liquid. Heat losses are dissipated
direct to the ambient air, hence large surface area and low current density. Up to
5000kvA and maximum 36kv. (See figure 5)

2.1.2. Class O: Oil-Immersed Transformers:
Core and windings are contained in mineral oil or similarly flammable synthetic liquid with a
fire point 300C, which is simultaneously coolant and insulating medium.

2.2. Ratio Variability
Ability to vary the ratio is important particularly with mains transformers; it is used for
matching the service voltage. In the simplest case this is done with the charging the turns of
active winding, with the aid of extra winding terminals, which called tappings. (Normally
2.5% or 5%)

2.2.1. Tap Changer
Stepwise variation under load or off-circuit is done with a tap changer.
(*) Normally, tappings are provided on the H.V. windings for variation in the high
voltage of either 2.5% or 5% of the nominal voltage rating whichever and
whenever necessary.

(*) Low-rated power transformers are equipped with off-circuit (off-load) tapping
selector switch. These type of tap changers are manually operated by means of an
external handle switch mechanism.

(*) High rated power transformers are equipped with either off-circuit (off-load) tap
changer or automatic on-load regulating tap changer. In automatic tap changers the
unit operates with a closed-loop control, using motorized tapping changes.

* Note: As an important safety measure, strict cautions should be taken not to
operate the manual off-circuit tap changer when the transformer is in service
and energized.

2.3. Vector Groups and Winding Connections
The vector group denotes the way in which the windings are connected and the phase
position of their respective voltage vectors. If consists of letters identifying the configuration
of the phase windings and a number indicating the phase angle between the phase-to-
neutral voltages of windings.






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2.3.1. Different Winding Configurations
Depending on the configuration of the electrical wiring connections for the primary
and secondary windings, three phase power transformers are mostly classified in four
types of configurations.
A) Star Star (Y Y) Configuration
Figure 7 illustrates the schematic winding connections in the so-called star
star configuration.

B) Delta star ( Y) Configuration
Figure 8 illustrates the schematic winding connections in the connections in
so-called delta-star configuration.

C) Star Delta (Y ) Configuration
Figure 9 illustrates the schematic winding connections in the so-called star-
delta configuration.

*D) Star Zigzag Configuration
Figure 10 illustrates the schematic winding connections in the so-called
star-zigzag configuration.

Capital letters relate to the high-voltage windings, lower-case letters to the medium and
low-voltage windings. The vector group begins with the capital letter. In the case of more
than one winding with the same rated voltage the capital letter is assigned to the winding
with the highest rated power. If the power rating are the same to the winding which comes
first in the order of connections listed above. If the neutral of a winding in star or
interconnected star is brought out, the letter symbols are YN or ZN or yn or zn respectively.

To identify the phase angle, the voltage of the high-voltage windings is taken as a
reference. The number, multiplied by 30 denotes the angle by which the vector of the l.v.
winding lags that of the h.v. winding. With multi-winding transformers the vector of the h.v.
winding remains the reference; the symbol for this winding comes first, the other symbols
follow in descending order according to the windings rated voltages.

Example:
For a transformer with two power windings (h.v. windings 220kv in neutral comection
and m.v. windings 10kv in delta connection) the identifying symbols, if the vectors of
the neutral voltage of m.v. winding lags behind them by 5 30 = 150 :

YN ds.



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Fig. 7 Fig. 8






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Fig. 9 Fig. 10












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* 2.4. Impedance Voltage (Short-Circuit Impedance)
The impedance voltage U
K
is defined as that voltage having the rated frequency which must
be applied to the primary side of a transformer so that the rated current I
N
flows when the
secondary terminals are short-circuit.

The rated impedance voltage is usually stated as percentage of the voltage rating U
N
:
100% =
N
K
K
U
U
u

2.5. Cooling Methods for Power Transformers
Cooling
The method of cooling is started by the manufacturer in the form of four capital letters, the
first two letters denoting the coolant and the manner of circulation for the winding, and the
last two letters indicating the coolant and manner circulation for cooling the outside of the
transformer. These code letters are explained in Table 1.

Table 1
Key to cooling systems
Coolant Symbols Coolant Circulation Symbols
Mineral oil or equiv. synth. Natural circulation N
Liquid with fire point 300C O Forced circulation F
* Other synth. Liquids L
* Gas with fire point > 300C G
Air (dry-type transformers) A
* Water W

Examples:
AN = Dry-type transformer with natural air circulation.
ONAN = Oil-immersed self-cooled transformer.

2.5.1. More about Oil-Filled Transformers
a) ONAN (shelf cooling): Oil with Natural circulation and in outside of transformer Air
with Natural circulation. See figure 11

In this method the transformer oil inside the bulk tank and the radiators is cooled by
natural air drift (natural ventilation) and also through radiation. Figure 1 on page 3
shows a self-cooling transformer.

b) ONAF (forced cooling): Oil with Natural circulation and in outside of transformer
Air with Forced circulation. Figure 12 shows an ONAF type transformer.

In this method the transformer oil inside the radiators is cooled by means of several
fans installed on the radiators.






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Fig. 12



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c) OFAN (circulating oil/self cooling): Oil with Forced circulation and in outside of
transformer Air with Natural circulation. Figure 13 shows an OFAN type transformer.
In this method the transformer oil is circulated inside the transformer assembly,
which incorporates separate radiator bank and is cooled by natural air drift (natural
ventilation) and also through radiation.

d) OFAF (circulating oil/forced cooling): oil with forced circulation and in outside of
transformer air with forced circulation. See figure 14

In this method the transformer-oil is circulated inside the assembly, which
incorporates separate radiator bank, while being cooled by means of several fans
installed on the radiators.

2.5.2. Dry Type Transformers
The cooling method of dry-type transformer without a protective enclosure and with
natural air-cooling designated by:
AN

2.6. Components of Transformers
In this chapter we will mostly present, major part of oil-filled transformers, however it is
notified that most of main parts are the same for all types of transformers. See figures 5,15
and 16

2.6.1. Core & winding
2.6.2. Cooling radiators and/or plates
2.6.3. H.V. & L.V. bushings
2.6.4. Cabling box
2.6.5. Diagram and nameplate
2.6.6. Earthing terminals
2.6.7. Lifting lug
2.6.8. Oil conservator
2.6.9. Oil drain valve
2.6.10. Buchholz relay
2.6.11. Terminal box or control panel
2.6.12. Winding temperature indicator
2.6.13. Oil level indicator
2.6.14. Breather (Silica-Gel and Dehydrating)
2.6.15. Wheels
2.6.16. Tap changers
2.6.17. Cooling fans
2.6.18. Earthing screws








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Fig. 13

Fig. 14



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Fig. 15












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Fig. 16






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2.7. Transformer Diagram and Nameplate
Power and control transformers are equipped with an appropriate nameplate, which
generally provides the following technical information. See figure 17

2.7.1. Name and address of the manufacturer.
2.7.2. Date of manufacture.
2.7.3. Serial number of the equipment.
2.7.4. Insulation class
2.7.5. Type of cooling.
2.7.6. Nominal primary voltage.
2.7.7. Nominal secondary voltage.
2.7.8. Nominal primary current.
2.7.9. Nominal secondary current.
2.7.10. Operating frequency.
2.7.11. Nominal power rating.
* 2.7.12. Auto / manual tapping range (voltage regulating rage of the tap-changer)
* 2.7.13. Impedance voltage (short-circuit impedance)
2.7.14. Transformer oil weight.
2.7.15. Transformer gross weight.
* 2.7.16. Nominal impulse voltage withstand rating.
* 2.7.17. Transformers vector group


























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Fig. 17


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2.8. Transformer Losses
2.8.1. Losses
The total losses of are transformer consists of two part: No load losses (Po) which is
constant and second term which depends on load of transformer (a
2
P
k
). Therefore the
total losses (P
v
) at any loading a = S/SN would be:

P
v
= P
o
+ a
2
P
k


It can be simplified by:
P
v
= P
o
+ P
l


Where: Po is No load losses
P
l
is load depended losses


2.8.2. Transformer Efficiency
Efficiency of transformer at any load varys, so is also load depended. Efficiency at
rated power (full load)

) 1 ( %
Input
s Totallosse
Input
s Totallosse Input
Input
Output
=

= =

Total losses = Copper losse + Iron losse = Pcu + Pfe
Input = out put + total losses Out put = P
2



100 1
2

+ +
+
=
PCu PFe P
Pcu PFe


* 2.9. Transformer Bushings
High voltage and low voltage bushings of the transformers are normally made of special
porcelain material, which acts as an embedding insulant for the bushings core conductor.
Bushings are mounted on transformers in two ways.

2.9.1. On the top of the transformer cover (top-mounted bushings), or.
2.9.2. Inside the side-mounted H.V. and L.V. cable boxes of the transformer. Figure 18
shows different type of bushings used in transformers.

2.10. Major Notes for Transformer Operation and Maintenance
2.10.1. Overload Operation of Transformer
Transformers can be operated under occasional overload conditios for limited short
time periods according to the table 2. As indicated in the table 2, the permissible
overload value and the corresponding permissible time duration depend on both the
value of permanent load on the transformer and the oil temperature and the oil
temperature right before the overloading happens.


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Electrical maintenance operators shall carry out a daily visual inspection of the
transformers to detect any abnormalities with respect to the transformers components,
particularly the possible oil leakage from the bushings, radiators, drain valve, etc.

Electrical maintenance operators as well as power plant operators shall carry out a
scheduled inspection and reading of the transformer gauges (oil level, temperature,
pressure, etc.) and make the records as per corresponding log sheets.

At least once a year, preferably during the plants annual shutdown for maintenance,
the H.V. and L.v. connections and terminations on the top-mounted bushings and
inside the cable boxes shall be inspected for loose connections and, if required,
re-tightened.

As a routine preventive maintenance practice, the transformer oil should be tested for
dielectric property. The frequency of test is normally once a year, but, however, after
any abnormal operation or conditions, an appropriate sample of the oil is taken from
the drain valve for labtest. Abnormal operation cases are:

Sustained severe overloading which leads to severe over-temperature.

Direct exposure of transformer oil to surrounding environment due to breather damage,
or any possible severe damage to the transformer tank or conservator, which leads to
such exposures.

Severe over voltage imposed on the transformer, particularly after a detected
breakdown arcing inside the transformer tank.

Table 2
PERMISSIBLE OVERLOAD
Continuous load before over loading (%of nominal power) Overloading
(percentage) Oil filled trans Dry type trnas
50% 75% 90% 50% 75% 90%
10 3h 2h 1h 60 m 55m 45m
20 1.5h 1h 0.5h 30 m 23m 16m
30 1h 0.5h 15m 20 m 15m 10m
40 30m 15m 8m 15 m 11m 7m
50 15m 8m 4m 12 m 9m 5m
Type of cooling Oil temp. before
Overloading
S.F
SU.FU
55 68 78

Above figures shall be 10%
lower for class E and 15%
higher for class B transformers.
W.U 49 60 68










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Table 3 - Periodical inspection of transformers

Date

Time

Wind.

Oil

A.M.B.
Temp. C

Wind.

Oil
Max. Temp.

In

Out
Voltage K.V.

In

Out
Current (A)

Power factor

Level

Leakage
Oil condition


Silica gel
condition




Fans

Pumps

Radiators
Cooling system
condition
Booshing and
insulators

Inspector

Note:













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Table 4 - Oil test in laboratory

Transformer No.: Sample No.:
Item Necessary Tests Test Procedure Test Results
1 KIN. VISCOSITY AT 100 F D --- 445
2 KIN. VISCOSITY AT 210 F D --- 445
3 TOTAL ACIDITY MG KOH/GR D --- 664
4 FLASH POINT OPEN CAP F D --- 92
5 FLASH POINT CLOSE CAP F D --- 93
6 POUR POINT C D --- 97
7 DENSITY AT D --- 1298
8 WATER CONTENT VOL % D --- 95
9 WATER & SEDIMENT VOL % D --- 96
10 COLOR VALUE D --- 1500
11 APPEARANCE VISIBLE