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Divisibility Rules

By: Kelli Holwadel

To determine if a number is divisible by a number without doing long division, but by looking at the digits.

To find factors of larger numbers.

What does divisible by mean?


Divided evenly with no remainder. Result is a whole number. The divisor must be a factor of the dividend.
Ex: 12 is divisible by 6 because 12/6= 2 exactly.

Divisor
Dividend
2 is a factor of 14

What is a factor?
Divides the number so there is no remainder. Factors are numbers that can be multiplied together. Ex:
2 and 3 are factors of 6 because 2x3=6. 1 and 6 are also factors. If a number is divisible by 6 then it is also divisible by 2 and 3.

Divisibility Rules:
Can be difficult to determine if a large number is divisible by a number. The divisibility rules is a shortcut that will make it easier for us to divide. This pattern of rules will help us find factors of numbers. ***All numbers are divisible by 1***

Rule
A number is divisible by 2 if the last digit is even (0,2,4,6,8)

Ex: 1234567890 is divisible by 2 because 0 is even. Ex: 21 is not divisible by 2 because 1 is odd. X

Which number is NOT divisible by 2?


2054 336638
Answer: 1041

1041

Rule
A number is divisible by 3 if the sum of all the digits is divisible by 3 Ex: 153 Add the digits: 1+5+3=9 9/3 = 3

Which number is divisible by 3? 76 7+6=13


13/3= 4 R1

369
3+6+9=18

18/3= 6
Answer: 369

Rule
A number is divisible by 4 if the last 2 digits are divisible by 4. Or the last 2 digits are 00.

Ex: 1620 Ex: 700

20/4=5 700/4=175

Which number is divisible by 4?


9337 37/4= 9 R1 X
Answer: 7916

7916 16/4=4

Rule
A number is divisible by 5 if the last digit is a 0 or 5.

Ex: 543210 Divisible by 5 because last digit is 0. Ex: 12345 Divisible by 5 because last digit is 5.

Which number is NOT divisible by 5?


1355 1228 840

Answer: 1228

Rule
A number is divisible by 6 if it is divisible by both 2 AND 3. (factors) The number has to be even AND sum of digits is divisible by 3

Ex: 24 divisible by 2-even. Divisible by 3 (2+4=6) 6/3=2 24 is divisible by 6

Ex: 26 divisible by 2- even. Not divisible by 3 (2+6=8) 8/3= 2 R2 26 is not divisible by 6 X

Which number is divisible by 6?


408
Even 8+4=12 12/3=4

8800
Even X 8+8=16 16/3= 5R1 Answer: 408

7603
X odd

Rule
The rule for 7 is neither simple nor efficient. The best way to see if a number is divisible by 7 is with a calculator .

Ex: Use a calculator to determine if the following numbers are divisible by 7


161: Yes; 7x23 470: NO; 67R1

Rule
A number is divisible by 8 if the last 3 digits are divisible by 8. The number must be even Ex: 15952 Number is even 9+5+2= 16 16/8=2 Divisible by 8

Which number is NOT divisible by 8?


765888
8+8+8= 24 24/8=3

57891
8+9+1=18 18/8= 2R2

Answer: 57891

Rule
A number is divisible by 9 if the sum of all the digits is divisible by 9. Ex: 963 9+6+3=18 18/9=2 Ex: 82647 8+2+6+4+7=27 27/9=3

Which number is divisible by 9?


376
3+7+6=16 16/9= 1R7

999
9+9+9=27 27/9=3

289
2+8+9 19/9=2R1

Answer: 999

Rule
A number is divisible by 10 if the last digit is a 0. Ex: 700,000,000

Which numbers are NOT divisible by 10?


17890310
555 78630 7674210

345
4460 150 705 Answers: 555, 345, 705, 255

89740
255 100 23450

Practice Problems
Apply the rules (2-10) for 414. What numbers work?

414-Practice Problem Answers

2: 414 Yes-even 3: 4+1+4=99/3=3 Yes X 4: 1+4= 5 5/4=1R1 No X 5: 414 last digit is not 0 or 5. No 6: even (rule 2) and sum is divisible by 3. Yes X 7: use calculator- No X 8: 4+1+4=99/8= 1R1 No 9: 4+1+4=99/9=1 Yes X 10: 414 Last digit is not a zero. No

Divisibility Rules help students make sense of numbers. It also helps determine factors of large numbers and helps check if a number is a multiple of another number. This will be important in math later on.