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Minorities in

Higher
Education
TWENTY-FIRST
ANNUAL STATUS REPORT

20032004
William B. Harvey
Eugene L. Anderson

With generous support from

and the

GE Foundation

American Council on Education

Minorities in
Higher
Education
TWENTY-FIRST
ANNUAL STATUS REPORT

20032004
William B. Harvey
Center for Advancement of Racial and Ethnic Equity

Eugene L. Anderson
Center for Policy Analysis

With generous support from

and the

GE Foundation

American Council on Education

PROJECT COORDINATOR:
Linda D. Mabrey, Program Associate
American Council on Education
Center for Advancement of Racial and Ethnic Equity

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The Center for Advancement of Racial and Ethnic Equity and the Center for Policy Analysis of the American
Council on Education (ACE) are pleased to issue the Twenty-first Annual Status Report on Minorities in
Higher Education. This report has been produced with the generous support of The Coca-Cola Foundation
and the GE Foundation. We also wish to acknowledge the outstanding work of Kaylen Tucker, a contributor to
the trends section of this report, and to thank the staff of ACEs Publications Department for their editorial and
design work. Finally, our appreciation goes to the National Center for Education Statistics at the
U.S. Department of Education for collecting and providing access to the higher education data analyzed in this
report.

Copyright February 2005

American Council on Education


ACE and the American Council on Education are registered marks of the American Council on Education.
American Council on Education
One Dupont Circle NW
Washington, DC 20036
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Table of Contents
FOREWORD

...............................................................v

INTRODUCTION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

CHAPTER 1:

High School Completion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


Overview of Long-Term Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Overview of Recent Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

CHAPTER 2:

College Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Overview of Long-Term Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Overview of Recent Trends. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

CHAPTER 3:

College Enrollment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Overview of Long-Term Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Overview of Recent Trends. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

CHAPTER 4:

College Graduation Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17


Trends by Race/Ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

CHAPTER 5:

Degrees Conferred: Associate, Bachelors, & Masters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21


Overview of Long-Term Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Overview of Recent Trends. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

CHAPTER 6:

Degrees Conferred by Field: Bachelors & Masters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29


Overview of Long-Term Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Overview of Recent Trends. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

CHAPTER 7:

First-Professional and Doctoral Degrees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35


Overview of Long-Term Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Overview of Recent Trends. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

CHAPTER 8:

Employment in Higher Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41


Overview of Long-Term Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Overview of Recent Trends. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

TABLES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1

High School Completion Rates for 18- to 24-Year-Olds, by Race/Ethnicity:


Selected Years, 1990-92 to 2000-02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Figure 2

College Participation Rates of 18- to 24-Year-Old High School Graduates,


by Race/Ethnicity: Selected Years, 1990-92 to 2000-02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

Figure 3

Percentage of Persons 25 to 29 Years Old Who Had Completed Four or More


Years of College, by Race/Ethnicity: Selected Years, 1991-93 to 2001-03 . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Figure 4

Minority Enrollment in Higher Education, by Race/Ethnicity: 1991-2001. . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Figure 5

Degree Attainment Rates Among Degree-Seeking Postsecondary Students


Who Enrolled in 1989-90, After Five Years, by Race/Ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Figure 5A

Degree Attainment Rates Among Degree-Seeking Postsecondary Students


Who Enrolled in 1995-96, After Five Years, by Race/Ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Figure 6

Degrees Conferred to African Americans, by Type of Degree: 1991-92 to 2001-02 . . . 21

Figure 7

Degrees Conferred to Hispanics, by Type of Degree: 1991-92 to 2001-02. . . . . . . . . . 22

Figure 8

Degrees Conferred to Asian Americans, by Type of Degree: 1991-92 to 2001-02 . . . . 23

Figure 9

Degrees Conferred to American Indians, by Type of Degree: 1991-92 to 2001-02. . . 24

Figure 10

Percentage Change in Number of Bachelors Degrees Awarded in Selected Fields,


by Race/Ethnicity: 1991-92 to 2001-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Figure 11

Percentage Change in Number of Master's Degrees Awarded in Selected Fields, by


Race/Ethnicity: 2000-01 to 2001-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Figure 12

First-Professional Degrees Conferred, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender:


1991-92 to 2001-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Figure 13

Percentage Change in Number of Doctoral Degrees Awarded in Selected Fields, by


Race/Ethnicity: 2000-01 to 2001-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Figure 14

Percent Change in Number of Full-Time Faculty, by Race/Ethnicity: 1993 to 2001. . . . 41

Figure 15

Number of Full-Time Administrators in Higher Education, by Race/Ethnicity:


1993 to 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Figure 16

Change in the Number of Minority College and University Presidents,


by Race/Ethnicity and Institution Type: 2003 to 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Commission on Advancement of Racial and Ethnic Equity


The presidential Commission on Advancement of Racial and Ethnic Equity is charged with advising the American Council on Education (ACE) and
its Center for Advancement of Racial and Ethnic Equity (CAREE) on various issues related to diversity in higher education. As a group, the
Commission contributes to programs and activities coordinated by CAREE and provides leadership in four broadly defined CAREE program goals:
raising awareness of the importance of increasing diversity at all levels on college and university campuses; reviewing and discussing research
studies and publications on issues of diversity; serving as presenters, conveners, and mentors in leadership and professional development
programs, academic meetings, and policy forums; and facilitating connections and linkages among the academy, the K12 community, and
corporate and philanthropic partners to promote diversity.
As role models for achieving greater diversity in postsecondary education, the commissioners assume an active role in Council activities and
work with the CAREE staff to ensure that the interests and concerns of minority constituencies are represented within ACE and throughout the
entire higher education community.

COMMISSION CHAIR
Mildred Garcia, President, Berkeley College (NY)
TERM ENDING JUNE 30, 2004
David W. Adamany, President, Temple University (PA)
Philip W. Eaton, President, Seattle Pacific University (WA)
Manuel J. Fernos, President, Inter American University of Puerto
Rico Central Office
Ann Foxworthy, Superintendent/President, Allan Hancock
College (CA)
Carlos Hernandez, President, New Jersey City University
Clayton D. Mote, President, University of Maryland College Park
Tessa Martinez Pollack, President, Our Lady of the Lake
University (TX)
Gregory S. Prince, Jr., President, Hampshire College (NH)
James C. Renick, Chancellor, North Carolina A&T State
University
Kay Schallenkamp, President, Emporia State University (KS)
Henry N. Tisdale, President, Claflin College (SC)
TERM ENDING JUNE 30, 2006
Edna V. Baehre, President, Harrisburg Area Community
College (PA)
Christopher C. Dahl, President, State University of New York
College at Geneseo
Larry R. Faulkner, President, University of Texas at Austin
Christine Johnson, President, Community College of
Denver (CO)
Rumaldo Z. Juarez, President, Texas A&M UniversityKingsville
Peter Likins, President, University of Arizona
Sidney A. Ribeau, President, Bowling Green State
University (OH)
Augusta Souza Kapper, President, Bank Street College of
Education (NY)
Wayne D. Watson, Chancellor, City Colleges of Chicago (IL)

TERM ENDING JUNE 30, 2007


Richard A. Berman, President, Manhattanville College (NY)
R. Wayne Branch, President, Clark College (WA)
Walter G. Bumphus, System President, Louisiana Community &
Technical College System
William J. Carroll, President, Benedictine University (IL)
Thomas F. George, Chancellor, University of MissouriSt. Louis
Charlene Drew Jarvis, President, Southeastern University (DC)
Joseph Martin, President, Southwestern Indian Polytechnic
Institute (NM)
Gail O. Mellow, President, LaGuardia Community College/City
University of New York
J. Michael Ortiz, President, California State Polytechnic
University, Pomona
James M. Rosser, President, California State University
Los Angeles
James E. Shanley, President, Fort Peck Community
College (MT)
Portia H. Shields, President, Albany State University (GA)
H. Patrick Swygert, President, Howard University (DC)
George C. Wright, President, Prairie View A&M University (TX)
EX OFFICIO MEMBERS
Lezli Baskerville, President and CEO, National Association for
Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (MD)
Antonio R. Flores, President, Hispanic Association of Colleges
and Universities (TX)
Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director, American Indian Higher
Education Consortium (VA)
Roger H. Nozaki, Executive Director, GE Foundation (CT)

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY

Foreword

he American Council on Education (ACE) articulates one of its core values in its strategic
plan, Connections to the Future, in the following statement: ACE values inclusiveness and
diversity, recognizes higher educations responsibility to society, and embraces the belief
that widespread access to excellent postsecondary educational opportunities is the
cornerstone of a democratic society. This 21st edition of the Minorities in Higher Education Annual
Status Report is a reflection of that value statement. ACE is proud to publish this document and
gratefully acknowledges the generous support of The Coca-Cola Foundation and the GE Foundation.
Diversifying the nations higher education institutions continues to be one of the most
important challenges facing our society, even though important progress has been achieved during the
past 21 years. Demographic changes will dramatically increase the proportions of people of color, and
our academic institutions must continue to strive to reflect the diversity of the American population.
In particular, we must reach out to the African-American, Latino, and Native American communities.
The mission of The Coca-Cola Foundation is to improve the quality of life in the community and
enhance individual opportunity through education. The Coca-Cola Foundation encourages new
solutions to address countless problems that impede educational systems today, and supports existing
programs that work. Because the challenges for education are so broad, the Foundations commitment is multifaceted. It offers support to public and private colleges and universities, elementary
and secondary schools, teacher-training programs, and educational programs for minority students.
The GE Foundation, the philanthropic organization of the General Electric Company, works to
strengthen educational access, equity, and quality for disadvantaged youth globally. The
Foundations core focus has been consistent since its founding over 50 years ago, including support
for the United Negro College Fund and graduate fellowships in the early 1950s; leadership in the
formation of the National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering in the 1970s; and tens of
millions of dollars in the past two decades to initiatives like College Bound, Faculty for the Future,
and Math Excellence, all focused on strengthening the educational quality and opportunity for
historically underrepresented students.
ACE, The Coca-Cola Foundation, and the GE Foundation invest in these initiatives because of
our shared belief that a well-educated, diverse citizenry and workforce are a national priority,
critical to our democracy and quality of life. This 21st Annual Status Report challenges us to
recognize the demographic, political, and social realities of the 21st century. The data tell us how far
we have come in our quest for educational excellence for all students, but they also caution us that
equity in education for all Americans remains a goal that we must strive to reach.

David Ward
President
American Council
on Education

Ingrid Saunders Jones


Chairperson
The Coca-Cola Foundation

Robert Corcoran
President
GE Foundation

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

Introduction

ith the publication of this 21st edition of the Minorities in Higher Education
Annual Status Report, the American Council on Education (ACE) confirms its
commitment to providing data and analysis that track the movement of people of
colorAfrican Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians
into and through Americas higher education institutions.
Prepared by ACEs Center for Advancement of Racial and Ethnic Equity (CAREE, formerly
the Office of Minorities in Higher Education) and Center for Policy Analysis, this report presents
and summarizes the most recent data available on major indicators of progress among racial and
ethnic minorities in American higher education. It analyzes statisticson high school completion,
college participation and enrollment, degrees conferred, and higher education employmentby
race/ethnicity and gender. The report provides data primarily from 1991 to 2001, as well as a focus
on the most recent one-year period for which data are available, 2000 to 2001.
The report does not include data on high school completion and college participation rates for
Asian Americans or American Indians because such information is not available from the
U.S. Census Bureau for the entire period covered in the report. ACE continues to urge federal and
state governments to improve their annual data collection to enable more thorough monitoring of
the college-going patterns of all racial and ethnic groups.

METHODOLOGY
As with previous issues of this report, primary data sources for this edition include the U.S. Census
Bureau and the U.S. Department of Educations National Center for Education Statistics (NCES).
Tables 1 through 3 are produced with data from the U.S. Census Bureaus Current Population
Survey Reports (CPS). The CPS is a nationally representative sample of about 80,000 households,
based on surveys conducted annually. The sampling technique used provides reliable estimates at
the state and national levels, however, when examining subsets of the population, year-to-year
changes in the data may be misleading due to small sample sizes. The analysis and discussion of
these data in this report are based on three-year averages in an effort to compensate for small
sample sizes in individual years. Data from the CPS are not intended to be comparable to similar
data from other sources.
Previous editions of this report relied on data from tables constructed by NCES using the
Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), a postsecondary education data
collection program. This edition of the Status Report uses data calculated from author analysis of
IPEDS. Doing this analysis enabled ACE researchers to define the universe of schools included in
calculations and determine how to categorize and list variables.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

vii

This edition of the Status Report is the first to contain data for persons of unknown race/
ethnicity. In 1990, a category for persons of unknown race/ethnicity was added to the IPEDS Fall
Enrollment Survey. In an effort to maintain consistency in its long-term trend tables, NCES did
not add the race/ethnicity unknown category to its tables in the Annual Digest of Education
Statistics. Instead, NCES distributed the persons of unknown race/ethnicity across the traditional
racial categories for each institution, a technique called raking. Previous editions of the
Status Report used data from these NCES tables, with race/ethnicity unknown persons not listed
separately, but added to the standard racial/ethnic categories. This edition of the Status Report,
however, lists race/ethnicity unknown persons separately in most of the enrollment and
degrees conferred tables. The decision to provide a separate listing for persons of unknown
race/ethnicity was made because data on these individuals are available for the 10-year period
covered in this report, 1991 to 2001. Furthermore, the increasing size of the unknown race/
ethnicity population makes these data important in discussing the changing demographics of
American higher education.
Finally, it is important to note that the universe of institutions included in calculating the
data was similar to the universe used by NCES, with one major exception. Higher education data
were calculated only for degree-granting institutions in the 50 states and the District of
Columbia. Higher education data before 1996 include only institutions accredited by an agency or
association that was recognized by the U.S. Department of Education or directly by the Secretary
of Education. Beginning in 1996, this accreditation requirement was replaced by a requirement
that institutions be eligible to receive Title IV federal funds. To make these two populations of
institutions more comparable, the authors excluded the Community College of the Air Force for
years prior to 1996, when the institution would have met the NCES filters, permitting it to be
included in the universe of schools. The Community College of the Air Force is not open to the
public, and therefore should not be included in the calculation of national higher education data
for any year.

viii

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Executive
Summary

uring the 1990s, higher education


enrollment followed the same trend
as the entire college-age population
in the United States: A tremendous
increase in the number of minorities countered
1
declines among the number of whites. From
1991 to 2001, higher education enrollment
increased by 1.6 million students to reach nearly
16 million students, an increase of 11.2 percent.
White enrollment fell by nearly 500,000 students, but the number of minority students
made dramatic gains, increasing by nearly
1.5 million students, or 51.7 percent. Also
adding to the increase in higher education
enrollment was the growing number of persons
of unknown race/ethnicity. This 21st edition of
the Minorities in Higher Education Status
Report is the first to include data for persons of
unknown race/ethnicity. When the National
Center for Education Statistics added the
race/ethnicity unknown category in 1990,
the number of students in this category was less
2
than 500,000. Ten years later, the enrollment of
these students doubled from about 468,000 students in 1991 to more than 938,000 students in
2001. In 2001, persons of unknown race/ethnicity represented a group of considerable size,
fourth in enrollment after whites, African
Americans, and Hispanics. The growth in
enrollment of this newly defined population
occurred similarly at all types of institutions and
equally among men and women.

Despite making substantial increases in


enrollment, African Americans and Hispanics
continue to trail whites in the percentage of the
college-age cohort enrolled in college, commonly
referred to as the college participation rate. The
large decline in the white college-age population actually caused the college participation
rate of whites to increase from 41.1 percent in
199092 to 45.5 percent in 200002. The number of 18- to 24-year-old African Americans
increased, but the number enrolled in college
increased at a higher rate, so the college participation rate for African Americans increased
from 32.7 percent in 199092 to 39.9 percent
eight years later. The growth in the number of
Hispanics aged 18 to 24 who were enrolled in
higher education did not increase at a significantly higher rate than the general population,
so the Hispanic college participation rate
3
showed little improvement.

U.S. Census Bureau, decennial census of population, 1900 to 2000.

Race/ethnicity unknown persons are those whose postsecondary institution was unable to classify them by race/ethnicity.

College participation rate data from 1990 to 2002 are not available for American Indians and Asian Americans because of small sample sizes in the
U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey.
AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

ix

This Minorities in Higher Education


Twenty-first Annual Status Report provides a
long- and short-term overview of the trends in
higher education. Highlights of the findings
include:

HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETION


In the 10-year period between 199092
and 200002, Hispanic students showed the
highest increase in high school completion
(HSC) rates, increasing by 6.9 percentage
points to stand at 61.5 percent.
From 199799 to 200002, only African
Americans experienced an increase in
high school completion rate, rising by 2.4 percentage points to rest at 77.2 percent. In the
same period, both African-American and
Hispanic women increased their HSC rates
and maintained their lead over men.

COLLEGE PARTICIPATION
The college participation rate for all 18- to
24-year-old students increased by 3.4 percentage points in the 10-year period between
199092 and 200002 to 44.1 percent.
From 199092 to 200002, the college
participation rate for men increased by only
1 percentage point, while for women, it
increased by 5.5 percentage points.

COLLEGE ENROLLMENT
In the 10-year period between 1991 and
2001, African-American enrollment in higher
education rose by 36.9 percent, to total nearly
1.8 million students.
From 1991 to 2001, growth in Hispanic
enrollment led all racial/ethnic groups,
increasing by 626,000 students, or 75.1 percent. The largest growth took place at twoyear institutions, where Hispanic enrollment
rose by 82.1 percent, compared with a
67.6 percent increase at four-year institutions.
In the 10-year period between 1991 and
2001, Asian-American enrollment increased
by 328,000 students, a 53.7 percent expansion. Asian Americans led all racial/ethnic
groups in the rate of growth at the firstprofessional level, growing by 74.8 percent,
for an increase of 15,000 students.
In 1991, the majority of American Indian
students were enrolled in two-year institutions
61,000, compared with 49,000 at four-year
institutions. After a 53.0 percent increase in
American Indian enrollment at four-year institutions, four-year schools became home to the
majority of American Indian students by
2001, enrolling 75,000, compared with
74,000 at two-year institutions.

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

COLLEGE PERSISTENCE RATES


Overall persistence rates among students
who began their postsecondary education at
four-year institutions improved from 1994 to
2000: More students had earned a bachelors
degree and fewer had left school without
a degree by the end of that period. The percentage of students earning a bachelors
degree had increased by 3 percentage points
during that period, to 54.3 percent. The percentage of students who had not earned any
degree and were no longer enrolled decreased
from 24.9 percent to 20.7 percent over this
same period.
Among students who began in 199596,
Asian-American students had the highest rate
of attaining a bachelors degree, 62.3 percent,
followed by white students, who posted a rate
of 58 percent. African-American students had
the largest percentage of students with no
degree but who were still enrolled (25.6 percent), as well as those without a degree and no
longer enrolled (30.1 percent).

DEGREES CONFERRED: ASSOCIATE,


BACHELORS, AND MASTERS
The number of degrees conferred at
the associate, bachelors, and masters degree
levels increased by more than 100,000
degrees at each level from 199192 to
200102. The largest numerical increase
occurred at the bachelors degree level, in
which institutions awarded 156,000 more
bachelors degrees in 200102 than in
199192, an increase of 13.7 percent.
From 199192 to 200102, African
Americans doubled the number of masters
degrees they had earned, from 17,000 degrees
to 37,000 degrees. African Americans also
recorded dramatic gains in the numbers of
associate and bachelors degrees earned,
which increased by 66.5 percent and 56.1 percent, respectively.

In the 10-year period between 199192 and


200102, Hispanics more than doubled the
number of degrees they earned at the associate and masters degree levels, earning
32,000 additional associate degrees and
11,000 additional masters degrees. At the
bachelors degree level, Hispanics nearly
doubled their 199192 total, increasing that
figure by 96.3 percent.
Asian-American women earned 128.8 percent more masters degrees in 200102 than
they had in 199192, compared with 54.8 percent growth for Asian-American men. The
higher rate of growth for women allowed them
to surpass their male counterparts in the total
number of masters degrees earned in
200102.
American Indians achieved gains in all
degree categories over the last 10 years, with
the most significant increase at the masters
degree level, at which the number of degrees
earned increased by 97.1 percent. At the associate and bachelors degree levels, American
Indians earned about 70 percent more
degrees in 200102 than they had 10 years
earlier.

DEGREES CONFERRED BY FIELD:


BACHELORS AND MASTERS
The number of bachelors degrees conferred declined by 4.9 percent in engineering,
by 1.5 percent in education, and by 0.8 percent in social sciences/history. These declines
were the result of large declines among
whites, which countered growth among
minorities.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

xi

Minority growth in bachelors degrees


earned was greatest in the health professions
(up by 88.8 percent), biological/life sciences
(up by 82.1 percent), and business (up by
76.5 percent). The largest numerical growth
in bachelors degrees earned occurred in business; minorities earned 29,000 more business
degrees in 200102 than they had 10 years
earlier.
At the masters degree level, the number of
degrees conferred increased in all selected
fields of study. This growth occurred primarily in three fields: the health professions (up
by 89.2 percent), education (up by 47.4 percent), and business (up by 42.7 percent).
Sixty-two percent of all additional masters
degrees awarded in 200102 were in education and business.
In this 10-year period, African-American
students significantly increased the number of
masters degrees they earned in all selected
fields. Masters degrees conferred in education and business had the largest numerical
gains, with more than 6,000 additional
degrees conferred in both fields during the
last decade.
From 199192 to 200102, Hispanics more
than doubled the number of masters degrees
they earned in health professions, education,
business, social sciences/history, and public
administration. The 5,000-degree increase in
education represented the largest numerical
gain in masters degrees conferred to
Hispanics from 199192 to 200102.
In 200102, Asian Americans earned
18 fewer masters degrees in engineering than
in 199192. In all other selected fields, Asian
Americans saw tremendous growth. They
more than quadrupled the number of masters
degrees they had earned in health professions,
and more than doubled the number of
masters degrees they had earned in education, business, and public administration.

xii

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

From 199192 to 200102, masters


degrees earned by American Indians rose
most significantly in the health professions
(up by 141.5 percent), business (up by
131.8 percent), and education (up by 109 percent). In education, American Indians earned
500 additional degrees, the largest increase of
all selected fields.

FIRST-PROFESSIONAL AND DOCTORAL


DEGREES
The number of first-professional and doctoral degrees conferred increased modestly
from 199192 to 200102, up by 9.3 percent
for first-professional degrees and 8.8 percent
for doctoral degrees. The small growth in both
degree categories was caused by significant
declines in the number of first-professional
and doctoral degrees earned by white males,
down by 17.6 percent and 12.9 percent,
respectively.
At the doctoral level, white females had
the largest numerical increase in degrees
of any group from 199192 to 200102
1,700 degrees.
At the first-professional degree level,
African Americans earned 52.2 percent more
degrees in 200102 than in 199192. The
number of African Americans earning firstprofessional degrees at HBCUs more than
doubled in that 10-year period. In 200102,
HBCUs awarded a larger share of all first-professional degrees earned by African
Americans than they had 10 years earlier,
18.3 percent versus 12.6 percent.
Hispanics earned 69.3 percent more doctoral degrees in 200102 than in 199192.
From 199192 to 200102, Hispanic women
earned 111.1 percent more doctoral degrees,
compared with an increase of 36.5 percent for
Hispanic men, making Hispanic women the
top doctoral degree earner among Hispanics.

In the last 10-year period, Asian Americans


nearly doubled the number of firstprofessional degrees they earned. The
4,400 additional first-professional degrees
earned by Asian Americans was the largest
numerical increase of any other racial/ethnic
group.
From 199192 to 200102, American
Indians experienced a large increase in firstprofessional degrees (up by 88.1 percent).
Both American Indian men and women saw
large gains in first-professional degrees,
increasing by 77.1 percent and 100.7 percent,
respectively.

EMPLOYMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION


The number of minority full-time faculty at
the nations colleges and universities
increased significantly, growing from 65,000
positions in 1993 to more than 90,000 positions in 2001, a 40 percent increase.

Between 1994 and 2004, African-American


women nearly doubled their number of presidential appointments, to stand at 87 presidencies. African-American men did not have the
same level of success, increasing by 5.6 percent, or 9 presidencies.
Hispanics experienced the highest increase
at the presidential level of all minority groups,
gaining 73 presidencies from 1994 to 2004,
an increase of 62.9 percent.
Asian Americans experienced the second
largest increase in administrative positions,
rising from 2,243 positions in 1993 to more
than 3,500 positions in 2001, a 57.9 percent
gain.
American Indians were the only racial
group to hold fewer presidencies in 2004 than
they did in 1994, losing two positions, both
formerly held by American Indian women.

Hispanics experienced the highest rate of


increase in faculty among U.S. citizens,
increasing by 53.3 percent from 1993 to 2001,
or 6,400 faculty members.
Asian Americans experienced the highest
numerical increase in faculty positions among
minorities, increasing by 12,800 positions
from 1993 to 2001, a 50.5 percent gain.
The substantial growth in minority female
administrators from 1993 to 2001 (up by
37.3 percent) pushed them past minority men
in the total number of administrators in
200112,704 women, compared with 10,664
men.
Minorities made significant gains at
the presidential level from 1994 to 2004,
increasing the number of positions held by
23.5 percent, or 92 positions.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

xiii

MILLS COLLEGE

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY

High School
Completion
OVERVIEW OF LONG-TERM TRENDS
In this report, high school completion (HSC)
rates refer to the percentage of 18- to 24-yearolds who completed high school or the equivalent. In the 10-year period between 199092
and 200002, the HSC rate for all students
remained about 81.5 percent. Hispanic students
showed the highest increase in HSC rate, a gain
of 6.9 percentage points to stand at 61.5 percent
(see Figure 1). Most of that increase took place
between 199395 and 200002. White students
also experienced an increase in HSC rate, rising
by 4.6 percentage points, while AfricanAmerican students showed a much smaller gain
of 1.7 percentage points (see Table 1).
Gender differences in HSC rates varied by
racial group. Overall, the HSC rate for males
declined by 1.1 percentage point, and the HSC
rate for women increased by 1 percentage point.
Both male and female Hispanics increased their
HSC rate, men by 5.0 percentage points and
women by 9.3 percentage points. Among white
students, the rate among both men and women
increased (by 5.3 and 4.1 percentage points,
respectively). However, among African
Americans, the rates for male and female HSC
varied, as African-American men showed
a slight decrease, while African-American
women increased by 3.6 percentage points, from
77.5 percent to 81.1 percent (see Table 2).

Long-Term Trends by Race/Ethnicity


African Americans
The HSC rate for 18- to 24-year-old AfricanAmerican students has made only incremental
improvement since the mid 1980s. In the
10-year period between 199092 and
200002, the HSC rate for 18- to 24-year-old
African-American students increased by only
1.7 percentage points, to rest at 77.2 percent
(see Table 1 and Figure 1).

Consistent with the rate for all males,


African-American men showed a small
decrease in high school completion rate,
falling by 0.7 percentage points in the last
10-year period (see Table 2). AfricanAmerican women, on the other hand,
increased their high school completion rate by
3.6 percentage points between 199092 and
200002 (see Table 2).

FIGURE 1
HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETION RATES FOR 18- TO 24-YEAR-OLDS,
BY RACE/ETHNICITY: SELECTED YEARS, 1990-92 TO 2000-02
100

White

African American

Hispanic

90

87.1

Percentage

85.1
82.5

82.5
80

77.2

76.3

75.5

74.8

70
60.2

60
54.6
50

199092

61.5

57.1

199395

199799

200002

Note: To compensate for small sample sizes, three-year averages are reported here. Annual rates
are reported in Table 1.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Survey Reports, School Enrollment
Social and Economic Characteristics of Students, 1990-2002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

Hispanics
Between 199092 and 200002, HSC rates
for 18- to 24-year-old Hispanics increased by
6.9 percentage points to 61.5 percentwith
most of that gain occurring in the seven-year
period between 199395 and 200002, when
this population increased HSC by 4.4 percentage points. Between 199092 and 199395,
the total Hispanic HSC rate increased by
2.5 percentage points (see Table 1 and Figure 1).
The gender gap between male and female
Hispanics widened dramatically between
199092 and 200002. Though Hispanic men
increased their HSC rate by 5 percentage
points, Hispanic women increased their rate
by 9.3 percentage points for the same 10-year
period, with the bulk of that increase taking
place between 199395 and 200002 (see
Table 2).

OVERVIEW OF RECENT TRENDS


The high school completion rate for all 18- to
24-year-olds remained around 81 percent in the
three-year period from 199799 to 200002.
During this period, African Americans experienced the largest increase in high school completion rate, which rose by 2.4 percentage
points to rest at 77.2 percent (see Table 1 and
Figure 1).
In the same period, both African-American
and Hispanic women increased their HSC rates
and maintained their lead over their male counterparts. African-American women increased by
3.2 percentage points to 81.1 percent, and
Hispanic women increased by 2.8 percentage
points to 67.7 percent. African-American and
Hispanic men, on the other hand, experienced
little change (see Table 2).

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Recent Trends by Race/Ethnicity


African Americans
In the three-year period from 199799 to
200002, 18- to 24-year-old African Americans
increased their HSC rate by 2.4 percentage
points, raising it from 74.8 percent to
77.2 percent (see Table 1 and Figure 1).
The HSC rate for African-American men in
200002 stood at 72.6 percent, which reflects a
1.4 percentage point increase from the previous
three-year period. African-American women
aged 18 to 24 years outpaced AfricanAmerican men in the same age group, increasing their HSC rate from 77.9 percent in
199799 to 81.1 percent in 200002 (see
Table 2).
Hispanics
The HSC rate for 18- to 24-year-old
Hispanics in the three-year period ending in
2002 was 61.5 percent, up by 1.3 percentage
points from the last period (see Table 1 and
Figure 1).
The gender gap in the HSC rate between
Hispanic men and women widened to nearly
12 percentage points from 199799 to
200002. The HSC rate for Hispanic women
increased by 2.8 percentage points to 67.7 percent, while the HSC rate for Hispanic men
remained at 56 percent (see Table 2).

Notes
4 High school completion (HSC) rates are based
on an annual sample survey conducted by the
U.S. Census Bureau. Because of small sample
sizes, HSC rates calculated from these annual
data may be misleading, so this section uses
three-year averages based on the data in Tables 1
through 3.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA AT OMAHA

College
Participation
OVERVIEW OF LONG-TERM TRENDS
College participation rates show the percentage
of 18- to 24-year-old high school graduates
enrolled in postsecondary education. These
data differ from college enrollments because
college participation rates are based on the
number of individuals in the specific subgroup
who are enrolled in college, divided by the total
number of persons in that subgroup. The college participation rate for all 18- to 24-year-old
students increased by 3.4 percentage points in
the 10-year period between 199092 and
200002 to 44.1 percent (see Table 1).
For all students in this age group, the gender gap slowly widened over the last 10 years. In
199092, the college participation rate for men
and women was nearly identical, with men
slightly higher than women (40.9 percent and
40.6 percent, respectively). But in the 10-year
period from 199092 to 200002, the college
participation rate for men increased by only
1 percentage point, while for women, it
increased by 5.5 percentage points (see Table 2).
The increase in college participation rates
during the 1990s significantly affected the educational attainment rate of 25- to 29-year-olds.
In 199193, 23.5 percent of 25- to 29-year-olds
completed four or more years of college. Ten
years later, that percentage had risen to
28.7 percent (see Table 3).

Long-Term Trends by Race/Ethnicity


African Americans
The percentage of African-American 18- to
24-year-old high school graduates who were
enrolled in college increased by 7.2 percentage points from 199092 to 200002, to rest
at 39.9 percent (see Table 1 and Figure 2).

African-American women aged 18 to 24


years increased their college participation
rate by 10.1 percentage points in the last 10
years, to stand at 43.7 percent. Among
African-American men aged 18 to 24 years,
the college participation rate during the
1990s increased by only 3.1 percentage points
(see Table 2).

FIGURE 2
COLLEGE PARTICIPATION RATES OF 18- TO 24-YEAR-OLD HIGH
SCHOOL GRADUATES, BY RACE/ETHNICITY: SELECTED YEARS,
1990-92 TO 2000-02
50

White

African American

Hispanic

45.9

45.5

45
42.5
41.1
39.9

Percentage

39.8

40

35
32.7

33.6

34.6 34.7

34.0

34.0

30

25

199092

199395

199799

200002

Note: To compensate for small sample sizes, three-year averages are reported here. Annual rates
are reported in Table 1.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Survey Reports, School
EnrollmentSocial and Economic Characteristics of Students, 1990-2002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

By 200103, 17.5 percent of 25- to 29-yearold African Americans had completed four or
more years of college, an increase of 5.7 percentage points from 1991 to 1993. This
increase in educational attainment occurred
almost equally for African-American men and
women (see Table 3 and Figure 3).

OVERVIEW OF RECENT TRENDS

Hispanics
Only a small increase occurred in the
Hispanic college participation rate during the
1990s, rising from 33.6 percent to 34.0 percent.
The gain of 1 percentage point from 199092
to 199395 was followed by a decrease of nearly
1 percentage point from 199395 to 199799
(see Table 1 and Figure 2).
The college participation rate for Hispanic
men showed little change between 199092
and 200002, rising by 0.5 percentage points,
while the college participation rate for
Hispanic women increased by about 1 percentage point to 37.1 percent (see Table 2).

FIGURE 3
PERCENTAGE OF PERSONS 25 TO 29 YEARS OLD WHO HAD COMPLETED
FOUR OR MORE YEARS OF COLLEGE, BY RACE/ETHNICITY: SELECTED
YEARS, 199193 TO 200103
40

White

African American

Hispanic
34.6

35

32.0

Percentage

30
25

26.1

24.8

20

17.5

16.2
15

14.5
11.8
9.0

10

10.0

9.7

9.8

5
0

199193

199496

19982000

200103

Note: To compensate for small sample sizes, three-year averages are reported here. Annual rates
are reported in Table 3.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Survey Reports, Educational
Attainment in the United States, 19912003.

From 199193 to 200103, Hispanics made


little increase in educational attainment
among persons aged 25 to 29 years, rising
from 9 percent to 9.8 percent. The small
increase is attributable to growth in the
attainment rate among Hispanic women (see
Table 3 and Figure 3).

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

College participation by all students aged 18 to


24 years decreased by 0.7 percent from 199799
to 200002. White students experienced a
0.4 percentage point decrease to stand at
45.5 percent. Minorities experienced little
change in their college participation rates (see
Table 1 and Figure 2).
Despite the small decline in the college participation of whites during the 1990s, they
showed an increase in the percentage of 25- to
29-year-olds with four or more years of college,
rising from 32 percent to 34.6 percent. African
Americans aged 25 to 29 years also showed a
small increase in educational attainment during
the same period, increasing from 16.2 percent
to 17.5 percent (see Table 3 and Figure 3).
Recent Trends by Race/Ethnicity
African Americans
African Americans in the 18- to 24-year-old
range showed no significant change in college
participation between 199799 and 200002,
standing at around 40 percent in 2002 (see
Table 1 and Figure 2).
African-American women increased their
participation rate by 2 percentage points in
the same time period, moving from 41.7 percent in 199799 to 43.7 percent in 200002.
African-American men moved in the opposite
direction, decreasing by 2.3 percentage points
during the same period, further widening the
gender gap to 8.6 percentage points (see
Table 2).

The percentage of 25- to 29-year-old


African-American men who had completed
four or more years of college increased from
15.2 percent in 19982000 to 17.1 percent in
200103, reflecting a steady increase of nearly
2 percentage points (see Table 3 and Figure 3).

The percentage of 25- to 29-year-old


Hispanics with four or more years of college
showed almost no change in the most recent
period of analysis (see Table 3 and Figure 3).
Notes
College participation rates are based on an
annual sample survey conducted by the U.S.
Census Bureau. Because of small sample sizes,
college participation rates calculated from these
annual data may be misleading, so this section
uses three-year averages based on the data in
Tables 1 through 3.
5

Hispanics
Similar to the trend among AfricanAmerican students in the same age group,
18- to 24-year-old Hispanic students experienced no change in their college participation
rate from 199799 to 200002, standing at
34 percent (see Table 1 and Figure 2).
Neither Hispanic men nor women experienced any real change in college participation
rates, resting at 31.1 percent and 37.1 percent,
respectively, in 200002 (see Table 2).

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA

College
Enrollment
OVERVIEW OF LONG-TERM TRENDS
In the last decade, the nations higher education
institutions expanded their enrollments
substantially, adding 1.6 million students (a
11.2 percent increase from 1991 to 2001). This
dramatic increase in enrollment resulted from
considerable growth among minorities, which
countered a significant decline among whites.
White enrollment fell by nearly 500,000 students, or 4.6 percent, during the 1990s. In the
same period, minority students made dramatic
gains, increasing by nearly 1.5 million students,
or 51.7 percent. The overall surge in higher education enrollments also was spurred by an additional 471,000 students whose race/ethnicity
was classified as unknowna doubling in the
number of such students. In 1990, the National
Center for Education Statistics began collecting
data for people with no known race/ethnicity. It
is not possible to speculate accurately about the
ethnicity of these students, however it is clear
that growth in the number of students with
unspecified race/ethnicity reduces the number
of people among the standard racial/ethnic
groups (see Table 4).
The growth in higher education enrollment during the 1990s did not occur consistently from
year to year. The increases were concentrated
between 1995 and 2001, following a small
decline in enrollment from 1991 to 1995.
During that early part of the decade, enrollment
declined by 133,000 people, then surged by
1.7 million from 1995 to 2001. Overall, the
declines of the early 1990s occurred at two-year
institutions (where enrollment dropped by
203,000) and public institutions (where it fell by

253,000). Among the contributing factors was a


drop in white enrollment, which fell by 737,000
students, particularly at two-year institutions.
Most of the growth after 1995 occurred at public
institutions, where enrollment jumped by
1.2 million. Four-year and two-year institutions
alike experienced significant growth during this
period, adding 908,000 and 863,000 students,
respectively (see Table 4 and Table 5).
The growth in minority enrollment and the
decline in white enrollment raised the minority
share of higher education enrollment from
20 percent in 1991 to 27 percent in 2001. This
growth occurred almost equally at two-year and
four-year institutions, which added 750,000 and
725,000 students, respectively. Most of the
growth in minority enrollment was at public
institutions, which saw an influx of 1.1 million
minority students. Nearly twice as many women
as men entered higher education in the 1990s
940,000 women, compared with 526,000 men.
Hispanics accounted for 43 percent of the new
minority students in the 1990s, and one-third
were African American. Concurrently, the
decline in white enrollment was restricted to
public institutions, where white enrollment
declined by 6.8 percent, compared with an
increase of 4.1 percent at private institutions.
The largest declines in white enrollment
occurred at two-year institutions (where it fell by
319,000 students) and among white males
(whose numbers declined by 313,000).

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

White and minority enrollments followed


similar patterns at all levels of study. White
enrollment declined at all levels, but most
significantly at the undergraduate level, waning
by 4.9 percent, or 449,000 students. For minorities, the percentage gains in enrollment were
greatest at the graduate level, climbing by
83.8 percent from 1991 to 2001. The largest
numerical gains in minority enrollment
occurred at the undergraduate level, where
minority enrollment increased by 1.3 million
from 1991 to 2001 (see Table 6).
Minority enrollments were not spread
evenly across the nation. In 1991, one-third of
all minority students in the United States were
enrolled at institutions in California and Texas.
California alone was home to 676,000 of the
nearly 3 million minority students. From 1991
to 2001, California institutions enrolled almost
one-third of all new minority students in the
country (or 421,000 students). Colleges and
universities in Texas and Florida were the only
other institutions to gain more than 100,000

MINORITY ENROLLMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION, BY RACE/ETHNICITY:


19912001
African American

Hispanic

Asian American

American Indian

1,600,000
1,400,000
1,200,000
1,000,000
800,000
600,000
400,000
200,000
0

1991

1993

1995

1997

1998

1999

2001

Note: Data may not match previous reports because in previous reports race/ethnicity unknown
persons were imputed across standard racial/ethnic groups.
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Integrated
Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall Enrollment Survey, 1991 to 2001 (analysis by
author).

10

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Long-Term Trends by Race/Ethnicity


African Americans
In the 10-year period between 1991 and
2001, African-American enrollment in higher
education rose by 36.9 percent, to total nearly
1.8 million students. This growth resulted in
the African-American share of enrollment
increasing from 9.0 percent in 1991 to
11.0 percent in 2001 (see Table 4 and
Figure 4).
From 1991 to 2001, the number of enrolled
African-American women increased by
42.1 percent, or more than 300,000 students.
The numerical growth among AfricanAmerican women is twice the numerical
growth of their male counterparts, but
African-American men still showed strong
gains in enrollment in this 10-year period,
climbing by 28.6 percent (see Table 5).
African Americans continued to make gains
at the post-baccalaureate level. At the graduate level, African-American enrollment
nearly doubled, from 82,000 in 1991 to
155,000 in 2001, a rise of 89.6 percent. At the
first-professional level, the gain was more
modest, with enrollment growing by 6,000
students, or 35.7 percent (see Table 6).

FIGURE 4

1,800,000

minority students from 1991 to 2001. Nevada


was the only state in which higher education
enrollments more than doubled from
1991 to 2001, escalating by 149.1 percent
(see Table 10).

The number of African-American students


increased by 9.3 percent at historically black
colleges and universities (HBCUs) from 1991
to 2001, an expansion of 20,000 students.
From 1990 to 2001, African-American male
enrollment at HBCUs increased by only 7,800
students, compared with an increase of
22,000 African-American women (see Tables
7 and 8).

Florida and Georgia were the only states


in which African-American enrollment
increased by more than 50,000 students from
1991 to 2001. The tremendous growth in
African-American enrollment in these two
states ranked them among the top five in
African-American higher education enrollment (the other top states were California,
New York, and Texas). These five states were
the only ones with more than 100,000 African
Americans enrolled in higher education in
2001 (see Table 10).
Hispanics
From 1991 to 2001, growth in Hispanic
enrollment led all racial/ethnic groups,
increasing by 626,000 students, or 75.1 percent (see Figure 4). The largest growth took
place at two-year institutions, where Hispanic
enrollment rose by 82.1 percent, compared
with a 67.6 percent increase at four-year
institutions. Throughout the 1990s, two-year
institutions continued to be home to the
majority of Hispanic students. By 2001, more
than 60 percent of Hispanic students were
enrolled at two-year institutions (see Table 4).
Hispanic enrollment nearly doubled at the
graduate level, while first-professional enrollment increased more modestly, advancing by
32.8 percent (see Table 6).
In the last decade, Hispanic women experienced a dramatic enrollment increase of
385,000, or 75.1 percent. Hispanic women
outpaced Hispanic men, whose enrollment
also increased by more than 241,000 students,
or 64.1 percent (see Table 5).
No other state made more gains in Hispanic
enrollment than California, where Hispanic
enrollment doubled, to top 524,000 students
in 2001. Colleges and universities in Texas
and Florida also saw substantial increases in
Hispanic enrollment, which rose by 96,000

and 49,000 students, respectively. Hispanic


enrollment also increased by large numbers in
New York and Illinois, which both maintained
their positions with California, Texas, and
Florida as the top five states in Hispanic
enrollment in 2001 (see Table 10).
Asian Americans
In the 10-year period between 1991 and
2001, Asian-American enrollment increased
by 328,000 students, a 53.7 percent expansion (see Figure 4). Asian-American enrollments saw similar growth at four-year and
two-year institutions, 53.1 percent and
55.0 percent, respectively (see Table 4). Asian
Americans led all racial/ethnic groups in the
rate of growth at the first-professional level,
growing by 74.8 percent, for an increase of
15,000 students. Asian Americans trailed
only whites in total enrollment at the firstprofessional level. At the undergraduate and
graduate levels, Asian-American enrollment
was smaller than that of whites, African
Americans, and Hispanics (see Table 6).
During the 1990s, Asian-American female
enrollment surpassed male enrollment. The
number of Asian-American men increased by
about 130,000, or 41.8 percent, while enrollment of Asian-American women swelled
by 198,000 students, or 66.0 percent (see
Table 5).
Asian-American enrollment grew the most
at institutions in California, which tallied
138,000 more Asian-American students in
2001 than in 1991. New York ranked second,
posting only an additional 26,000 students,
followed by 22,000 new Asian-American students in Texas (see Table 10).

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

11

American Indians
In the last 10 years, a major shift occurred in
American Indian enrollment in higher education. In 1991, two-year institutions enrolled
55 percent of all American Indian students. In
2001, American Indian enrollment at fouryear institutions was higher than their enrollment at two-year institutions, because of a
53.0 percent increase in enrollment from
1991 to 2001 (see Table 4).
American Indian women widened the
enrollment gap with their male counterparts,
increasing their enrollment by 25,000 students, compared with an increase of nearly
14,000 American Indian men. In 2001,
60 percent of American Indian students
were female, up from 58 percent in 1991 (see
Table 5).
From 1993 to 2001, American Indian men
increased their enrollment at tribal colleges
by 10.7 percent. In the same period, American
Indian women increased their enrollment at
tribal colleges by 29.5 percent (see Table 9).
From 1991 to 2001, only colleges and
universities in Oklahoma, Arizona, New
Mexico, and Texas recorded increases in
American Indian enrollment greater than

UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND AT BALTIMORE


12

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

2,000 students. Institutions in Oklahoma led


the way, expanding American Indian enrollment by more than 6,000 students, or
55.8 percent. Despite a 1,800-student
decrease in American Indian enrollment,
California remained home to the largest
number of American Indian students in 2001,
which numbered 22,227 (see Table 10).

OVERVIEW OF RECENT TRENDS


After increasing by 4.0 percent from 2000 to
2001, higher education enrollment is nearing
the 16 million-student mark. Whites and
minorities fueled the one-year increase in
enrollment equally. After several years of falling
enrollments, white enrollment increased by
236,000 from 2000 to 2001, while minority
enrollment increased by 233,000. The one-year
growth in enrollments occurred in almost identical numbers at four-year and two-year institutions, rising by 314,000 and 302,000 students,
respectively (see Table 4). Most of the enrollment growth occurred at public institutions,
which tallied an additional 480,000 students,
compared with 135,000 new students at private
colleges and universities (see Table 5). The
increase in enrollment also was spurred by the
addition of more than 100,000 students whose
race/ethnicity was unknown.
The growth in enrollment from 2000 to
2001 differed from previous annual enrollment
changes because whites and minorities experienced similar rates of growth. The growth in
enrollment among each group overwhelmingly
occurred at public institutions, increasing by
209,000 additional whites and 185,000 addi-

tional minorities. Both groups also saw the


majority of their enrollment growth at two-year
institutions. The one-year enrollment growth
for students of unknown race/ethnicity differed
greatly from whites and minorities. Both public
and private institutions recorded an increase of
55,000 students with unknown race/ethnicity.
These students also saw most of their growth at
four-year colleges and universities, where their
enrollment grew by 77,000 additional students.
Recent Trends by Race/Ethnicity
African Americans
The total number of African Americans in
higher education increased by more than
104,000 students, or 6.3 percent, from 2000
to 2001 (see Figure 4). African Americans had
the largest numerical growth among all
minority groups. The increase in AfricanAmerican enrollment was mostly due to
strong gains at public institutions, where
African-American enrollment increased by
more than 73,000. After three years of steady
increases, African-American enrollment at
HBCUs declined by 1,439 students in 2001
(see Tables 4, 5, and 7).
The number of African-American men
enrolled in higher education increased by
more than 30,000 students. Despite this
jump, the gender gap continued to increase,
as the number of African-American women
enrolled grew by 73,000, or 6.9 percent. In
2001, African-American women outnumbered their male counterparts by nearly 2 to 1
(see Table 5).

In states with at least 1,000 African


Americans enrolled in higher education in
2000, the District of Columbia and Indiana
had the highest one-year rates of growth,
19.9 percent and 17.3 percent, respectively.
Two states tied for third place, Hawaii and
Arkansas, both increasing African-American
enrollments by about 15 percent from 2000 to
2001. Tennessee was the only state in which
African-American enrollment declined from
2000 to 2001, falling by 5.9 percent (see
Table 10).
Hispanics
Hispanic students posted strong oneyear enrollment gains from 2000 to 2001,
expanding by 89,000, or 6.5 percent (see
Figure 4). The majority of Hispanic enrollment growth took place at two-year institutions, where it increased by 57,000 students.
Among different types of institutions,
Hispanic enrollment increased most at public
institutions, where it rose by 76,000 students
(see Tables 4 and 5).
The gender gap among Hispanic students
widened from 2000 to 2001, as enrollment of
Hispanic women increased by 57,000 students
(or 7.2 percent), while the number of Hispanic
men increased by 33,000 students (or 5.6 percent) (see Table 5).
Hispanic enrollment at the first-professional
level increased by only 1.4 percent, or 200 students, from 2000 to 2001. Hispanics fared
much better at the graduate level, increasing
their enrollment by 5.0 percent, or more than
4,000 students (see Table 6).

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

13

Hispanic enrollment growth was highest in


states with few Hispanic students: Maine,
Vermont, and New Hampshire. Among states
with more than 1,000 Hispanics enrolled in
2000, enrollment increased the most in the
District of Columbia (up 19.0 percent), Utah
(up 18.8 percent), and Idaho (up 17.8 percent). Hispanic enrollment declined less than
2 percent in Oregon, Alaska, Kentucky, and
Wyoming, but dropped most significantly in
Alabama, where enrollment sank by 44.2 percent, or 1,900 students (see Table 10).
Asian Americans
From 2000 to 2001, Asian-American enrollment increased by 3.6 percent, or 33,000 students, continuing an annual pattern of
increases during the 1990s (see Figure 4).
Only 2,000 of the 33,000 new AsianAmerican students enrolled at private institutions. Four-year institutions enrolled slightly
more Asian-American students than did twoyear institutions (see Tables 4 and 5).
From 2000 to 2001, the number of AsianAmerican men who were enrolled increased
by 12,000, significantly less than the increase
posted by Asian-American women (whose
ranks swelled by 21,000). With this larger
growth, women maintained their majority
position among Asian-American students (see
Table 5).
The growth in Asian-American enrollment
at the graduate level was small compared to
that of whites, African Americans, and
Hispanics. However, nearly 900 new AsianAmerican students enrolled at the firstprofessional level, significantly more than
other racial/ethnic groups (see Table 6).

14

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Increases in Asian-American enrollment


were greatest at institutions in the District of
Columbia and Utah, where the number of students grew by 23 percent and 15 percent,
respectively. Asian-American enrollment
declined the most in Alabama, falling by
13 percent, and by less than 10 percent in
11 other states (see Table 10).
American Indians
American Indian enrollment increased by
more than 6,000 students from 2000 to 2001
(see Figure 4). The growth in American
Indian enrollment was spread almost evenly
among four-year and two-year institutions,
and all but 400 new American Indian students
were enrolled at public colleges and universities. American Indian women added 4,400
more students from 2000 to 2001, compared
with less than 2,000 for their male counterparts (see Tables 4 and 5). At tribal colleges,
the number of American Indian men
increased by 3.3 percent, to 4,068 students, in
2001. The number of American Indian women
increased by 1.5 percent, to 7,495 students
(see Table 9).

American Indians were the only racial/


ethnic group to post a one-year decline in
enrollments at any level. American Indian
enrollment at the first-professional level
dropped by 6.8 percent, or 151 students. In
contrast to this decline, American Indians
showed strong gains at the graduate level,
increasing their enrollment by 8.4 percent
(see Table 6).

From 2000 to 2001, the largest rate of


growth in American Indian enrollment
occurred at institutions in North Dakota,
where the number of students increased by
22.9 percent. Numerically, American Indian
enrollment increased the most in Oklahoma,
up by 1,600 students. American Indian enrollment fell in 10 states, declining by 6.4 percent
in Nebraska and by less than 6 percent in nine
other states (see Table 10).

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

15

College
Graduation Rates

n previous years, this report used graduation rate data from the National Collegiate
Athletic Association (NCAA), which provided six-year institutional graduation
rates for all NCAA member institutions. This
years edition of the Status Report uses different
data aimed at showing persistence toward
all types of degree attainment (Table 11). Using
the Beginning Postsecondary Students
Longitudinal Study from the National Center for
Education Statistics, Table 11 compares persistence through five years among students who
entered postsecondary education in 198990
with persistence among students who entered in
199596. Looking only at institutional six-year
graduation rates, as in previous reports, does
not completely inform the reader about the
persistence of college students because the large
number of part-time students in the college
population is increasing the average time to
degree. In 2001, nearly 40 percent of undergraduate students were enrolled part time. In
addition, one-third of all bachelors degree
recipients had transferred from their first institution, so institutional graduation rates also fail
to reflect the persistence and attainment of
these students.
Overall persistence rates among students
who began their postsecondary education at
four-year institutions improved from 1994 to
2000: More students had earned a bachelors
degree and fewer had left school without a
degree by the end of that period. The percentage
of students earning a bachelors degree had
increased by 3 percentage points from 51.3 percent to 54.3 percent. The percentage of students
who had not earned any degree and were no

longer enrolled decreased from 24.9 percent to


20.7 percent over this same period. More than
19 percent had not attained a degree, but were
still enrolled in 2000 (see Figures 5 and 5a).

FIGURE 5
DEGREE ATTAINMENT RATES AMONG DEGREE-SEEKING POSTSECONDARY
STUDENTS WHO ENROLLED IN 198990, AFTER FIVE YEARS, BY RACE/ETHNICITY
Bachelors
Degree

African American

Never Attained,
Still Enrolled

62.7

Asian American

Hispanic

Associate Degree
or Certificate

Never Attained,
Not Enrolled

4.5

44.0

3.2

14.1

29.4

23.5

21.2

9.6

41.8

18.7

27.4

White

52.1

8.5

14.5

25.0

Total

51.3

8.2

15.6

24.9

0%

25%

50%

75%

100%

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Beginning
Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study; BPS: 90/94, and BPS: 96/01, Data Analysis System.

FIGURE 5A
DEGREE ATTAINMENT RATES AMONG DEGREE-SEEKING POSTSECONDARY
STUDENTS WHO ENROLLED IN 199596, AFTER FIVE YEARS, BY RACE/ETHNICITY
Bachelors
Degree

Associate Degree
or Certificate

Never Attained,
Still Enrolled

62.3

Asian American

Hispanic

3.7

5.3

42.0

36.4

African American

White

58.0

Total

54.3
0%

25%

Never Attained,
Not Enrolled
19.2

29.2

23.6

7.9

25.6

5.4

5.7
50%

14.9

30.1

17.8

19.4

18.8

20.7
75%

100%

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Beginning
Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study; BPS: 90/94, and BPS: 96/01, Data Analysis System.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

17

Among students who began in 199596,


Asian-American students had the highest rate of
attaining a bachelors degree, 62.3 percent,
followed by white students, who posted a rate of
58 percent. African-American students had the
largest percentage of students with no degree
but still enrolled (25.6 percent), as well as those
without a degree and no longer enrolled (30.1 percent). From the 198990 cohort to the 199596
cohort, differences by race/ethnicity in the percentage of students who had not earned a degree
and were no longer enrolled widened. In
198990, the percentage of African-American,
Hispanic, and white beginners at four-year institutions ranged from 25 percent (white students)
to 29.4 percent (Hispanic students). Six years
later, Hispanics had remained at 29 percent,
African Americans had increased to 30 percent,
and whites had declined to 18.8 percent.
Among students who began at two-year
institutions, with the goal of earning a degree,
the rate of attainment was highest at the associate degree and certificate levels. From
199596 to June 2000, 28 percent of beginners
at two-year institutions had earned an associate
degree or certificate. Nineteen percent were
still enrolled and 45.4 percent had no degree
and were not enrolled. The rate of associate
degree and certificate attainment varied among
whites, African Americans, Asian Americans,
and Hispanics, ranging from 25.3 percent for
Hispanics to 33.7 percent for Asian Americans.
There was a large variation in the percentage of
students who did not have a degree and were not
enrolled, from 42 percent for white students to
57.9 percent for African-American students.

18

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

TRENDS BY RACE/ETHNICITY
African Americans
More than one-third of African-American
students who began their postsecondary
education at four-year institutions in 199596
had earned a bachelors degree after five
years, 5.5 percentage points less than AfricanAmerican students who began in 198990.
Although only 36.4 percent of AfricanAmerican students in the 199596 cohort had
earned a bachelors degree, one-quarter of
those students remained enrolled, up from
21.2 percent for the 198990 cohort.
African-American students who began
college at two-year institutions in 199596
were less likely to have earned an associate
degree or certificate than their counterparts
who began in 198990, 26.5 percent compared
with 31.5 percent. The 199596 cohort was
also more likely to have left without earning
a degree, 57.9 percent compared with
53.9 percent.
Hispanics
There was little difference in persistence
between Hispanic students who began college
at four-year institutions in 198990 and those
who began in 199596. The only significant
change was in the percentage who had earned
a bachelors degree, which decreased by 2 percentage points to 42 percent.
The majority of Hispanic students are
enrolled at two-year institutions. Hispanic
students experienced a large increase in the
percentage of beginners at two-year colleges
who left school without a degree, rising from
39.6 percent to 54.9 percent. This jump in
non-degree earners is related to a decrease in
Hispanic students who earned an associate
degree or certificate, down by 6.4 percentage
points to 25.3 percent.

Asian Americans
Asian-American students were the only
minority group with more than half of each
cohort earning a bachelors degree, 62.7 percent in 1994 and 62.3 percent in 2000.
Conversely, Asian-American students had the
lowest percentage of students leaving college
without a degree for both cohorts, 14.1 percent and 14.9 percent, respectively.

Asian-American students were the only


group among those beginning at two-year
institutions to increase their persistence
toward an associate degree or certificate, rising by 1.9 percentage points to 33.7 percent in
2000. Asian-American students beginning at
two-year institutions also posted the highest
percentage of students without a degree but
still enrolled (32.2 percent), and the lowest
rate of no degree and no longer enrolled
(32.4 percent). Both percentages represent
significant improvements from the previous
cohort.

SOUTHERN METHODIST UNIVERSITY


AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

19

SEATTLE COMMUNITY COLLEGES

Degrees Conferred:
Associate, Bachelors, &
Masters
During the 1990s, white males experienced
growth in associate and masters degrees, but
declines in bachelors degrees. White males
earned 7,700 additional associate degrees,
accounting for more than half of the 10-year
increase in associate degrees earned by whites.
At the masters degree level, white males earned
4.8 percent more degrees, compared with an
increase of 25.3 percent for white females.
White males did not fare nearly as well at the
bachelors degree level. White males earned
28,000 fewer bachelors degrees in 200102
than they had in 199192. Their female counterparts had earned 20,000 more bachelors
degrees over the same period.
At all degree levels, minority women
showed stronger growth than minority men.
Even at the associate degree level, where growth
was robust for both sexes (83.2 percent for

OVERVIEW OF LONG-TERM TRENDS

FIGURE 6
DEGREES CONFERRED TO AFRICAN AMERICANS,
BY TYPE OF DEGREE: 199192 TO 200102
120,000

Number of Degrees Conferred

The number of degrees conferred at the associate, bachelors, and masters degree levels
increased by more than 100,000 degrees at each
level from 199192 to 200102. The largest
numerical increase occurred at the bachelors
degree level, in which institutions had awarded
156,000 more bachelors degrees in 200102
than in 199192, an increase of 13.7 percent.
The number of associate and masters degrees
conferred increased by 21.9 percent and
36.9 percent, respectively, during this 10-year
period. Most of the growth in degrees conferred
was among women, who accounted for 60 percent of new associate degree recipients, 81 percent of new bachelors degree earners, and
71 percent of new masters degree recipients
(see Tables 1214).
Minority students were responsible for
much of the increase in degrees conferred at
each level. Seventy percent of the new associate
degree earners were minorities. A 70.5 percent
increase in bachelors degrees earned by minorities more than countered a 0.8 percent decline
in bachelors degrees earned by whites. There
was also an increase of 36,000 degrees earned by
students of unknown race/ethnicity. At the masters degree level, whites and minorities showed
similar numerical growth, both increasing the
number of degrees earned by about
42,500 degrees. The growth in masters degrees
earned by whites represented an increase of just
16.5 percent, but for minorities, the
growth represented a doubling of their 199192
numbers.

Associate

Bachelors

Masters

100,000

80,000

60,000

40,000

20,000

199192

199394

199596

199798

19992000

200102

Note: Data may not match previous reports because in previous reports race/ethnicity
unknown persons were imputed across standard racial/ethnic groups.
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Integrated
Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1992 to 2002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

21

minority men and 93.6 percent for minority


women), the numerical increase in degrees
earned by minority women during the decade
was significantly larger. Minority women had
earned 48,000 more associate degrees in
200102 than they had in 199192, compared
with 27,000 for minority men.
Similar to their growth in enrollment,
people of unknown race/ethnicity doubled the
number of degrees they earned from 199192 to
200102 at the associate, bachelors, and
masters degree levels. The increased enrollment of people of unknown race/ethnicity at the
graduate level pushed their total number of
masters degrees earned in 200102 above the
numbers earned by Hispanics, Asian
Americans, and American Indians. Foreign
students, also classified as nonresident alien students, also showed notable rises in degrees
earned at every level. Their growth was largest
at the masters degree level (60.7 percent).
Foreign students were the only group in
200102 to have earned more masters degrees
than bachelors and associate degrees.

DEGREES CONFERRED TO HISPANICS,


BY TYPE OF DEGREE: 199192 TO 200102
Associate

Number of Degrees Conferred

Bachelor's

Masters

75,000
60,000
45,000
30,000
15,000
0

199192

199394

199596

199798

19992000

200102

Note: Data may not match previous reports because in previous reports race/ethnicity
unknown persons were imputed across standard racial/ethnic groups.
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Integrated
Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1992 to 2002.

22

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

From 199192 to 200102, African


Americans more than doubled the number of
masters degrees they had earned, from
17,000 degrees to 37,000 degrees. African
Americans also recorded dramatic gains in the
numbers of associate and bachelors degrees
earned, which increased by 66.5 percent and
56.1 percent, respectively (see Tables 1214
and Figure 6, page 21).
HBCUs conferred more than 400 additional
associate degrees, more than 5,400 additional
bachelors degrees, and almost 2,000 more
masters degrees to African-American students in 200102 than they had in 199192.
Despite these increases, degrees awarded by
HBCUs as a percentage of all degrees conferred upon African Americans declined. In
199192, HBCUs conferred 27.7 percent of all
bachelors degrees earned by African
Americans. Ten years later, that figure had
decreased to 22.6 percent (see Table 17).
From 199192 to 200102, the vast majority of states experienced an increase in both
associate and bachelors degrees awarded to
African Americans. Two states, Florida and
Pennsylvania, saw the most dramatic increases in both types of degrees. In Florida, the
number of associate and bachelors degrees
conferred upon African Americans more than
doubled. In Pennsylvania, the number of associate degrees conferred upon African
Americans also increased by more than
100 percent, while the number of bachelors
degrees rose by 63.6 percent (see Table 19).

FIGURE 7

90,000

Long-Term Trends by Race/Ethnicity


African Americans

Hispanics

Asian Americans

In the 10-year period between 199192 and


200102, Hispanics more than doubled the
number of degrees earned at the associate and
masters degree levels, earning 32,000 additional associate degrees and 11,000 additional
masters degrees. At the bachelors degree
level, Hispanics nearly doubled their 199192
total, increasing that figure by 96.3 percent
(see Tables 1214 and Figure 7).

Asian Americans experienced growth in


every degree category from 199192 to
200102. Over that 10-year period, Asian
Americans earned 96.5 percent more associate degrees, 87.8 percent more masters
degrees, and 70.3 percent more bachelors
degrees. The largest numerical growth was at
the bachelors degree level, with 33,000 additional degrees earned from 199192 to
200102 (see Tables 1214 and Figure 8).

In the last 10 years, the number of institutions classified as Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs) increased from about 100 to more
than 300, causing a considerable increase in
the number of degrees conferred by HSIs.
Hispanic-serving institutions doubled the
number of bachelors and masters degrees
they awarded to Hispanics. The number of
associate degrees conferred by HSIs to
Hispanics increased from 3,200 in 199192 to
30,000 in 200102 (see Table 17). The
200102 total represented 41 percent of all
associate degrees awarded to Hispanics from
all institutions.

FIGURE 8
DEGREES CONFERRED TO ASIAN AMERICANS,
BY TYPE OF DEGREE: 199192 TO 200102
100,000

Number of Degrees Conferred

California and Texas led all states in


awarding both associate and bachelors
degrees to Hispanics in the last 10 years. The
number of associate degrees awarded to
Hispanics in California tripled from 199192
to 200102, and the number of bachelors
degrees awarded there more than doubled
over the same period, increasing by 124.8 percent. The growth in degrees conferred upon
Hispanics also was strong in Texas, where
the number of associate degrees rose by
120.1 percent and bachelors degrees
increased by 105.4 percent (see Table 19).

Both male and female Asian Americans


made tremendous progress in earning bachelors and masters degrees. Most notably,
Asian-American women earned 128.8 percent
more masters degrees in 200102 than they
had in 199192, compared with 54.8 percent
growth for Asian-American men. The higher
rate of growth for women allowed them to
surpass their male counterparts in the total
number of masters degrees earned in
200102.

Associate

Bachelors

Masters

80,000

60,000

40,000

20,000

199192

199394

199596

199798

19992000

200102

Note: Data may not match previous reports because in previous reports race/ethnicity unknown
persons were imputed across standard racial/ethnic groups.
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Integrated
Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1992 to 2002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

23

Because it is home to 41 percent of all AsianAmerican students in the United States,


California leads all other states in degrees
conferred to this group. The number of associate degrees awarded to Asian Americans in
California more than doubled from 199192
to 200102, and the number of bachelors
degrees awarded increased by 80.3 percent
(see Table 19).
American Indians
American Indians achieved gains in all
degree categories over the last 10 years, with
the most significant increase at the masters
degree level, at which the number of degrees
earned increased by 97.1 percent. At the associate and bachelors degree levels, American
Indians earned about 70 percent more
degrees in 200102 than they had 10 years
earlier (see Tables 1214 and Figure 9).
The number of degrees conferred to
American Indian women at each level
increased at a greater rate than for American

FIGURE 9
DEGREES CONFERRED TO AMERICAN INDIANS,
BY TYPE OF DEGREE: 199192 TO 200102

Number of Degrees Conferred

10,000

Associate

Bachelors

Masters

8,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

199192

199394

199596

199798

19992000

200102

Note: Data may not match previous reports because in previous reports race/ethnicity
unknown persons were imputed across standard racial/ethnic groups.
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Integrated
Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1992 to 2002.

24

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Indian men, although both women and men


earned substantially more degrees in 200102
than they had 10 years earlier. The greatest
rate of growth for both American Indian men
and women occurred at the masters degree
level. American Indian men earned 79.8 percent more masters degrees in 200102 than
they had in 199192; their female counterparts earned 109 percent more masters
degrees over the same period.
American Indians made significant
increases in associate and bachelors degrees
awarded in a number of states, most substantially in Arizona and Oklahoma. In 199192,
Arizona ranked third behind California and
Oklahoma in the number of associate degrees
awarded to American Indians. That figure,
however, increased by 152.2 percent from
199192 to 200102, moving Arizona to the
forefront as the top state for American Indian
associate degree earners. In similar fashion,
Oklahoma ranked second to California in
199192 in bachelors degrees conferred to
American Indians. Ten years later, a 89.4 percent increase in bachelors degrees conferred
to American Indians moved Oklahoma past
California, to become the number one state
for American Indian bachelors degree
earners (see Table 19).

OVERVIEW OF RECENT TRENDS


Consistent with the 10-year trend for degrees
conferred, U.S. students experienced increases
in all degree categories between 200001 and
200102. Bachelors degrees had the most significant growth, climbing by 49,000, or 4.0 percent. The number of associate and masters
degrees conferred each increased by 3.1 percent. Both whites and minorities contributed to
the increase in the number of associate, bachelors, and masters degrees earned. Minorities
led the way at the associate degree level, earning
8,400 more degrees in 200102 than the previous year; whites earned an additional 6,000
degrees. At the bachelors degree level, whites
were responsible for 52 percent of the additional
bachelors degrees conferred in 200102;
minorities, foreign students, and students of
unknown race/ethnicity accounted for the
remainder. The one-year growth in masters
degrees conferred was largely due to people of
unknown race/ethnicity, who posted a one-year
jump of 5,200 more masters degrees, a
16.9 percent increase (see Tables 1214).
Among minorities, most of the one-year
gains in degrees earned were due to women.
Minority women accounted for 78 percent of the
growth in associate degrees awarded to minorities, 70 percent of the growth in bachelors
degrees, and 82 percent of the growth in masters degrees. White women were responsible
for the majority of growth in bachelors and masters degrees conferred to whites, but white
males held a slight advantage in associate
degrees earned, recording 3,300 additional
degrees, compared with 2,600 for white
females.

Students of unknown race/ethnicity posted


the highest one-year rate of growth at every
degree level: 14.5 percent in associate degrees,
18.6 percent in bachelors degrees, and
16.9 percent in masters degrees. The one-year
increase in bachelors degrees earned by
race/ethnicity unknown persons (who had
earned an additional 9,000 degrees) was second
to whites (who had earned an additional 26,000
degrees). At the masters degree level, students
of unknown race/ethnicity had earned an
additional 5,200 degrees, more than any other
group.
Recent Trends by Race/Ethnicity
African Americans
Gains in the number of degrees earned by
African Americans from 200001 to 200102
were attributable largely to the growth in
degrees conferred to African-American
women. During that period, AfricanAmerican men did not increase the number of
associate, bachelors, or masters degrees they
had earned by more than 3 percent. Over the
same one-year period, African-American
women increased the number of associate
degrees they had earned by 6.5 percent, bachelors degree by 4.3 percent, and masters
degree by 4.5 percent (see Tables 1214 and
Figure 6).
Small increases in degrees conferred
occurred at HBCUs from 200001 to
200102. These institutions awarded 60 additional associate degrees and 32 more bachelors degrees in 200102. At the masters
degree level, HBCUs conferred 102 fewer
degrees to African Americans in 200102 (see
Table 17).

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

25

The number of African Americans earning


associate and bachelors degrees had
increased in most states by 200102. The
largest one-year increases in associate degrees
earned (in states that awarded more than
500 associate degrees to African Americans in
2000) were in Massachusetts (which increased
degrees earned by 62.9 percent) and Indiana
(which increased the figure by 20 percent).
Among states that awarded more than 500
bachelors degrees to African Americans in
2000, the largest rates of increases occurred
in Kentucky and Washington (22.3 percent
and 17.7 percent, respectively) (see Table 19).
Hispanics
Hispanic men made a significant 4.9 percent one-year gain in the number of bachelors
degrees they earned, but Hispanic women
increased the number of bachelors degrees
they had earned by 7.2 percent over the same
period. Hispanic growth in associate and
masters degrees earned followed a similar
pattern, with the number of degrees earned by
women growing faster than the number of
degrees earned by men (see Tables 1214 and
Figure 7).
From 200001 to 200102, HSIs continued
to increase the number of degrees conferred
to Hispanics. HSIs awarded 1,200 additional
associate degrees, 3,400 additional bachelors
degrees, and 900 additional masters degrees
(see Table 17).

26

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

From 200001 to 200102, Hispanic


growth in associate degrees earned in states
that awarded more than 500 degrees to
Hispanics in 2000 was highest in New Jersey
and Pennsylvania (18.6 percent and 15.6 percent, respectively). Among states that awarded
more than 500 bachelors degrees to
Hispanics in 2000, Indiana and North
Carolina saw the largest one-year increases in
bachelors degrees awarded (rising by
28.9 percent and 24.4 percent, respectively)
(see Table 19).
Asian Americans
Asian Americans experienced small growth
in the number of bachelors degrees earned
from 200001 to 200102, up 4.8 percent (see
Figure 8). At the associate and masters
degree levels, Asian-American women
increased the number of degrees they earned
at a higher rate than Asian-American men
11 percent versus 7.7 percent for associate
degrees, and 4.5 percent versus 2.3 percent
for masters degrees (see Tables 1214).
Among states that awarded more than 250
associate degrees to Asian Americans in 2000,
Massachusetts and Virginia had the highest
rates of increase from 200001 to 200102
(82.6 percent and 22.4 percent, respectively).
In the states that awarded more than 500
bachelors degrees to Asian Americans,
Arizona had the largest one-year increase, at
22 percent. Indiana and Missouri both recorded
a 21 percent increase in the number of bachelors degrees conferred to Asian Americans
(see Table 19).

American Indians

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY

American Indian men were the only group


to experience minimal growth or decline at
the associate and bachelors degree levels.
From 200001 to 200102, American Indian
men earned only one additional associate
degree. In 200102, American Indian men
earned 1.8 percent fewer bachelors degrees
than they had the previous year. Despite
making no progress in the undergraduate
degree categories, however, American Indian
men did make significant progress at the
masters degree level, earning 68 additional
degrees in 200102 (see Tables 1214).
American Indians earned 1,185 associate
degrees from tribal colleges in 200102
256 more than the previous year. The total
number of associate degrees conferred to
American Indians by tribal colleges in
200102 represented 18.1 percent of all associate degrees awarded to the group. American
Indians earned 139 bachelor degrees at tribal
colleges, 25 more than the previous year. In
both degree categories, American Indian
women earned more than three times more
degrees from tribal colleges than did
American Indian men (see Table 18).
From 200001 to 200102, growth in the
number of associate degrees earned by
American Indians, in states that awarded
more than 50 degrees to American Indians in
2000, was highest in Oregon and Wisconsin,
both increasing by 34.6 percent. At the bachelors degree level, degrees conferred to
American Indians, in states that conferred
more than 50 degrees to American Indians in
2000, rose the most in Ohio and Michigan,
increasing by 46.8 percent and 36.5 percent,
respectively (see Table 19).

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

27

MIAMI-DADE COMMUNITY COLLEGE

UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA AT OMAHA

BERKELEY COLLEGE OF NEW YORK & NEW JERSEY

Degrees Conferred by Field:


Bachelors and Masters
OVERVIEW OF LONG-TERM TRENDS
The 13.7 percent increase in bachelors degrees
awarded between 199192 and 200102 did not
result in growth in all of the selected fields.
The number of bachelors degrees conferred
declined by 4.9 percent in engineering, by
1.5 percent in education, and by 0.8 percent in
social sciences/history. These declines were the
result of large declines among whites, which
countered any growth among minorities. In
engineering, white men earned 8,400 fewer
bachelors degrees in 200102 than they had
10 years earlier, countering an increase of
1,200 bachelors degrees for white women and a
jump of 3,500 such degrees for minorities. The
number of white women earning bachelors
degrees in education declined by 7,000, countering an increase of 4,800 for minorities. And a
54.7 percent increase in bachelors degrees
earned by minorities in social sciences/history
could not overshadow a decline of 14,000
degrees by whites (see Table 20).
In addition to declines in engineering, education, and social sciences/history, whites also
earned 10,000 fewer bachelors degrees in business, a drop of 4.7 percent. Whites did make
strides in the number of bachelors degrees they
earned in biological/life sciences (up by
29.1 percent) and the health professions (up by
2.4 percent) (see Figure 10). White women
dramatically outpaced white men in earning
bachelors degrees in biological/life sciences in
the last 10-year period, maintaining a gap that
has developed since 199697. The number of
bachelors degrees that white women earned in
biological/life sciences increased by 52.3 percent, topping 25,000 degrees in 200102.

White men earned less than 900 additional


degrees in biological/life sciences in the last 10
years, to stand at 17,263 degrees in 200102.
Conversely, minorities increased the
number of bachelors degrees they earned in
each of the selected fields. Minority growth in
bachelors degrees earned was greatest in
the health professions (up by 88.8 percent),
biological/life sciences (up by 82.1 percent),
and business (up by 76.5 percent). The largest
numerical growth in bachelors degrees earned
occurred in business; minorities earned 29,000
more business degrees in 200102 than they had
10 years earlier. Minority growth was substantial
for both men and women, but women increased
the number of degrees they had earned at a higher
rate than minority men in all selected fields
except education. In education, minority men

FIGURE 10
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN NUMBER OF BACHELOR'S DEGREES AWARDED
IN SELECTED FIELDS, BY RACE/ETHNICITY: 199192 TO 200102
Minorities

White

25.2

Engineering
-12.3

82.1

Biological/
Life Sciences

29.1
88.8

Health
Professions
Social
Sciences/History

2.4
54.7
-12.5
76.5

Business

-4.7
48.4

Education
-7.2
-30

-15

15

30

45

60

75

90

Note: Reported racial/ethnic distributions of students by level of degree, field of degree, and
sex were used to estimate race/ethnicity for students whose race/ethnicity was not reported.
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Digest of
Education Statistics, 2003. Washington, DC: 2004. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data
System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1992 to 2002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

29

earned 52.3 percent more bachelors degrees in


200102 than they had in 199192, compared
with a 47.2 percent rise for minority women.
At the masters degree level, the number of
degrees conferred increased by 36.9 percent
from 199192 to 200102, with growth in all
selected fields of study. This growth occurred
primarily in three fields: the health professions
(up by 89.2 percent), education (up by 47.4 percent), and business (up by 42.7 percent). Sixtytwo percent of all additional masters degrees
awarded in 200102 were in education and business. In 200102, whites earned 42,000 more
masters degrees than they had in 199192;
29,000 of these degrees were awarded in education. During the same period, white women
earned 9.0 percent fewer bachelors degrees in
education, but increased the number of masters
degrees they earned in education by 21,000, or
34.5 percent. While making tremendous gains
in the number of masters degrees earned in
education, whites declined in the number of
masters degrees earned in engineering (down
by 17.9 percent) and social sciences/history
(down by 4.1 percent) (see Table 21).
Minority students showed much more dramatic gains in masters degrees earned in all of
the selected fields. Minorities more than tripled
the number of health professions masters
degrees they earned, and more than doubled the
degrees they earned in business, education, and
public administration. Minority gains at the
masters degree level were small only in engineering, in which the number of degrees earned
rose by 15.0 percent, or 570 additional degrees.
Foreign students also made progress in the
number of masters degrees they earned in each
of the selected fields. The largest increase for
foreign students from 199192 to 200102 came
in business, in which the number of foreign
students earning degrees doubled from more
than 9,500 in 199192 to more than 20,000 in
200102. Foreign students led all others in

30

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

growth in masters degrees in engineering,


increasing the number of degrees earned by
36.5 percent, or 2,900 degrees.
Long-Term Trends by Race/Ethnicity
African Americans
For African Americans, the most dramatic
increases occurred in the number of
bachelors degrees earned in the fields of
biological/life sciences, the health professions, and business. In the biological/life
sciences,
African-American
students
increased the number of degrees they had
earned by 98.0 percent, or 2,400 degrees. In
the health professions, African-American students earned 89.7 percent more degrees. The
largest numerical growth in bachelors
degrees earned from 199192 to 200102
occurred in business, increasing by close to
10,000 degrees (see Table 20).
In this 10-year period, African-American
students significantly increased the number of
degrees they earned in all selected masters
degree fields, and more than doubled the
number of masters degrees they earned in
health professions, business, public administration, and education. Of these four fields
that experienced the largest rates of growth,
masters degrees conferred in education and
business had the largest numerical gains, with
more than 6,000 additional degrees conferred
in both fields during the last decade (see
Table 21).
Hispanics
In the 10-year period between 199192 and
200102, Hispanics experienced significant
gains in all selected bachelors degree categories. Hispanics doubled the number of
bachelors degrees they had earned in the
health professions and business. Hispanics
largest numerical increase within the selected

fields occurred in bachelors degrees earned


in business from 199192 to 200102
which rose by 9,000 degrees (see Table 20).
In this 10-year period, Hispanic students
nearly tripled the number of masters degrees
they earned in health professions, increasing
from 559 degrees awarded in 199192 to
nearly 1,700 degrees earned in 200102.
Hispanics also more than doubled the number
of masters degrees they earned in education,
business, social sciences/history, and public
administration. The 5,000-degree increase in
education represented the largest numerical
gain in masters degrees conferred to
Hispanics from 199192 to 200102 (see
Table 21).
Asian Americans
From 199192 to 200102, Asian
Americans recorded dramatic increases in all
bachelors degree fields, except for engineering, in which the number of degrees
earned increased by only 13.3 percent. The
greatest increase in the number of bachelors
degrees earned by Asian Americans occurred
in business, up by an additional 9,500
degrees, or 89.6 percent. In 199192, AsianAmerican women earned more bachelors
degrees than men in all of the selected fields,
except for biological/life sciences. Over the
next 10 years, however, Asian-American
women doubled the number of bachelors
degrees they earned in biological/life sciences
to surpass their male counterparts, who experienced an increase of only 32 percent (see
Table 20).
In 200102, Asian Americans earned
18 fewer masters degrees in engineering than
in 199192. This decrease in engineering
degrees was due to a decline of 208 engineering degrees earned by Asian-American men,
which overshadowed an increase of
190 degrees by Asian-American women. In all

other selected fields, Asian Americans saw


tremendous growth. They more than quadrupled the number of masters degrees they had
earned in health professions, and more than
doubled the number of masters degrees they
had earned in education, business, and public
administration (see Table 21).
American Indians
In the last 10-year period, American Indians
made important gains in all bachelors degree
fields, most significantly a 130.3 percent gain
in the number of biological/life sciences
degrees earned. In this field, American Indian
women increased the number of degrees they
earned by 185.6 percent, surpassing
American Indian men. Similar to trends
among the other minority groups, business
was the field with the largest numerical
increase in degrees conferred to American
Indians, increasing from 949 in 199192 to
1,810 in 200102 (see Table 20).
Masters degrees earned by American
Indians rose most significantly in the health

FIGURE 11
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN NUMBER OF MASTER'S DEGREES AWARDED
IN SELECTED FIELDS, BY RACE/ETHNICITY: 200001 TO 200102
Minorities

White

-2.7
Engineering

0.8
1.7

Public Administration and


Services
Health
Professions

-0.4
6.8
-1.7
2.6

Social
Sciences/History

0.3
5.1

Business
3.0

8.2

Education
4.9
-5

10

Note: Reported racial/ethnic distributions of students by level of degree, field of degree, and sex
were used to estimate race/ethnicity for students whose race/ethnicity was not reported.
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Digest of
Education Statistics, 2003. Washington, DC: 2004. Integrated Postsecondary Education
Data System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1992 to 2002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

31

professions (up by 141.5 percent), business


(up by 131.8 percent), and education (up by
109 percent). In education, American Indians
earned 500 additional degrees, the largest
increase of all selected fields. American
Indians increased the number of degrees they
earned in all selected fields, but the increases
were extremely small in social sciences/history
(an additional 30 degrees) and engineering
(an additional14 degrees) (see Table 21).

OVERVIEW OF RECENT TRENDS


From 200001 to 200102, the change in the
number of bachelors degrees conferred in the
selected fields ranged from small increases to
small declines. Increases occurred in business
and social sciences/history, up by 5.9 percent
and 3.8 percent, respectively. The number of
bachelors degrees conferred in education
increased by less than 1 percent, because of
declines among white and minority men, who
earned 3.3 percent and 2.3 percent fewer
degrees, respectively. The number of bachelors
degrees conferred in the health professions
dropped by 4 percent, or 3,000 degrees. A
0.5 percent decline also occurred in the field of
biological/life sciences (see Table 20).
The number of bachelors degrees in biological/life sciences conferred to minorities in
200102 fell by 2.6 percent and, in education,
fell by 0.7 percent. This decline in bachelors
degrees in education is largely attributable to a
3.3 percent drop in the number of degrees
awarded to minority men. The fall in bachelors
degrees in biological/life sciences also was
because of an 8.1 percent decline in the number
of degrees awarded to minority men. Among
whites, the health professions were the only
selected field with a decline in bachelors
degrees conferred.
From 200001 to 200102, the number of
masters degrees conferred in education
increased by 5.8 percent, business rose by

32

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

3.7 percent, and social sciences/history rose by


2.3 percent. In the same one-year period, the
number of masters degrees conferred in public
administration and the health professions
increased by less than 1 percent. The only
decline in masters degrees conferred was in
engineering, which slipped by 0.7 percent, or
190 degrees (see Table 21). Most of the growth
in education degrees was because of an increase
of 4.9 percent (or 5,000 degrees) among whites.
In the health professions field, the number of
masters degrees conferred to minorities rose by
6.8 percent, while the number of degrees awarded to whites fell by 1.7 percent. The trend was
reversed in engineering, in which masters
degrees conferred to whites inched up by 0.8
percent, and degrees awarded to minorities
slipped by 2.7 percent (see Table 21 and
Figure 11, on page 31).
Recent Trends by Race/Ethnicity
African Americans
African Americans earned fewer bachelors
degrees in education and biological/life
sciences in 200102 than they had a year
earlier. The decline in bachelors degrees
earned in education resulted from losses of
159 degrees among African-American men
and 259 degrees among African-American
women. Conversely, African Americans experienced a strong one-year gain in business, up
by 7 percent, or 1,900 degrees. Most of the
growth in bachelors degrees in business
occurred among women, who posted a
10.3 percent increase, compared with a
1.6 percent loss among men (see Table 20).
Despite a decline in bachelors degrees in
education earned by African Americans, the
number of masters degrees earned in education rose by 7.6 percent from 200001 to
200102, the highest rate of increase among
the selected fields. In fact, African Americans
earned more masters degrees in all the selected

fields in 200102 than they had the previous


year. However, African-American men experienced a one-year decline in masters degrees in
social sciences/history (down by 5.8 percent)
and business (down by 2.2 percent) (see
Table 21).
Hispanics
From 200001 to 200102, Hispanics
increased the number of bachelors degrees
they earned in all of the selected fields, except
biological/life sciences, which fell by 2.6 percent. By 200102, Hispanic women had
earned more bachelors degrees in biological/life sciences than in 200001 (up by
1.5 percent), but that increase was not high
enough to counter the 8.2 percent decline
experienced by their male counterparts. The
one-year growth in bachelors degrees was
most significant in social sciences/history (up
by 8.6 percent) and business (up by 7.4 percent) (see Table 20).
Between 200001 and 200102, growth in
all masters degrees earned by Hispanics was
relatively small, rising by 3.2 percent, or
631 degrees. Education was the only selected
field to experience a significant numerical
increase in masters degrees earned, increasing by 600 degrees. Hispanic students earned
fewer masters degrees in business (down by
1.6 percent), and only earned 3 additional
degrees in public administration (up by
0.2 percent) (see Table 21).
Asian Americans
Between 200001 and 200102, AsianAmerican students experienced little change
in the number of bachelors degrees earned in
education and engineering. They had, however, recorded strong increases in business
(up by 11.2 percent) and social sciences
degrees awarded (5.3 percent), and signi-

ficant declines in health professions and


biological/life sciences degrees awarded,
losses of 12.4 percent and 14.3 percent,
respectively (see Table 20).
Asian-American students made a 10.5 percent gain in the number of masters degrees
earned in the health professions between
200001 and 200102. They also made gains
of about 9 percent in both education and business. But Asian-American students earned
fewer masters degrees in engineering (dropping by 7.4 percent), public administration
(down by 5.3 percent), and social
sciences/history (down by 0.5 percent) (see
Table 21).
American Indians
American Indians increased the number of
bachelors degrees they had been awarded in
business (up by 13.5 percent), education
(rising by 10.5 percent), and engineering (up
by 6.6 percent), but posted declines in all
other degree fields. Among the most notable
declines between 200001 and 200102 was a
10.1 percent drop in social sciences/history.
The number of bachelors degrees conferred
to American Indian women declined only in
social sciences/history (down by 10.1 percent), but American Indian men experienced
declines in social sciences/history, biological/life sciences, and the health professions
(see Table 20).
In this one-year period, American Indian
students gained in masters degrees earned in
public administration (up by 29.5 percent),
education (up by 13 percent), and the health
professions (up by 6.1 percent). Conversely,
the number of masters degrees conferred in
the social sciences/history plunged by
24.5 percent. Small decreases occurred in
engineering and business, down by 3 percent
and 1.2 percent, respectively (see Table 21).

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

33

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY

First-Professional and
Doctoral Degrees
20.9 percent), biological/life sciences (up by
17.4 percent), and social sciences (up by 6.4 percent). The decline in doctoral degrees conferred
in the other fields is the result of whites earning
significantly fewer degrees in the professional
other category (down by 24.1 percent),
physical sciences (down by 20.6 percent), engineering (down by 20.4 percent), and education
7
(down by 20.3 percent). Foreign students also
earned fewer degrees in 200102 in each of
these fields, most notably, in education (which
dropped by 18.4 percent) and physical sciences
(which fell by 13.2 percent). Whites experienced
growth in only two of the selected doctoral
fields: humanities (up by 9.5 percent) and
biological/life sciences (up by 2.2 percent).
Minorities increased the number of doctoral
degrees earned in each of the selected fields.
They showed the most dramatic increases in

OVERVIEW OF LONG-TERM TRENDS

FIGURE 12
FIRST-PROFESSIONAL DEGREES CONFERRED, BY RACE/ETHNICITY AND GENDER:
199192 TO 200102
40,000

White males

White females

Minority males

Minority females

35,000

Number of Degrees Conferred

At the two highest degree levels, the number of


degrees conferred increased modestly from
199192 to 200102, up by 9.3 percent for firstprofessional degrees and by 8.8 percent for
6
doctoral degrees. The small growth in both
degree categories was caused by significant
declines in the number of first-professional and
doctoral degrees earned by white males, down
by 17.6 percent and 12.9 percent, respectively.
In that 10-year period, women earned 31.8 percent (or 9,200) more first-professional degrees,
and 35.7 percent (or 5,400) more doctoral
degrees. Minority women earned nearly
5,000 additional first-professional degrees, an
increase twice as large as that of white females
(see Figure 12). At the doctoral level, white
women had the largest numerical increase of all
groups in degrees earned from 199192 to
200102, 1,700 degrees (see Tables 15 and 16).
Minorities and women were not the only
groups to experience tremendous growth at the
highest degree levels during the 1990s. Foreign
students earned 40.8 percent more firstprofessional degrees, led by an increase of
96.4 percent among foreign female students.
Students of unknown race/ethnicity more than
tripled the number of first-professional degrees
they earned, from 1,185 in 199192 to 4,060 in
200102. Students of unknown race/ethnicity
also nearly doubled the number of doctoral
degrees they earned during the same 10-year
period.
Growth in doctoral degrees conferred from
199192 to 200102 occurred in only three
of the selected fields, humanities (up by

30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
0 199192

199394

199596

199798

19992000

200102

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Digest of
Education Statistics, 2003. Washington, DC: 2004. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data
System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1992 to 2002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

35

biological/life sciences (rising by 117.5 percent)


and in humanities (increasing by 100.7 percent)
(see Table 22).
Long-Term Trends by Race/Ethnicity
African Americans

Hispanics

In the last 10 years, African Americans


increased the number of doctoral degrees they
earned by 88.9 percent, increasing from 1,202
in 199192 to more than 2,200 in 200102.
This represented the largest numerical
increase in doctoral degrees earned among all
groups. Both African-American men and
women contributed significantly to this surge,
with women outpacing men by a significant
margin, 119.5 percent to 54.3 percent (see
Table 16).

Hispanics made dramatic gains in doctoral


degrees earned over this 10-year period,
rising from 798 degrees in 199192 to more
than 1,300 in 200102, a 69.3 percent gain. In
199192, Hispanic women earned fewer
doctoral degrees than their male counterparts. Ten years later, an increase of 111.1 percent in doctoral degrees earned elevated
Hispanic women over their male counterparts
in terms of doctoral degrees earned among
Hispanics (see Table 16).

African Americans showed their largest rate


of growth in doctoral degrees earned in engineering, although beginning from a low base,
growing from 32 doctorates in 199192 to
77 doctorates in 200102, an increase of
159.4 percent. Their largest numerical
growth occurred in education, a field in which
African Americans earned 197 more doctoral
degrees in 200102 than in 199192 (see
Table 22).

In the last 10-year period, Hispanics


doubled their number of doctoral degrees
earned in the humanities, rising from 107
degrees to 214 degrees. The second-fastest
growing field was biological/life sciences,
which increased by 78.1 percent, from
114 degrees to 203 degrees (see Table 22).

At the first-professional degree level,


African Americans earned 52.2 percent more
degrees in 200102 than in 199192. The
increase in degrees earned by AfricanAmerican women was more than twice that by
African-American men, rising by 72.2 percent
and 28.3 percent, respectively (see Tables 15
and 16).
The number of African Americans earning
first-professional degrees at HBCUs more
than doubled in the 10-year period between
199192 and 200102. In 200102, HBCUs
awarded a larger share of all first-professional
degrees earned by African Americans than
they had 10 years earlier, 18.3 percent

36

compared with 12.6 percent. As to the number of doctoral degrees awarded by HBCUs,
that figure doubled from 199192 to 200102,
to total 256 degrees (see Table 17).

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Hispanics increased their number of firstprofessional degrees earned by a more modest


32.7 percent during this 10-year period.
Hispanic women significantly outpaced
Hispanic men in both doctoral degrees and
first-professional degrees earned (see
Table 15).
In 199192, Hispanics earned only 4.5 percent of their doctoral degrees and 3.2 percent
of their first-professional degrees from HSIs.
By 200102, the share of doctoral degrees
conferred by HSIs increased to 12 percent,
and the share of first-professional degrees
rose to 13 percent (see Table 17).

Asian Americans
Asian-American women led AsianAmerican growth in doctoral degrees earned,
with a 103.6 percent increase, compared with
an increase of only 11.7 percent for AsianAmerican men. The tremendous growth in
the number of doctoral degrees earned by
Asian-American women moved them close to
parity with their male counterparts (see
Table 16).
Asian Americans nearly tripled the number
of doctoral degrees they earned in the humanities from 199192 to 200102, increasing by
95 degrees to stand at 147 degrees by the end
of that 10-year period. Asian Americans also
dramatically increased the number of doctoral
degrees they earned in the biological/life
sciences (rising by 158.7 percent) and in
social sciences (up 111.3 percent) (see
Table 22).
In the last 10-year period, Asian Americans
nearly doubled the number of first-professional
degrees they earned. The additional
4,400 first-professional degrees that Asian
Americans earned was the largest numerical
increase of any group. Their surge in firstprofessional degrees earned during the 1990s
was led by Asian American women, up
134.4 percent, compared to an increase of
62.2 percent for Asian American men (see
Table 15).

American Indians
American Indians gained 57 additional doctoral degrees in 200102 over their total from
10 years earlier, an increase of 48.3 percent.
American Indian women were responsible for
the rise in doctoral degrees earned, increasing
their number of degrees by 56 (see Table 16).
American Indians showed small gains in
degrees earned in several of the selected doctoral fields, adding six degrees in the social
sciences, four degrees in professionalother
fields, and three degrees in the humanities.
American Indians earned six fewer doctoral
degrees in the physical sciences in 200102
than in 199192, and the number of American
Indians earning doctoral degrees in education
also decreased during this 10-year period,
from 50 to 46 (see Table 22).
American Indians experienced a large
increase in first-professional degrees (up by
88.1 percent). Both American Indian men and
women saw large gains in first-professional
degrees, increasing by 77.1 percent and
100.7 percent, respectively (see Table 15).

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

37

OVERVIEW OF RECENT TRENDS


For the most recent one-year period, the
number of doctoral degrees conferred declined
by 1.9 percent, a relatively small change. Within
each category, however, significant changes at
the racial/ethnic group and gender levels exist.
Men from all groups contributed to the decline
in the number of doctoral degrees conferred
from 200001 to 200102. White men earned
4.8 percent fewer doctoral degrees, minority
men earned 6.4 percent fewer degrees, foreign
male students earned 2.9 percent fewer degrees,
and men of unknown race/ethnicity earned
5.9 percent fewer degrees. Hispanic and AsianAmerican women also earned fewer doctoral
degrees, about 5.5 percent fewer degrees each.
The only significant one-year growth in doctoral
degrees was among African-American women,
up by 8.8 percent (or 113 degrees), and foreign
female students, up by 5.8 percent (or
189 degrees) (see Table 16).
From 200001 to 200102, minority
students earned slightly more doctoral degrees
in all of the selected fields, except engineering
and professionalother, in which they experienced declines of 0.7 percent and 7.4 percent,
respectively. Despite an overall increase in the
number of doctoral degrees earned by white
students, the number of doctoral degrees
conferred upon whites in all of the selected
fields decreased. The most significant decline in
the number of doctoral degrees earned by whites
was in engineering, which dropped by 15.3 percent (see Figure 13).
The number of first-professional degrees
awarded increased by 0.9 percent, or
740 degrees, from 200001 to 200102. The
increase was attributable to women, who earned
3.4 percent more degrees. Men earned
1.2 percent fewer doctoral degrees in 200102
than they earned the previous year. Foreign men
and women earned fewer first-professional
degrees in 200102, down by 11.9 percent and

38

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

6.0 percent, respectively. The largest increase


occurred among persons of unknown race/
ethnicity, who increased their total by 39.7 percent (see Table 15).
Recent Trends by Race/Ethnicity
African Americans
African Americans recovered from a decline
in doctoral degrees earned from 19992000 to
200001, to increase their number of doctoral
degrees earned from 200001 to 200102 by
8.4 percent, the largest increase of any group.
During the same period, African Americans
increased their number of first-professional
degrees earned by 4.1 percent (see Tables 15
and 16).
Among the selected doctoral fields, African
Americans increased their overall number
of doctoral degrees earned in all fields, but
experienced declines in the humanities, engineering, and biological/life sciences (declines
of 6.8 percent, 6.1 percent, and 3.1 percent,
respectively) (see Table 22).
The number of doctoral degrees conferred
upon African Americans by HBCUs increased
from 222 in 200001 to 256 in 200102.
During the same one-year period, the number
of first-professional degrees conferred to
African Americans by HBCUs decreased from
1,025 degrees to 997 degrees (see Table 17).
Hispanics
Hispanics earned 79 fewer doctoral degrees
in 200102 than they earned in 200001, a
decrease of 5.5 percent. Both Hispanic men
and women contributed to this decline.
Hispanics fared better at the first-professional
level, gaining 87 additional degrees over the
same period, an increase of 2.4 percent (see
Tables 15 and 16).

The professionalother category was the


only selected field of study in which Hispanics
earned fewer doctoral degrees in 200102
than they earned the previous year, a decline
of 23 percent. The number of doctoral degrees
conferred to Hispanics increased the most in
education and social sciences, up by
42 degrees and 36 degrees, respectively (see
Table 22).
Asian Americans
Asian Americans experienced a large oneyear decrease in doctoral degrees, earning
267 fewer degrees, a decline of 10.9 percent.
The number of doctoral degrees earned by
Asian-American men declined significantly
more than their female counterparts,
decreasing by 15.1 percent, compared with a
5.5 percent decline for women. Asian
Americans gained 182 additional firstprofessional degrees in 200102, with AsianAmerican men responsible for only 33 of
those additional degrees (see Tables 15
and 16).
Despite a one-year decline in the number of
doctoral degrees conferred to Asian
Americans, this group made small gains in a
few of the selected doctoral degree fields: up
by 10.5 percent in humanities, 2.9 percent in
biological/life sciences, 2.7 percent in education, and 2.0 percent in physical sciences (see
Table 22).

American Indians experienced little change


in the number of doctoral degrees earned in
the selected fields. The largest numerical gain
in doctoral degrees earned was in education,
an increase of four degrees in 200102,
and the largest numerical decline in
doctoral degrees was a loss of four degrees in
biological/life sciences (see Table 22).
Notes
First-professional degrees (also referred to as
professional degrees) are awarded in the fields of
dentistry (D.D.S. or D.M.D.), medicine (M.D.),
optometry (O.D.), osteopathic medicine (D.O.),
pharmacy (D.Phar.), podiatric medicine
(D.P.M.), veterinary medicine (D.V.M.), chiropractic (D.C. or D.C.M.), law (J.D.), and theological professions (M.Div. or M.H.L.).
6

Doctorates under the field professional-other


include architectural/environmental design,
business, communications, home economics,
law, library science, parks/recreation/leisure,
fitness, public administration, social work, theological programs, and other professional fields.

FIGURE 13
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN NUMBER OF DOCTORAL DEGREES AWARDED
IN SELECTED FIELDS, BY RACE/ETHNICITY: 200001 TO 200102
Minorities
-7.4
-5.9

Professional
Other

American Indians
From 200001 to 200102, American
Indians earned four more doctoral degrees
and 29 more first-professional degrees.
American Indian women are entirely responsible for the growth in doctoral degrees; they
earned 11 additional degrees to counter the
loss of seven degrees among American Indian
men (see Tables 15 and 16).

Engineering

-0.7
-15.3
2.6

Humanities

-6.8
2.2

Life
Sciences

-2.3
5.7

Social
Sciences

-5.4
4.1

Physical
Sciences

-5.1
6.0

Education
-20

White

-4.1
-15

-10

-5

10

Source: NSF/NIH/USED/NEH/USDA/NASA, Survey of Earned Doctorates, 1992 to 2002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

39

ANNE ARUNDEL COMMUNITY COLLEGE

CITY COLLEGE OF SAN FRANCISCO

Employment in
Higher Education
OVERVIEW OF LONG-TERM TRENDS
Minorities steadily increased their presence as
full-time faculty members at the nations colleges and universities, growing from 65,000
positions in 1993 to more than 90,000 positions
in 2001, a 40 percent increase. During this same
period, the number of white full-time faculty
increased by 6.6 percent, or nearly 31,000 positions. The 40 percent gain in minority faculty is
largely attributable to Asian Americans, who
increased their faculty numbers by nearly
13,000 (or 50.5 percent), and Hispanic
Americans, who grew by more than 6,000 faculty
positions (or 53.3 percent) (see Figure 14).
Minority women outpaced minority men,
increasing their number of faculty positions
held by 53.9 percent, compared with mens
increase of 31.8 percent. However, minority
men still hold 17,000 more faculty positions
than do minority women (see Table 24).
The number of full-time faculty increased
among all racial/ethnic groups and at all faculty
levels. The number of minority full professors
increased by 25.9 percent, or more than 3,700
positions. Despite this large gain in the number
of minority full professors, the minority share of
all full professor positions remains low, up 2 percentage points to 11.1 percent in 2001. Not surprisingly, the trend among all tenured faculty
was similar. From 1993 to 2001, 5,200 more
minority faculty were tenured, an increase of
16.6 percent. This seemingly large increase in
tenured minority faculty caused the minority
share of tenured faculty to rise by only 2.2 percentage points, to 13.3 percent (see Tables 25
and 26).

Minorities also made strong gains as administrators in higher education, with the number
holding administrator positions rising by
24.4 percent. Most of the growth occurred
among minority women, whose numbers
increased by 37.3 percent, compared with a 11.9
percent growth rate for men. In 2001, this substantial growth among minority women pushed
them past minority men in total number of
administrators12,704 compared with 10,664
(see Table 27 and Figure 15, on page 42).
Minorities also made significant gains at the
presidential level, increasing the number of
positions held by 36.0 percent. Most of these
new presidential positions were at private fouryear institutions. However, this strong growth
had little effect on the minority share of college
presidencies. In 1994, minorities held 12.1 percent of presidencies. Ten years later, the share of
presidencies held by minorities had increased to
14 percent (see Table 28).
FIGURE 14
PERCENT CHANGE IN NUMBER OF FULL-TIME FACULTY,
BY RACE/ETHNICITY: 1993 TO 2001
American
Indian

39.0

Asian
American

50.5

Hispanic

53.3

African
American

23.5

Total
Minority

40.0

White

6.6

Total

12.0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Source: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. EEO-6 Higher Education Staff
Information surveys, 1983. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education
Statistics. Intergrated Postsecondary Education System (IPEDS), Fall Staff Survey, 19992000.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

41

Long-Term Trends by Race/Ethnicity


African Americans
From 1993 to 2001, African Americans
increased the number of faculty positions they
held by 23.5 percent, a numerical increase of
6,000 positions. Over this eight-year period,
women outpaced men in the number of positions held by 29 percent, compared with
18.4 percent, bringing both groups to almost
the same total number of faculty positions,
15,830 and 15,851, respectively (see Table 24).
The growth in African-American faculty
occurred at every level, but was largest at the
associate professor level, at 28.2 percent (see
Table 25). African Americans also showed
strong gains in the number of tenured faculty,
rising by 16.7 percent (see Table 26).
From 1993 to 2001, the number of AfricanAmerican administrators increased by
12.2 percent. The number of women
increased by 23.6 percent to total 7,822, while
men showed little change, decreasing by six
positions (see Table 27).

FIGURE 15
NUMBER OF FULL-TIME ADMINISTRATORS IN HIGHER EDUCATION,
BY RACE/ETHNICITY: 1993 TO 2001
White males

80,000

White females

Minority males

Minority females

Number of Administrators

60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated
Postsecondary Education System (IPEDS), Fall Staff Survey, 1993 through 2001.

42

Hispanics
Hispanics experienced the highest rate of
increase in faculty among all U.S. citizens,
growing from 12,076 in 1993 to 18,514 in
2001, an increase of 53.3 percent. Between
1993 and 2001, Hispanic women outpaced
Hispanic men, growing 70.5 percent, compared with mens increase of 42.7 percent,
though Hispanic men still outnumber Hispanic
women by 2,800 positions (see Table 24).
From 1993 to 2001, Hispanics showed an
impressive increase in associate professorships,
gaining more than 1,200 positions to total
almost 3,500 positions in 2001, a 52.7 percent rise. Hispanics were the only minority
group to experience a decline in the number
of tenured faculty, falling by 12.3 percent (see
Tables 25 and 26).
Between 1993 and 2001, Hispanics
increased administrative positions by 46.1 percent, with Hispanic women responsible for
most of that gain, rising by 68.4 percent (see
Table 27).
Hispanics experienced the highest increase
at the presidential level of all minority groups.
Holding 116 presidencies in 1994, Hispanics
held 189 presidencies in 2004, an increase of
62.9 percent. The large increase in Hispanics at
the presidential level occurred equally at fouryear and two-year institutions, 38 and 35 additional positions, respectively (see Table 28).

70,000

Between 1994 and 2004, African-American


women almost doubled their number of presidential appointments by 93.3 percent, to
stand at 87 presidencies. African-American
men did not have the same level of success,
increasing by 5.6 percent, or 9 presidencies
(see Table 28).

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Asian Americans
Asian Americans experienced the highest
numerical increase in faculty positions among
minorities, steadily increasing from 25,269
positions in 1993 to more than 38,026 positions in 2001, a 50.5 percent gain. AsianAmerican women nearly doubled their share
of faculty positions in the same period (up
89.5 percent), compared with mens 37.4 percent increase. Despite womens gains, there
remains a 14,000-position gap between AsianAmerican men and women in full-time faculty
positions (see Table 24).
Between 1993 and 2001, Asian Americans
gained 3,500 assistant professorships, almost
3,000 associate professorships, and nearly
2,000 full professorships, respective increases
of 47.9 percent, 37.3 percent, and 33.0 percent. Asian Americans also experienced
strong gains in the number of tenured faculty,
rising by 36.3 percent during that period (see
Tables 25 and 26).
Asian Americans experienced the second
largest increase in administrative positions,
rising from 2,243 positions in 1993 to more
than 3,500 positions in 2001, a 57.9 percent
gain (see Table 27).
Asian Americans gained 19 presidencies
between 1994 and 2004, a 50 percent
increase. Asian-American women more than
doubled their numbers, but still hold only 13
presidencies, compared with the 44 AsianAmerican male presidents (see Table 28).
American Indians
American Indians experienced a significant
increase in faculty positions, increasing by
778 positions (or 39.0 percent) to 2,775 positions in 2001. In the eight years between 1993
and 2001, the number of American Indian
women faculty increased by 60.1 percent,

closing the gender gap with American Indian


men (see Table 24).
The largest gain for American Indians was
at the associate and assistant professor levels,
where they saw respective increases of 182
and 180 positions. American Indians also saw
strong gains at the full professor level, rising
by 140 positions (see Table 26). These gains at
the full and associate professor levels contributed to an increase of 329 tenured faculty
positions among American Indians, a gain of
43.3 percent (see Tables 25 and 26).
From 1993 to 2001, the number of administrative positions that American Indians in
held rose by more than 20 percent. American
Indian women were entirely responsible for
this rise, increasing the number of positions
held by 49.5 percent in that period, compared
with American Indian mens decline of
1.0 percent (see Table 27).
American Indians were the only racial
group to hold fewer presidencies from 1994 to
2004, losing two positions, both formerly held
by American Indian women (see Table 28).

OVERVIEW OF RECENT TRENDS


From 1999 to 2001, minorities continued to
make strong annual gains in the number of faculty positions held, rising by 10.4 percent, or
about 8,600 positions. Gains by minority
women outpaced minority men, but minority
men still outnumber minority women among
faculty. Asian Americans made the largest gains
among minorities, with an increase of nearly
4,000 positions (see Table 24).
Minority faculty continued to increase their
numbers at all ranks, growing most at the
instructor/lecturer and assistant professor levels,
by approximately 3,200 and 2,600 additional
positions, respectively. The addition of about
3,900 tenured minority faculty from 1997 to
2001 was overshadowed by an increase of about

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

43

8,100 minority faculty in nontenure-track positions at institutions with tenure (see Tables 25
and 26).
Minorities showed little change at the
administrative level from 1999 to 2001, while
the number of white administrators decreased
by 10.2 percent. From 2003 to 2004, minorities
gained 123 presidencies, an increase of
30.0 percent. Minority women held 48 of those
new presidencies (see Tables 27 and 28).

period, African-American men also gained


more tenured positions than AfricanAmerican women, 588 compared with 486
(see Tables 25 and 26).

Recent Trends by Race/Ethnicity


African Americans

From 2003 to 2004, African Americans


increased their number of presidencies by
21.1 percent, or 45 presidencies (see Table 28
and Figure 16).

African Americans gained 2,459 faculty


positions between 1999 and 2001, an 8.4 percent increase. African-American women and
men had similar rates of growth from 1999 to
2001, 8.7 percent and 8.1 percent, respectively
(see Table 24).
From 1999 to 2001, African Americans
gained nearly 600 assistant professorships,
but less than 300 full professorships. At the
full professor level, African-American men
gained 197 additional positions from 1999 to
2001, compared with a gain of 49 positions for
African-American women. During the same
FIGURE 16
CHANGE IN THE NUMBER OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY
PRESIDENTS, BY RACE/ETHNICITY AND INSTITUTION
TYPE: 2003 TO 2004
American
Indian

3
7

Asian
American

Four-Year Institutions

Two-Year Institutions

22

Hispanic

20
24

African
American

20
25
65
58
386

White
196
50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Source: American Council on Education database. Data compiled in September 2004.

44

Hispanics
Between 1999 and 2001, Hispanics had the
second highest rate of increase in the number
of faculty positions held, a rise of 12.2 percent. Hispanic women gained 995 faculty
positions in the three-year period (a rise of
14.5 percent), compared with Hispanic mens
increase of 1,021 positions (a rise of 10.6 percent) (see Table 24).
Hispanics made substantial progress at the
assistant professor level, gaining 554 positions, an increase of 13.1 percent. Hispanics
gained 337 positions at the associate level and
207 positions at the full professor level. From
1997 to 2001, the number of tenured Hispanic
faculty increased by more than 1,000 (see
Tables 25 and 26).
Between 1999 and 2001, Hispanics gained
about 200 administrative positions, a rise of
4.1 percent. Hispanic women held the majority
of these new positions, at 134 (see Table 27).

Total Minority

Between 1999 and 2001, African Americans


were the only minority group to decline in the
number of administrative positions held,
falling by 2.3 percent. African-American men
lost 262 positions in that decline, compared
with only 65 positions lost by AfricanAmerican women (see Table 27).

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

400

From 2003 to 2004, Hispanics gained 44


presidencies, a rise of 30.3 percent. Hispanic
women gained 15 presidencies and Hispanic
men gained nearly twice that number (29) (see
Table 28 and Figure 16).

American Indians
Between 1999 and 2001, the number of
American Indian faculty increased by 8.4 percent, gaining 214 positions. The number of
women increased by 9.4 percent, or 105 positions, while the number of men increased by
7.5 percent, or 109 positions (see Table 24).

Asian Americans
The number of Asian-American faculty
increased by 11.5 percent, from 34,112 positions in 1999 to 38,026 positions in 2001.
Asian-American women dramatically outpaced Asian-American men in the same period,
increasing the number of positions they held
by 18.3 percent, compared with an increase of
8.6 percent for men. However, Asian-American
men still outnumber Asian-American women
among college and university faculty (see
Table 24).
Among minorities, Asian Americans made
the largest numerical gains at all faculty levels: 1,500 at the assistant professor level, 647
at the associate professor level, and 571 at the
full professor level. Asian Americans also led
all minority groups in gains at each tenure status level: 1,600 additional tenured faculty and
1,900 additional nontenure-track faculty (see
Tables 25 and 26).

American Indians lost two faculty positions


at the assistant professor level, but gained 67
positions at the associate professor level and
25 positions at the full professor level. From
1997 to 2001, American Indians gained 167
more tenured positions, an increase of 18.1
percent (see Tables 25 and 26).
The number of American Indian administrators increased from 760 positions in 1999
to 876 positions in 2001, a rise of 15.3 percent. American Indian women accounted for
70 of these new positions (see Table 27).
American Indians gained 10 presidencies in
the one-year period between 2003 and 2004.
All 10 positions were awarded to American
Indian men, and seven of those were at twoyear institutions (see Table 28 and Figure 16).
Notes
Faculty data by tenure status, race/ethnicity,
and gender were not available for 1999.
8

Between 1999 and 2001, Asian Americans


increased their number of administrative
positions by 6.3 percent. Asian-American
men outpaced their female counterparts, rising by 7.5 percent, compared with womens
5.0 percent increase (see Table 27).
Asian Americans gained 24 presidencies
from 2003 to 2004, 16 among men and eight
among women. All but two of these new presidencies were at four-year institutions (see
Table 28 and Figure 16).

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

45

FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

BERKELEY COLLEGE OF NEW YORK & NEW JERSEY

Table 1

High School Completion Rates and College Participation Rates of 18- to 24-Year-Olds,
by Race/Ethnicity: 1980 to 2002
High School Graduates
Number
Enrolled in College
(thousands)

Enrolled-inCollege Rate
(percent)

Number
Completed
(thousands)

Completion
Rate
(percent)

Enrolled-inCollege Rate
(percent)

28,957
28,965
28,846
28,580
28,031
27,122
26,512
25,950
25,733
25,261
24,852
24,572
24,278
25,522
25,254
24,900
24,671
24,973
25,507
26,042
26,658
26,965
27,368

7,400
7,575
7,678
7,477
7,591
7,537
7,477
7,693
7,791
7,804
7,964
8,172
8,343
8,630
8,729
8,539
8,767
9,204
9,323
9,259
9,451
9,630
10,033

25.6
26.2
26.6
26.2
27.1
27.8
28.2
29.6
30.3
30.9
32.0
33.3
34.4
33.8
34.6
34.3
35.5
36.9
36.6
35.6
35.5
35.7
36.7

23,413
23,343
23,291
22,988
22,870
22,349
21,768
21,118
20,900
20,461
20,311
19,883
19,921
20,844
20,581
20,125
20,131
20,338
20,568
21,126
21,822
21,836
22,318

80.9
80.6
80.7
80.4
81.6
82.4
82.1
81.4
81.2
81.0
81.7
80.9
82.1
81.7
81.5
80.8
81.6
81.4
80.6
81.1
81.9
81.0
81.5

31.6
32.5
33.0
32.5
33.2
33.7
34.3
36.4
37.3
38.1
39.1
41.1
41.9
41.4
42.4
42.4
43.5
45.2
45.3
43.8
43.3
44.1
45.0

24,482
24,486
24,206
23,899
23,347
22,632
22,020
21,493
21,261
20,825
20,393
19,980
19,671
20,493
20,171
19,866
19,676
20,020
16,489
17,080
17,327
16,721
17,132

6,423
6,549
6,694
6,463
6,256
6,500
6,307
6,483
6,659
6,631
6,635
6,813
6,916
7,074
7,118
7,011
7,123
7,495
6,704
6,735
6,709
6,565
7,005

26.2
26.7
27.2
27.0
26.8
28.7
28.6
30.2
31.3
31.8
32.5
34.1
35.2
34.5
35.3
35.3
36.2
37.4
40.7
39.4
38.7
39.3
40.9

20,214
20,123
19,944
19,643
19,373
18,916
18,291
17,689
17,491
17,089
16,823
16,324
16,379
16,989
16,670
16,269
16,199
16,557
14,258
14,813
15,187
14,481
14,911

82.6
82.2
82.4
82.2
83.0
83.6
83.1
82.3
82.3
82.1
82.5
81.7
83.3
82.9
82.6
81.9
82.3
82.7
86.5
86.7
87.6
86.6
87.0

31.8
32.5
33.6
32.9
32.3
34.4
34.5
36.6
38.1
38.8
39.4
41.7
42.2
41.6
42.7
43.1
44.0
45.3
47.0
45.5
44.2
45.3
47.0

All Persons
(thousands)

Year

ALL RACES
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

WHITE a
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

Continued on next page


a After 1997, white does not include whites of Hispanic origin.

Note:

College participation rates were calculated using the total population and high school graduates as the bases. High school graduates are persons who have completed four or more years of high school
during the period 1977 to 1991. Beginning in 1992, they were persons whose highest degree was a high school diploma (including equivalency) or higher.
Data for 1986 and later use a revised tabulation system. Improvements in edits and population estimation procedures caused slight changes in estimates for 1986. Data for 1980 through 1992 use 1980
decenial census-based estimates, and data for 1993 and later use 1990 decenial census-based estimates. The Ever-Enrolled-in-College Rate column was removed from this years version of this table.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Survey Reports, School EnrollmentSocial and Economic Characteristics of Students, 19802002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 47

Table 1 Continued

High School Completion Rates and College Participation Rates of 18- to 24-Year-Olds,
by Race/Ethnicity: 1980 to 2002

High School Graduates


All Persons
(thousands)

Year

Number
Enrolled-in-College
(thousands)

Enrolled-inCollege Rate
(percent)

Number
Completed
(thousands)

Completion
Rate
(percent)

Enrolled-inCollege Rate
(percent)

AFRICAN AMERICAN
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

3,721
3,778
3,872
3,865
3,862
3,716
3,653
3,603
3,568
3,559
3,520
3,504
3,521
3,666
3,661
3,625
3,637
3,650
3,637
3,827
4,013
3,916
3,923

715
750
767
741
786
734
812
823
752
835
894
828
886
897
1,001
988
983
1,085
1,080
1,146
1,216
1,206
1,227

19.2
19.9
19.8
19.2
20.4
19.8
22.2
22.8
21.1
23.5
25.4
23.6
25.3
24.5
27.3
27.3
27.0
29.7
29.7
29.9
30.3
30.8
31.3

2,592
2,678
2,744
2,740
2,885
2,810
2,795
2,739
2,680
2,708
2,710
2,630
2,625
2,747
2,818
2,788
2,738
2,726
2,678
2,911
3,088
3,016
3,041

69.7
70.9
70.9
70.9
74.7
75.6
76.5
76.0
75.1
76.1
77.0
75.1
74.6
74.9
77.0
76.9
75.3
74.7
73.6
76.1
76.9
77.0
77.5

27.6
28.0
28.0
27.0
27.2
26.1
29.1
30.0
28.1
30.8
33.0
31.5
33.8
32.7
35.5
35.4
35.9
39.8
40.3
39.4
39.4
40.0
40.3

2,033
2,052
2,001
2,025
2,018
2,221
2,514
2,592
2,642
2,818
2,749
2,874
2,754
3,663
3,523
3,603
3,510
3,600
4,014
3,954
4,135
4,892
4,918

327
342
337
349
362
375
458
455
450
453
435
516
586
728
662
745
706
806
820
740
899
1,035
979

16.1
16.7
16.8
17.2
17.9
16.9
18.2
17.6
17.0
16.1
15.8
18.0
21.3
19.9
18.8
20.7
20.1
22.4
20.4
18.7
21.7
21.2
19.9

1,099
1,144
1,153
1,110
1,212
1,396
1,507
1,597
1,458
1,576
1,498
1,498
1,578
2,049
1,995
2,112
2,019
2,236
2,403
2,326
2,462
3,032
3,077

54.1
55.8
57.6
54.8
60.1
62.9
59.9
61.6
55.2
55.9
54.5
52.1
57.3
55.9
56.6
58.6
57.5
62.1
59.8
58.8
59.5
62.0
62.6

29.8
29.9
29.2
31.4
29.9
26.9
30.4
28.5
30.9
28.7
29.0
34.4
37.1
35.5
33.2
35.3
35.0
36.0
34.1
31.8
36.5
34.1
31.8

HISPANICa
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

a Hispanics may be of any race.

48

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 2

High School Completion Rates and College Participation Rates of 18- to 24-Year-Olds,
by Race/Ethnicity and Gender: 1980 to 2002
High School Graduates
All Persons
(thousands)

Number
Enrolled in College
(thousands)

Enrolled-inCollege Rate
(percent)

Number
Completed
(thousands)

Completion
Rate
(percent)

Enrolled-inCollege Rate
(percent)

ALL RACES
MEN
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

14,107
14,127
14,083
14,003
13,744
13,199
12,921
12,626
12,491
12,325
12,134
12,036
11,965
12,712
12,557
12,351
12,285
12,513
12,764
12,906
13,339
13,434
13,745

3,717
3,833
3,837
3,820
3,929
3,749
3,702
3,867
3,770
3,717
3,922
3,954
3,912
4,237
4,152
4,089
4,187
4,374
4,403
4,397
4,342
4,436
4,629

26.3
27.1
27.2
27.3
28.6
28.4
28.7
30.6
30.2
30.2
32.3
32.9
32.7
33.3
33.1
33.1
34.1
35.0
34.5
34.1
32.6
33.0
33.7

11,125
11,052
11,120
10,906
10,914
10,614
10,338
10,030
9,832
9,700
9,778
9,493
9,576
10,142
9,970
9,789
9,815
9,933
9,916
10,201
10,622
10,460
10,823

78.9
78.2
79.0
77.9
79.4
80.4
80.0
79.4
78.7
78.7
80.6
78.9
80.0
79.8
79.4
79.3
79.9
79.4
77.7
79.0
79.6
77.9
78.7

33.4
34.7
34.5
35.0
36.0
35.3
35.8
38.6
38.3
38.3
40.1
41.7
40.9
41.8
41.6
41.8
42.7
44.0
44.4
43.1
40.9
42.4
42.8

WOMEN
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

14,851
14,838
14,763
14,577
14,287
13,923
13,591
13,321
13,242
12,936
12,718
12,536
12,313
12,810
12,696
12,548
12,386
12,460
12,743
13,136
13,319
13,531
13,623

3,682
3,741
3,841
3,657
3,662
3,788
3,775
3,826
4,021
4,085
4,042
4,218
4,429
4,393
4,576
4,452
4,582
4,820
4,919
4,863
5,109
5,192
5,404

24.8
25.2
26.0
25.1
25.6
27.2
27.8
28.7
30.4
31.6
31.8
33.6
36.0
34.3
36.0
35.5
37.0
38.7
38.6
37.0
38.4
38.4
39.7

12,287
12,290
12,171
12,082
11,956
11,736
11,430
11,086
11,068
10,758
10,533
10,391
10,344
10,702
10,611
10,338
10,317
10,403
10,651
10,927
11,200
11,374
11,495

82.7
82.8
82.4
82.9
83.7
84.3
84.1
83.2
83.6
83.2
82.8
82.9
84.0
83.5
83.6
82.4
83.3
83.5
83.6
83.2
84.1
84.1
84.4

30.0
30.4
31.6
30.3
30.6
32.3
33.0
34.5
36.3
38.0
38.4
40.6
42.8
41.0
43.1
43.1
44.4
46.4
46.2
44.5
45.6
45.6
47.0

Continued on next page


Note:

College participation rates were calculated using the total population and high school graduates as the bases. High school graduates are persons who have completed four or more years of high school
during the period 1977 to 1991. Beginning in 1992, they were persons whose highest degree was a high school diploma (including equivalency) or higher.
Data for 1986 and later use a revised tabulation system. Improvements in edits and population estimation procedures caused slight changes in estimates for 1986. Data for 1980 through 1992 use 1980
decenial census-based estimates, and data for 1993 and later use 1990 decenial census-based estimates. The Ever-Enrolled-in-College Rate column was removed from this years version of this table.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Survey Reports, School EnrollmentSocial and Economic Characteristics of Students, 19802002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

49

Table 2 Continued

High School Completion Rates and College Participation Rates of 18- to 24-Year-Olds,
by Race/Ethnicity and Gender: 1980 to 2002

High School Graduates


All Persons
(thousands)

Number
Enrolled in College
(thousands)

Enrolled-inCollege Rate
(percent)

Number
Completed
(thousands)

Completion
Rate
(percent)

Enrolled-inCollege Rate
(percent)

MEN
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

12,011
12,040
11,874
11,787
11,521
11,108
10,814
10,549
10,380
10,240
10,053
9,896
9,744
10,294
10,123
9,980
9,897
10,173
8,295
8,580
8,670
8,343
8,453

3,275
3,340
3,308
3,335
3,406
3,254
3,168
3,289
3,260
3,223
3,292
3,270
3,291
3,498
3,406
3,398
3,419
3,633
3,271
3,284
3,137
3,095
3,288

27.3
27.7
27.9
28.3
29.6
29.3
29.3
31.2
31.4
31.5
32.7
33.0
33.8
34.0
33.6
34.0
34.5
35.7
39.4
38.3
36.2
37.1
38.9

9,686
9,619
9,611
9,411
9,348
9,077
8,780
8,498
8,268
8,177
8,157
7,843
7,911
8,338
8,168
8,001
8,000
8,204
7,026
7,301
7,494
7,114
7,245

80.6
79.9
80.9
79.8
81.1
81.7
81.2
80.6
79.7
79.9
81.1
79.3
81.2
81.0
80.7
80.2
80.8
80.6
84.7
85.1
86.4
85.3
85.7

33.8
34.7
34.4
35.4
36.4
35.8
36.1
38.7
39.4
39.4
40.3
41.7
41.6
42.0
41.7
42.5
42.7
44.3
46.6
45.0
41.9
43.5
45.4

WOMEN
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

12,471
12,446
12,332
12,112
11,826
11,524
11,205
10,944
10,881
10,586
10,340
10,119
9,928
10,199
10,048
9,886
9,778
9,847
8,164
8,500
8,657
8,378
8,678

3,147
3,208
3,285
3,129
3,120
3,247
3,139
3,192
3,399
3,409
3,344
3,544
3,625
3,576
3,714
3,615
3,705
3,863
3,433
3,451
3,573
3,470
3,718

25.2
25.8
26.6
25.8
26.4
28.2
28.0
29.2
31.2
32.2
32.3
35.0
36.5
35.1
37.0
36.6
37.9
39.6
42.1
40.6
41.3
41.4
42.8

10,528
10,504
10,333
10,233
10,026
9,840
9,509
9,189
9,223
8,913
8,666
8,481
8,468
8,651
8,503
8,271
8,200
8,352
7,232
7,510
7,694
7,367
7,667

84.4
84.4
83.8
84.5
84.8
85.4
84.9
84.0
84.8
84.2
83.8
83.8
85.3
84.8
84.6
83.7
83.9
84.8
88.6
88.4
88.9
87.9
88.3

29.9
30.5
31.8
30.6
31.1
33.0
33.0
34.7
36.9
38.2
38.6
41.8
42.8
41.3
43.7
43.7
45.2
46.3
47.5
46.0
46.4
47.1
48.5

Year

WHITE a

Continued on next page


a After 1997, white does not include whites of Hispanic origin.

50

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 2 Continued

High School Completion Rates and College Participation Rates of 18- to 24-Year-Olds,
by Race/Ethnicity and Gender: 1980 to 2002

High School Graduates

Year

All Persons
(thousands)

Number
Enrolled in College
(thousands)

Enrolled-inCollege Rate
(percent)

Number
Completed
(thousands)

Completion
Rate
(percent)

Enrolled-inCollege Rate
(percent)

AFRICAN AMERICAN
MEN
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

1,690
1,730
1,786
1,807
1,811
1,720
1,687
1,666
1,653
1,654
1,634
1,635
1,676
1,703
1,733
1,660
1,682
1,701
1,672
1,747
1,885
1,818
1,843

293
325
331
331
367
345
349
377
297
324
426
378
356
387
440
430
422
425
436
501
469
469
475

17.3
18.8
18.5
18.3
20.3
20.1
20.7
22.6
18.0
19.6
26.1
23.1
21.2
22.7
25.4
25.9
25.1
25.0
26.1
28.7
24.9
25.8
25.8

1,115
1,154
1,171
1,202
1,272
1,244
1,220
1,188
1,189
1,195
1,240
1,174
1,211
1,240
1,277
1,247
1,199
1,214
1,138
1,291
1,389
1,286
1,353

66.0
66.7
65.6
66.5
70.2
72.3
72.3
71.3
71.9
72.2
75.9
71.8
72.3
72.8
73.7
75.1
71.3
71.4
68.1
73.9
73.7
70.7
73.4

26.3
28.2
28.3
27.5
28.9
27.7
28.6
31.7
25.0
27.1
34.4
32.2
29.4
31.2
34.5
34.4
35.2
35.0
38.3
38.8
33.8
36.5
35.1

WOMEN
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

2,031
2,049
2,086
2,058
2,052
1,996
1,966
1,937
1,915
1,905
1,886
1,869
1,845
1,965
1,928
1,965
1,956
1,949
1,965
2,080
2,128
2,098
2,081

422
424
436
411
419
389
462
445
455
511
467
460
531
511
561
558
561
659
643
644
747
736
751

20.8
20.7
20.9
20.0
20.4
19.5
23.5
23.0
23.8
26.8
24.8
24.6
28.8
26.0
29.1
28.4
28.7
33.8
32.7
31.0
35.1
35.1
36.1

1,475
1,526
1,572
1,539
1,613
1,565
1,576
1,550
1,492
1,511
1,468
1,455
1,417
1,508
1,542
1,541
1,539
1,511
1,539
1,620
1,701
1,729
1,685

72.6
74.5
75.4
74.8
78.6
78.4
80.1
80.0
77.9
79.3
77.8
77.8
76.8
76.7
80.0
78.4
78.7
77.5
78.3
77.9
79.9
82.4
81.0

28.6
27.8
27.7
26.7
26.0
24.9
29.3
28.7
30.5
33.8
31.8
31.6
37.5
33.9
36.4
36.2
36.5
43.6
41.8
39.8
43.9
42.6
44.6

Continued on next page

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

51

Table 2 Continued

High School Completion Rates and College Participation Rates of 18- to 24-Year-Olds,
by Race/Ethnicity and Gender: 1980 to 2002

High School Graduates


All Persons
(thousands)

Year

Number
Enrolled in College
(thousands)

Enrolled-inCollege Rate
(percent)

Number
Completed
(thousands)

Completion
Rate
(percent)

Enrolled-inCollege Rate
(percent)

HISPANIC b
MEN
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

1,012
988
944
968
956
1,132
1,339
1,337
1,375
1,439
1,403
1,503
1,384
1,710
1,896
1,907
1,815
1,937
2,109
2,046
2,171
2,596
2,707

160
164
141
152
154
168
233
247
228
211
214
211
247
338
312
356
300
371
346
323
401
450
439

15.8
16.6
14.9
15.7
16.1
14.8
17.4
18.5
16.6
14.7
15.3
14.0
17.8
19.8
16.5
18.7
16.5
19.2
16.4
15.8
18.5
17.3
16.2

518
498
519
476
549
659
769
795
724
756
753
719
720
1,005
1,021
1,106
994
1,140
1,146
1,123
1,173
1,456
1,562

51.2
50.4
55.0
49.2
57.4
58.2
57.4
59.5
52.7
52.5
53.7
47.8
52.0
58.8
53.8
58.0
54.8
58.9
54.3
54.9
54.0
56.1
57.7

30.9
32.9
27.2
31.9
28.1
25.5
30.3
31.1
31.5
27.9
28.4
29.3
34.3
33.6
30.6
32.2
30.2
32.5
30.2
28.8
34.2
30.9
28.1

WOMEN
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

1,021
1,064
1,056
1,057
1,061
1,091
1,175
1,256
1,267
1,377
1,346
1,372
1,369
1,652
1,628
1,696
1,694
1,669
1,906
1,907
1,963
2,297
2,211

165
178
196
198
207
205
226
208
224
244
221
305
339
390
350
389
406
436
474
417
498
585
540

16.2
16.7
18.6
18.7
19.5
18.8
19.2
16.6
17.7
17.7
16.4
22.2
24.8
23.6
21.5
22.9
24.0
26.1
24.9
21.9
25.4
25.5
24.4

579
646
634
634
661
734
739
801
736
823
745
780
860
1,045
973
1,011
1,026
1,097
1,257
1,202
1,290
1,575
1,515

56.7
60.7
60.0
60.0
62.3
67.3
62.9
63.8
58.1
59.8
55.3
56.9
62.8
63.3
59.8
59.6
60.6
65.7
66.0
63.0
65.7
68.6
68.5

28.5
27.6
30.9
31.2
31.3
27.9
30.6
26.0
30.4
29.6
29.7
39.1
39.4
37.3
36.0
38.5
39.6
39.7
37.7
34.7
38.6
37.1
35.6

b Hispanics may be of any race.

52

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 3

Educational Attainment Rates for 25- to 29-Year-Olds


and Persons 25 Years Old and Older, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender: 1980 to 2003
ALL RACES

WHITE a

AFRICAN AMERICAN

HISPANIC b

Year and Age


Both Sexes

Male

Female

Both Sexes

Male

Female

Both Sexes

Male

Female

Both Sexes

Male

Female

25 TO 29 YEARS OLD Completed Four or More Years of High School


1980
85.4
85.4
85.5
86.9
1981
86.3
86.5
86.1
87.6
1982
86.2
86.3
86.1
86.9
1983
86.0
86.0
86.0
86.9
1984
85.9
85.6
86.3
86.9
1985
86.1
85.9
86.4
86.8
1986
86.1
85.9
86.4
86.5
1987
86.0
85.5
86.4
86.3
1988
85.7
84.4
87.0
86.5
1989
85.5
84.4
86.5
86.0
1990
85.7
84.4
87.0
86.3
1991
85.4
84.9
85.8
85.8
1992
86.3
86.1
86.5
87.0
1993
86.7
86.0
87.4
87.3
1994
86.1
84.5
87.6
86.5
1995
86.8
86.3
87.4
87.4
1996
87.3
86.5
88.1
87.5
1997
87.4
85.8
88.9
87.6
1998
88.1
86.6
89.6
88.1
1999
87.8
86.1
89.5
93.0
2000
88.1
86.7
89.4
94.0
2001
86.8
85.3
88.3
93.4
2002
86.4
84.7
88.1
93.0
2003
86.5
84.9
88.2
93.7

86.8
87.6
87.0
86.9
86.8
86.4
85.6
85.6
84.8
84.8
84.6
85.1
86.5
86.1
84.7
86.6
86.3
85.8
86.3
91.9
92.9
93.1
92.2
92.8

87.0
87.6
86.8
86.9
87.0
87.3
87.4
87.0
88.2
87.1
88.1
86.6
87.6
88.5
88.3
88.2
88.8
89.4
90.0
94.1
95.2
93.7
93.8
94.5

76.6
77.3
80.9
79.4
78.9
80.6
83.4
83.3
80.7
82.2
81.7
81.7
80.9
82.8
84.1
86.5
85.6
86.2
87.6
88.7
86.8
86.7
87.6
87.5

74.8
78.4
80.5
78.9
75.9
80.8
86.5
84.8
80.6
80.6
81.5
83.5
82.5
85.0
82.9
88.1
87.2
85.2
87.6
88.2
87.6
85.9
85.8
86.4

78.1
76.4
81.3
79.8
81.5
80.4
80.6
82.1
80.7
83.6
81.8
80.1
79.5
80.9
85.0
85.1
84.2
87.1
87.6
89.2
86.3
87.4
88.9
88.4

58.6
59.8
60.9
58.3
58.6
60.9
59.1
59.8
62.0
61.0
58.2
56.7
60.9
60.9
60.3
57.1
61.1
61.8
62.8
61.6
62.8
62.4
62.3
61.7

58.3
59.1
60.7
57.8
56.8
58.6
58.2
58.6
59.4
61.0
56.6
56.4
61.1
58.3
58.0
55.7
59.7
59.2
59.9
57.5
59.3
58.3
60.2
59.7

58.8
60.4
61.2
58.9
60.2
63.1
60.0
61.0
65.0
61.0
59.9
57.1
60.6
64.0
63.0
58.7
62.9
64.9
66.3
65.9
66.4
67.3
65.0
64.2

25 TO 29 YEARS OLD Completed Four or More Years of College


1980
22.5
24.0
21.0
1981
21.3
23.1
19.6
1982
21.7
23.3
20.2
1983
22.5
23.9
21.1
1984
21.9
23.2
20.7
1985
22.2
23.1
21.3
1986
22.4
22.9
21.9
1987
22.0
22.3
21.7
1988
22.5
23.2
21.9
1989
23.4
23.9
22.9
1990
23.2
23.7
22.8
1991
23.2
23.0
23.4
1992
23.6
23.2
24.0
1993
23.7
23.4
23.9
1994
23.3
22.5
24.0
1995
24.7
24.5
24.9
1996
27.1
26.1
28.2
1997
27.8
26.3
29.3
1998
27.3
25.6
29.0
1999
28.2
26.8
29.5
2000
29.1
27.9
30.1
2001
28.4
25.5
31.3
2002
29.3
26.9
31.8
2003
28.4
26.0
30.9

25.5
24.3
24.5
25.0
24.3
24.2
24.1
23.3
24.0
24.8
24.2
24.1
24.2
24.4
23.6
25.4
27.2
27.2
26.5
32.0
32.3
30.4
32.6
31.4

22.0
20.5
20.9
21.8
21.9
22.2
22.9
22.8
22.9
24.0
24.3
25.0
25.7
25.1
24.8
26.6
29.1
30.7
30.4
35.1
35.8
36.9
39.2
37.0

11.6
11.6
12.6
12.9
11.6
11.5
11.8
11.4
12.2
12.7
13.4
11.0
11.3
13.2
13.7
15.3
14.6
14.4
15.8
15.0
17.9
17.2
18.1
17.2

10.5
12.1
11.8
13.1
12.9
10.3
10.1
11.6
12.6
12.0
15.1
11.5
12.0
12.6
11.7
17.2
12.4
12.1
14.2
13.1
18.4
16.0
18.0
17.4

12.5
11.1
13.2
12.8
10.5
12.6
13.3
11.1
11.9
13.3
11.9
10.6
10.6
13.8
15.4
13.6
16.4
16.4
17.0
16.5
17.4
18.1
18.2
16.9

7.7
7.5
9.7
10.4
10.6
11.1
9.0
8.7
11.4
10.1
8.1
9.2
9.5
8.3
8.0
8.9
10.0
11.0
10.4
8.9
9.6
10.5
8.9
10.0

8.4
8.6
10.7
9.6
9.6
10.9
8.9
9.2
12.1
9.6
7.3
8.1
8.8
7.1
6.6
7.8
10.2
9.6
9.5
7.5
8.3
8.2
8.3
8.5

6.9
6.5
8.7
11.1
11.6
11.2
9.1
8.2
10.6
10.6
9.1
10.4
10.3
9.8
9.8
10.1
9.8
10.1
11.3
10.4
11.0
13.2
9.7
11.9

23.7
22.4
22.7
23.4
23.1
23.2
23.5
23.0
23.5
24.4
24.2
24.6
25.0
24.7
24.2
26.0
28.1
28.9
28.4
33.6
34.0
33.7
35.9
34.2

Continued on next page


a After 1998, white does not include whites of Hispanic origin.
b Hispanics may be of any race.

Note:

Educational attainment rates were calculated using the total population as the base.
Data for 1986 and later use a revised tabulation system. Improvements in edits and population estimation procedures caused slight changes in estimates for 1986. Data for 1990 through 1992 use 1980
decenial census-based estimates, and data for 1993 and later use 1990 decenial census-based estimates. Data for 2002 use 2000 decenial census-based estimates.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Survey Reports, Educational Attainment in the United States, 19802003.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

53

Table 3 Continued

Educational Attainment Rates for 25- to 29-Year-Olds


and Persons 25 Years Old and Older, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender: 1980 to 2003
ALL RACES

WHITE a

AFRICAN AMERICAN

HISPANIC b

Year and Age


Both Sexes

Male

Female

Both Sexes

Male

Female

Both Sexes

Male

Female

Both Sexes

Male

Female

25 YEARS OLD AND OVER Completed Four or More Years of High School
1980
85.4
85.4
85.5
86.9
1981
69.7
70.3
69.1
71.6
1982
71.0
71.7
70.3
72.8
1983
72.1
72.7
71.5
73.8
1984
73.3
73.7
73.0
75.0
1985
73.9
74.4
73.5
75.5
1986
74.7
75.1
74.4
76.2
1987
75.6
76.0
75.3
77.0
1988
76.2
76.4
76.0
77.7
1989
76.9
77.2
76.6
78.4
1990
77.6
77.7
77.5
79.1
1991
78.4
78.5
78.3
79.9
1992
79.4
79.7
79.2
80.9
1993
80.2
80.5
80.0
81.5
1994
80.9
81.0
80.7
82.0
1995
81.7
81.7
81.6
83.0
1996
81.7
81.9
81.6
82.8
1997
82.1
82.0
82.2
83.0
1998
82.8
82.8
82.9
83.7
1999
83.4
83.4
83.4
87.7
2000
84.1
84.2
84.0
88.4
2001
84.1
84.1
84.2
88.6
2002
84.1
83.8
84.4
88.7
2003
84.6
84.1
85.0
89.4

86.8
72.1
73.4
74.4
75.4
76.0
76.5
77.3
77.7
78.6
79.1
79.8
81.1
81.8
82.1
83.0
82.7
82.9
83.6
87.7
88.5
88.6
88.5
89.0

87.0
71.2
72.3
73.3
74.6
75.1
75.9
76.7
77.6
78.2
79.0
79.9
80.7
81.3
81.9
83.0
82.8
83.2
83.8
87.7
88.4
88.6
88.9
89.7

76.6
52.9
54.9
56.8
58.5
59.8
62.3
63.4
63.5
64.6
66.2
66.7
67.7
70.4
72.9
73.8
74.3
74.9
76.0
77.4
78.9
79.1
79.2
80.0

74.8
53.2
55.7
56.5
57.1
58.4
61.5
63.0
63.7
64.2
65.8
66.7
67.0
69.6
71.7
73.4
74.3
73.5
75.2
77.2
79.1
79.5
79.0
79.6

78.1
52.6
54.3
57.1
59.7
60.8
63.0
63.7
63.4
65.0
66.5
66.7
68.2
71.1
73.8
74.1
74.2
76.0
76.7
77.5
78.7
78.8
79.4
80.3

58.6
44.5
45.9
46.2
47.1
47.9
48.5
50.9
51.0
50.9
50.8
51.3
52.6
53.1
53.3
53.4
53.1
54.7
55.5
56.1
57.0
56.8
57.0
57.0

58.3
45.5
48.1
48.6
48.6
48.5
49.2
51.8
52.0
51.0
50.3
51.4
53.7
52.9
53.4
52.9
53.0
54.9
55.7
56.0
56.6
55.5
56.1
56.3

58.8
43.6
44.1
44.2
45.7
47.4
47.8
50.0
50.0
50.7
51.3
51.2
51.5
53.2
53.2
53.8
53.3
54.6
55.3
56.3
57.5
58.0
57.9
57.8

25 YEARS OLD AND OVER Completed Four or More Years of College


1980
17.0
20.9
13.6
17.8
1981
17.1
21.1
13.4
17.8
1982
17.7
21.9
14.0
18.5
1983
18.8
23.0
15.1
19.5
1984
19.1
22.9
15.7
19.8
1985
19.4
23.1
16.0
20.0
1986
19.4
23.2
16.1
20.1
1987
19.9
23.6
16.5
20.5
1988
20.3
24.0
17.0
20.9
1989
21.1
24.5
18.1
21.8
1990
21.3
24.4
18.4
22.0
1991
21.4
24.3
18.8
22.2
1992
21.4
24.3
18.6
22.1
1993
21.9
24.8
19.2
22.6
1994
22.2
25.1
19.6
22.9
1995
23.0
26.0
20.2
24.0
1996
23.6
26.0
21.4
24.3
1997
23.9
26.2
21.7
24.6
1998
24.4
26.5
22.4
25.0
1999
25.2
27.5
23.1
27.7
2000
25.6
27.8
23.6
28.1
2001
26.2
28.2
24.3
28.7
2002
26.7
28.5
25.1
29.4
2003
27.2
28.9
25.7
30.0

22.1
22.2
23.0
24.0
23.9
24.0
24.1
24.5
25.0
25.4
25.3
25.4
25.2
25.7
26.1
27.2
26.9
27.0
27.3
30.6
30.8
31.3
31.7
32.3

14.0
13.8
14.4
15.4
16.0
16.3
16.4
16.9
17.3
18.5
19.0
19.3
19.1
19.7
20.0
21.0
21.8
22.3
22.8
25.0
25.5
26.3
27.3
27.9

7.9
8.2
8.8
9.5
10.4
11.1
10.9
10.7
11.2
11.8
11.3
11.5
11.9
12.2
12.9
13.2
13.6
13.3
14.7
15.5
16.6
15.7
17.2
17.3

7.7
8.2
9.1
10.0
10.4
11.2
11.2
11.0
11.1
11.7
11.9
11.4
11.9
11.9
12.8
13.6
12.4
12.5
13.9
14.3
16.4
15.3
16.5
16.7

8.1
8.2
8.5
9.2
10.4
11.0
10.7
10.4
11.4
11.9
10.8
11.6
12.0
12.4
13.0
12.9
14.6
13.9
15.4
16.5
16.8
16.0
17.7
17.8

7.9
7.7
7.8
7.9
8.2
8.5
8.4
8.6
10.1
9.9
9.2
9.7
9.3
9.0
9.1
9.3
9.3
10.3
11.0
10.9
10.6
11.1
11.1
11.4

9.7
9.7
9.6
9.2
9.5
9.7
9.5
9.7
12.3
11.0
9.8
10.0
10.2
9.5
9.6
10.1
10.3
10.6
11.1
10.7
10.7
10.8
11.0
11.2

6.2
5.9
6.2
6.8
7.0
7.3
7.4
7.5
8.1
8.8
8.7
9.4
8.5
8.5
8.6
8.4
8.3
10.1
10.9
11.0
10.6
11.5
11.2
11.6

a After 1998, white does not include whites of Hispanic origin.


b Hispanics may be of any race.

54

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 4

Total Fall Enrollment in Higher Education,


by Type of Institution and Race/Ethnicity:
Selected Years, 1991 to 2001

1991

1993

1995

1997

1998

2000

2001

Percent
Change
1991 to
2001

Percent
Change
1995 to
2001

Percent
Change
2000 to
2001

ALL INSTITUTIONS

14,324,659

14,271,356

14,192,155

14,438,583

14,503,124

15,312,289

15,927,987

11.2

12.2

4.0

White

10,602,935

10,194,724

9,866,179

9,801,868

9,739,338

9,884,335

10,120,366

-4.6

2.6

2.4

2,838,048

3,123,069

3,357,089

3,604,817

3,704,052

4,071,796

4,304,489

51.7

28.2

5.7

1,283,249

1,368,611

1,418,451

1,492,090

1,527,174

1,652,641

1,756,684

36.9

23.8

6.3

Total Minority
African American
Hispanic

833,675

949,167

1,052,491

1,165,099

1,196,235

1,370,604

1,460,088

75.1

38.7

6.5

Asian American a

610,446

687,743

759,176

810,065

842,956

905,068

937,953

53.7

23.5

3.6

American Indian b

110,678

117,547

126,971

137,563

137,687

143,483

149,764

35.3

18.0

4.4

Foreign Students

416,080

456,809

454,363

465,010

442,881

528,410

564,609

35.7

24.3

6.9

Race/Ethnicity Unknown

467,596

496,754

514,524

566,888

616,853

827,748

938,523

100.7

82.4

13.4

8,707,053

8,738,936

8,769,270

8,896,696

8,990,956

9,363,858

9,677,408

11.1

10.4

3.3

FOUR-YEAR INSTITUTIONS
White

6,528,128

6,388,558

6,274,632

6,227,761

6,228,052

6,269,195

6,377,454

-2.3

1.6

1.7

Total Minority

1,496,881

1,663,335

1,815,864

1,928,293

1,983,275

2,119,986

2,222,089

48.4

22.4

4.8

African American

728,244

789,839

828,080

866,928

890,922

945,982

993,252

36.4

19.9

5.0

Hispanic

360,788

412,032

465,799

503,534

521,268

572,112

604,648

67.6

29.8

5.7

Asian American a

358,526

405,014

458,692

488,707

502,015

529,487

548,727

53.1

19.6

3.6

American Indian b

49,324

56,450

63,293

69,124

69,070

72,405

75,462

53.0

19.2

4.2

Foreign Students

342,837

365,861

366,236

384,272

387,813

439,604

465,506

35.8

27.1

5.9

Race/Ethnicity Unknown

339,207

321,182

312,538

356,370

391,816

535,073

612,359

80.5

95.9

14.4

TWO-YEAR INSTITUTIONS

5,590,682

5,504,589

5,387,919

5,541,887

5,512,168

5,948,431

6,250,579

11.8

16.0

5.1

White

4,061,429

3,804,469

3,590,201

3,574,107

3,511,286

3,615,140

3,742,912

-7.8

4.3

3.5

Total Minority

1,332,254

1,457,191

1,540,230

1,676,524

1,720,777

1,951,810

2,082,400

56.3

35.2

6.7

550,059

577,278

589,857

625,162

636,252

706,659

763,432

38.8

29.4

8.0

African American
Hispanic

469,847

536,330

586,329

661,565

674,967

798,492

855,440

82.1

45.9

7.1

Asian American a

251,131

282,512

300,420

321,358

340,941

375,581

389,226

55.0

29.6

3.6

American Indian b

61,218

61,071

63,624

68,439

68,617

71,078

74,302

21.4

16.8

4.5

72,989

90,922

88,123

80,738

55,068

88,806

99,103

35.8

12.5

11.6

124,010

152,007

169,365

210,518

225,037

292,675

326,164

163.0

92.6

11.4

Foreign Students
Race/Ethnicity Unknown

a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.


b American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

Note:

Data may not match previous reports because, in previous reports, race/ethnicity unknown persons were imputed across standard racial/ethnic groups. Data not comparable to data for years not shown in
this report, but found in previous reports. Complete data for 1999 not available because data collection for that year was not completed due to conversion to web-based data collection.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall Enrollment Survey, 1991 to 2001 (analysis by author).

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

55

Table 5

Total Fall Enrollment in Higher Education,


by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Control of Institution:
Selected Years, 1991 to 2001
Percent
Change
1991 to
2001

Percent Percent
Change Change
1995 to 2000 to
2001
2001

1991

1993

1995

1997

1998

2000

2001

MEN

6,472,693

6,413,555

6,283,978

6,342,377

6,357,589

6,721,769

6,960,815

7.5

10.8

3.6

White

4,772,756

4,570,551

4,368,899

4,317,827

4,291,976

4,366,000

4,459,463

-6.6

2.1

2.1

Total Minority

1,227,551

1,343,690

1,416,172

1,501,901

1,533,312

1,676,134

1,753,921

42.9

23.8

4.6

493,845

526,610

529,419

551,748

561,475

603,989

635,198

28.6

20.0

5.2

African American
Hispanic

376,435

423,436

460,254

500,870

510,927

585,084

617,703

64.1

34.2

5.6

Asian American a

311,052

344,353

373,722

392,479

404,713

428,990

441,035

41.8

18.0

2.8

American Indian b

46,219

49,291

52,777

56,804

56,197

58,071

59,985

29.8

13.7

3.3

Foreign Students

259,102

273,232

264,252

264,929

254,189

297,063

317,087

22.4

20.0

6.7

Race/Ethnicity Unknown

213,284

226,082

234,655

257,720

278,112

382,572

430,344

101.8

83.4

12.5

7,851,966

7,857,801

7,908,177

8,096,206

8,145,535

8,590,520

8,967,172

14.2

13.4

4.4

WOMEN
White

5,830,197

5,624,173

5,497,280

5,484,041

5,447,362

5,518,335

5,660,903

-2.9

3.0

2.6

Total Minority

1,610,479

1,779,379

1,940,917

2,102,916

2,170,740

2,395,662

2,550,568

58.4

31.4

6.5

African American

789,418

842,002

889,032

940,342

965,699

1,048,652

1,121,486

42.1

26.1

6.9

Hispanic

457,230

525,731

592,237

664,229

685,308

785,520

842,385

84.2

42.2

7.2

Asian American a

299,365

343,390

385,454

417,586

438,243

476,078

496,918

66.0

28.9

4.4

American Indian b

64,467

68,256

74,194

80,759

81,490

85,412

89,779

39.3

21.0

5.1

Foreign Students

156,978

183,577

190,111

200,081

188,692

231,347

247,522

57.7

30.2

7.0

Race/Ethnicity Unknown

254,312

270,672

279,869

309,168

338,741

445,176

508,179

99.8

81.6

14.2

PUBLIC

11,275,269

11,155,641

11,022,753

11,132,407

11,146,632

11,752,786

12,233,156

8.5

11.0

4.1

White

8,387,461

7,992,956

7,653,331

7,537,460

7,469,863

7,604,494

7,813,882

-6.8

2.1

2.8

Total Minority

2,332,417

2,574,405

2,749,421

2,918,231

2,987,284

3,275,725

3,461,006

48.4

25.9

5.7

1,017,704

1,089,292

1,124,952

1,165,006

1,186,463

1,274,355

1,347,549

32.4

19.8

5.7

African American
Hispanic

719,253

822,409

904,871

990,777

1,012,001

1,160,925

1,236,678

71.9

36.7

6.5

Asian American a

497,622

559,649

609,117

642,971

670,452

719,035

749,492

50.6

23.0

4.2

American Indian b

97,838

103,055

110,481

119,477

118,368

121,410

127,287

30.1

15.2

4.8

Foreign Students

275,066

304,098

297,456

297,334

274,817

343,047

373,551

35.8

25.6

8.9

Race/Ethnicity Unknown

280,325

284,182

322,545

379,382

414,668

529,520

584,717

108.6

81.3

10.4

PRIVATE c

3,049,390

3,115,715

3,169,402

3,306,176

3,356,492

3,559,503

3,694,831

21.2

16.6

3.8

White

2,215,474

2,201,768

2,212,848

2,264,408

2,269,475

2,279,841

2,306,484

4.1

4.2

1.2

505,631

548,664

607,668

686,586

716,768

796,071

843,483

66.8

38.8

6.0

Total Minority
African American

265,546

279,320

293,499

327,084

340,711

378,286

409,135

54.1

39.4

8.2

Hispanic

114,422

126,759

147,620

174,322

184,234

209,679

223,410

95.3

51.3

6.5

Asian Americana

112,823

128,094

150,059

167,094

172,504

186,033

188,461

67.0

25.6

1.3

American Indianb

12,841

14,492

16,490

18,086

19,319

22,073

22,477

75.0

36.3

1.8

Foreign Students

141,014

152,711

156,907

167,676

168,064

185,363

191,058

35.5

21.8

3.1

Race/Ethnicity Unknown

187,271

212,572

191,979

187,506

202,185

298,228

353,806

88.9

84.3

18.6

a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.


b American Indian includes Alaska Natives.
c Includes not-for-profit and for-profit institutions.

Note:

Data may not match previous reports because, in previous reports, race/ethnicity unknown persons were imputed across standard racial/ethnic groups. Data not comparable to data for years not shown in
this report, but found in previous reports. Complete data for 1999 not available because data collection for that year was not completed due to conversion to web-based data collection.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall Enrollment Survey, 1991 to 2001 (analysis by author).

56

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 6

Undergraduate, Graduate, and Professional Fall Enrollment


in Higher Education, by Race/Ethnicity:
Selected Years, 1991 to 2001

UNDERGRADUATE TOTAL

1991

1993

1995

1997

1998

2000

2001

Percent
Change
1991 to
2001

Percent
Change
1995 to
2001

Percent
Change
2000 to
2001

12,404,993

12,290,512

12,162,070

12,386,838

12,442,492

13,155,393

13,715,610

10.6

12.8

4.3

White

9,213,415

8,787,941

8,444,018

8,413,138

8,367,445

8,534,962

8,764,748

-4.9

3.8

2.7

Total Minority

2,606,509

2,852,996

3,037,187

3,254,666

3,338,014

3,672,027

3,888,792

49.2

28.0

5.9

1,185,239

1,253,387

1,284,708

1,346,638

1,375,113

1,484,276

1,579,292

33.2

22.9

6.4

African American
Hispanic

778,111

884,781

975,320

1,078,795

1,105,911

1,270,254

1,355,264

74.2

39.0

6.7

Asian American a

539,853

605,683

660,327

702,797

730,478

785,750

816,860

51.3

23.7

4.0

American Indian b

103,307

109,146

116,832

126,436

126,512

131,747

137,376

33.0

17.6

4.3

Foreign Students

233,332

267,965

267,604

268,177

241,111

287,798

306,161

31.2

14.4

6.4

Race/Ethnicity Unknown

351,737

381,610

413,261

450,857

495,922

660,606

755,909

114.9

82.9

14.4

GRADUATE TOTAL

1,639,135

1,688,413

1,732,483

1,753,484

1,762,686

1,850,271

1,903,730

16.1

9.9

2.9

White

1,170,283

1,187,190

1,204,199

1,174,976

1,162,411

1,141,574

1,147,325

-2.0

-4.7

0.5

185,861

215,295

254,763

282,315

295,563

326,848

341,628

83.8

34.1

4.5

Total Minority
African American

81,714

96,026

112,766

124,700

130,610

146,147

154,930

89.6

37.4

6.0

Hispanic

45,923

53,039

63,794

73,008

76,679

86,140

90,418

96.9

41.7

5.0

Asian American a

52,039

59,384

70,165

75,711

79,216

85,032

85,948

65.2

22.5

1.1

American Indian b

6,184

6,846

8,038

8,896

9,058

9,529

10,332

67.1

28.5

8.4

Foreign Students

176,998

181,955

179,457

189,373

194,523

232,247

250,069

41.3

39.3

7.7

Race/Ethnicity Unknown

105,993

103,973

94,064

106,820

110,189

149,602

164,708

55.4

75.1

10.1

FIRST-PROFESSIONAL TOTAL

280,531

292,431

297,602

298,261

297,946

306,625

308,647

10.0

3.7

0.7

White

216,174

217,273

217,962

213,754

209,482

207,799

208,293

-3.6

-4.4

0.2

48,741

57,098

65,139

67,836

70,475

72,921

74,069

52.0

13.7

1.6

16,556

19,371

20,977

20,752

21,451

22,218

22,462

35.7

7.1

1.1

Total Minority
African American
Hispanic

10,849

12,081

13,377

13,296

13,645

14,210

14,406

32.8

7.7

1.4

Asian American a

20,109

24,046

28,684

31,557

33,262

34,286

35,145

74.8

22.5

2.5

American Indian b

1,228

1,601

2,101

2,231

2,117

2,207

2,056

67.4

-2.1

-6.8

Foreign Students

5,750

6,889

7,302

7,460

7,247

8,365

8,379

45.7

14.7

0.2

Race/Ethnicity Unknown

9,866

11,171

7,199

9,211

10,742

17,540

17,906

81.5

148.7

2.1

a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.


b American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

Note:

Data may not match previous reports because, in previous reports, race/ethnicity unknown persons were imputed across standard racial/ethnic groups. Data not comparable to data for years not shown in
this report, but found in previous reports. Complete data for 1999 not available because data collection for that year was not completed due to conversion to web-based data collection.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall Enrollment Survey, 1991 to 2001 (analysis by author).

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

57

Table 7

Fall Enrollment in Historically Black Colleges and Universities,


by Race/Ethnicity: Selected Years, 1991 to 2001

1991

1993

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

Percent
Change
1991 to
2001

Percent
Change
1996 to
2001

Percent
Change
2000 to
2001

Number of HBCUsa

102

107

106

106

106

106

107

101

Total Enrollment

269,335

282,856

273,018

269,167

273,472

274,212

275,680

289,985

African American

218,366

231,198

224,201

222,243

223,745

226,407

227,239

238,638

9.3

6.4

5.0

White

36,402

37,163

33,808

32,288

34,453

33,839

32,708

34,908

-4.1

3.3

6.7

7.7

6.2

5.2

Asian Americanb

2,143

2,435

2,512

2,237

2,446

2,325

2,148

2,369

10.5

-5.7

10.3

Hispanic

4,368

4,954

5,613

5,648

6,204

6,198

6,412

6,665

52.6

18.7

3.9

American Indianc

390

503

573

928

599

604

602

623

59.7

8.7

3.5

Foreign Students

7,666

6,603

6,311

5,823

6,025

4,839

6,571

6,782

-11.5

7.5

3.2

a These figures represent the number of institutions reporting their enrollments each year.
b Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.
c American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

Source: Provasnik, Stephen, Shafer, L.L., and Snyder, T.D., Historically Black Colleges and Universities 1976 to 2001. Washington, DC: Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
September 2004. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall Enrollment Survey, 1991 to 2001.

Table 8

African-American Fall Enrollment in Historically Black Colleges and Universities,


by Gender and Control of Institution: Selected Years, 1990 to 2001

NUMBER OF HBCUs a
ALL HBCUs
Men
Women

Percent
Change
1990 to
2001

Percent
Change
1996 to
2001

Percent
Change
2000 to
2001

1990

1993

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

103

107

106

106

106

106

107

101

208,682

231,198

223,498

222,331

223,745

226,407

227,239

238,638

14.4

6.8

5.0

82,897

93,110

88,257

86,641

87,163

88,057

87,319

90,718

9.4

2.8

3.9

125,785

138,088

135,241

135,690

136,582

138,350

139,920

147,920

17.6

9.4

5.7

144,204

161,444

155,542

153,039

154,244

156,115

156,706

164,354

14.0

5.7

4.9

Men

57,255

65,228

61,502

59,606

59,931

60,682

60,029

62,603

9.3

1.8

4.3

Women

86,949

96,216

94,040

93,433

94,313

95,433

96,677

101,751

17.0

8.2

5.2

PUBLIC HBCUs

PRIVATE HBCUs

64,478

69,754

67,956

69,292

69,501

70,292

70,533

74,284

15.2

9.3

5.3

Men

25,642

27,882

26,755

27,035

27,232

27,375

27,290

28,115

9.6

5.1

3.0

Women

38,836

41,872

41,201

42,257

42,269

42,917

43,243

46,169

18.9

12.1

6.8

a These figures represent the number of institutions reporting their enrollments each year.

Source: Provasnik, Stephen, Shafer, L.L., and Snyder, T.D., Historically Black Colleges and Universities 1976 to 2001. Washington, DC: Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
1

September 2004. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall Enrollment Survey, 990 to 2001.

58

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 9

Total Fall Enrollment in Tribal Colleges and Universities,


by Gender and Race/Ethnicity:
Selected Years, 1993 to 2001
Percent
Change
1993 to
2001

Percent
Change
1996 to
2001

Percent
Change
2000 to
2001

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2000

2001

MEN

4,997

4,818

5,074

5,887

4,842

4,878

4,547

4,697

-6.0

-20.2

3.3

White

1,182

985

856

1,936

870

633

562

580

-50.9

-70.0

3.2

Total Minority

3,798

3,830

4,208

3,930

3,965

4,241

3,984

4,116

8.4

4.7

3.3

65

70

21

72

47

13

11

15

-76.9

-79.2

36.4

African American
Hispanic

40

44

27

60

77

22

27

22

-45.0

-63.3

-18.5

Asian American a

18

18

85

26

11

-38.9

-87.1

37.5

American Indian b

3,675

3,698

4,151

3,713

3,815

4,199

3,938

4,068

10.7

9.6

3.3

17

10

21

-94.1

-95.2

0.0

7,855

8,348

9,377

10,507

8,697

9,028

8,877

9,161

16.6

-12.8

3.2

Foreign Students

WOMEN
White

1,902

1,870

1,759

3,596

1,802

1,448

1,398

1,520

-20.1

-57.7

8.7

Total Minority

5,948

6,469

7,582

6,758

6,884

7,574

7,478

7,638

28.4

13.0

2.1

African American

88

102

20

83

62

14

24

-72.7

-71.1

71.4

Hispanic

53

105

79

94

177

172

59

99

86.8

5.3

67.8

Asian American a

20

17

14

81

37

22

20

0.0

-75.3

-9.1

American Indian b

5,787

6,245

7,469

6,500

6,608

7,387

7,383

7,495

29.5

15.3

1.5

36

153

11

-40.0

-98.0

200.0

Foreign Students

a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.


b American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

Note:

Tribal colleges and universities are institutions of higher education which are formally controlled or have been formally sanctioned, or chartered, by the governing body of an Indian tribe or tribes.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Digest of Education Statistics, 2002. Washington, DC: 2003. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall Enrollment
Survey, 1993 to 2001.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

59

Table 10

Total Fall Enrollment in Higher Education,


by State and Race/Ethnicity: Selected Years, 1991 to 2001
TOTAL

State

Alabama

1991
Total

1996
Total

2000
Total

2001
Total

WHITE
Percent
Change
1991 to
2001

Percent
Change
1996 to
2001

Percent
Change
2000 to
2001

1991
Total

1996
Total

2000
Total

2001
Total

Percent
Change
1991 to
2001

Percent
Change
1996 to
2001

Percent
Change
2000 to
2001

224,331

283,834

233,962

236,146

5.3

-16.8

0.9

169,418

206,448

153,382

154,821

-8.6

-25.0

0.9

Alaska

30,793

28,806

27,953

27,756

-9.9

-3.6

-0.7

24,048

21,017

19,413

19,001

-21.0

-9.6

-2.1

Arizona

272,971

288,036

342,490

366,485

34.3

27.2

7.0

207,980

199,619

217,115

221,936

6.7

11.2

2.2

94,340

108,636

115,172

122,282

29.6

12.6

6.2

77,119

86,597

89,506

93,081

20.7

7.5

4.0

2,026,145 1,901,868 2,256,708

Arkansas
California

2,380,090

17.5

25.1

5.5

1,224,410

870,525

956,584

992,481

-18.9

14.0

3.8

Colorado

239,623

249,195

268,202

273,657

14.2

9.8

2.0

189,653

190,094

196,751

197,194

4.0

3.7

0.2

Connecticut

166,748

154,960

161,243

165,924

-0.5

7.1

2.9

135,934

117,533

113,849

115,241

-15.2

-2.0

1.2

42,988

44,838

43,897

47,104

9.6

5.1

7.3

35,089

34,591

31,422

33,209

-5.4

-4.0

5.7
18.9

Delaware
District of Columbia

77,964

74,876

72,689

87,252

11.9

16.5

20.0

37,369

34,384

31,220

37,123

-0.7

8.0

Florida

611,781

645,832

707,684

753,554

23.2

16.7

6.5

439,130

415,853

419,525

434,858

-1.0

4.6

3.7

Georgia

277,023

300,795

346,204

376,098

35.8

25.0

8.6

203,033

200,859

216,207

228,698

12.6

13.9

5.8

Hawaii

57,302

62,844

60,182

62,079

8.3

-1.2

3.2

16,109

16,458

14,655

15,435

-4.2

-6.2

5.3

Idaho

55,397

60,411

65,594

69,674

25.8

15.3

6.2

48,930

52,887

56,637

59,955

22.5

13.4

5.9

Illinois

753,297

721,133

743,918

748,444

-0.6

3.8

0.6

547,293

495,505

480,418

477,435

-12.8

-3.6

-0.6

Indiana

290,301

290,184

314,334

338,715

16.7

16.7

7.8

251,870

245,613

258,977

278,343

10.5

13.3

7.5

Iowa

171,024

178,860

188,974

194,822

13.9

8.9

3.1

149,404

150,882

158,816

162,650

8.9

7.8

2.4

Kansas

167,805

174,976

179,968

184,943

10.2

5.7

2.8

141,206

142,422

142,124

144,959

2.7

1.8

2.0

Kentucky

187,958

178,904

188,341

214,839

14.3

20.1

14.1

170,259

157,938

160,537

181,870

6.8

15.2

13.3

Louisiana

197,438

213,993

223,800

228,871

15.9

7.0

2.3

134,897

137,801

137,748

140,098

3.9

1.7

1.7

57,178

56,017

58,473

61,127

6.9

9.1

4.5

49,757

47,229

49,775

51,503

3.5

9.0

3.5

Maryland

272,995

265,622

277,917

292,521

7.2

10.1

5.3

194,489

170,715

163,986

169,642

-12.8

-0.6

3.4

Massachusetts

419,381

411,676

421,142

425,071

1.4

3.3

0.9

301,702

272,690

262,483

260,609

-13.6

-4.4

-0.7

Michigan

568,491

547,629

567,631

585,998

3.1

7.0

3.2

462,291

419,841

421,615

428,581

-7.3

2.1

1.7

Minnesota

255,054

284,964

293,445

308,233

20.9

8.2

5.0

223,715

235,365

218,998

216,090

-3.4

-8.2

-1.3

Maine

Mississippi

125,350

126,027

137,389

137,882

10.0

9.4

0.4

85,472

83,258

84,528

83,271

-2.6

0.0

-1.5

Missouri

297,154

293,584

321,348

331,580

11.6

12.9

3.2

248,161

237,524

253,347

258,669

4.2

8.9

2.1

Montana

37,821

43,550

42,240

44,932

18.8

3.2

6.4

31,605

34,076

33,662

35,786

13.2

5.0

6.3

Nebraska

113,648

120,689

112,117

113,817

0.1

-5.7

1.5

100,239

105,224

95,483

96,316

-3.9

-8.5

0.9

62,664

73,970

87,893

93,368

49.0

26.2

6.2

48,294

51,448

56,412

57,839

19.8

12.4

2.5

Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York

63,718

64,396

61,718

65,031

2.1

1.0

5.4

51,996

49,256

46,389

48,658

-6.4

-1.2

4.9

334,641

328,143

335,945

346,507

3.5

5.6

3.1

231,368

209,154

194,022

196,110

-15.2

-6.2

1.1

93,507

106,662

110,739

112,861

20.7

5.8

1.9

55,684

56,567

43,680

45,524

-18.2

-19.5

4.2

1,061,753 1,033,291 1,048,368

1,062,796

0.1

2.9

1.4

660,456

633,509

598,103

595,771

-9.8

-6.0

-0.4

North Carolina

371,968

372,993

404,652

427,784

15.0

14.7

5.7

287,056

274,753

282,708

294,289

2.5

7.1

4.1

North Dakota

38,739

41,142

40,248

42,843

10.6

4.1

6.4

34,530

36,345

36,112

37,928

9.8

4.4

5.0

Ohio

570,207

544,912

549,553

569,223

-0.2

4.5

3.6

471,242

440,601

436,359

447,364

-5.1

1.5

2.5

Oklahoma

183,536

177,166

178,016

189,785

3.4

7.1

6.6

146,890

132,384

129,155

136,413

-7.1

3.0

5.6

Oregon

167,107

166,662

183,065

191,378

14.5

14.8

4.5

131,150

126,703

135,470

140,457

7.1

10.9

3.7

Pennsylvania

620,036

587,447

609,521

630,299

1.7

7.3

3.4

527,725

487,231

474,905

482,182

-8.6

-1.0

1.5

Rhode Island

79,112

72,432

75,450

77,235

-2.4

6.6

2.4

63,589

55,112

53,363

53,818

-15.4

-2.3

0.9

South Carolina

164,907

174,303

185,931

191,590

16.2

9.9

3.0

125,577

125,583

126,849

127,010

1.1

1.1

0.1

South Dakota

36,332

39,820

43,221

45,534

25.3

14.3

5.4

32,899

35,049

36,403

37,808

14.9

7.9

3.9
-1.6

Tennessee

238,042

247,637

263,910

258,534

8.6

4.4

-2.0

193,541

197,148

197,229

194,134

0.3

-1.5

Texas

917,443

959,698 1,033,973

1,076,678

17.4

12.2

4.1

615,038

581,129

576,451

588,136

-4.4

1.2

2.0

Utah

130,419

152,262

177,045

35.8

16.3

8.1

110,228

129,908

137,488

147,454

33.8

13.5

7.2

163,776

Vermont

37,436

35,779

35,489

36,351

-2.9

1.6

2.4

33,677

30,289

31,379

31,257

-7.2

3.2

-0.4

Virginia

356,325

355,190

381,893

389,853

9.4

9.8

2.1

278,045

260,635

264,209

268,015

-3.6

2.8

1.4

Washington

274,760

303,450

320,840

325,132

18.3

7.1

1.3

220,631

222,763

224,161

225,936

2.4

1.4

0.8

West Virginia

88,602

87,099

87,888

91,319

3.1

4.8

3.9

82,283

78,414

77,334

79,993

-2.8

2.0

3.4

Wisconsin

308,986

299,522

307,179

315,850

2.2

5.5

2.8

271,552

258,900

260,944

267,997

-1.3

3.5

2.7

Wyoming

32,118

30,805

30,004

31,095

-3.2

0.9

3.6

28,902

27,215

26,447

27,418

-5.1

0.7

3.7

Continued on next page


Source:

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Digest of Education Statistics, 2002. Washington, DC: 2003. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall Enrollment
Survey, 1991 to 2001.

60

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 10 Continued

Total Fall Enrollment in Higher Education,


by State and Race/Ethnicity: Selected Years, 1991 to 2001
ALL MINORITIES

State

Alabama
Alaska

AFRICAN AMERICAN
Percent
Change
1991 to
2001

Percent
Change
1996 to
2001

Percent
Change
2000 to
2001

1991
Total

1996
Total

2000
Total

2001
Total

Percent
Change
1991 to
2001

Percent
Change
1996 to
2001

Percent
Change
2000 to
2001

1991
Total

1996
Total

2000
Total

2001
Total

49,323

70,692

69,707

71,034

44.0

0.5

1.9

45,583

61,980

60,336

63,928

40.2

3.1

6.0

5,096

5,094

5,925

6,158

20.8

20.9

3.9

1,087

1,015

934

944

-13.2

-7.0

1.1

Arizona

55,127

70,475

89,294

93,366

69.4

32.5

4.6

8,284

9,345

12,407

13,447

62.3

43.9

8.4

Arkansas

15,066

19,382

22,153

25,249

67.6

30.3

14.0

13,125

16,355

18,067

20,798

58.5

27.2

15.1

California

676,284

828,108 1,031,634

1,097,206

62.2

32.5

6.4

134,929

136,561

154,220

161,093

19.4

18.0

4.5

Colorado

33,742

42,747

48,083

49,760

47.5

16.4

3.5

7,091

8,429

9,913

10,525

48.4

24.9

6.2

Connecticut

20,317

25,182

29,656

31,716

56.1

25.9

6.9

9,785

11,380

13,289

14,409

47.3

26.6

8.4

6,625

8,366

9,405

10,307

55.6

23.2

9.6

4,984

6,259

7,053

7,707

54.6

23.1

9.3

27,499

28,466

26,995

32,460

18.0

14.0

20.0

22,060

21,124

19,853

23,795

8.0

13.0

20.0

Florida

152,708

204,598

246,387

267,701

75.3

30.8

8.7

66,657

88,386

110,264

121,020

81.6

36.9

9.8

Georgia

66,617

89,376

114,519

128,970

93.6

44.3

12.6

57,352

74,978

95,204

108,173

88.6

44.3

13.6

Hawaii

35,965

40,432

38,732

40,085

11.5

-0.9

3.5

1,472

1,343

1,452

1,674

13.7

24.6

15.3

Idaho

2,734

3,690

4,450

5,018

83.5

36.0

12.8

329

376

401

510

54.8

35.6

27.2

Illinois

181,187

196,248

219,063

224,222

23.8

14.3

2.4

92,773

90,895

95,067

96,941

4.5

6.7

2.0

Indiana

25,979

30,900

35,772

40,849

57.2

32.2

14.2

16,051

17,855

21,683

25,432

58.4

42.4

17.3
8.6

Delaware
District of Columbia

Iowa

8,979

12,468

13,527

13,894

54.7

11.4

2.7

4,110

4,790

5,107

5,545

34.9

15.8

Kansas

15,759

20,729

22,696

22,852

45.0

10.2

0.7

7,123

8,163

9,178

9,221

29.4

13.0

0.5

Kentucky

14,486

16,581

20,166

21,897

51.2

32.1

8.6

11,494

12,527

15,174

17,005

47.9

35.7

12.1

Louisiana

56,054

67,537

72,859

75,414

34.5

11.7

3.5

47,873

56,766

61,310

64,243

34.2

13.2

4.8

1,472

2,022

2,500

2,641

79.4

30.6

5.6

361

359

516

623

72.8

73.5

20.7

Maryland

66,747

80,473

93,369

99,885

49.6

24.1

7.0

47,814

57,899

66,803

72,031

50.6

24.4

7.8

Massachusetts

46,823

59,466

67,345

70,048

49.6

17.8

4.0

17,096

20,302

23,309

24,562

43.7

21.0

5.4

Michigan

77,758

87,737

95,049

99,082

27.4

12.9

4.2

53,581

56,826

61,006

63,901

19.3

12.5

4.7

Minnesota

14,334

23,265

26,222

27,038

88.6

16.2

3.1

4,648

7,484

10,091

10,625

128.6

42.0

5.3

Mississippi

36,394

40,429

49,734

50,958

40.0

26.0

2.5

34,762

38,260

47,460

48,447

39.4

26.6

2.1

Missouri

33,729

37,860

46,549

50,041

48.4

32.2

7.5

24,228

25,159

30,732

33,516

38.3

33.2

9.1

Montana

3,349

4,553

4,865

5,305

58.4

16.5

9.0

134

142

172

324

142.0

128.2

88.4

Nebraska

6,405

9,233

10,137

10,333

61.3

11.9

1.9

2,800

3,500

3,976

4,034

44.1

15.3

1.5

10,285

15,490

22,533

25,618

149.1

65.4

13.7

3,038

4,167

5,633

6,418

111.3

54.0

13.9

Maine

Nevada
New Hampshire

2,413

2,542

3,046

3,510

45.4

38.1

15.2

742

701

803

948

27.8

35.2

18.1

New Jersey

71,602

87,871

100,000

106,146

48.2

20.8

6.1

33,483

36,382

39,802

42,141

25.9

15.8

5.9

New Mexico

35,103

46,216

51,335

53,687

52.9

16.2

4.6

2,517

2,558

2,720

2,746

9.1

7.3

1.0

218,428

295,659

301,930

308,718

41.3

4.4

2.2

103,226

130,367

130,149

132,200

28.1

1.4

1.6

North Carolina

79,058

90,975

108,395

116,074

46.8

27.6

7.1

67,386

74,743

87,820

93,580

38.9

25.2

6.6

North Dakota

2,655

3,239

2,929

3,551

33.7

9.6

21.2

274

345

383

504

83.7

46.1

31.6

Ohio

61,310

71,924

75,723

81,636

33.2

13.5

7.8

45,808

50,885

54,073

58,032

26.7

14.0

7.3

Oklahoma

30,234

35,135

40,330

43,506

43.9

23.8

7.9

12,771

12,722

14,380

15,729

23.2

23.6

9.4

Oregon

14,591

19,007

22,995

24,365

67.0

28.2

6.0

2,398

2,581

3,327

3,668

53.0

42.1

10.2

Pennsylvania

71,271

81,553

86,687

94,326

32.3

15.7

8.8

43,236

48,375

50,627

55,199

27.7

14.1

9.0

Rhode Island

6,480

8,412

10,244

10,730

65.6

27.6

4.7

2,547

2,954

3,605

3,800

49.2

28.6

5.4

South Carolina

35,588

44,594

51,813

56,199

57.9

26.0

8.5

32,400

40,183

46,629

50,521

55.9

25.7

8.3

South Dakota

2,602

3,220

3,982

4,186

60.9

30.0

5.1

289

322

379

437

51.3

35.7

15.3
-5.9

New York

Tennessee
Texas
Utah

39,419

43,996

57,309

54,270

37.7

23.4

-5.3

34,625

36,835

48,307

45,449

31.3

23.4

273,309

347,195

409,348

427,861

56.5

23.2

4.5

84,144

94,667

111,513

119,005

41.4

25.7

6.7

6,493

9,371

10,699

12,483

92.3

33.2

16.7

667

863

880

1,039

55.8

20.4

18.1

Vermont

1,384

1,483

1,691

2,025

46.3

36.5

19.8

371

360

395

509

37.1

41.4

28.9

Virginia

71,587

86,528

100,733

104,179

45.5

20.4

3.4

52,045

58,686

68,282

70,355

35.2

19.9

3.0

Washington

37,074

50,232

56,320

57,861

56.1

15.2

2.7

8,714

10,487

11,309

11,527

32.3

9.9

1.9

West Virginia

4,490

5,229

5,869

6,205

38.2

18.7

5.7

3,156

3,577

3,840

4,220

33.7

18.0

9.9

Wisconsin

24,273

27,824

28,995

31,690

30.6

13.9

9.3

11,568

12,538

12,559

13,918

20.3

11.0

10.8

Wyoming

1,841

2,381

2,097

2,174

18.1

-8.7

3.7

257

271

249

266

3.6

-1.8

6.8

Continued on next page

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

61

Table 10 Continued

Total Fall Enrollment in Higher Education,


by State and Race/Ethnicity: Selected Years, 1991 to 2001
HISPANIC

State

1991
Total

1996
Total

2000
Total

2001
Total

Alabama

ASIAN AMERICAN a
Percent
Change
1991 to
2001

Percent
Change
1996 to
2001

Percent
Change
2000 to
2001

1991
Total

1996
Total

2000
Total

2001
Total

Percent
Change
1991 to
2001

Percent
Change
1996 to
2001

Percent
Change
2000 to
2001

1,233

3,673

4,247

2,368

92.0

-35.5

-44.2

1,766

3,451

3,421

2,983

68.9

-13.6

-12.8

Alaska

639

687

839

832

30.2

21.1

-0.8

731

720

997

1,062

45.3

47.5

6.5

Arizona

31,576

41,186

52,144

54,470

72.5

32.3

4.5

6,524

8,727

11,477

11,921

82.7

36.6

3.9

Arkansas

586

898

1,456

1,692

189.0

88.4

16.2

811

1,204

1,535

1,566

93.1

30.1

2.0

California

265,764

363,056

482,043

524,495

97.4

44.5

8.8

251,573

307,572

373,745

389,391

54.8

26.6

4.2

Colorado

18,343

23,054

25,310

26,198

42.8

13.6

3.5

5,885

8,123

9,317

9,407

59.9

15.8

1.0

5,793

7,728

9,698

10,583

82.7

36.9

9.1

4,358

5,548

6,101

6,115

40.3

10.2

0.2

707

895

1,169

1,268

79.3

41.7

8.5

833

1,020

1,010

1,139

36.8

11.7

12.8
23

Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia

2,266

2,827

2,866

3,410

50

21

3,004

4,275

4,092

5,047

68

18

Florida

70,216

93,509

110,124

119,227

69.8

27.5

19
8.3

13,646

19,668

23,012

24,171

77.1

22.9

5.0

Georgia

3,467

4,829

6,506

7,137

105.9

47.8

9.7

5,148

8,808

11,844

12,576

144.3

42.8

6.2

Hawaii

1,053

1,372

1,508

1,740

65.3

26.8

15.4

33,253

37,461

35,489

36,359

9.3

-2.9

2.5

Idaho

1,113

1,640

2,080

2,451

120.2

49.5

17.8

731

863

1,059

1,112

52.0

28.9

5.0

Illinois

51,423

63,601

78,526

82,110

59.7

29.1

4.6

34,701

39,343

43,162

42,868

23.5

9.0

-0.7

Indiana

4,800

6,617

7,538

8,315

73.2

25.7

10.3

4,262

5,315

5,411

5,871

37.8

10.5

8.5

Iowa

1,824

2,790

3,364

3,650

100.2

30.8

8.5

2,615

4,135

4,175

3,808

45.6

-7.9

-8.8

Kansas

3,750

6,088

6,259

6,551

74.7

7.6

4.7

2,718

3,901

4,501

4,340

59.7

11.3

-3.6

Kentucky

927

1,192

1,880

1,867

101.5

56.6

-0.7

1,493

2,121

2,461

2,381

59.5

12.3

-3.3

Louisiana

3,969

4,951

5,423

5,108

28.7

3.2

-5.8

3,225

4,641

4,804

4,619

43.2

-0.5

-3.9

244

322

409

540

121.3

67.7

32.0

453

681

805

745

64.3

9.4

-7.5
2.6

Maine
Maryland

5,383

6,590

8,592

9,404

74.7

42.7

9.5

12,620

14,778

16,880

17,323

37.3

17.2

12,130

15,584

18,722

19,554

61.2

25.5

4.4

16,332

22,092

23,718

24,337

49.0

10.2

2.6

Michigan

9,155

11,288

12,588

13,254

44.8

17.4

5.3

11,415

15,304

17,259

17,503

53.3

14.4

1.4

Minnesota

2,181

3,660

3,790

3,922

79.8

7.2

3.5

5,469

9,276

9,576

9,657

76.6

4.1

0.8

Mississippi

446

697

750

856

92.1

22.8

14.1

789

969

988

1,069

35.4

10.3

8.2

3,592

4,797

6,535

7,210

100.7

50.3

10.3

4,766

6,315

7,398

7,339

54.0

16.2

-0.8
12.5

Massachusetts

Missouri
Montana

301

481

586

676

124.7

40.5

15.4

160

320

329

370

130.6

15.6

Nebraska

1,601

2,375

2,690

2,785

74.0

17.3

3.5

1,267

2,247

2,559

2,660

109.9

18.4

3.9

Nevada

3,608

5,869

8,747

10,254

184.2

74.7

17.2

2,773

4,331

6,783

7,565

172.8

74.7

11.5

New Hampshire
New Jersey

672

715

908

1,114

65.7

55.8

22.7

775

893

1,070

1,172

51.2

31.2

9.5

22,388

30,196

35,165

37,870

69.2

25.4

7.7

14,971

20,397

24,041

25,141

67.9

23.3

4.6

New Mexico

26,073

34,095

37,343

39,660

52.1

16.3

6.2

1,314

1,839

2,162

2,192

66.8

19.2

1.4

New York

67,652

97,786

100,371

102,933

52.2

5.3

2.6

44,520

63,937

68,019

70,171

57.6

9.8

3.2

3,189

4,952

7,152

8,080

153.4

63.2

13.0

5,240

7,524

8,946

9,438

80.1

25.4

5.5

222

294

291

314

41.6

6.8

7.9

251

316

329

366

46.0

15.8

11.2

Ohio

5,842

8,024

8,610

9,383

60.6

16.9

9.0

8,063

10,986

11,075

12,213

51.5

11.2

10.3

Oklahoma

3,062

4,235

5,481

5,904

92.8

39.4

7.7

3,238

4,395

4,644

4,477

38.3

1.9

-3.6

Oregon

3,595

5,275

6,945

6,832

90.1

29.5

-1.6

6,841

8,774

10,104

11,081

62.0

26.3

9.7

Pennsylvania

10,971

11,341

13,019

14,231

29.7

25.5

9.3

15,886

20,436

21,473

23,257

46.4

13.8

8.3

Rhode Island

1,787

2,724

3,506

3,820

113.7

40.2

9.0

1,922

2,491

2,861

2,820

46.7

13.2

-1.4

South Carolina

1,161

1,637

2,160

2,445

110.6

49.4

13.2

1,683

2,261

2,424

2,620

55.7

15.9

8.1

117

198

310

363

209.0

83.3

17.1

238

273

268

278

16.9

1.8

3.7
-5.0

North Carolina
North Dakota

South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont

1,588

2,586

3,354

3,455

117.6

33.6

3.0

2,633

3,760

4,673

4,440

68.7

18.1

155,097

203,310

242,032

251,114

61.9

23.5

3.8

30,612

44,045

50,706

52,212

70.6

18.5

3.0

2,512

3,894

4,766

5,661

125.4

45.4

18.8

2,085

3,112

3,661

4,226

102.7

35.8

15.4

377

471

551

685

81.9

45.4

24.3

533

482

581

651

22.1

35.1

12.0

Virginia

5,519

8,517

10,968

11,699

112.0

37.4

6.7

13,065

17,756

19,519

20,026

53.3

12.8

2.6

Washington

7,251

11,142

13,045

13,697

88.9

22.9

5.0

16,969

22,516

26,355

27,131

59.9

20.5

2.9

386

528

627

691

78.8

30.9

10.2

770

897

1,029

943

22.5

5.1

-8.4

5,171

6,222

6,498

7,096

37.2

14.0

9.2

5,333

6,489

6,984

7,549

41.5

16.3

8.1

951

1,346

1,113

1,114

17.1

-17.2

0.1

181

253

236

245

35.4

-3.2

3.8

West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

Continued on next page


a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.

62

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 10 Continued

Total Fall Enrollment in Higher Education,


by State and Race/Ethnicity: Selected Years, 1991 to 2001
AMERICAN INDIAN a

State

Alabama

1991
Total

1996
Total

2000
Total

FOREIGN STUDENTS

2001
Total

Percent
Change
1991 to
2001

Percent
Change
1996 to
2001

Percent
Change
2000 to
2001

1991
Total

1996
Total

2000
Total

2001
Total

Percent
Change
1991 to
2001

Percent
Change
1996 to
2001

Percent
Change
2000 to
2001

741

1,588

1,703

1,755

136.8

10.5

3.1

4,734

4,468

5,754

6,059

28.0

35.6

5.3

Alaska

2,640

2,672

3,155

3,320

25.8

24.3

5.2

527

1,080

753

806

52.9

-25.4

7.0

Arizona

8,743

11,217

13,266

13,528

54.7

20.6

2.0

7,014

7,711

9,828

10,599

51.1

37.5

7.8

Arkansas

545

925

1,095

1,193

119.1

29.0

8.9

1,529

2,417

2,613

2,813

84.0

16.4

7.7

California

24,017

20,919

21,626

22,227

-7.5

6.3

2.8

73,519

83,669

71,892

75,581

2.8

-9.7

5.1

Colorado

2,423

3,141

3,543

3,630

49.8

15.6

2.5

4,956

5,822

6,209

6,911

39.4

18.7

11.3

Connecticut

380

526

568

609

60.2

15.8

7.2

5,143

5,828

6,254

7,040

36.9

20.8

12.6

Delaware

101

192

173

193

91.1

0.5

11.6

751

1,075

1,120

1,101

46.6

2.4

-1.7

District of Columbia

169

240

184

208

23

8,945

8,116

8,345

8,905

2,189

3,035

2,987

3,283

16,066

20,502

26,753

28,924

Florida

50.0

-13
8.2

13
9.9

10

80.0

41.1

8.1
12.7

Georgia

650

761

965

1,084

66.7

42.4

12.3

6,330

8,111

10,181

11,474

81.3

41.5

Hawaii

187

256

283

312

66.8

21.9

10.2

4,601

5,724

5,589

5,357

16.4

-6.4

-4.2

Idaho

560

811

910

945

68.6

16.5

3.8

1,515

1,280

1,455

1,681

11.0

31.3

15.5

Illinois

2,290

2,409

2,308

2,303

0.6

-4.4

-0.2

16,768

18,110

23,231

23,931

42.7

32.1

3.0

865

1,113

1,140

1,231

42.3

10.6

8.0

7,911

9,047

12,226

12,967

63.9

43.3

6.1

Indiana
Iowa
Kansas

430

753

881

891

107.3

18.3

1.1

7,572

7,297

7,916

8,163

7.8

11.9

3.1

2,168

2,577

2,758

2,740

26.4

6.3

-0.7

5,652

5,673

5,695

6,669

18.0

17.6

17.1
15.5

Kentucky

572

741

651

644

12.7

-13.1

-1.1

2,594

3,172

3,642

4,205

62.1

32.6

Louisiana

987

1,179

1,322

1,444

46.3

22.5

9.2

5,124

5,657

6,026

6,386

24.6

12.9

6.0

Maine

414

660

770

733

77.2

11.1

-4.8

573

560

1,048

1,356

136.6

142.1

29.4
3.4

Maryland

930

1,206

1,094

1,127

21.2

-6.6

3.0

8,179

9,780

12,176

12,592

54.0

28.8

Massachusetts

1,264

1,488

1,596

1,595

26.2

7.2

-0.1

21,876

25,284

27,871

28,435

30.0

12.5

2.0

Michigan

3,607

4,319

4,196

4,424

22.6

2.4

5.4

15,280

17,695

22,648

25,187

64.8

42.3

11.2

Minnesota

2,037

2,845

2,765

2,834

39.2

-0.4

2.5

5,977

7,378

8,647

9,302

55.6

26.1

7.6

Mississippi

397

503

536

586

47.8

16.5

9.3

2,262

1,974

2,001

2,030

-10.3

2.8

1.4

Missouri

1,143

1,589

1,884

1,976

72.9

24.4

4.9

8,194

7,861

9,242

10,086

23.1

28.3

9.1

Montana

2,754

3,610

3,778

3,935

42.9

9.0

4.2

951

1,046

910

851

-10.5

-18.6

-6.5

Nebraska

737

1,111

912

854

15.8

-23.1

-6.4

2,278

2,773

3,072

3,494

53.4

26.0

13.7

Nevada

865

1,123

1,370

1,381

59.6

23.0

0.8

713

2,060

2,213

2,238

213.9

8.6

1.1

New Hampshire

224

233

265

276

23.1

18.5

4.2

1,205

1,260

1,606

1,724

43.1

36.8

7.3

New Jersey

760

896

992

994

30.8

10.9

0.2

12,865

11,353

14,474

15,585

21.1

37.3

7.7
-2.4

New Mexico

5,199

7,724

9,110

9,089

74.8

17.7

-0.2

1,664

1,698

1,960

1,913

15.0

12.7

New York

3,031

3,569

3,391

3,414

12.7

-4.3

0.7

38,288

43,959

54,291

58,364

52.4

32.8

7.5

North Carolina

3,243

3,756

4,477

4,976

53.4

32.5

11.1

5,696

6,458

9,345

11,030

93.6

70.8

18.0
11.5

North Dakota

1,908

2,284

1,926

2,367

24.0

3.6

22.9

1,499

1,451

1,170

1,305

-12.9

-10.1

Ohio

1,596

2,029

1,965

2,008

25.8

-1.0

2.2

14,765

16,438

17,662

17,338

17.4

5.5

-1.8

11,163

13,783

15,825

17,396

55.8

26.2

9.9

6,412

8,331

7,711

8,977

40.0

7.8

16.4

Oregon

1,757

2,377

2,619

2,784

58.5

17.1

6.3

6,454

6,482

6,242

6,410

-0.7

-1.1

2.7

Pennsylvania

1,177

1,401

1,568

1,639

39.2

17.0

4.5

15,779

17,359

21,748

21,714

37.6

25.1

-0.2

Rhode Island

223

243

272

290

29.9

19.3

6.6

2,786

2,641

2,778

2,961

6.3

12.1

6.6

South Carolina

344

513

600

613

78.2

19.5

2.2

2,818

2,924

3,760

3,746

32.9

28.1

-0.4

1,958

2,427

3,025

3,108

58.7

28.1

2.7

674

924

853

880

30.6

-4.8

3.2

573

815

975

926

61.6

13.6

-5.0

4,135

4,859

5,695

5,990

44.9

23.3

5.2

Texas

3,456

5,173

5,097

5,530

60.0

6.9

8.5

26,176

26,585

36,181

43,489

66.1

63.6

20.2

Utah

1,229

1,502

1,392

1,557

26.7

3.7

11.9

5,211

5,194

4,979

5,400

3.6

4.0

8.5

103

170

164

180

74.3

5.9

9.8

743

809

865

862

16.0

6.6

-0.3

Oklahoma

South Dakota
Tennessee

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

958

1,569

1,964

2,099

119.2

33.8

6.9

6,650

7,853

12,375

11,567

73.9

47.3

-6.5

4,140

6,087

5,611

5,506

33.0

-9.5

-1.9

5,577

9,492

9,868

10,279

84.3

8.3

4.2

179

227

373

351

96.4

54.6

-5.9

1,717

1,747

1,998

2,172

26.5

24.3

8.7

2,201

2,575

2,954

3,127

42.1

21.4

5.9

6,776

6,868

7,111

7,321

8.0

6.6

3.0

452

511

499

549

21.5

7.4

10.0

656

394

428

439

-33.1

11.4

2.6

a American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

63

Table 11

Persistence of Degree Seeking 1989-90 and 1995-96


Beginning Postsecondary Students After Five Years by Race/Ethnicity and Institution Type
Highest Degree Attained Anywhere
Bachelors Degree

1989-94

1995-2000

Associate Degree or Certificate

Percentage
Point
Change

Never Attained, Still Enrolled

Never Attained, Not Enrolled

1989-94

1995-2000

Percentage
Point
Change

1989-94

1995-2000

Percentage
Point
Change

1989-94

1995-2000

Percentage
Point
Change

FIRST INSTITUTION LEVEL, FOUR-YEAR


Total

51.3

54.3

3.0

8.2

5.7

-2.5

15.6

19.4

3.8

24.9

20.7

-4.2

White

52.1

58.0

5.9

8.5

5.4

-3.0

14.5

17.8

3.3

25.0

18.8

-6.2

African American

41.8

36.4

-5.5

9.6

7.9

-1.7

21.2

25.6

4.4

27.4

30.1

2.7

Hispanic

44.0

42.0

-2.0

3.2

5.3

2.1

23.5

23.6

0.1

29.4

29.2

-0.2

-0.4

-0.8

0.5

0.8

Asian Americana

62.7

62.3

American Indianb

Low N

Low N

4.5

3.7

Low N

Low N

0.7

32.4

28.0

18.7

19.2

Low N

Low N

-4.5

13.1

19.0

14.1

14.9

Low N

Low N

5.9

47.6

45.4

-2.1

FIRST INSTITUTION LEVEL, TWO-YEAR


Total

6.9

7.6

White

7.1

9.4

2.4

32.8

28.8

-4.0

11.7

19.8

8.1

48.5

42.0

-6.5

African American

3.4

1.9

-1.5

31.5

26.5

-5.0

11.3

13.7

2.4

53.9

57.9

4.1

Hispanic

9.6

3.4

-6.2

31.7

25.3

-6.4

19.1

16.4

-2.8

39.6

54.9

15.3

Asian Americana

6.1

1.6

-4.5

31.8

33.7

1.9

22.9

32.2

9.3

39.1

32.4

-6.7

American Indianb

Low N

Low N

Low N

Low N

Low N

Low N

Low N

Low N

a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.


b American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

Note:

Graduation rates are based on the 1989-90 freshman cohort and include all students who graduated by July 1994.
Graduation rates are based on the 1995-96 freshman cohort and include all students who graduated by July 2000.

Low N:

Too few cases for a reliable estimate.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 1990 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study--Second Follow-up BPS: 90/94,
Data Analysis System. 1995-96 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study--Second Follow-up (BPS: 96/01), Data Analysis System.

64

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 12

Associate Degrees, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender:


Selected Years, 199192 to 200102

Percent

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Percent
Change
199192 to
200102

562,454

100.0

561,651

100.0

576,219

100.0

594,289

100.0

21.9

13.3

3.1

218,894

38.9

222,977

39.7

230,859

40.1

237,672

40.0

21.7

17.6

3.0

61.5

343,560

61.1

338,674

60.3

345,360

59.9

356,617

60.0

21.9

10.6

3.3

393,513

75.0

406,892

72.3

394,180

70.2

394,761

68.5

400,726

67.4

3.6

1.8

1.5

31.8

151,707

28.9

158,101

28.1

157,798

28.1

159,385

27.7

162,718

27.4

5.0

7.3

2.1

47.6

241,806

46.1

248,791

44.2

236,382

42.1

235,376

40.8

238,008

40.0

2.6

-1.6

1.1

83,433

17.1

109,926

21.0

130,139

23.1

140,539

25.0

149,720

26.0

158,141

26.6

89.5

43.9

5.6

32,437

6.7

41,423

7.9

49,843

8.9

53,810

9.6

57,537

10.0

59,416

10.0

83.2

43.4

3.3

50,996

10.5

68,503

13.1

80,296

14.3

86,729

15.4

92,183

16.0

98,725

16.6

93.6

44.1

7.1

38,604

7.9

47,314

9.0

54,383

9.7

57,929

10.3

61,197

10.6

64,262

10.8

66.5

35.8

5.0

Men

13,502

2.8

15,561

3.0

18,305

3.3

20,097

3.6

21,175

3.7

21,652

3.6

60.4

39.1

2.3

Women

25,102

5.1

31,753

6.1

36,078

6.4

37,832

6.7

40,022

6.9

42,610

7.2

69.7

34.2

6.5

199192

199596

199798

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

TOTAL

487,694

100.0

524,476

100.0

Men

195,221

40.0

202,026

38.5

Women

292,473

60.0

322,450

386,977

79.3

Men

155,008

Women

231,969

Total Minority
Men
Women

White

African American

Total

19992000

200001

200102

Percent
Change
199596 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

Hispanic

25,856

5.3

35,785

6.8

44,915

8.0

49,574

8.8

55,033

9.6

57,623

9.7

122.9

61.0

4.7

Men

10,662

2.2

14,654

2.8

18,622

3.3

20,017

3.6

22,392

3.9

22,892

3.9

114.7

56.2

2.2

Women

15,194

3.1

21,131

4.0

26,293

4.7

29,557

5.3

32,641

5.7

34,731

5.8

128.6

64.4

6.4

15,114

3.1

21,614

4.1

24,721

4.4

26,811

4.8

27,099

4.7

29,692

5.0

96.5

37.4

9.6

Men

6,859

1.4

9,346

1.8

10,715

1.9

11,565

2.1

11,764

2.0

12,665

2.1

84.6

35.5

7.7

Women

8,255

1.7

12,268

2.3

14,006

2.5

15,246

2.7

15,335

2.7

17,027

2.9

106.3

38.8

11.0

Asian American a

American Indian b

3,859

0.8

5,213

1.0

6,120

1.1

6,225

1.1

6,391

1.1

6,564

1.1

70.1

25.9

2.7

Men

1,414

0.3

1,862

0.4

2,201

0.4

2,131

0.4

2,206

0.4

2,207

0.4

56.1

18.5

0.0

Women

2,445

0.5

3,351

0.6

3,919

0.7

4,094

0.7

4,185

0.7

4,357

0.7

78.2

30.0

4.1

7,922

1.6

10,006

1.9

12,377

2.2

10,071

1.8

11,517

2.0

12,277

2.1

55.0

22.7

6.6

Men

3,354

0.7

4,310

0.8

5,404

1.0

4,251

0.8

5,174

0.9

5,154

0.9

53.7

19.6

-0.4

Women

4,568

0.9

5,696

1.1

6,973

1.2

5,820

1.0

6,343

1.1

7,123

1.2

55.9

25.1

12.3

Foreign Students

Race/Ethnicity Unknown

9,362

1.9

11,031

2.1

13,046

2.3

16,861

3.0

20,221

3.5

23,145

3.9

147.2

109.8

14.5

Men

4,422

0.9

4,586

0.9

5,546

1.0

7,118

1.3

8,763

1.5

10,384

1.7

134.8

126.4

18.5

Women

4,940

1.0

6,445

1.2

7,500

1.3

9,743

1.7

11,458

2.0

12,761

2.1

158.3

98.0

11.4

a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.


b American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

Note:

Data may not match previous reports because, in previous reports, race/ethnicity unknown persons were imputed across standard racial/ethnic groups. Data not comparable to data for years not shown
in this report, but found in previous reports.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1992 to 2002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

65

Table 13

Bachelors Degrees, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender:


Selected Years, 199192 to 200102
199192
Total

Percent

199596
Total

199798

Percent

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Percent
Change
199192 to
2001 02

19992000

Percent

Total

200102

Percent
Change
199596 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

TOTAL

1,136,011

100.0

1,165,132

100.0

1,186,915

100.0

1,242,621

100.0

1,291,946

100.0

13.7

10.9

4.0

Men

520,494

45.8

522,852

44.9

521,583

43.9

526,727

42.7

530,270

42.7

549,844

42.6

5.6

5.2

3.7

Women

615,517

54.2

642,280

55.1

665,332

56.1

705,833

57.3

712,351

57.3

742,102

57.4

20.6

15.5

4.2

922,286

81.2

884,083

75.9

879,084

74.1

892,198

72.4

889,034

71.5

914,704

70.8

-0.8

3.5

2.9

Men

42,2907

37.2

39,9111

34.3

389,461

32.8

385,143

31.2

383,539

30.9

394,986

30.6

-6.6

-1.0

3.0

Women

49,9379

44.0

484972

41.6

489,623

41.3

507,055

41.1

505,495

40.7

519,718

40.2

4.1

7.2

2.8

Total Minority

163,064

14.4

215,929

18.5

237,564

20.0

259,105

21.0

265,176

21.3

278,076

21.5

70.5

28.8

4.9

Men

69,565

6.1

89,224

7.7

96,252

8.1

102,050

8.3

103,987

8.4

107,888

8.4

55.1

20.9

3.8

Women

93,499

8.2

126,705

10.9

141,312

11.9

157,055

12.7

161,189

13.0

170,188

13.2

82.0

34.3

5.6

71,219

6.3

89,412

7.7

95,801

8.1

103,844

8.4

106,635

8.6

111,176

8.6

56.1

24.3

4.3

Men

26,500

2.3

32,184

2.8

33,662

2.8

35,422

2.9

36,349

2.9

37,281

2.9

40.7

15.8

2.6

Women

44,719

3.9

57,228

4.9

62,139

5.2

68,422

5.6

70,286

5.7

73,895

5.7

65.2

29.1

5.1

White

African American

100.0 1,232,560

200001

Hispanic

40,254

3.5

56,899

4.9

64,308

5.4

72,045

5.8

74,349

6.0

79,029

6.1

96.3

38.9

6.3

Men

17,772

1.6

24,369

2.1

26,974

2.3

28,963

2.3

29,868

2.4

31,344

2.4

76.4

28.6

4.9

Women

22,482

2.0

32,530

2.8

37,334

3.1

43,082

3.5

44,481

3.6

47,685

3.7

112.1

46.6

7.2

46,463

4.1

62,805

5.4

69,739

5.9

74,839

6.1

75,538

6.1

79,129

6.1

70.3

26.0

4.8

Men

23,142

2.0

29,860

2.6

32,533

2.7

34,359

2.8

34,256

2.8

35,813

2.8

54.8

19.9

4.5

Women

23,321

2.1

32,945

2.8

37,206

3.1

40,480

3.3

41,282

3.3

43,316

3.4

85.7

31.5

4.9

Asian American a

American Indian b

5,128

0.5

6,813

0.6

7,716

0.7

8,377

0.7

8,654

0.7

8,742

0.7

70.5

28.3

1.0

Men

2,151

0.2

2,811

0.2

3,083

0.3

3,306

0.3

3,514

0.3

3,450

0.3

60.4

22.7

-1.8

Women

2,977

0.3

4,002

0.3

4,633

0.4

5,071

0.4

5,140

0.4

5,292

0.4

77.8

32.2

3.0

28,472

2.5

37,730

3.2

39,261

3.3

38,981

3.2

39,773

3.2

41,461

3.2

45.6

9.9

4.2

Men

17,073

1.5

21,413

1.8

21,637

1.8

20,711

1.7

20,983

1.7

21,493

1.7

25.9

0.4

2.4

Women

11,399

1.0

16,317

1.4

17,624

1.5

18,270

1.5

18,790

1.5

19,968

1.5

75.2

22.4

6.3

Foreign Students

Race/Ethnicity Unknown

22,189

2.0

27,390

2.4

31,006

2.6

42,276

3.4

48,638

3.9

57,705

4.5

160.1

110.7

18.6

Men

10,949

1.0

13,104

1.1

14,233

1.2

18,823

1.5

21,761

1.8

25,477

2.0

132.7

94.4

17.1

Women

11,240

1.0

14,286

1.2

16,773

1.4

23,453

1.9

26,877

2.2

32,228

2.5

186.7

125.6

19.9

a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.


b American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

Note:

Data may not match previous reports because, in previous reports, race/ethnicity unknown persons were imputed across standard racial/ethnic groups. Data not comparable to data for years not shown in
this report, but found in previous reports.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1992 to 2002.

66

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 14

Masters Degrees, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender:


Selected Years, 199192 to 200102

Percent

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Percent
Change
199192 to
200102

430,577

100.0

455,053

100.0

467,554

100.0

482,256

100.0

36.9

18.5

3.1

184,718

42.9

190,682

41.9

193,600

41.4

199,199

41.3

23.3

10.8

2.9

55.8

245,859

57.1

264,371

58.1

273,954

58.6

283,057

58.7

48.5

24.5

3.3

282,650

69.4

292,380

67.9

298,287

65.5

295,427

63.2

299,496

62.1

16.5

6.0

1.4

31.5

117,538

28.9

118,647

27.6

118,060

25.9

114,435

24.5

116,193

24.1

4.8

-1.1

1.5

41.5

165,112

40.6

173,733

40.3

180,227

39.6

180,992

38.7

183,303

38.0

25.3

11.0

1.3

39,909

11.3

57,172

14.0

65,971

15.3

74,983

16.5

79,657

17.0

82,785

17.2

107.4

44.8

3.9

17,077

4.8

23,014

5.7

25,687

6.0

28,327

6.2

29,125

6.2

29,677

6.2

73.8

29.0

1.9

22,832

6.5

34,158

8.4

40,284

9.4

46,656

10.3

50,532

10.8

53,108

11.0

132.6

55.5

5.1

17,379

4.9

24,544

6.0

28,608

6.6

33,419

7.3

35,314

7.6

36,911

7.7

112.4

50.4

4.5

5,788

1.6

7,988

2.0

9,107

2.1

10,326

2.3

10,507

2.2

10,647

2.2

83.9

33.3

1.3

11,591

3.3

16,556

4.1

19,501

4.5

23,093

5.1

24,807

5.3

26,264

5.4

126.6

58.6

5.9

199192

199596

199798

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

TOTAL

352,197

100.0

407,069

100.0

Men

161,591

45.9

179,736

44.2

Women

190,606

54.1

227,333

257,142

73.0

Men

110,855

Women

146,287

Total Minority
Men
Women

White

African American
Men
Women

Total

19992000

200001

200102

Percent
Change
199596 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

Hispanic

9,049

2.6

13,689

3.4

15,425

3.6

17,940

3.9

19,819

4.2

20,450

4.2

126.0

49.4

3.2

Men

3,989

1.1

5,499

1.4

6,164

1.4

7,054

1.6

7,497

1.6

7,604

1.6

90.6

38.3

1.4

Women

5,060

1.4

8,190

2.0

9,261

2.2

10,886

2.4

12,322

2.6

12,846

2.7

153.9

56.8

4.3

12,260

3.5

17,246

4.2

19,986

4.6

21,525

4.7

22,240

4.8

23,018

4.8

87.7

33.5

3.5

Men

6,799

1.9

8,862

2.2

9,676

2.2

10,173

2.2

10,288

2.2

10,525

2.2

54.8

18.8

2.3

Women

5,461

1.6

8,384

2.1

10,310

2.4

11,352

2.5

11,952

2.6

12,493

2.6

128.8

49.0

4.5

Asian American a

American Indian b

1,221

0.3

1,693

0.4

1,952

0.5

2,099

0.5

2,284

0.5

2,406

0.5

97.1

42.1

5.3

Men

501

0.1

665

0.2

740

0.2

774

0.2

833

0.2

901

0.2

79.8

35.5

8.2

Women

720

0.2

1,028

0.3

1,212

0.3

1,325

0.3

1,451

0.3

1,505

0.3

109.0

46.4

3.7

39,642

11.3

48,239

11.9

52,394

12.2

55,873

12.3

61,428

13.1

63,689

13.2

60.7

32.0

3.7

Men

26,235

7.4

30,045

7.4

31,575

7.3

32,958

7.2

36,255

7.8

37,384

7.8

42.5

24.4

3.1

Women

13,407

3.8

18,194

4.5

20,819

4.8

22,915

5.0

25,173

5.4

26,305

5.5

96.2

44.6

4.5

Foreign Students

Race/Ethnicity Unknown

15,504

4.4

19,008

4.7

19,832

4.6

25,910

5.7

31,042

6.6

36,286

7.5

134.0

90.9

16.9

Men

7,424

2.1

9,139

2.2

8,809

2.0

11,337

2.5

13,785

2.9

15,945

3.3

114.8

74.5

15.7

Women

8,080

2.3

9,869

2.4

11,023

2.6

14,573

3.2

17,257

3.7

20,341

4.2

151.7

106.1

17.9

a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.


b American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

Note:

Data may not match previous reports because, in previous reports, race/ethnicity unknown persons were imputed across standard racial/ethnic groups.
Data not comparable to data for years not shown in this report, but found in previous reports.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1992 to 2002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

67

Table 15

First-Professional Degrees, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender:


Selected Years, 199192 to 200102
1991 92

199596

199798

19992000

200001

2001 02

Percent
Change
199192 to
2001 02

Percent
Change
199596 to
2001 02

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

TOTAL

73,875

100.0

76,757

100.0

78,737

100.0

78,249

100.0

79,989

100.0

80,729

100.0

9.3

5.2

0.9

Men

44,939

60.8

44,802

58.4

45,017

57.2

42,987

54.9

43,111

53.9

42,589

52.8

-5.2

-4.9

-1.2

Women

28,936

39.2

31,955

41.6

33,720

42.8

35,262

45.1

36,878

46.1

38,140

47.2

31.8

19.4

3.4

59,906

81.1

58,174

75.8

57,949

73.6

56,273

71.9

56,592

70.7

55,868

69.2

-6.7

-4.0

-1.3

Men

37,125

50.3

34,969

45.6

34,276

43.5

31,842

40.7

31,634

39.5

30,574

37.9

-17.6

-12.6

-3.4

Women

22,781

30.8

23,205

30.2

23,673

30.1

24,431

31.2

24,958

31.2

25,294

31.3

11.0

9.0

1.3

Total Minority

11,440

15.5

15,273

19.9

16,931

21.5

17,554

22.4

18,398

23.0

18,909

23.4

65.3

23.8

2.8

Men

6,174

8.4

7,697

10.0

8,371

10.6

8,551

10.9

8,587

10.7

8,712

10.8

41.1

13.2

1.5

Women

5,266

7.1

7,576

9.9

8,560

10.9

9,003

11.5

9,811

12.3

10,197

12.6

93.6

34.6

3.9

3,570

4.8

4,905

6.4

5,357

6.8

5,247

6.7

5,222

6.5

5,435

6.7

52.2

10.8

4.1

Men

1,622

2.2

2,058

2.7

2,249

2.9

2,172

2.8

2,032

2.5

2,081

2.6

28.3

1.1

2.4

Women

1,948

2.6

2,847

3.7

3,108

3.9

3,075

3.9

3,190

4.0

3,354

4.2

72.2

17.8

5.1

White

African American

Hispanic

2,820

3.8

3,402

4.4

3,463

4.4

3,615

4.6

3,656

4.6

3,743

4.6

32.7

10.0

2.4

Men

1,668

2.3

1,906

2.5

1,924

2.4

1,962

2.5

1,897

2.4

1,930

2.4

15.7

1.3

1.7

Women

1,152

1.6

1,496

1.9

1,539

2.0

1,653

2.1

1,759

2.2

1,813

2.2

57.4

21.2

3.1

4,756

6.4

6,513

8.5

7,564

9.6

8,154

10.4

8,996

11.2

9,178

11.4

93.0

40.9

2.0

Men

2,727

3.7

3,483

4.5

3,915

5.0

4,146

5.3

4,390

5.5

4,423

5.5

62.2

27.0

0.8

Women

2,029

2.7

3,030

3.9

3,649

4.6

4,008

5.1

4,606

5.8

4,755

5.9

134.4

56.9

3.2

Asian American a

American Indian b

294

0.4

453

0.6

547

0.7

538

0.7

524

0.7

553

0.7

88.1

22.1

5.5

Men

157

0.2

250

0.3

283

0.4

271

0.3

268

0.3

278

0.3

77.1

11.2

3.7

Women

137

0.2

203

0.3

264

0.3

267

0.3

256

0.3

275

0.3

100.7

35.5

7.4

1,344

1.8

1,631

2.1

1,785

2.3

1,796

2.3

2,092

2.6

1,892

2.3

40.8

16.0

-9.6

Men

950

1.3

1,117

1.5

1,147

1.5

1,124

1.4

1,269

1.6

1,118

1.4

17.7

0.1

-11.9

Women

394

0.5

514

0.7

638

0.8

672

0.9

823

1.0

774

1.0

96.4

50.6

-6.0

Foreign Students

Race/Ethnicity Unknown

1,185

1.6

1,679

2.2

2,072

2.6

2,626

3.4

2,907

3.6

4,060

5.0

242.6

141.8

39.7

Men

690

0.9

1,019

1.3

1,223

1.6

1,470

1.9

1,621

2.0

2,185

2.7

216.7

114.4

34.8

Women

495

0.7

660

0.9

849

1.1

1,156

1.5

1,286

1.6

1,875

2.3

278.8

184.1

45.8

a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.


b American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

Note:

First-professional degrees (also referred to as professional degrees) are awarded in the fields of dentistry (D.D.S. or D.M.D.), medicine (M.D.), optometry (O.D.), osteopathic medicine (D.O.),
pharmacy (D.Phar.), podiatric medicine (D.P.M.), veterinary medicine (D.V.M.), chiropractic (D.C. or D.C.M.), law (J.D.), and theological professions (M.Div. or M.H.L.).
Data may not match previous reports because, in previous reports, race/ethnicity unknown persons were imputed across standard racial/ethnic groups.
Data not comparable to data for years not shown in this report, but found in previous reports.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1992 to 2002.

68

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 16

Doctoral Degrees, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender:


Selected Years, 199192 to 200102

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Percent
Change
199192 to
2001 02

TOTAL

40,600

100.0

44,627

100.0

46,040

100.0

44,529

100.0

45,021

100.0

44,179

100.0

8.8

-1.0

-1.9

Men

25,529

62.9

26,841

60.1

26,694

58.0

24,811

55.7

24,832

55.2

23,727

53.7

-7.1

-11.6

-4.4

Women

15,071

37.1

17,786

39.9

19,346

42.0

19,718

44.3

20,189

44.8

20,452

46.3

35.7

15.0

1.3

199192

White

199697

199899

19992000

200001

200102

Percent
Change
199697 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

25,312

62.3

26,337

59.0

27,492

59.7

26,265

59.0

25,962

57.7

25,334

57.3

0.1

-3.8

-2.4

Men

14,386

35.4

14,290

32.0

14,697

31.9

13,537

30.4

13,158

29.2

12,526

28.4

-12.9

-12.3

-4.8

Women

10,926

26.9

12,047

27.0

12,795

27.8

12,728

28.6

12,804

28.4

12,808

29.0

17.2

6.3

0.0

Total Minority

3,663

9.0

5,165

11.6

5,605

12.2

5,806

13.0

6,147

13.7

5,980

13.5

63.3

15.8

-2.7

Men

2,123

5.2

2,855

6.4

2,820

6.1

2,729

6.1

2,903

6.4

2,716

6.1

27.9

-4.9

-6.4

Women

1,540

3.8

2,310

5.2

2,785

6.0

3,077

6.9

3,244

7.2

3,264

7.4

111.9

41.3

0.6

African American

1,202

3.0

1,569

3.5

1,984

4.3

2,127

4.8

2,095

4.7

2,270

5.1

88.9

44.7

8.4

Men

565

1.4

700

1.6

792

1.7

825

1.9

810

1.8

872

2.0

54.3

24.6

7.7

Women

637

1.6

869

1.9

1,192

2.6

1,302

2.9

1,285

2.9

1,398

3.2

119.5

60.9

8.8

Hispanic

798

2.0

950

2.1

1,214

2.6

1,241

2.8

1,430

3.2

1,351

3.1

69.3

42.2

-5.5

Men

447

1.1

488

1.1

620

1.3

578

1.3

644

1.4

610

1.4

36.5

25.0

-5.3

Women

351

0.9

462

1.0

594

1.3

663

1.5

786

1.7

741

1.7

111.1

60.4

-5.7

1,545

3.8

2,493

5.6

2,228

4.8

2,283

5.1

2,451

5.4

2,184

4.9

41.4

-12.4

-10.9

1,046

2.6

1,591

3.6

1,328

2.9

1,271

2.9

1,376

3.1

1,168

2.6

11.7

-26.6

-15.1

499

1.2

902

2.0

900

2.0

1,012

2.3

1,075

2.4

1,016

2.3

103.6

12.6

-5.5

118

0.3

153

0.3

179

0.4

155

0.3

171

0.4

175

0.4

48.3

14.4

2.3

Men

65

0.2

76

0.2

80

0.2

55

0.1

73

0.2

66

0.1

1.5

-13.2

-9.6

Women

53

0.1

77

0.2

99

0.2

100

0.2

98

0.2

109

0.2

105.7

41.6

11.2

Asian American a
Men
Women
American Indian b

Foreign Students

10,649

26.2

11,454

25.7

11,340

24.6

10,800

24.3

10,967

24.4

10,932

24.7

2.7

-4.6

-0.3

Men

8,398

20.7

8,720

19.5

8,314

18.1

7,628

17.1

7,724

17.2

7,500

17.0

-10.7

-14.0

-2.9

Women

2,251

5.5

2,734

6.1

3,026

6.6

3,172

7.1

3,243

7.2

3,432

7.8

52.5

25.5

5.8

976

2.4

1,671

3.7

1,603

3.5

1,658

3.7

1,945

4.3

1,933

4.4

98.1

15.7

-0.6

Men

622

1.5

976

2.2

863

1.9

917

2.1

1,047

2.3

985

2.2

58.4

0.9

-5.9

Women

354

0.9

695

1.6

740

1.6

741

1.7

898

2.0

948

2.1

167.8

36.4

5.6

Race/Ethnicity Unknown

a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.


b American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

Note:

Data may not match previous reports because, in previous reports, race/ethnicity unknown persons were imputed across standard racial/ethnic groups.
Data not comparable to data for years not shown in this report, but found in previous reports.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1992 to 2002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

69

Table 17

Degrees Conferred by Minority-Serving Institutions,


by Race/Ethnicity and Award Level: 199192 to 200102
Degrees from Hispanic-Serving Institutions b

Degrees from Historically Black Colleges and Universities

Total a

Year

White

African
American Hispanic

Asian
American Foreign
American
Indian Students

Totalc

White

African
American

Hispanic

Asian
American

American
Indian

Foreign
Students

ASSOCIATE DEGREES
199192

2,560

838

1,465

111

25

47

45,811

23,287

13,973

3,284

3,284

403

1,580

199293

2,805

1,083

1,456

173

21

34

50,686

22,767

6,759

15,162

3,545

438

2,015

199394

2,830

1,147

1,466

148

22

31

52,498

22,875

6,785

16,181

4,209

504

1,944

199495

2,883

1,186

1,397

202

17

10

50

54,793

22,175

7,232

18,149

4,764

502

1,971

199596

3,053

1,178

1,526

212

19

63

59,316

23,046

8,104

19,979

5,414

560

2,213

199697

3,222

1,116

1,778

211

37

32

67,507

25,421

9,242

23,549

6,088

661

2,546

199798

3,407

1,485

1,604

174

46

13

63

68,954

25,002

9,338

24,784

6,164

716

2,950

199899

3,314

1,492

1,492

227

33

17

53

70,715

25,644

9,407

25,834

6,897

825

2,108

19992000

3,418

1,438

1,642

263

37

11

27

69,136

22,867

9,460

27,491

6,863

802

1,653

200001

3,433

1,211

1,815

271

40

10

52

75,769

23,138

10,028

29,264

6,724

840

2,804

200102

3,436

1,179

1,875

287

44

23

77,511

23,701

9,745

30,429

6,726

832

2,538

BACHELORS DEGREES
199192

23,579

2,576

19,693

150

185

35

786

45,715

25,666

3,377

11,388

3,140

349

1,795

199293

26,140

2,880

22,020

142

219

48

724

49,388

26,910

3,776

12,725

3,656

373

1,948

199394

27,425

2,955

23,434

154

197

44

607

50,518

26,191

3,972

14,059

3,799

447

2050

199495

28,327

3,062

23,953

231

184

51

767

51,490

25,302

4,404

15,286

3,980

450

2,068

199596

29,615

3,075

25,283

184

214

56

704

53,035

24,806

4,848

16,587

4,324

461

2,009

199697

29,450

3,001

25,168

189

190

55

680

53,607

23,335

5,168

17,956

4,606

464

2,078

199798

29,780

2,956

25,506

193

204

63

750

54,427

22,925

5,401

18,514

4,846

518

2,223

199899

29,312

2,791

25,410

198

186

59

668

56,010

22,423

5,816

20,180

4,886

571

2,134

19992000

29,376

2,612

25,630

187

202

37

708

57,596

22,495

5,902

21,291

5,126

535

2,247

200001

28,976

2,505

25,090

207

182

56

711

55,979

19,265

6,064

20,463

3,993

538

2,499

200102

28,846

2,278

25,122

220

169

57

827

66,878

22,714

6,921

23,813

6,061

476

2,717

MASTERS DEGREES
199192

4,222

1,053

2,619

43

104

375

13,565

8,642

957

2,008

568

93

1,297

199293

4,612

1,167

2,766

39

158

463

15,648

9,548

1,064

2,403

759

97

1,777

199394

4,986

1,140

3,187

33

186

395

16,204

9,772

1,084

2,573

902

128

1,745

199495

5,560

1,348

3,462

44

193

14

436

16,971

9,731

1,314

3,089

874

102

1,861

199596

5,848

1,411

3,806

61

120

21

361

17,231

9,782

1,314

3,262

913

110

1,850

199697

6,421

1,615

4,205

66

124

12

334

17,567

9,759

1,373

3,629

903

115

1,788

199798

6,411

1,416

4,388

85

135

23

329

17,925

9,779

1,447

3,751

1,005

148

1,795

199899

6,677

1,504

4,644

91

121

14

303

18,752

9,679

1,744

4,290

1,113

107

1,819

19992000

6,722

1,423

4,737

96

108

17

341

19,747

10,083

1,740

4,748

1,178

152

1,846

200001

6,575

1,360

4,563

91

134

15

362

20,210

8,997

1,952

4,851

1,069

156

2,073

200102

6,338

1,358

4,461

82

111

20

264

25,487

11,491

2,649

5,750

1,301

176

2,580

Continued on next page


a Total includes persons whose racial/ethnic identification was not known.
b Hispanic-serving institutions are those two-year and four-year institutions at which Hispanics constitute a minimum of 25 percent of the undergraduate enrollment. Data exclude persons whose racial/ethnic group

and field of study were not available. Therefore, the sum of the details may not equal the total.
c For years 1991-92 to 1999-2000, data for students whose racial/ethnic group was not reported were prorated across stated racial/ethnic groups at the institution level. For years 2000-01 and 2001-02, total

includes persons whose racial/ethnic identification was not known, but stated racial/ethnic groups do not include race/ethnicity unknown persons.
Source: Provasnik, Stephen, Shafer, L.L., and Snyder, T.D., Historically Black Colleges and Universities 1976 to 2001. Washington, DC: Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, September
2004. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Completions survey, 1991 through 2002.

70

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 17 continued

Degrees Conferred by Minority-Serving Institutions,


by Race/Ethnicity and Award Level: 199192 to 200102
Degrees from Hispanic-Serving Institutions b

Degrees from Historically Black Colleges and Universities

Total a

Year

White

African
American Hispanic

Asian
American Foreign
American
Indian Students

Totalc

White

African
American

Hispanic

Asian
American

American
Indian

Foreign
Students

FIRST-PROFESSIONAL DEGREES
199192

756

172

449

43

16

75

1,706

1,286

50

267

86

11

199293

966

185

627

55

19

80

1,672

1,315

42

211

75

19

10

199394

1,013

169

688

48

33

72

1,713

1,249

75

259

97

15

18

199495

1,147

185

811

40

35

74

1,721

1,237

66

283

107

10

18

199596

1,178

175

841

59

42

56

1,756

1,188

90

316

122

23

17

199697

1,336

239

885

75

70

57

1,779

1,164

130

321

132

20

12

199798

1,348

204

943

78

62

1,598

1,038

102

256

150

26

26

199899

1,340

196

892

64

96

12

80

1,847

1,202

117

353

144

14

17

19992000

1,579

213

1,100

82

102

74

1,818

1,144

89

392

153

19

21

200001

1,509

171

1,025

67

109

121

1,720

1,012

80

362

183

17

17

200102

1,427

126

997

87

97

106

2,563

1,532

155

485

216

29

43

DOCTORAL DEGREES
199192

205

46

119

36

421

249

15

60

11

84

199293

219

31

128

47

507

342

22

56

76

199394

213

32

130

40

514

353

14

59

29

56

199495

230

38

142

44

625

396

25

70

23

109

199596

236

34

166

31

667

425

21

83

23

112

199697

239

33

155

37

638

393

27

86

18

11

103

199798

377

62

260

14

36

708

414

26

109

21

136

199899

394

52

258

72

716

450

32

94

31

105

19992000

325

45

227

46

731

435

44

111

23

117

200001

337

52

222

10

49

714

384

43

113

16

111

200102

364

61

256

34

1,574

958

165

163

52

14

159

a Total includes persons whose racial/ethnic identification was not known.


b Hispanic-serving institutions are those two-year and four-year institutions at which Hispanics constitute a minimum of 25 percent of the undergraduate enrollment. Data exclude persons whose racial/ethnic group

and field of study were not available. Therefore, the sume of the details may not equal the total.
c For years 1991-92 to 1999-2000, data for students whose racial/ethnic group was not reported were prorated across stated racial/ethnic groups at the institution level. For years 2000-01 and 2001-02, total

includes persons whose racial/ethnic identification was not known, but stated racial/ethnic groups do not include race/ethnicity unknown persons.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

71

Table 18

Degrees Conferred by Tribal Colleges and Universities,


by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Award Level: 199394 to 200102
Total
Year

Men

White
Women

Men

Women

African American
Men
Women

Number of Degrees Conferred


Hispanic
Men
Women

Asian American
Men
Women

American Indian
Men
Women

Foreign Students
Men
Women

ASSOCIATE DEGREES
199394

288

746

53

164

16

222

542

199495

436

982

148

313

14

30

15

25

10

11

236

579

0
7

199596

337

906

40

164

291

733

199697

457

1,109

151

340

15

35

21

31

12

14

249

676

199798

363

978

54

194

300

776

19992000

297

857

34

110

261

723

14

200001

293

799

39

114

250

679

200102

304

1,083

53

139

249

936

BACHELORS DEGREES
199394

14

54

46

199495

13

48

12

36

199596

19

56

15

16

41

199697

22

66

12

13

54

199798

20

67

15

13

39

19992000

32

84

15

29

69

200001

47

85

11

41

73

200102

37

122

17

34

105

Note:

A tribally controlled college or university is an institution of higher education which is formally controlled or has been formally sanctioned, or chartered, by the governing body of an Indian tribe or tribes.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Digest of Education Statistics, 2002. Washington, DC: 2003. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Completions
Survey, 1994 to 2002.

72

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 19

Total Associate and Bachelors Degrees Conferred,


by State: 199192, 200001, and 200102
ASSOCIATE DEGREES

1991 92
Alabama

200001

200102

BACHELORS DEGREES

Percent
Change
199192 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
2001 02

1991 92

200001

200102

Percent
Change
199192 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

7,257

8,765

7,928

9.2

-9.5

19,628

21,293

20,978

6.9

-1.5

Alaska

742

895

906

22.1

1.2

1,114

1,364

1,377

23.6

1.0

Arizona

6,776

10,658

13,010

92.0

22.1

14,680

20,865

22,752

55.0

9.0

Arkansas

2,608

3,885

4,229

62.2

8.9

8,133

9,405

10,335

27.1

9.9

California

52,028

78,360

84,345

62.1

7.6

107,470

121,546

136,369

26.9

12.2

Colorado

6,301

7,720

8,076

28.2

4.6

18,714

22,485

23,397

25.0

4.1

Connecticut

4,994

4,298

4,413

-11.6

2.7

15,210

15,072

15,611

2.6

3.6

Delaware

1,152

1,119

1,166

1.2

4.2

4,121

4,665

5,241

27.2

12.3

District of Columbia
Florida

399

407

614

53.9

50.9

8,206

6,806

9,337

13.8

37.2

38,911

44,548

49,026

26.0

10.1

41,090

51,333

58,783

43.1

14.5

Georgia

8,467

7,803

9,062

7.0

16.1

23,486

29,219

30,819

31.2

5.5

Hawaii

2,466

3,266

3,313

34.3

1.4

3,821

5,091

4,963

29.9

-2.5
5.0

Idaho

3,243

5,040

4,583

41.3

-9.1

3,529

4,711

4,946

40.2

Illinois

26,276

26,561

25,924

-1.3

-2.4

53,278

55,036

60,178

13.0

9.3

Indiana

8,770

11,174

11,777

34.3

5.4

30,770

31,970

36,299

18.0

13.5

Iowa

8,859

9,367

9,942

12.2

6.1

17,162

18,750

21,807

27.1

16.3

Kansas

6,372

7,288

7,296

14.5

0.1

13,698

14,234

15,293

11.6

7.4

Kentucky

5,930

6,492

7,311

23.3

12.6

13,861

15,643

17,193

24.0

9.9

Louisiana

2,690

5,573

5,370

99.6

-3.6

17,048

19,844

20,848

22.3

5.1

Maine

2,471

2,208

1,976

-20.0

-10.5

5,778

5,672

6,153

6.5

8.5

Maryland

8,167

7,438

7,750

-5.1

4.2

21,360

22,089

23,865

11.7

8.0

Massachusetts

13,434

10,680

14,401

7.2

34.8

45,051

42,308

46,777

3.8

10.6

Michigan

23,073

18,851

18,774

-18.6

-0.4

44,789

45,754

50,241

12.2

9.8

Minnesota

8,845

11,030

11,922

34.8

8.1

24,453

23,175

26,800

9.6

15.6

Mississippi

5,431

6,764

7,126

31.2

5.4

10,054

10,988

11,932

18.7

8.6

Missouri

7,818

10,603

10,988

40.5

3.6

26,552

30,035

33,765

27.2

12.4

Montana

883

1,562

1,535

73.8

-1.7

4,161

5,171

5,399

29.8

4.4

Nebraska

3,730

3,893

4,214

13.0

8.2

9,417

10,747

11,493

22.0

6.9

Nevada

1,171

1,988

2,392

104.3

20.3

2,694

4,245

4,532

68.2

6.8

New Hampshire

2,943

3,038

2,958

0.5

-2.6

7,430

7,776

7,579

2.0

-2.5

New Jersey

12,287

12,100

12,644

2.9

4.5

24,207

26,939

29,012

19.8

7.7

New Mexico

2,705

3,783

3,757

38.9

-0.7

5,501

6,727

6,866

24.8

2.1

New York

53,131

50,264

51,228

-3.6

1.9

96,712

95,558

102,313

5.8

7.1

North Carolina

11,817

13,505

14,787

25.1

9.5

30,826

35,257

38,677

25.5

9.7

North Dakota

1,615

2,051

1,887

16.8

-8.0

4,755

4,877

5,141

8.1

5.4
12.5

Ohio

19,563

19,393

20,057

2.5

3.4

50,557

49,849

56,064

10.9

Oklahoma

6,203

6,408

7,250

16.9

13.1

14,547

15,578

16,469

13.2

5.7

Oregon

4,858

6,450

6,492

33.6

0.7

13,428

14,428

15,342

14.3

6.3

Pennsylvania

20,932

24,350

23,842

13.9

-2.1

64,304

66,273

72,621

12.9

9.6

Rhode Island

4,043

3,550

3,557

-12.0

0.2

9,249

8,402

9,355

1.1

11.3

South Carolina

6,288

6,796

7,148

13.7

5.2

14,937

16,033

17,798

19.2

11.0

798

1,833

1,865

133.7

1.7

4,075

4,494

4,800

17.8

6.8

6,621

7,708

7,962

20.3

3.3

19,139

22,958

24,330

27.1

6.0

Texas

23,049

30,816

31,454

36.5

2.1

64,313

75,834

82,226

27.9

8.4

Utah

4,556

7,867

9,161

101.1

16.4

12,016

17,058

18,697

55.6

9.6

Vermont

1,317

1,594

1,518

15.3

-4.8

4,521

4,832

5,154

14.0

6.7

Virginia

9,735

11,499

12,256

25.9

6.6

30,320

33,599

34,665

14.3

3.2

Washington

16,420

19,268

20,035

22.0

4.0

19,737

24,002

25,438

28.9

6.0

West Virginia

2,803

3,049

2,909

3.8

-4.6

8,191

8,545

9,143

11.6

7.0

Wisconsin

9,622

9,381

10,662

10.8

13.7

27,542

27,543

32,361

17.5

17.5

Wyoming

1,891

1,994

2,424

28.2

21.6

1,781

1,797

1,736

-2.5

-3.4

South Dakota
Tennessee

Continued on next page


Note:

State totals may not add to aggregate totals that appear in other tables in this report because imputations were not performed on state data.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1992 to 2002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

73

Table 19 continued
Total Associate and Bachelors Degrees Conferred to
Whites, by State: 199192, 200001, and 200102
ASSOCIATE DEGREES

1991 92
Alabama
Alaska

BACHELORS DEGREES

Percent
Change
199192 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

1991 92

200001

200102

Percent
Change
199192 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

200001

200102

5,767

5,539

5,408

-6.2

-2.4

16,163

15,047

15,112

-6.5

0.4

611

704

650

6.4

-7.7

1,037

1,022

920

-11.3

-10.0

Arizona

4,871

8,158

7,589

55.8

-7.0

16,156

14,942

12,083

-25.2

-19.1

Arkansas

2,178

3,311

3,407

56.4

2.9

8,201

7,791

6,964

-15.1

-10.6

California

31,349

34,991

36,459

16.3

4.2

59,806

55,477

67,123

12.2

21.0

Colorado

4,941

5,733

5,750

16.4

0.3

18,210

17,405

16,002

-12.1

-8.1

Connecticut

4,265

3,092

3,168

-25.7

2.5

11,549

11,164

12,820

11.0

14.8

993

839

860

-13.4

2.5

4,140

3,528

3,619

-12.6

2.6

47

158

147

212.8

-7.0

4,686

3,932

4,742

1.2

20.6

Florida

29,610

31,689

30,899

4.4

-2.5

36,475

33,374

31,351

-14.0

-6.1

Georgia

6,497

5,435

5,992

-7.8

10.2

20,548

19,350

18,596

-9.5

-3.9

Delaware
District of Columbia

Hawaii

704

743

692

-1.7

-6.9

1,306

1,208

1,010

-22.7

-16.4

Idaho

2,973

4,578

4,211

41.6

-8.0

4,381

4,105

3,017

-31.1

-26.5

Illinois

21,880

20,004

19,497

-10.9

-2.5

42,827

40,162

43,777

2.2

9.0

Indiana

7,933

9,028

9,618

21.2

6.5

30,868

27,531

27,713

-10.2

0.7

Iowa

8,174

8,567

9,126

11.6

6.5

18,820

16,372

15,952

-15.2

-2.6

Kansas

5,404

5,897

5,806

7.4

-1.5

13,229

12,667

11,947

-9.7

-5.7

Kentucky

5,486

5,865

6,478

18.1

10.5

15,180

13,801

12,887

-15.1

-6.6

Louisiana

1,940

4,459

3,303

70.3

-25.9

14,032

13,252

12,478

-11.1

-5.8

Maine

2,149

1,974

1,780

-17.2

-9.8

5,291

4,682

5,328

0.7

13.8

Maryland

6,540

5,136

5,239

-19.9

2.0

15,164

14,764

16,532

9.0

12.0

Massachusetts

11,016

7,714

9,627

-12.6

24.8

32,266

29,597

35,710

10.7

20.7

Michigan

19,798

15,881

15,061

-23.9

-5.2

39,290

36,367

38,978

-0.8

7.2

Minnesota

8,119

8,992

9,621

18.5

7.0

22,427

19,828

22,502

0.3

13.5

Mississippi

4,110

4,675

4,407

7.2

-5.7

8,224

7,740

7,700

-6.4

-0.5

Missouri

6,701

8,924

9,139

36.4

2.4

27,052

24,513

23,344

-13.7

-4.8

Montana

667

1,134

1,170

75.4

3.2

4,637

4,470

3,477

-25.0

-22.2

Nebraska

3,373

3,659

3,866

14.6

5.7

9,980

9,446

8,640

-13.4

-8.5

950

1,439

1,540

62.1

7.0

2,946

2,941

2,237

-24.1

-23.9

New Hampshire

2,464

2,109

2,284

-7.3

8.3

6,186

5,987

6,336

2.4

5.8

New Jersey

9,715

7,543

7,810

-19.6

3.5

18,368

17,213

18,865

2.7

9.6

New Mexico

1,675

1,580

1,370

-18.2

-13.3

3,020

2,949

3,891

28.8

31.9

Nevada

New York

39,235

31,745

31,068

-20.8

-2.1

63,884

61,677

73,534

15.1

19.2

North Carolina

9,965

10,539

11,176

12.2

6.0

28,896

25,829

25,013

-13.4

-3.2

North Dakota

1,440

1,803

1,625

12.8

-9.9

4,763

4,348

4,423

-7.1

1.7

16,996

16,309

16,523

-2.8

1.3

47,135

42,968

44,934

-4.7

4.6

Ohio
Oklahoma

5,213

5,352

5,559

6.6

3.9

12,280

11,625

12,091

-1.5

4.0

Oregon

4,235

5,036

5,137

21.3

2.0

11,730

10,628

10,689

-8.9

0.6

Pennsylvania

17,011

18,928

19,266

13.3

1.8

60,259

55,835

58,462

-3.0

4.7

Rhode Island

3,408

2,719

2,718

-20.2

0.0

6,989

6,410

8,068

15.4

25.9

South Carolina

4,782

5,001

4,975

4.0

-0.5

13,271

12,121

12,462

-6.1

2.8

712

1,515

1,588

123.0

4.8

4,412

3,919

3,867

-12.4

-1.3
-10.8

South Dakota
Tennessee

5,458

6,085

6,235

14.2

2.5

19,513

18,423

16,431

-15.8

Texas

15,976

17,231

16,800

5.2

-2.5

52,558

49,109

48,944

-6.9

-0.3

Utah

3,995

7,582

8,083

102.3

6.6

16,290

14,960

10,787

-33.8

-27.9

Vermont

1,226

1,349

1,372

11.9

1.7

4,420

3,946

4,233

-4.2

7.3

Virginia

7,867

8,456

8,632

9.7

2.1

25,786

24,508

24,902

-3.4

1.6

13,637

14,024

14,301

4.9

2.0

17,789

16,457

16,187

-9.0

-1.6

Washington
West Virginia

2,576

2,795

2,742

6.4

-1.9

8,288

7,933

7,704

-7.0

-2.9

Wisconsin

8,795

8,371

9,414

7.0

12.5

28,988

25,305

25,272

-12.8

-0.1

Wyoming

1,550

2,013

2,182

40.8

8.4

1,483

1,449

1,579

6.5

9.0

Continued on next page

74

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 19 continued
Total Associate and Bachelors Degrees Conferred to
African Americans, by State: 199192, 200001, and 200102
ASSOCIATE DEGREES

Alabama

BACHELORS DEGREES

1991 92

200001

200102

Percent
Change
199192 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

1991 92

200001

200102

Percent
Change
199192 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

1,242

2,310

2,165

74.3

-6.3

2,718

4,548

4,538

67.0

-0.2

Alaska

45

62

48

6.7

-22.6

29

45

54

86.2

20.0

Arizona

267

609

557

108.6

-8.5

253

660

571

125.7

-13.5

Arkansas

239

548

635

165.7

15.9

790

1,146

1,305

65.2

13.9

California

3,128

5,710

5,687

81.8

-0.4

4,149

5,921

6,469

55.9

9.3

Colorado

274

454

491

79.2

8.1

392

616

650

65.8

5.5

Connecticut

343

515

526

53.4

2.1

596

835

898

50.7

7.5

Delaware

113

150

182

61.1

21.3

328

565

624

90.2

10.4

District of Columbia

281

372

348

23.8

-6.5

1,980

2,157

2,207

11.5

2.3

Florida

2,911

6,813

6,715

130.7

-1.4

3,329

6,860

7,564

127.2

10.3

Georgia

1,558

2,097

2,336

49.9

11.4

3,779

6,602

6,881

82.1

4.2

107

138

158

47.7

14.5

63

158

140

122.2

-11.4
-22.4

Hawaii
Idaho

13

10

14

7.7

40.0

21

49

38

81.0

Illinois

2,399

2,763

2,880

20.1

4.2

3,844

5,409

5,681

47.8

5.0

472

900

1,080

128.8

20.0

1,055

1,482

1,663

57.6

12.2
15.5

Indiana
Iowa

160

189

177

10.6

-6.3

262

412

476

81.7

Kansas

426

558

571

34.0

2.3

347

491

504

45.2

2.6

Kentucky

306

414

488

59.5

17.9

563

906

1,108

96.8

22.3

Louisiana

567

1,914

1,730

205.1

-9.6

3,303

4,772

4,642

40.5

-2.7

16

10

16

0.0

60.0

33

48

56

69.7

16.7

1,140

1,445

1,605

40.8

11.1

2,701

4,481

4,591

70.0

2.5

681

887

1,445

112.2

62.9

1,536

2,003

2,193

42.8

9.5

1,902

1,835

1,846

-2.9

0.6

2,553

3,660

3,878

51.9

6.0
5.8

Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota

125

334

330

164.0

-1.2

243

480

508

109.1

Mississippi

1,245

2,345

2,563

105.9

9.3

2,117

3,092

3,293

55.6

6.5

694

1,085

1,195

72.2

10.1

1,323

2,170

2,474

87.0

14.0

Missouri
Montana

25.0

0.0

10

18

27

170.0

50.0

Nebraska

127

140

129

1.6

-7.9

190

299

305

60.5

2.0

Nevada

56

144

160

185.7

11.1

84

218

218

159.5

0.0

New Hampshire

27

40

191

607.4

377.5

120

107

106

-11.7

-0.9

New Jersey

912

1,439

1,607

76.2

11.7

1,784

2,521

2,719

52.4

7.9

New Mexico

82

110

79

-3.7

-28.2

100

193

146

46.0

-24.4

New York

5,647

7,527

7,534

33.4

0.1

7,484

10,005

10,518

40.5

5.1

North Carolina

1,419

2,673

2,606

83.7

-2.5

4,693

6,371

6,748

43.8

5.9

North Dakota

16

19

280.0

18.8

27

39

42

55.6

7.7

1,613

1,857

2,071

28.4

11.5

2,419

3,242

3,696

52.8

14.0

380

472

448

17.9

-5.1

704

995

1,023

45.3

2.8

45

100

97

115.6

-3.0

138

174

226

63.8

29.9

Pennsylvania

1,171

2,214

2,499

113.4

12.9

2,624

3,906

4,292

63.6

9.9

Rhode Island

172

284

278

61.6

-2.1

247

317

377

52.6

18.9

1,183

1,630

1,824

54.2

11.9

2,094

3,297

3,544

69.2

7.5

50.0

28.6

20

37

36

80.0

-2.7

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee

788

1,208

1,359

72.5

12.5

1,773

2,971

3,266

84.2

9.9

2,166

4,172

4,117

90.1

-1.3

3,743

6,166

6,812

82.0

10.5

Utah

20

26

34

70.0

30.8

37

78

56

51.4

-28.2

Vermont

10

19

90.0

137.5

43

47

46

7.0

-2.1

1,250

2,041

2,418

93.4

18.5

3,546

4,642

4,787

35.0

3.1

509

620

618

21.4

-0.3

378

538

633

67.5

17.7
11.6

Texas

Virginia
Washington
West Virginia

96

94

112

16.7

19.1

233

318

355

52.4

Wisconsin

250

291

337

34.8

15.8

412

695

710

72.3

2.2

Wyoming

12

15

24

100.0

60.0

13

15

66.7

15.4

Continued on next page

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

75

Table 19 continued
Total Associate and Bachelors Degrees Conferred to
Hispanics, by State: 199192, 200001, and 200102
ASSOCIATE DEGREES

1991 92

200001

200102

BACHELORS DEGREES

Percent
Change
199192 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

1991 92

200001

200102

Percent
Change
199192 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

Alabama

33

68

105

218.2

54.4

117

212

183

56.4

-13.7

Alaska

12

34

31

158.3

-8.8

15

39

31

106.7

-20.5

Arizona

873

2,583

2,643

202.7

2.3

1,043

2,360

2,394

129.5

1.4

Arkansas

14

50

55

292.9

10.0

36

76

119

230.6

56.6

California

6,707

18,321

20,178

200.8

10.1

9,580

19,144

21,532

124.8

12.5

Colorado

613

869

969

58.1

11.5

882

1,622

1,684

90.9

3.8

Connecticut

158

296

329

108.2

11.1

345

609

748

116.8

22.8

Delaware

11

26

32

190.9

23.1

44

114

126

186.4

10.5

District of Columbia

17

35

31

82.4

-11.4

256

348

392

53.1

12.6

4,093

7,323

7,058

72.4

-3.6

3,827

7,051

8,331

117.7

18.2

112

156

168

50.0

7.7

274

455

543

98.2

19.3
18.9

Florida
Georgia
Hawaii

45

108

113

151.1

4.6

55

148

176

220.0

Idaho

62

105

106

71.0

1.0

67

120

130

94.0

8.3

Illinois

1,198

2,037

2,276

90.0

11.7

1,604

2,966

3,550

121.3

19.7
28.9

Indiana
Iowa
Kansas

106

267

329

210.4

23.2

408

693

893

118.9

64

138

111

73.4

-19.6

138

304

317

129.7

4.3

177

289

288

62.7

-0.3

252

350

401

59.1

14.6

Kentucky

24

49

73

204.2

49.0

82

90

130

58.5

44.4

Louisiana

67

167

114

70.1

-31.7

289

445

514

77.9

15.5
14.0

Maine

16

16

-56.3

-56.3

25

50

57

128.0

Maryland

106

211

229

116.0

8.5

451

673

723

60.3

7.4

Massachusetts

327

487

598

82.9

22.8

1,158

1,667

1,882

62.5

12.9

Michigan

284

379

372

31.0

-1.8

550

894

1,010

83.6

13.0

Minnesota

71

110

109

53.5

-0.9

160

285

318

98.8

11.6

Mississippi

19

29

65

242.1

124.1

27

63

77

185.2

22.2

Missouri

81

188

206

154.3

9.6

433

667

821

89.6

23.1

Montana

13

20

185.7

53.8

25

58

63

152.0

8.6

Nebraska

77

55

79

2.6

43.6

102

190

250

145.1

31.6

Nevada

55

183

234

325.5

27.9

88

296

317

260.2

7.1

New Hampshire

16

32

45

181.3

40.6

65

120

119

83.1

-0.8

New Jersey

575

1,188

1,409

145.0

18.6

1,160

2,372

2,455

111.6

3.5

New Mexico

673

2,099

1,372

103.9

-34.6

1,245

2,150

2,280

83.1

6.0

3,632

5,641

5,698

56.9

1.0

4,931

7,677

7,981

61.9

4.0

North Carolina

75

362

308

310.7

-14.9

230

528

657

185.7

24.4

North Dakota

33.3

-11.1

33

40

30

-9.1

-25.0

160

244

247

54.4

1.2

434

719

758

74.7

5.4

90

227

255

183.3

12.3

201

387

440

118.9

13.7
11.2

New York

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon

87

227

224

157.5

-1.3

213

447

497

133.3

Pennsylvania

211

512

592

180.6

15.6

645

1,259

1,363

111.3

8.3

Rhode Island

85

169

169

98.8

0.0

161

318

348

116.1

9.4

South Carolina

48

79

82

70.8

3.8

63

188

165

161.9

-12.2

South Dakota

12

13

1,200.0

8.3

29

27

575.0

-6.9

66

80

105

59.1

31.3

153

292

297

94.1

1.7

3,835

8,131

8,440

120.1

3.8

7,110

13,336

14,604

105.4

9.5

92

212

253

175.0

19.3

153

355

397

159.5

11.8

Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont

11

11

0.0

57.1

44

59

108

145.5

83.1

Virginia

165

326

382

131.5

17.2

362

795

855

136.2

7.5

Washington

404

797

826

104.5

3.6

376

820

885

135.4

7.9

11

0.0

-36.4

32

61

88

175.0

44.3

West Virginia
Wisconsin

149

164

182

22.1

11.0

271

496

555

104.8

11.9

Wyoming

39

109

115

194.9

5.5

35

56

60

71.4

7.1

Continued on next page

76

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 19 continued
Total Associate and Bachelors Degrees Conferred to
Asian Americans, by State: 199192, 200001, and 200102
ASSOCIATE DEGREES

1991 92
Alabama

200001

200102

BACHELORS DEGREES

Percent
Change
199192 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

1991 92

200001

200102

Percent
Change
199192 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

107

73

86

-19.6

17.8

156

293

261

67.3

Alaska

11

31

40

263.6

29.0

25

52

57

128.0

-10.9
9.6

Arizona

145

323

365

151.7

13.0

384

740

903

135.2

22.0

Arkansas

37

52

57

54.1

9.6

93

146

141

51.6

-3.4

California

5,785

11,859

12,694

119.4

7.0

15,561

25,208

28,050

80.3

11.3

Colorado

96

208

203

111.5

-2.4

485

887

943

94.4

6.3

Connecticut

92

114

109

18.5

-4.4

458

606

679

48.3

12.0

Delaware

18

21

35

94.4

66.7

77

97

97

26.0

0.0

District of Columbia

18

40

31

72.2

-22.5

350

535

633

80.9

18.3

Florida

740

1,474

1,707

130.7

15.8

898

1,909

2,238

149.2

17.2

Georgia

102

237

286

180.4

20.7

466

1,142

1,327

184.8

16.2

Hawaii

1,298

2,253

2,275

75.3

1.0

2,208

2,303

2,580

16.8

12.0

Idaho

28

64

65

132.1

1.6

47

111

98

108.5

-11.7

Illinois

589

821

873

48.2

6.3

2,448

3,927

4,230

72.8

7.7

Indiana

55

121

123

123.6

1.7

506

625

757

49.6

21.1

Iowa

98

97

113

15.3

16.5

235

462

583

148.1

26.2

Kansas

89

147

133

49.4

-9.5

242

365

321

32.6

-12.1
27.2

Kentucky

32

49

66

106.3

34.7

108

180

229

112.0

Louisiana

32

120

80

150.0

-33.3

289

514

560

93.8

8.9

Maine

10

20

17

70.0

-15.0

48

120

115

139.6

-4.2

Maryland

196

259

284

44.9

9.7

1,082

1,642

1,675

54.8

2.0

Massachusetts

331

328

599

81.0

82.6

1,938

3,067

3,295

70.0

7.4

Michigan

183

333

267

45.9

-19.8

953

1,628

1,849

94.0

13.6

Minnesota

89

267

310

248.3

16.1

436

798

828

89.9

3.8

Mississippi

19

30

39

105.3

30.0

105

108

130

23.8

20.4

Missouri

133

112

116

-12.8

3.6

510

825

998

95.7

21.0

Montana

100.0

-55.6

24

52

32

33.3

-38.5

Nebraska

37

52

63

70.3

21.2

106

250

227

114.2

-9.2

Nevada

33

148

177

436.4

19.6

110

338

396

260.0

17.2

New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

24

20

-16.7

122.2

108

201

186

72.2

-7.5

334

530

627

87.7

18.3

1,095

2,330

2,646

141.6

13.6
31.2

27

71

68

151.9

-4.2

62

125

164

164.5

1,610

2,326

2,447

52.0

5.2

5,089

7,356

7,612

49.6

3.5

100

252

213

113.0

-15.5

429

926

1,033

140.8

11.6

0.0

200.0

36

41

55

52.8

34.1

143

215

202

41.3

-6.0

813

1,204

1,412

73.7

17.3

81

118

143

76.5

21.2

272

438

455

67.3

3.9

Oregon

168

333

316

88.1

-5.1

649

852

865

33.3

1.5

Pennsylvania

230

388

422

83.5

8.8

1,568

2,559

2,994

90.9

17.0

Rhode Island

51

91

86

68.6

-5.5

254

408

506

99.2

24.0

South Carolina

73

81

95

30.1

17.3

119

238

244

105.0

2.5

South Dakota

26

550.0

225.0

18

31

45

150.0

45.2
12.3

Ohio
Oklahoma

Tennessee

63

98

126

100.0

28.6

287

390

438

52.6

Texas

449

975

1,048

133.4

7.5

2,240

4,296

4,694

109.6

9.3

Utah

138

197

221

60.1

12.2

170

335

357

110.0

6.6

Vermont

17

18

260.0

5.9

74

70

82

10.8

17.1

Virginia

361

473

579

60.4

22.4

1,008

1,731

1,908

89.3

10.2

Washington

741

1,354

1,616

118.1

19.4

1,305

2,328

2,506

92.0

7.6

West Virginia

14

27

17

21.4

-37.0

74

111

100

35.1

-9.9

Wisconsin

78

160

181

132.1

13.1

435

679

734

68.7

8.1

Wyoming

31

28

211.1

-9.7

10

16

20

100.0

25.0

Continued on next page

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

77

Table 19 continued
Total Associate and Bachelors Degrees Conferred to
American Indians, by State: 199192, 200001, and 200102
ASSOCIATE DEGREES

200102

BACHELORS DEGREES

Percent
Change
199192 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

1991 92

200001

200102

Percent
Change
199192 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

1991 92

200001

Alabama

18

63

60

233.3

-4.8

50

125

156

212.0

24.8

Alaska

55

81

94

70.9

16.0

86

101

107

24.4

5.9

Arizona

337

669

850

152.2

27.1

221

486

532

140.7

9.5

Arkansas

14

34

41

192.9

20.6

33

97

82

148.5

-15.5

California

551

769

804

45.9

4.6

843

1,077

1,089

29.2

1.1

Colorado

70

81

87

24.3

7.4

114

258

299

162.3

15.9

Connecticut

23

21

200.0

-8.7

36

58

49

36.1

-15.5

Delaware

40.0

16.7

16

17

14

-12.5

-17.6

District of Columbia

-100.0

-100.0

11

35

16

45.5

-54.3

Florida

142

213

241

69.7

13.1

85

202

213

150.6

5.4

Georgia

33

18

18

-45.5

0.0

33

59

61

84.8

3.4

Hawaii

13

12

71.4

-7.7

20

22

214.3

10.0

Idaho

30

27

28

-6.7

3.7

23

47

52

126.1

10.6

Illinois

63

70

71

12.7

1.4

137

362

156

13.9

-56.9

Indiana

21

38

50

138.1

31.6

51

111

115

125.5

3.6

Iowa

35

66

53

51.4

-19.7

21

68

58

176.2

-14.7

124

123

145

16.9

17.9

73

153

162

121.9

5.9

17

24

33

94.1

37.5

25

28

46

84.0

64.3

Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana

18

63

36

100.0

-42.9

45

95

105

133.3

10.5

Maine

12

27

38

216.7

40.7

25

58

54

116.0

-6.9

Maryland

50

61

29

-42.0

-52.5

51

79

74

45.1

-6.3

Massachusetts

48

38

51

6.3

34.2

83

171

172

107.2

0.6

153

201

149

-2.6

-25.9

189

219

299

58.2

36.5

Minnesota

65

130

101

55.4

-22.3

121

129

151

24.8

17.1

Mississippi

18

30

19

5.6

-36.7

11

39

40

263.6

2.6

Missouri

31

48

81

161.3

68.8

94

193

219

133.0

13.5

Montana

138

242

255

84.8

5.4

105

183

188

79.0

2.7

Nebraska

51

29

29

-43.1

0.0

19

39

61

221.1

56.4

Nevada

18

46

34

88.9

-26.1

22

50

41

86.4

-18.0

18

157.1

157.1

28

36

38

35.7

5.6

25

38

51

104.0

34.2

53

70

72

35.8

2.9

Michigan

New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico

181

541

438

142.0

-19.0

119

239

231

94.1

-3.3

New York

192

198

189

-1.6

-4.5

240

282

308

28.3

9.2

North Carolina

112

182

214

91.1

17.6

178

269

277

55.6

3.0

North Dakota

141

205

206

46.1

0.5

86

98

104

20.9

6.1

54

57

68

25.9

19.3

79

124

182

130.4

46.8

391

744

729

86.4

-2.0

696

1,234

1,318

89.4

6.8

50

78

105

110.0

34.6

108

164

178

64.8

8.5

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania

38

77

71

86.8

-7.8

60

116

153

155.0

31.9

Rhode Island

14

27

14

0.0

-48.1

10

21

26

160.0

23.8

South Carolina

12

25

41

241.7

64.0

22

45

40

81.8

-11.1

South Dakota

66

157

155

134.8

-1.3

99

121

132

33.3

9.1

29

25

177.8

-13.8

46

65

77

67.4

18.5

Texas

73

190

152

108.2

-20.0

185

411

395

113.5

-3.9

Utah

52

92

85

63.5

-7.6

68

79

87

27.9

10.1

Vermont

15

23

1,050.0

53.3

12

19

30

150.0

57.9

Virginia

18

48

65

261.1

35.4

59

126

117

98.3

-7.1

184

280

273

48.4

-2.5

211

404

393

86.3

-2.7
38.7

Tennessee

Washington
West Virginia

-28.6

0.0

13

31

43

230.8

Wisconsin

7
71

133

179

152.1

34.6

100

153

155

55.0

1.3

Wyoming

26

27

34

30.8

25.9

26

17

12

-53.8

-29.4

78

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 20

Bachelors Degrees Conferred in Selected Fields, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender:


199192, 199697, 200001, and 200102
TOTAL

WHITE

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

Percent
Change
200102 199192 to
Total
200102

108,006

105,233

105,566

106,383

Men

22,686

26,271

24,592

Women

85,320

78,962

80,974

Field of Study

Percent
Change
199697 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

97,460

90,004

89,715

Percent
Percent
Percent
Change
Change
Change
200102 199192 to 199697 to 200001 to
Total
200102
200102
200102

EDUCATION
Total

-1.5

1.1

0.8

24,051

6.0

-8.5

-2.2

20,096

22,353

20,577

82,332

-3.5

4.3

1.7

77,364

67,651

69,138

90,475

-7.2

0.5

0.8

20,102

0.0

-10.1

-2.3

70,373

-9.0

4.0

1.8

BUSINESS
Total

256,603

226,633

265,746

281,330

9.6

24.1

5.9

209,768

166,729

190,353

199,906

-4.7

19.9

5.0

Men

135,440

116,519

133,856

140,566

3.8

20.6

5.0

113,660

88,722

100,478

105,165

-7.5

18.5

4.7

Women

121,163

110,114

131,890

140,764

16.2

27.8

6.7

96,108

78,007

89,875

94,741

-1.4

21.5

5.4

133,974

124,891

128,036

132,874

-0.8

6.4

3.8

110,086

93,662

93,199

96,346

-12.5

2.9

3.4

Men

73,001

64,115

61,749

64,170

-12.1

0.1

3.9

61,613

49,868

47,001

48,921

-20.6

-1.9

4.1

Women

60,973

60,776

66,287

68,704

12.7

13.0

3.6

48,473

43,794

46,198

47,425

-2.2

8.3

2.7

SOCIAL SCIENCES/HISTORY
Total

HEALTH PROFESSIONS
Total

61,720

85,631

73,490

70,517

14.3

-17.7

-4.0

52,281

69,702

56,540

53,533

2.4

-23.2

-5.3

Men

10,189

15,877

11,908

10,257

0.7

-35.4

-13.9

8,428

12,678

8,811

7,418

-12.0

-41.5

-15.8

Women

51,531

69,754

61,582

60,260

16.9

-13.6

-2.1

43,853

57,024

47,729

46,115

5.2

-19.1

-3.4

42,941

63,975

60,553

60,256

40.3

-5.8

-0.5

33,179

46,398

42,717

42,831

29.1

-7.7

0.3

Men

20,798

29,470

24,549

23,612

13.5

-19.9

-3.8

16,386

21,913

17,642

17,263

5.4

-21.2

-2.1

Women

22,143

34,505

36,004

36,644

65.5

6.2

1.8

16,793

24,485

25,075

25,568

52.3

4.4

2.0

BIOLOGICAL/LIFE SCIENCES
Total

ENGINEERING a
Total

77,396

75,001

72,020

73,598

-4.9

-1.9

2.2

58,994

53,468

50,466

51,759

-12.3

-3.2

2.6

Men

66,574

62,510

58,862

59,651

-10.4

-4.6

1.3

51,450

45,347

42,128

43,028

-16.4

-5.1

2.1

Women

10,822

12,491

13,158

13,947

28.9

11.7

6.0

7,544

8,121

8,338

8,731

15.7

7.5

4.7

Continued on next page


a Engineering includes engineering technologies.

Note:

Reported racial/ethnic distributions of students by level of degree, field of degree, and sex were used to estimate race/ethnicity for students whose race/ethnicity was not reported.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Digest of Education Statistics, 2003. Washington, DC: 2004. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS),
Completions Survey, 1992 to 2002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

79

Table 20 continued

Bachelors Degrees Conferred in Selected Fields, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender:


199192, 199697, 200001, and 200102
ALL MINORITIES

Field of Study

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

Percent
Change
200102 199192 to
Total
200102

AFRICAN AMERICAN
Percent
Change
199697 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

Percent
Percent
Percent
Change
Change
Change
200102 199192 to 199697 to 200001 to
Total
200102
200102
200102

EDUCATION
Total

9,973

14,264

14,911

14,803

48.4

3.8

-0.7

5,226

7,540

7,394

6,976

33.5

-7.5

-5.7

Men

2,384

3,649

3,753

3,631

52.3

-0.5

-3.3

1,266

1,952

1,981

1,822

43.9

-6.7

-8.0

Women

7,589

10,615

11,158

11,172

47.2

5.2

0.1

3,960

5,588

5,413

5,154

30.2

-7.8

-4.8

38,311

46,860

62,303

67,603

76.5

44.3

8.5

18,304

19,999

26,303

28,153

53.8

40.8

7.0

Men

16,584

20,315

26,189

28,047

69.1

38.1

7.1

7,167

7,725

9,931

10,088

40.8

30.6

1.6

Women

21,727

26,545

36,114

39,556

82.1

49.0

9.5

11,137

12,274

16,372

18,065

62.2

47.2

10.3

BUSINESS
Total

SOCIAL SCIENCES/HISTORY
Total
Men
Women

21,072

27,390

31,058

32,591

54.7

19.0

4.9

9,188

11,298

12,149

12,530

36.4

10.9

3.1

9,844

12,148

12,838

13,345

35.6

9.9

3.9

3,978

4,564

4,384

4,493

12.9

-1.6

2.5

11,228

15,242

18,220

19,246

71.4

26.3

5.6

5,210

6,734

7,765

8,037

54.3

19.3

3.5

14,827

15,902

16,200

88.8

9.3

1.9

4,222

6,599

7,520

8,011

89.7

21.4

6.5

HEALTH PROFESSIONS
Total

8,580

Men

1,514

2,909

2,884

2,667

76.2

-8.3

-7.5

543

962

1,028

1,041

91.7

8.2

1.3

Women

7,066

11,918

13,018

13,533

91.5

13.6

4.0

3,679

5,637

6,492

6,970

89.5

23.6

7.4

BIOLOGICAL/LIFE SCIENCES
Total

8,774

16,123

16,405

15,974

82.1

-0.9

-2.6

2,428

4,209

4,851

4,807

98.0

14.2

-0.9

Men

3,934

6,893

6,327

5,813

47.8

-15.7

-8.1

764

1334

1,370

1,329

74.0

-0.4

-3.0

Women

4,840

9,230

10,078

10,161

109.9

10.1

0.8

1,664

2875

3,481

3,478

109.0

21.0

-0.1

13,680

16,192

16,643

17,130

25.2

5.8

2.9

3,580

4,532

4,324

4,486

25.3

-1.0

3.7

10,913

12,540

12,646

12,730

16.6

1.5

0.7

2,583

3,171

3,000

3,043

17.8

-4.0

1.4

2,767

3,652

3,997

4,400

59.0

20.5

10.1

997

1,361

1,324

1,443

44.7

6.0

9.0

ENGINEERING a
Total
Men
Women

Continued on next page


a Engineering includes engineeering technologies.

80

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 20 continued

Bachelors Degrees Conferred in Selected Fields, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender:


199192, 199697, 200001, and 200102
ASIAN AMERICAN a

HISPANIC
Percent
Change
199697 to
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

3,116

4,155

4,696

4,893

57.0

17.8

717

995

1,032

1,096

52.9

10.2

2,399

3160

3,664

3,797

58.3

20.2

8,466

11,787

16,352

17,557

107.4

Men

4,194

5,621

7,509

8,140

Women

4,272

6,166

8,843

9,417

Field of Study

200001
Total

Percent
Change
200102 199192 to
Total
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

Percent
Percent
Percent
Change
Change
Change
200102 199192 to 199697 to 200001 to
Total
200102
200102
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

4.2

977

1,637

1,900

1,916

96.1

17.0

0.8

6.2

246

476

505

474

92.7

-0.4

-6.1

3.6

731

1,161

1,395

1,442

97.3

24.2

3.4

49.0

7.4

10,592

13,952

18,053

20,083

89.6

43.9

11.2

94.1

44.8

8.4

4,761

6,442

8,017

8,961

88.2

39.1

11.8

120.4

52.7

6.5

5,831

7,510

10,036

11,122

90.7

48.1

10.8

EDUCATION
Total
Men
Women
BUSINESS
Total

SOCIAL SCIENCES/HISTORY
Total

5,808

7,836

9,134

9,917

70.7

26.6

8.6

5,470

7,379

8,790

9,258

69.3

25.5

5.3

Men

2,914

,3665

4,074

4,269

46.5

16.5

4.8

2,661

3,519

3,952

4,198

57.8

19.3

6.2

Women

2,894

4,171

5,060

5,648

95.2

35.4

11.6

2,809

3,860

4,838

5,060

80.1

31.1

4.6

3,152

3,669

3,700

109.6

17.4

0.8

2,261

4,523

4,183

3,961

75.2

-12.4

-5.3

HEALTH PROFESSIONS
Total
Men
Women

1,765
355

692

776

721

103.1

4.2

-7.1

554

1,139

991

819

47.8

-28.1

-17.4

1,410

2,460

2,893

2,979

111.3

21.1

3.0

1,707

3,384

3,192

3,142

84.1

-7.2

-1.6

BIOLOGICAL/LIFE SCIENCES
Total

1,673

2,839

3,343

3,256

94.6

14.7

-2.6

4,488

8,729

7,764

7,485

66.8

-14.3

-3.6

Men

797

1,299

1,423

1,307

64.0

0.6

-8.2

2,278

4101

3,333

3,008

32.0

-26.7

-9.8

Women

876

1,540

1,920

1,949

122.5

26.6

1.5

2,210

4,628

4,431

4,477

102.6

-3.3

1.0

2,645

3,560

3,924

4,083

54.4

14.7

4.1

7,181

7,735

7,999

8,139

13.3

5.2

1.8

2,214

2,906

3,157

3,230

45.9

11.1

2.3

5,881

6,180

6,171

6,127

4.2

-0.9

-0.7

431

654

767

853

97.9

30.4

11.2

1,300

1,555

1,828

2,012

54.8

29.4

10.1

ENGINEERING b
Total
Men
Women

Continued on next page


a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.
b Engineering includes engineering technologies.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

81

Table 20 continued

Bachelors Degrees Conferred in Selected Fields, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender:


199192, 199697, 200001, and 200102
AMERICAN INDIAN

Field of Study

199192
Total

199697
Total

20002001
Total

FOREIGN STUDENTS

Percent
Change
200102 199192 to
Total
200102

Percent
Change
199697 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

Percent
Percent
Percent
Change
Change
Change
200102 199192 to 199697 to 200001 to
Total
200102
200102
200102

EDUCATION
Total

654

932

921

1,018

55.7

9.2

10.5

573

965

940

1,105

92.8

14.5

17.6

Men

155

226

235

239

54.2

5.8

1.7

206

269

262

318

54.4

18.2

21.4

Women

499

706

686

779

56.1

10.3

13.6

367

696

678

787

114.4

13.1

16.1

949

1,122

1,595

1,810

90.7

61.3

13.5

8,524

13,044

13,090

13,821

62.1

6.0

5.6

Men

462

527

732

858

85.7

62.8

17.2

5,196

7,482

7,189

7,354

41.5

-1.7

2.3

Women

487

595

863

952

95.5

60.0

10.3

3,328

5,562

5,901

6,467

94.3

16.3

9.6

BUSINESS
Total

SOCIAL SCIENCES/HISTORY
Total

606

877

985

886

46.2

1.0

-10.1

2,816

3,839

3,779

3,937

39.8

2.6

4.2

Men

291

400

428

385

32.3

-3.8

-10.0

1,544

2,099

1,910

1,904

23.3

-9.3

-0.3

Women

315

477

557

501

59.0

5.0

-10.1

1,272

1,740

1,869

2,033

59.8

16.8

8.8

332

553

530

528

59.0

-4.5

-0.4

859

1,102

1,048

784

-8.7

-28.9

-25.2

62

116

89

86

38.7

-25.9

-3.4

247

290

213

172

-30.4

-40.7

-19.2

270

437

441

442

63.7

1.1

0.2

612

812

835

612

0.0

-24.6

-26.7

HEALTH PROFESSIONS
Total
Men
Women

BIOLOGICAL/LIFE SCIENCES
Total

185

346

447

426

130.3

23.1

-4.7

988

1,454

1,431

1,451

46.9

-0.2

1.4

Men

95

159

201

169

77.9

6.3

-15.9

478

664

580

536

12.1

-19.3

-7.6

Women

90

187

246

257

185.6

37.4

4.5

510

790

851

915

79.4

15.8

7.5

274

365

396

422

54.0

15.6

6.6

4,722

5,341

4,911

4,709

-0.3

-11.8

-4.1

235

283

318

330

40.4

16.6

3.8

4,211

4,623

4,088

3,893

-7.6

-15.8

-4.8

39

82

78

92

135.9

12.2

17.9

511

718

823

816

59.7

13.6

-0.9

ENGINEERING b
Total
Men
Women

a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.


b Engineering includes engineering technologies.

82

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 21

Masters Degrees Conferred in Selected Fields, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender:


199192, 199697, 200001, and 200102
TOTAL

199192
Total

199697
Total

20002001
Total

92,668

110,087

129,066

Men

21,244

25,806

Women

71,424

84,281

Field of Study

WHITES

Percent
Change
200102 199192 to
Total
200102

Percent
Change
199697 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

Percent
Percent
Percent
Change
Change
Change
200102 199192 to 199697 to 200001 to
Total
200102
200102
200102

EDUCATION
Total

136,579

47.4

24.1

5.8

78,874

89,783

102,752

107,793

36.7

20.1

4.9

30,238

32,172

51.4

24.7

6.4

17,653

20,886

24,132

25,471

44.3

22.0

5.5

98,828

104,407

46.2

23.9

5.6

61,221

68,897

78,620

82,322

34.5

19.5

4.7

BUSINESS
Total

84,642

97,619

116,475

120,785

42.7

23.7

3.7

65,320

67,531

74,238

76,435

17.0

13.2

3.0

Men

54,705

59,611

69,060

71,157

30.1

19.4

3.0

42,668

42,399

45,487

46,963

10.1

10.8

3.2

Women

29,937

38,008

47,415

49,628

65.8

30.6

4.7

22,652

25,132

28,751

29,472

30.1

17.3

2.5

12,702

14,787

13,791

14,112

11.1

-4.6

2.3

9,034

9,928

8,631

8,660

-4.1

-12.8

0.3

Men

7,237

7,830

6,816

6,941

-4.1

-11.4

1.8

5,084

5,283

4,301

4,328

-14.9

-18.1

0.6

Women

5,465

6,957

6,975

7,171

31.2

3.1

2.8

3,950

4,645

4,330

4,332

9.7

-6.7

0.0

23,065

35,958

43,617

43,644

89.2

21.4

0.1

19,220

29,414

33,571

33,012

71.8

12.2

-1.7

4,691

7,702

9,875

9,797

108.8

27.2

-0.8

3,575

5,871

7,198

6,883

92.5

17.2

-4.4

18,374

28,256

33,742

33,847

84.2

19.8

0.3

15,645

23,543

26,373

26,129

67.0

11.0

-0.9

25,268

25,448

32.2

2.7

0.7

15,231

18,092

16,950

16,889

10.9

-6.6

-0.4

SOCIAL SCIENCES/HISTORY
Total

HEALTH PROFESSIONS
Total
Men
Women

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SERVICES


Total

19,243

Men
Women

24,781

5,769

6,957

6,544

6,505

12.8

-6.5

-0.6

4,386

4,950

4,233

4,145

-5.5

-16.3

-2.1

13,474

17,824

18,724

18,943

40.6

6.3

1.2

10,845

13,142

12,717

12,744

17.5

-3.0

0.2

ENGINEERING a
Total
Men
Women

25,977

26,827

27,101

26,911

3.6

0.3

-0.7

14,368

13,996

11,705

11,798

-17.9

-15.7

0.8

22,143

21,928

21,297

21,159

-4.4

-3.5

-0.6

12,148

11,598

9,383

9,404

-22.6

-18.9

0.2

3,834

4,899

5,804

5,752

50.0

17.4

-0.9

2,220

2,398

2,322

2,394

7.8

-0.2

3.1

Continued on next page


a Engineering includes engineering technologies.

Note:

Reported racial/ethnic distributions of students by level of degree, field of degree, and sex were used to estimate race/ethnicity for students whose race/ethnicity was not reported.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Digest of Education Statistics, 2003. Washington, DC: 2004. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS),
Completions Survey, 1992 to 2002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

83

Table 21 continued

Masters Degrees Conferred in Selected Fields, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender:


199192, 199697, 200001, and 200102
ALL MINORITIES

Field of Study

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

AFRICAN AMERICAN

Percent
Change
200102 199192 to
Total
200102

Percent
Change
199697 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

Percent
Percent
Percent
Change
Change
Change
200102 199192 to 199697 to 200001 to
Total
200102
200102
200102

EDUCATION
Total

10,931

17,143

22,981

24,870

127.5

45.1

8.2

6,444

9,630

12,148

13,069

102.8

35.7

7.6

Men

2,534

3,950

5,269

5,579

120.2

41.2

5.9

1,345

2,146

2,736

2,829

110.3

31.8

3.4

Women

8,397

13,193

17,712

19,291

129.7

46.2

8.9

5,099

7,484

9,412

10,240

100.8

36.8

8.8

9,765

15,523

23,144

24,320

149.1

56.7

5.1

3,966

6,359

9,872

10,434

163.1

64.1

5.7

Men

5,421

8,042

11,610

11,884

119.2

47.8

2.4

1,900

2,810

4,053

3,962

108.5

41.0

-2.2

Women

4,344

7,481

11,534

12,436

186.3

66.2

7.8

2,066

3,549

5,819

6,472

213.3

82.4

11.2

BUSINESS
Total

SOCIAL SCIENCES/HISTORY
Total

1,349

2,177

2,283

2,342

73.6

7.6

2.6

602

954

1,014

1,022

69.8

7.1

0.8

Men

695

1,017

997

963

38.6

-5.3

-3.4

293

411

428

403

37.5

-1.9

-5.8

Women

654

1,160

1,286

1,379

110.9

18.9

7.2

309

543

586

619

100.3

14.0

5.6

2,528

4,865

7,974

8,520

237.0

75.1

6.8

1,136

2,003

3,085

3,249

186.0

62.2

5.3

572

1,145

1,915

2,096

266.4

83.1

9.5

180

341

498

568

215.6

66.6

14.1

1,956

3,720

6,059

6,424

228.4

72.7

6.0

956

1,662

2,587

2,681

180.4

61.3

3.6

HEALTH PROFESSIONS
Total
Men
Women

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SERVICES


Total
Men
Women

3,318

5,502

7,117

7,239

118.2

31.6

1.7

2,001

3,234

4,270

4,386

119.2

35.6

2.7

977

1,438

1,700

1,724

76.5

19.9

1.4

527

803

977

1,010

91.7

25.8

3.4

2,341

4,064

5,417

5,515

135.6

35.7

1.8

1,474

2,431

3,293

3,376

129.0

38.9

2.5

3,574

4,061

4,261

4,144

15.9

2.0

-2.7

550

780

830

869

58.0

11.4

4.7

2,883

3,039

3,075

2,967

2.9

-2.4

-3.5

398

525

534

561

41.0

6.9

5.1

691

1,022

1,186

1,177

70.3

15.2

-0.8

152

255

296

308

102.6

20.8

4.1

ENGINEERING a
Total
Men
Women

Continued on next page


a Engineering includes engineering technologies.

84

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 21 continued

Masters Degrees Conferred in Selected Fields, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender:


199192, 199697, 200001, and 200102
HISPANIC

Field of Study

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

ASIAN AMERICAN b

Percent
Change
200102 199192 to
Total
200102

Percent
Change
199697 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

Percent
Percent
Percent
Change
Change
Change
200102 199192 to 199697 to 200001 to
Total
200102
200102
200102

EDUCATION
Total

2,838

4,904

7,157

7,751

173.1

58.1

8.3

1,192

1,990

2,831

3,095

159.6

55.5

9.3

745

1,201

1,709

1,819

144.2

51.5

6.4

308

444

615

694

125.3

56.3

12.8

2,093

3,703

5,448

5,932

183.4

60.2

8.9

884

1,546

2,216

2,401

171.6

55.3

8.3

1,944

3,163

5,107

5,024

158.4

58.8

-1.6

3,635

5,681

7,649

8,352

129.8

47.0

9.2

1,223

1,873

2,987

2,862

134.0

52.8

-4.2

2,175

3,179

4,292

4,745

118.2

49.3

10.6

721

1,290

2,120

2,162

199.9

67.6

2.0

1,460

2,502

3,357

3,607

147.1

44.2

7.4

Men
Women
BUSINESS
Total
Men
Women

SOCIAL SCIENCES/HISTORY
Total

301

549

590

670

122.6

22.0

13.6

396

609

573

570

43.9

-6.4

-0.5

Men

168

304

274

295

75.6

-3.0

7.7

216

267

246

227

5.1

-15.0

-7.7

Women

133

245

316

375

182.0

53.1

18.7

180

342

327

343

90.6

0.3

4.9

559

1,013

1,685

1,740

211.3

71.8

3.3

739

1,675

2,990

3,304

347.1

97.3

10.5

Men

142

241

428

456

221.1

89.2

6.5

226

529

935

998

341.6

88.7

6.7

Women

417

772

1,257

1,284

207.9

66.3

2.1

513

1,146

2,055

2,306

349.5

101.2

12.2

HEALTH PROFESSIONS
Total

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SERVICES


Total

771

1,300

1,740

1,743

126.1

34.1

0.2

422

773

931

882

109.0

14.1

-5.3

Men

253

361

426

446

76.3

23.5

4.7

150

212

254

215

43.3

1.4

-15.4

Women

518

939

1,314

1,297

150.4

38.1

-1.3

272

561

677

667

145.2

18.9

-1.5

541

736

758

796

47.1

8.2

5.0

2,432

2,488

2,606

2,414

-0.7

-3.0

-7.4

452

575

566

577

27.7

0.3

1.9

1,990

1,889

1,927

1,782

-10.5

-5.7

-7.5

89

161

192

219

146.1

36.0

14.1

442

599

679

632

43.0

5.5

-6.9

ENGINEERING a
Total
Men
Women

Continued on next page


a Engineering includes engineering technologies.
b Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

85

Table 21 continued

Masters Degrees Conferred in Selected Fields, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender:


199192, 199697, 200001, and 200102
AMERICAN INDIAN a

Field of Study

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

FOREIGN STUDENTS

Percent
Change
200102 199192 to
Total
200102

Percent
Change
199697 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

Percent
Percent
Percent
Change
Change
Change
200102 199192 to 199697 to 200001 to
Total
200102
200102
200102

EDUCATION
Total

457

619

845

955

109.0

54.3

13.0

2,863

3,161

3,333

3,916

36.8

23.9

17.5

Men

136

159

209

237

74.3

49.1

13.4

1,057

970

837

1,122

6.1

15.7

34.1

Women

321

460

636

718

123.7

56.1

12.9

1,806

2,191

2,496

2,794

54.7

27.5

11.9

220

320

516

510

131.8

59.4

-1.2

9,557

14,565

19,093

20,030

109.6

37.5

4.9

123

180

278

315

156.1

75.0

13.3

6,616

9,170

11,963

12,310

86.1

34.2

2.9

97

140

238

195

101.0

39.3

-18.1

2,941

5,395

7,130

7,720

162.5

43.1

8.3

BUSINESS
Total
Men
Women

SOCIAL SCIENCES/HISTORY
Total

50

65

106

80

60.0

23.1

-24.5

2,319

2,682

2,877

3,110

34.1

16.0

8.1

Men

18

35

49

38

111.1

8.6

-22.4

1,458

1,530

1,518

1,650

13.2

7.8

8.7

Women

32

30

57

42

31.3

40.0

-26.3

861

1,152

1,359

1,460

69.6

26.7

7.4

94

174

214

227

141.5

30.5

6.1

1,317

1,679

2,072

2,112

60.4

25.8

1.9

HEALTH PROFESSIONS
Total
Men

24

34

54

74

208.3

117.6

37.0

544

686

762

818

50.4

19.2

7.3

Women

70

140

160

153

118.6

9.3

-4.4

773

993

1,310

1,294

67.4

30.3

-1.2

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SERVICES


Total

124

195

176

228

83.9

16.9

29.5

694

1,187

1,201

1,320

90.2

11.2

9.9

Men

47

62

43

53

12.8

-14.5

23.3

406

569

611

636

56.7

11.8

4.1

Women

77

133

133

175

127.3

31.6

31.6

288

618

590

684

137.5

10.7

15.9

51

57

67

65

27.5

14.0

-3.0

8,035

8,770

11,135

10,969

36.5

25.1

-1.5

43

50

48

47

9.3

-6.0

-2.1

7,112

7,291

8,839

8,788

23.6

20.5

-0.6

19

18

125.0

157.1

-5.3

923

1,479

2,296

2,181

136.3

47.5

-5.0

ENGINEERING b
Total
Men
Women

a American Indian includes Alaska Natives.


b Engineering includes engineering technologies.

86

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 22

Doctoral Degrees Conferred in Selected Fields, by Race/Ethnicity:


199192, 199697, 200001, and 200102
TOTAL

Field of Study

WHITE

Percent
Change
200102 199192 to
Total
200102

Percent
Change
199697 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

Percent
Percent
Percent
Change
Change
Change
200102 199192 to 199697 to 200001 to
Total
200102
200102
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

6,677

6,580

6,336

6,488

-2.8

-1.4

2.4

5,005

4,414

4,159

3,990

-20.3

-9.6

-4.1

6,501

6,679

5,969

5,715

-12.1

-14.4

-4.3

3,155

3,060

2,638

2,504

-20.6

-18.2

-5.1

6,216

7,045

6,835

6,611

6.4

-6.2

-3.3

4,120

4,282

4,146

3,923

-4.8

-8.4

-5.4

7,115

8,326

8,311

8,350

17.4

0.3

0.5

4,241

4,339

4,440

4,336

2.2

-0.1

-2.3

4,444

5,435

5,593

5,373

20.9

-1.1

-3.9

3,149

3,584

3,700

3,449

9.5

-3.8

-6.8

5,438

6,118

5,501

5,073

-6.7

-17.1

-7.8

1,749

2,151

1,644

1,392

-20.4

-35.3

-15.3

2,368

2,244

2,343

-6.2

-1.1

4.4

1,484

1,351

1,196

1,126

-24.1

-16.7

-5.9

EDUCATION
Total
PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Total
SOCIAL SCIENCES
Total
LIFE SCIENCES
Total
HUMANITIES
Total
ENGINEERING a
Total

PROFESSIONALOTHER
Total

2,498

ALL MINORITIES

Field of Study

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

AFRICAN AMERICAN

Percent
Change
200102 199192 to
Total
200102

Percent
Change
199697 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

Percent
Percent
Percent
Change
Change
Change
200102 199192 to 199697 to 200001 to
Total
200102
200102
200102

EDUCATION
Total

797

925

1,068

1,132

42.0

22.4

6.0

467

527

649

664

42.2

26.0

2.3

317

421

390

406

28.1

-3.6

4.1

34

59

81

94

176.5

59.3

16.0

481

701

788

833

73.2

18.8

5.7

183

255

300

315

72.1

23.5

5.0

400

674

851

870

117.5

29.1

2.2

88

168

193

187

112.5

11.3

-3.1

273

456

534

548

100.7

20.2

2.6

95

137

177

165

73.7

20.4

-6.8

313

472

424

421

34.5

-10.8

-0.7

32

83

82

77

140.6

-7.2

-6.1

212

272

252

66.9

18.9

-7.4

67

106

130

142

111.9

34.0

9.2

PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Total
SOCIAL SCIENCES
Total
LIFE SCIENCES
Total
HUMANITIES
Total
ENGINEERING a
Total

PROFESSIONALOTHER
Total

151

Continued on next page


a Engineering includes engineering technologies.

Note:

Doctorates under the field professional-other include architectural/environmental design, business, communications, home economics, law, library science, parks/recreation/leisure, fitness,
public administration, social work, theological programs, and other professional fields.
Some institutions did not report racial/ethnic data for earned degrees. Data for some of these nonreporting institutions were imputed. Data represent programs, not organizational units, within institutions.
Because of rounding, details may not add to totals.

Source: NSF/NIH/USED/NEH/USDA/NASA, Survey of Earned Doctorates, 1992 to 2002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

87

Table 22 continued

Doctoral Degrees Conferred in Selected Fields, by Race/Ethnicity:


199192, 199697, 200001, and 20012002
HISPANIC

199192
Total

Field of Study

199697
Total

200001
Total

ASIAN AMERICAN a

Percent
Change
200102 199192 to
Total
200102

Percent
Change
199697 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

Percent
Percent
Percent
Change
Change
Change
200102 199192 to 199697 to 200001 to
Total
200102
200102
200102

EDUCATION
Total

200

247

267

309

54.5

25.1

15.7

80

100

110

113

41.3

13.0

2.7

88

106

92

93

5.7

-12.3

1.1

178

242

204

208

16.9

-14.0

2.0

175

232

245

281

60.6

21.1

14.7

97

184

209

205

111.3

11.4

-1.9

114

175

187

203

78.1

16.0

8.6

179

313

450

463

158.7

47.9

2.9

107

179

201

214

100.0

19.6

6.5

52

116

133

147

182.7

26.7

10.5

57

82

73

86

50.9

4.9

17.8

213

290

262

251

17.8

-13.4

-4.2

42

61

47

27.0

11.9

-23.0

40

51

72

52

30.0

2.0

-27.8

PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Total
SOCIAL SCIENCES
Total
LIFE SCIENCES
Total
HUMANITIES
Total
ENGINEERING b
Total

PROFESSIONALOTHER
Total

37

AMERICAN INDIANc

199192
Total

Field of Study

199697
Total

200001
Total

FOREIGN STUDENTS

Percent
Change
200102 199192 to
Total
200102

Percent
Change
199697 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

Percent
Percent
Percent
Change
Change
Change
200102 199192 to 199697 to 200001 to
Total
200102
200102
200102

EDUCATION
Total

50

51

42

46

-8.0

-9.8

9.5

718

576

619

586

-18.4

1.7

-5.3

17

14

13

11

-35.3

-21.4

-15.4

2,813

2,711

2,598

2,443

-13.2

-9.9

-6.0

26

30

34

32

23.1

6.7

-5.9

1,337

1,336

1,324

1,250

-6.5

-6.4

-5.6

19

18

21

17

-10.5

-5.6

-19.0

2,284

2,793

2,464

2,498

9.4

-10.6

1.4

19

24

23

22

15.8

-8.3

-4.3

860

944

957

956

11.2

1.3

-0.1

11

17

-36.4

-58.8

0.0

3,154

3,148

3,084

2,916

-7.5

-7.4

-5.4

13

11

57.1

-15.4

22.2

767

616

614

704

-8.2

14.3

14.7

PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Total
SOCIAL SCIENCES
Total
LIFE SCIENCES
Total
HUMANITIES
Total
ENGINEERING b
Total

PROFESSIONALOTHER
Total

a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.


b Engineering includes engineering technologies.
c American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

88

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 23

Doctoral Degrees Conferred in Selected Fields to Foreign Students, by Top Countries of Origin:
199192, 199697, 200001, and 200102
TOTAL FOREIGN STUDENTS

Field of Study

Percent
Change
200102 199192 to
Total
200102

CHINA
Percent
Change
199697 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

Percent
Percent
Percent
Change
Change
Change
200102 199192 to 199697 to 200001 to
Total
200102
200102
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

703

503

606

586

-16.6

16.5

-3.3

51

51

41

32

-37.3

-37.3

-22.0

2,777

2,572

2,570

2,443

-12.0

-5.0

-4.9

916

732

754

704

-23.1

-3.8

-6.6

1,318

1,206

1,311

1,250

-5.2

3.6

-4.7

95

118

116

108

13.7

-8.5

-6.9

2,250

2,611

2,442

2,498

11.0

-4.3

2.3

569

836

716

749

31.6

-10.4

4.6

841

874

938

956

13.7

9.4

1.9

75

54

41

32

-57.3

-40.7

-22.0

3,112

2,941

3,050

2,916

-6.3

-0.9

-4.4

516

636

879

891

72.7

40.1

1.4

558

602

704

-7.4

26.2

16.9

43

53

66

78

81.4

47.2

18.2

Percent
Change
199697 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

EDUCATION
Total
PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Total
SOCIAL SCIENCES
Total
LIFE SCIENCES
Total
HUMANITIES
Total
ENGINEERING a
Total

PROFESSIONALOTHER
Total

760

SOUTH KOREA

Field of Study

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

TAIWAN

Percent
Change
200102 199192 to
Total
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

Percent
Percent
Percent
Change
Change
Change
200102 199192 to 199697 to 200001 to
Total
200102
200102
200102

EDUCATION
Total

88

59

92

77

-12.5

30.5

-16.3

93

90

110

90

-3.2

0.0

-18.2

254

197

219

192

-24.4

-2.5

-12.3

280

223

112

94

-66.4

-57.8

-16.1

230

168

154

145

-37.0

-13.7

-5.8

86

107

61

49

-43.0

-54.2

-19.7

196

172

164

165

-15.8

-4.1

0.6

252

304

158

147

-41.7

-51.6

-7.0

87

105

107

120

37.9

14.3

12.1

27

38

54

40

48.1

5.3

-25.9

437

299

337

354

-19.0

18.4

5.0

637

434

241

213

-66.6

-50.9

-11.6

-26.4

24.1

14.5

41

-26.8

-25.5

10.8

PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Total
SOCIAL SCIENCES
Total
LIFE SCIENCES
Total
HUMANITIES
Total
ENGINEERING a
Total

PROFESSIONALOTHER
Total

182

108

117

134

56

55

37

Continued on next page


a Engineering includes engineering technologies.

Note:

Doctorates under the field professional-other include architectural/environmental design, business, communications, home economics, law, library science, parks/recreation/leisure, fitness,
public administration, social work, theological programs, and other professional fields.
Some institutions did not report racial/ethnic data for earned degrees. Data for some of these nonreporting institutions were imputed.
Data represent programs, not organizational units, within institutions. Because of rounding, details may not add to totals.

Source: NSF/NIH/USED/NEH/USDA/NASA, Survey of Earned Doctorates, 1992 to 2002.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

89

Table 23 continued

Doctoral Degrees Conferred in Selected Fields to Foreign Students, by Top Countries of Origin:
199192, 199697, 200001, and 200102
INDIA

199192
Total

Field of Study

199697
Total

200001
Total

CANADA

Percent
Change
200102 199192 to
Total
200102

Percent
Change
199697 to
200102

Percent
Change
200001 to
200102

199192
Total

199697
Total

200001
Total

Percent
Percent
Percent
Change
Change
Change
200102 199192 to 199697 to 200001 to
Total
200102
200102
200102

EDUCATION
Total

27

21

15

18

-33.3

-14.3

20.0

57

34

38

34

-40.4

0.0

-10.5

244

302

197

160

-34.4

-47.0

-18.8

92

64

79

76

-17.4

18.8

-3.8

79

105

82

87

10.1

-17.1

6.1

83

71

87

99

19.3

39.4

13.8

157

269

221

181

15.3

-32.7

-18.1

100

94

115

113

13.0

20.2

-1.7

34

26

28

35

2.9

34.6

25.0

82

89

95

102

24.4

14.6

7.4

405

587

350

282

-30.4

-52.0

-19.4

46

44

45

37

-19.6

-15.9

-17.8

116

62

75

-40.5

-35.3

21.0

49

26

35

33

-32.7

26.9

-5.7

PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Total
SOCIAL SCIENCES
Total
LIFE SCIENCES
Total
HUMANITIES
Total
ENGINEERING a
Total

PROFESSIONALOTHER
Total

126

a Engineering includes engineering technologies.

90

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 24

Full-Time Faculty in Higher Education, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender:


Selected Years, Fall 1993 to 2001a

Total

1993
Percent

Total

1995
Percent

Total

1997
Percent

Total

1999
Percent

Total

2001
Percent

Percent
Change
1993 to
2001

Percent
Change
1995 to
2001

Percent
Change
1999 to
2001

TOTAL

545,706

100.0

550,822

100.0

568,719

100.0

590,937

100.0

611,308

100.0

12.0

11.0

3.4

Men

363,430

66.6

360,150

65.4

363,925

64.0

371,039

62.8

376,816

61.6

3.7

4.6

1.6

Women

182,276

33.4

190,672

34.6

204,794

36.0

219,898

37.2

234,492

38.4

28.6

23.0

6.6

468,770

85.9

468,518

85.1

477,281

83.9

489,206

82.8

499,557

81.7

6.6

6.6

2.1

Men

313,278

57.4

307,498

55.8

306,374

53.9

307,814

52.1

307,863

50.4

-1.7

0.1

0.0

Women

155,492

28.5

161,020

29.2

170,907

30.1

181,392

30.7

191,694

31.4

23.3

19.0

5.7

Total Minority

65,000

11.9

69,505

12.6

76,074

13.4

82,393

13.9

90,996

14.9

40.0

30.9

10.4

Men

41,024

7.5

43,258

7.9

46,516

8.2

49,706

8.4

54,089

8.8

31.8

25.0

8.8

Women

23,976

4.4

26,247

4.8

29,558

5.2

32,687

5.5

36,907

6.0

53.9

40.6

12.9

25,658

4.7

26,835

4.9

27,728

4.9

29,222

4.9

31,681

5.2

23.5

18.1

8.4

Men

13,385

2.5

13,847

2.5

14,061

2.5

14,660

2.5

15,851

2.6

18.4

14.5

8.1

Women

12,273

2.2

12,988

2.4

13,667

2.4

14,562

2.5

15,830

2.6

29.0

21.9

8.7

White

African American

Hispanic

12,076

2.2

12,942

2.3

14,772

2.6

16,498

2.8

18,514

3.0

53.3

43.1

12.2

Men

7,459

1.4

7,864

1.4

8,795

1.5

9,622

1.6

10,643

1.7

42.7

35.3

10.6

Women

4,617

0.8

5,078

0.9

5,977

1.1

6,876

1.2

7,871

1.3

70.5

55.0

14.5

25,269

4.6

27,572

5.0

31,283

5.5

34,112

5.8

38,026

6.2

50.5

37.9

11.5

18,943

3.5

20,285

3.7

22,339

3.9

23,975

4.1

26,037

4.3

37.4

28.4

8.6

6,326

1.2

7,287

1.3

8,944

1.6

10,137

1.7

11,989

2.0

89.5

64.5

18.3

1,997

0.4

2,156

0.4

2,291

0.4

2,561

0.4

2,775

0.5

39.0

28.7

8.4

1,237

0.2

1,262

0.2

1,321

0.2

1,449

0.2

1,558

0.3

25.9

23.5

7.5

760

0.1

894

0.2

970

0.2

1,112

0.2

1,217

0.2

60.1

36.1

9.4

10,829

2.0

10,853

2.0

12,968

2.3

7,190

1.2

20,755

3.4

91.7

91.2

188.7

Men

8,355

1.5

8,161

1.5

9,580

1.7

4,541

0.8

14,864

2.4

77.9

82.1

227.3

Women

2,474

0.5

2,692

0.5

3,388

0.6

2,649

0.4

5,891

1.0

138.1

118.8

122.4

Asian American b
Men
Women
American Indian c
Men
Women
Foreign Faculty

a Faculty were counted in the fall of each academic year.


b Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.
c American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

Note:

Details may not add to totals because of rounding. Table includes full-time faculty who are in nontenure-earning positions, tenured faculty, and faculty who are nontenured but in positions that lead to consideration for tenure. Figures shown here may not agree with tables showing tenure data because some respondents provided total faculty counts by race but did not further categorize by tenure status.

Source:

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education System (IPEDS), Fall Staff Survey, 1993 through 2001.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

91

Table 25

Full-Time Faculty in Higher Education, by Academic Rank, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender:


Selected Years, Fall 1993 to 2001
FULL PROFESSOR

Total

1993
Percent

Total

1995
Percent

Total

1997
Percent

Total

1999
Percent

Total

2001
Percent

Percent
Change
1993 to
2001

Percent
Change
1995 to
2001

Percent
Change
1999 to
2001

TOTAL

157,253

100.0

159,333

100.0

163,632

100.0

161,309

100.0

161,936

100.0

3.0

1.6

0.4

Men

130,574

83.0

130,940

82.2

131,279

80.2

127,684

79.2

125,687

77.6

-3.7

-4.0

-1.6

Women

26,679

17.0

28,393

17.8

32,353

19.8

33,625

20.8

36,249

22.4

35.9

27.7

7.8

141,848

90.2

142,819

89.6

145,057

88.6

142,852

88.6

142,597

88.1

0.5

-0.2

-0.2

118,308

75.2

117,844

74.0

116,947

71.5

113,304

70.2

110,664

68.3

-6.5

-6.1

-2.3

23,540

15.0

24,975

15.7

28,110

17.2

29,548

18.3

31,933

19.7

35.7

27.9

8.1

Total Minority

14,298

9.1

15,254

9.6

17,085

10.4

16,950

10.5

17,999

11.1

25.9

18.0

6.2

Men

11,286

7.2

11,987

7.5

13,059

8.0

13,105

8.1

13,846

8.6

22.7

15.5

5.7

3,012

1.9

3,267

2.1

4,026

2.5

3,845

2.4

4,153

2.6

37.9

27.1

8.0

4,526

2.9

4,768

3.0

5,240

3.2

4,784

3.0

5,030

3.1

11.1

5.5

5.1

Men

2,982

1.9

3,085

1.9

3,316

2.0

3,078

1.9

3,275

2.0

9.8

6.2

6.4

Women

1,544

1.0

1,683

1.1

1,924

1.2

1,706

1.1

1,755

1.1

13.7

4.3

2.9

Hispanic

2,387

1.5

2,470

1.6

2,921

1.8

2,913

1.8

3,120

1.9

30.7

26.3

7.1

Men

1,776

1.1

1,912

1.2

2,154

1.3

2,157

1.3

2,292

1.4

29.1

19.9

6.3

611

0.4

558

0.4

767

0.5

756

0.5

828

0.5

35.5

48.4

9.5

7,033

4.5

7,643

4.8

8,511

5.2

8,786

5.4

9,357

5.8

33.0

22.4

6.5

6,245

4.0

6,691

4.2

7,268

4.4

7,519

4.7

7,913

4.9

26.7

18.3

5.2

788

0.5

952

0.6

1,243

0.8

1,267

0.8

1,444

0.9

83.2

51.7

14.0

352

0.2

373

0.2

413

0.3

467

0.3

492

0.3

39.8

31.9

5.4

283

0.2

299

0.2

321

0.2

351

0.2

366

0.2

29.3

22.4

4.3

69

0.0

74

0.0

92

0.1

116

0.1

126

0.1

82.6

70.3

8.6

942

0.6

975

0.6

1,090

0.7

774

0.5

1,340

0.8

42.3

37.4

73.1

848

0.5

879

0.6

963

0.6

648

0.4

1,177

0.7

38.8

33.9

81.6

94

0.1

96

0.1

127

0.1

126

0.1

163

0.1

73.4

69.8

29.4

Percent
Change
1993 to
2001

Percent
Change
1995 to
2001

Percent
Change
1999 to
2001

White
Men
Women

Women
African American

Women
Asian American a
Men
Women
American Indian b
Men
Women
Foreign Faculty
Men
Women

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR

Total

1993
Percent

Total

1995
Percent

Total

1997
Percent

Total

1999
Percent

Total

2001
Percent

TOTAL

120,696

100.0

125,082

100.0

128,262

100.0

128,826

100.0

128,895

100.0

6.8

3.0

0.1

Men

84,506

70.0

85,313

68.2

84,740

66.1

83,359

64.7

81,387

63.1

-3.7

-4.6

-2.4

Women

36,190

30.0

39,769

31.8

43,522

33.9

45,467

35.3

47,508

36.9

31.3

19.5

4.5

106,017

87.8

108,953

87.1

110,076

85.8

109,037

84.6

107,828

83.7

1.7

-1.0

-1.1

Men

74,191

61.5

74,160

59.3

72,488

56.5

70,137

54.4

67,568

52.4

-8.9

-8.9

-3.7

Women

31,826

26.4

34,793

27.8

37,588

29.3

38,900

30.2

40,260

31.2

26.5

15.7

3.5

Total Minority

13,371

11.1

14,710

11.8

16,475

12.8

17,773

13.8

19,188

14.9

43.5

30.4

8.0

Men

9,239

7.7

9,985

8.0

10,935

8.5

11,677

9.1

12,334

9.6

33.5

23.5

5.6

Women

4,132

3.4

4,725

3.8

5,540

4.3

6,096

4.7

6,854

5.3

65.9

45.1

12.4

White

African American

5,326

4.4

5,634

4.5

6,048

4.7

6,462

5.0

6,826

5.3

28.2

21.2

5.6

Men

3,089

2.6

3,214

2.6

3,374

2.6

3,601

2.8

3,765

2.9

21.9

17.1

4.6

Women

2,237

1.9

2,420

1.9

2,674

2.1

2,861

2.2

3,061

2.4

36.8

26.5

7.0

Hispanic

2,291

1.9

2,607

2.1

2,979

2.3

3,161

2.5

3,498

2.7

52.7

34.2

10.7

Men

1,590

1.3

1,723

1.4

1,891

1.5

1,977

1.5

2,167

1.7

36.3

25.8

9.6

701

0.6

884

0.7

1,088

0.8

1,184

0.9

1,331

1.0

89.9

50.6

12.4
8.3

Women
Asian American a

5,471

4.5

6,119

4.9

7,072

5.5

7,752

6.0

8,399

6.5

53.5

37.3

Men

4,367

3.6

4,826

3.9

5,439

4.2

5,865

4.6

6,139

4.8

40.6

27.2

4.7

Women

1,104

0.9

1,293

1.0

1,633

1.3

1,887

1.5

2,260

1.8

104.7

74.8

19.8

283

0.2

350

0.3

376

0.3

398

0.3

465

0.4

64.3

32.9

16.8

193

0.2

222

0.2

231

0.2

234

0.2

263

0.2

36.3

18.5

12.4

90

0.1

128

0.1

145

0.1

164

0.1

202

0.2

124.4

57.8

23.2

1,139

0.9

1,179

0.9

1,373

1.1

1,121

0.9

1,879

1.5

65.0

59.4

67.6

Men

942

0.8

989

0.8

1,110

0.9

846

0.7

1,485

1.2

57.6

50.2

75.5

Women

197

0.2

190

0.2

263

0.2

275

0.2

394

0.3

100.0

107.4

43.3

American Indian b
Men
Women
Foreign Faculty

a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.


b American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

Note:

Details may not add to total because of rounding.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education System (IPEDS), Fall Staff Survey, 1993 through 2001.
92

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Continued on next page

Table 25 continued

Full-Time Faculty in Higher Education, by Academic Rank, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender:


Selected Years, Fall 1993 to 2001
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR

Total

1993
Percent

Total

1995
Percent

Total

1997
Percent

Total

1999
Percent

Total

2001
Percent

Percent
Change
1993 to
2001

Percent
Change
1995 to
2001

Percent
Change
1999 to
2001

TOTAL

129,159

100.0

129,682

100.0

128,329

100.0

134,791

100.0

143,838

100.0

11.4

10.9

6.7

Men

74,822

57.9

73,141

56.4

70,975

55.3

74,127

55.0

79,357

55.2

6.1

8.5

7.1

Women

54,337

42.1

56,541

43.6

57,354

44.7

60,664

45.0

64,481

44.8

18.7

14.0

6.3

105,091

81.4

104,037

80.2

101,645

79.2

104,674

77.7

109,840

76.4

4.5

5.6

4.9

Men

59,709

46.2

57,580

44.4

55,252

43.1

56,463

41.9

59,251

41.2

-0.8

2.9

4.9

Women

45,382

35.1

46,457

35.8

46,393

36.2

48,211

35.8

50,589

35.2

11.5

8.9

4.9

Total Minority

19,090

14.8

20,725

16.0

21,447

16.7

22,999

17.1

25,647

17.8

34.3

23.7

11.5

Men

11,237

8.7

11,952

9.2

12,008

9.4

12,672

9.4

14,066

9.8

25.2

17.7

11.0

7,853

6.1

8,773

6.8

9,439

7.4

10,327

7.7

11,581

8.1

47.5

32.0

12.1

7,686

6.0

8,011

6.2

8,046

6.3

8,431

6.3

9,027

6.3

17.4

12.7

7.1

Men

3,801

2.9

3,897

3.0

3,758

2.9

3,882

2.9

4,101

2.9

7.9

5.2

5.6

Women

3,885

3.0

4,114

3.2

4,288

3.3

4,549

3.4

4,926

3.4

26.8

19.7

8.3

Hispanic

3,387

2.6

3,736

2.9

3,953

3.1

4,237

3.1

4,791

3.3

41.5

28.2

13.1

Men

1,951

1.5

2,068

1.6

2,200

1.7

2,291

1.7

2,589

1.8

32.7

25.2

13.0

Women

1,436

1.1

1,668

1.3

1,753

1.4

1,946

1.4

2,202

1.5

53.3

32.0

13.2

7,586

5.9

8,459

6.5

8,902

6.9

9,718

7.2

11,218

7.8

47.9

32.6

15.4

Men

5,277

4.1

5,734

4.4

5,789

4.5

6,199

4.6

7,078

4.9

34.1

23.4

14.2

Women

2,309

1.8

2,725

2.1

3,113

2.4

3,519

2.6

4,140

2.9

79.3

51.9

17.6

431

0.3

519

0.4

546

0.4

613

0.5

611

0.4

41.8

17.7

-0.3

Men

208

0.2

253

0.2

261

0.2

300

0.2

298

0.2

43.3

17.8

-0.7

Women

223

0.2

266

0.2

285

0.2

313

0.2

313

0.2

40.4

17.7

0.0

4,602

3.6

4,311

3.3

4,494

3.5

3,241

2.4

8,351

5.8

81.5

93.7

157.7

White

Women
African American

Asian American a

American Indian b

Foreign Faculty
Men
Women

3,628

2.8

3,225

2.5

3,292

2.6

1,892

1.4

6,040

4.2

66.5

87.3

219.2

974

0.8

1,086

0.8

1,202

0.9

1,349

1.0

2,311

1.6

137.3

112.8

71.3

Percent
Change
1993 to
2001

Percent
Change
1995 to
2001

Percent
Change
1999 to
2001

INSTRUCTOR AND LECTURER

Total

1993
Percent

Total

1995
Percent

Total

1997
Percent

Total

1999
Percent

Total

2001
Percent

TOTAL

81,414

100.0

79,582

100.0

82,671

100.0

96,146

100.0

110,188

100.0

35.3

38.5

14.6

Men

41,032

50.4

38,956

49.0

40,328

48.8

47,064

49.0

53,821

48.8

31.2

38.2

14.4

Women

40,382

49.6

40,626

51.0

42,343

51.2

49,082

51.0

56,367

51.2

39.6

38.7

14.8

68,192

83.8

65,744

82.6

67,951

82.2

77,767

80.9

89,126

80.9

30.7

35.6

14.6

Men

34,271

42.1

32,048

40.3

32,965

39.9

38,052

39.6

43,640

39.6

27.3

36.2

14.7

Women

33,921

41.7

33,696

42.3

34,986

42.3

39,715

41.3

45,486

41.3

34.1

35.0

14.5

Total Minority

11,595

14.2

12,061

15.2

12,380

15.0

15,417

16.0

18,608

16.9

60.5

54.3

20.7

Men

5,688

7.0

5,849

7.3

5,934

7.2

7,347

7.6

8,754

7.9

53.9

49.7

19.2

Women

5,907

7.3

6,212

7.8

6,446

7.8

8,070

8.4

9,854

8.9

66.8

58.6

22.1

5,551

6.8

5,655

7.1

5,380

6.5

6,258

6.5

7,571

6.9

36.4

33.9

21.0

Men

2,471

3.0

2,505

3.1

2,352

2.8

2,723

2.8

3,289

3.0

33.1

31.3

20.8

Women

3,080

3.8

3,150

4.0

3,028

3.7

3,535

3.7

4,282

3.9

39.0

35.9

21.1

Hispanic

2,678

3.3

2,959

3.7

3,207

3.9

4,384

4.6

5,335

4.8

99.2

80.3

21.7

Men

1,404

1.7

1,538

1.9

1,636

2.0

2,217

2.3

2,638

2.4

87.9

71.5

19.0

Women

1,274

1.6

1,421

1.8

1,571

1.9

2,167

2.3

2,697

2.4

111.7

89.8

24.5

2,700

3.3

2,880

3.6

3,267

4.0

4,099

4.3

4,861

4.4

80.0

68.8

18.6

Men

1,390

1.7

1,485

1.9

1,649

2.0

2,047

2.1

2,375

2.2

70.9

59.9

16.0

Women

1,310

1.6

1,395

1.8

1,618

2.0

2,052

2.1

2,486

2.3

89.8

78.2

21.2

666

0.8

567

0.7

526

0.6

676

0.7

841

0.8

26.3

48.3

24.4

Men

423

0.5

321

0.4

297

0.4

360

0.4

452

0.4

6.9

40.8

25.6

Women

243

0.3

246

0.3

229

0.3

316

0.3

389

0.4

60.1

58.1

23.1

1,379

1.7

1,274

1.6

1,601

1.9

1,270

1.3

2,454

2.2

78.0

92.6

93.2

Men

903

1.1

784

1.0

1,026

1.2

693

0.7

1,427

1.3

58.0

82.0

105.9

Women

476

0.6

490

0.6

575

0.7

577

0.6

1,027

0.9

115.8

109.6

78.0

White

African American

Asian American a

American Indian b

Foreign Faculty

Continued on next page


a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.
b American Indian includes Alaska Natives.
AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

93

Table 25 continued

Full-Time Faculty in Higher Education, by Academic Rank, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender:


Selected Years, Fall 1993 to 2001
OTHER a

Total

1993
Percent

Total

1995
Percent

Total

1997
Percent

Total

1999
Percent

Total

2001
Percent

Percent
Change
1993 to
2001

Percent
Change
1995 to
2001

Percent
Change
1999 to
2001

TOTAL

57,184

100.0

57,143

100.0

65,825

100.0

69,865

100.0

66,451

100.0

16.2

16.3

-4.9

Men

32,496

56.8

31,800

55.6

36,603

55.6

38,805

55.5

36,564

55.0

12.5

15.0

-5.8

Women

24,688

43.2

25,343

44.4

29,222

44.4

31,060

44.5

29,887

45.0

21.1

17.9

-3.8

47,622

83.3

46,965

82.2

52,552

79.8

54,876

78.5

50,166

75.5

5.3

6.8

-8.6

Men

26,799

46.9

25,866

45.3

28,722

43.6

29,858

42.7

26,740

40.2

-0.2

3.4

-10.4

Women

20,823

36.4

21,099

36.9

23,830

36.2

25,018

35.8

23,426

35.3

12.5

11.0

-6.4

Total Minority

6,646

11.6

6,755

11.8

8,687

13.2

9,254

13.2

9,554

14.4

43.8

41.4

3.2

Men

3,574

6.3

3,485

6.1

4,580

7.0

4,905

7.0

5,089

7.7

42.4

46.0

3.8

Women

3,072

5.4

3,270

5.7

4,107

6.2

4,349

6.2

4,465

6.7

45.3

36.5

2.7

2,569

4.5

2,767

4.8

3,014

4.6

3,287

4.7

3,227

4.9

25.6

16.6

-1.8

Men

1,042

1.8

1,146

2.0

1,261

1.9

1,376

2.0

1,421

2.1

36.4

24.0

3.3

Women

1,527

2.7

1,621

2.8

1,753

2.7

1,911

2.7

1,806

2.7

18.3

11.4

-5.5

White

African American

Hispanic

1,333

2.3

1,170

2.0

1,712

2.6

1,803

2.6

1,770

2.7

32.8

51.3

-1.8

Men

738

1.3

623

1.1

914

1.4

980

1.4

957

1.4

29.7

53.6

-2.3

Women

595

1.0

547

1.0

798

1.2

823

1.2

813

1.2

36.6

48.6

-1.2

2,479

4.3

2,471

4.3

3,531

5.4

3,757

5.4

4,191

6.3

69.1

69.6

11.6

1,664

2.9

1,549

2.7

2,194

3.3

2,345

3.4

2,532

3.8

52.2

63.5

8.0

815

1.4

922

1.6

1,337

2.0

1,412

2.0

1,659

2.5

103.6

79.9

17.5

265

0.5

347

0.6

430

0.7

407

0.6

366

0.6

130

0.2

167

0.3

211

0.3

204

0.3

Asian American b
Men
Women
American Indian c
Men
Women
Foreign Faculty
Men
Women

135

0.2

180

0.3

219

0.3

203

0.3

4.8

3,114

5.4

4,410

6.7

784

1.1

2,034

3.6

2,284

4.0

3,189

4.8

462

0.7

4,735

7.1

733

1.3

830

1.5

1,221

1.9

322

0.5

1,996

3.0

b Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.


c American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

187

0.3

2,767

a Other faculty refers to full-time faculty at institutions without standard academic ranks.

94

179
6,731

0.3
10.1

38.1
37.7

5.5

-10.1

7.2

-12.3

38.5

3.9

-7.9

143.3

116.2

758.5

132.8

107.3

924.9

172.3

140.5

519.9

Table 26

Full-Time Faculty, by Tenure Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender:


Selected Years, Fall 1993 to 2001
TENURED

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Percent
Change
1993 to
2001

100.0

284,107

100.0

277,023

100.0

-2.2

-2.8

-2.5

210,825

74.0

205,573

72.4

192,404

69.5

-9.4

-8.7

-6.4

25.0

74,045

26.0

78,534

27.6

84,619

30.5

19.6

14.3

7.7

250,139

88.3

252,766

88.7

248,724

87.5

238,239

86.0

-4.8

-5.7

-4.2

189,704

67.0

188,081

66.0

181,039

63.7

166,215

60.0

-12.4

-11.6

-8.2

60,435

21.3

64,685

22.7

67,685

23.8

72,024

26.0

19.2

11.3

6.4

Total Minority

31,479

11.1

30,193

10.6

32,801

11.5

36,713

13.3

16.6

21.6

11.9

Men

21,366

7.5

21,174

7.4

22,554

7.9

24,565

8.9

15.0

16.0

8.9

Women

10,113

3.6

9,019

3.2

10,247

3.6

12,148

4.4

20.1

34.7

18.6

1993
Total

Percent

Total

TOTAL

283,246

100.0

284,870

Men

212,468

75.0

70,778

Women
White
Men
Women

African American

1995
Percent

1997

2001

Percent
Change
1995 to
2001

Percent
Change
1997 to
2001

10,555

3.7

10,749

3.8

11,248

4.0

12,322

4.4

16.7

14.6

9.5

Men

6,027

2.1

6128

2.2

6,328

2.2

6,916

2.5

14.8

12.9

9.3

Women

4,528

1.6

4621

1.6

4,920

1.7

5,406

2.0

19.4

17.0

9.9

Hispanic

8,595

3.0

5,790

2.0

6,489

2.3

7,538

2.7

-12.3

30.2

16.2

Men

5,243

1.9

3,934

1.4

4,262

1.5

4,775

1.7

-8.9

21.4

12.0

Women

3,352

1.2

1,856

0.7

2,227

0.8

2,763

1.0

-17.6

48.9

24.1

11,569

4.1

12,760

4.5

14,142

5.0

15,764

5.7

36.3

23.5

11.5

Men

9,550

3.4

10,476

3.7

11,330

4.0

12,179

4.4

27.5

16.3

7.5

Women

2,019

0.7

2,284

0.8

2,812

1.0

3,585

1.3

77.6

57.0

27.5
18.1

Asian American a

American Indian b

760

0.3

894

0.3

922

0.3

1,089

0.4

43.3

21.8

Men

546

0.2

636

0.2

634

0.2

695

0.3

27.3

9.3

9.6

Women

214

0.1

258

0.1

288

0.1

394

0.1

84.1

52.7

36.8

1,357

0.5

1,346

0.5

1,817

0.6

2,071

0.7

52.6

53.9

14.0

1,178

0.4

1,169

0.4

1,468

0.5

1,624

0.6

37.9

38.9

10.6

179

0.1

177

349

0.1

447

0.2

149.7

152.5

28.1

Percent
Change
1993 to
2001

Percent
Change
1995 to
2001

Percent
Change
1997 to
2001

Foreign Faculty
Men
Women

0.1

NONTENURED, ON TENURE TRACK


1993

1995
Total
Percent

1997

2001

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

TOTAL

115,525

100.0

110,311

100.0

106,974

100.0

124,310

100.0

7.6

12.7

16.2

Men

67,936

58.8

63,329

57.4

60,206

56.3

70,283

56.5

3.5

11.0

16.7

Women

47,589

41.2

46,982

42.6

46,768

43.7

54,027

43.5

13.5

15.0

15.5

93,398

80.8

87,651

79.5

84,288

78.8

95,659

77.0

2.4

9.1

13.5

Men

53,908

46.7

49,372

44.8

46,756

43.7

53,240

42.8

-1.2

7.8

13.9

Women

39,490

34.2

38,279

34.7

37,532

35.1

42,419

34.1

7.4

10.8

13.0

Total Minority

18,285

15.8

18,769

17.0

18,735

17.5

22,391

18.0

22.5

19.3

19.5

Men

11,058

9.6

11,136

10.1

10,690

10.0

12,514

10.1

13.2

12.4

17.1

7,227

6.3

7,633

6.9

8,045

7.5

9,877

7.9

36.7

29.4

22.8

6,951

6.0

7,557

7,333

6.9

8,062

6.5

16.0

6.7

9.9

3,555

3.1

3,834

3.5

3,527

3.3

3,818

3.1

7.4

-0.4

8.3

3.4

11.5

White

Women
African American
Men
Women

6.9

3,396

2.9

3,723

Hispanic

4,170

3.6

3,529

Men

2,414

2.1

2,014

1.8
1.4

Women

3.2

1,756

1.5

1,515

6,717

5.8

7,153

Men

4,867

4.2

5,011

Women

1,850

1.6

2,142

447

0.4

530

222

0.2

277

0.3
0.2

Asian American a

American Indianb
Men
Women
Foreign Faculty
Men
Women

225

0.2

253

3,444

3.0

3,291

2,702

2.3

2,446

742

0.6

845

3,806

3.6

4,244

3.4

25.0

14.0

3,608

3.4

4,530

3.6

8.6

28.4

25.6

2,024

1.9

2,447

2.0

1.4

21.5

20.9
31.5

1,584

1.5

2,083

1.7

18.6

37.5

7,259

6.8

9,142

7.4

36.1

27.8

25.9

4.5

4,878

4.6

5,919

4.8

21.6

18.1

21.3

1.9

2,381

2.2

3,223

2.6

74.2

50.5

35.4

535

0.5

657

0.5

47.0

24.0

22.8

261

0.2

330

0.3

48.6

19.1

26.4
19.3

6.5

0.5

3.0
2.2
0.8

274

0.3

327

0.3

45.3

29.2

3,272

3.1

6,260

5.0

81.8

90.2

91.3

2,361

2.2

4,529

3.6

67.6

85.2

91.8

911

0.9

1,731

1.4

133.3

104.9

90.0

Continued on next page


a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.
b American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

Note:
Details may not add to total because of rounding. Faculty data by tenure status and race are not available at the national level for 1999.
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education System (IPEDS), Fall Staff Survey, 1993 through 2001.
AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

95

Table 26 continued

Full-Time Faculty, by Tenure Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender:


Selected Years, Fall 1993 to 2001
NONTENURED, NOT ON TENURE TRACK
1993
Total

Percent

Total

TOTAL

156,132

100.0

155,641

Men

87,999

56.4

Women

68,133

1995
Percent

1997

2001

Percent
Change
1993 to
2001

Percent
Change
1995 to
2001

Percent
Change
1997 to
2001

Total

Percent

Total

Percent

100.0

171,233

100.0

209,975

100.0

34.5

34.9

22.6

85,996

55.3

94,784

55.4

114,129

54.4

29.7

32.7

20.4

43.6

69,645

44.7

76,449

44.6

95,846

45.6

40.7

37.6

25.4

127,905

81.9

128,101

82.3

138,552

80.9

165,659

78.9

29.5

29.3

19.6

Men

71,299

45.7

70,045

45.0

75,555

44.1

88,408

42.1

24.0

26.2

17.0

Women

56,606

36.3

58,056

37.3

62,997

36.8

77,251

36.8

36.5

33.1

22.6

Total Minority

21,680

13.9

20,543

13.2

23,763

13.9

31,892

15.2

47.1

55.2

34.2

Men

11,884

7.6

10,948

7.0

12,874

7.5

17,010

8.1

43.1

55.4

32.1

9,796

6.3

9,595

6.2

10,889

6.4

14,882

7.1

51.9

55.1

36.7

8,344

5.3

8,529

5.5

8,802

5.1

11,297

5.4

35.4

32.5

28.3

Men

3,896

2.5

3,885

2.5

4,044

2.4

5,117

2.4

31.3

31.7

26.5

Women

4,448

2.8

4,644

3.0

4,758

2.8

6,180

2.9

38.9

33.1

29.9

Hispanic

5,142

3.3

3,623

2.3

4,421

2.6

6,446

3.1

25.4

77.9

45.8

Men

2,750

1.8

1,916

1.2

2,375

1.4

3,421

1.6

24.4

78.5

44.0

Women

2,392

1.5

1,707

1.1

2,046

1.2

3,025

1.4

26.5

77.2

47.8

7,385

4.7

7,659

4.9

9,744

5.7

13,120

6.2

77.7

71.3

34.6

Men

4,757

3.0

4,798

3.1

6,048

3.5

7,939

3.8

66.9

65.5

31.3

Women

2,628

1.7

2,861

1.8

3,696

2.2

5,181

2.5

97.1

81.1

40.2

809

0.5

732

0.5

796

0.5

1,029

0.5

27.2

40.6

29.3

Men

481

0.3

349

0.2

407

0.2

533

0.3

10.8

52.7

31.0

Women

328

0.2

383

0.2

389

0.2

496

0.2

51.2

29.5

27.5

6,105

3.9

6,216

4.0

7,872

4.6

12,424

5.9

103.5

99.9

57.8

Men

4,529

2.9

4,546

2.9

5,746

3.4

8,711

4.1

92.3

91.6

51.6

Women

1,576

1.0

1,670

1.1

2,126

1.2

3,713

1.8

135.6

122.3

74.6

White

Women
African American

Asian Americana

American Indianb

Foreign Faculty

a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.


b American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

96

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 27

Full-Time Administrators in Higher Education,


by Race/Ethnicity and Gender: Selected Years, 1993 to 2001
1993
Total
Percent

1995
Total
Percent

1997
Total
Percent

1999
Total
Percent

2001
Total
Percent

Percent
Change
1993 to
2001

Percent
Change
1995 to
2001

Percent
Change
1999 to
2001

TOTAL

137,711

100.0

140,556

100.0

144,018

100.0

158,726

100.0

145,371

100.0

5.6

3.4

-8.4

Men

80,014

58.1

78,971

56.2

78,665

54.6

83,238

52.4

76,413

52.6

-4.5

-3.2

-8.2

Women

57,697

41.9

61,585

43.8

65,353

45.4

75,488

47.6

68,958

47.4

19.5

12.0

-8.7

White

118,651

86.2

120,242

85.5

123,321

85.6

135,107

85.1

121,369

83.5

2.3

0.9

-10.2

Men

70,303

51.1

69,022

49.1

68,768

47.7

72,279

45.5

65,374

45.0

-7.0

-5.3

-9.6

Women

48,348

35.1

51,220

36.4

54,553

37.9

62,828

39.6

55,995

38.5

15.8

9.3

-10.9

Total Minority

18,781

13.6

19,672

14.0

20,275

14.1

23,163

14.6

23,368

16.1

24.4

18.8

0.9

Men

9,526

6.9

9,557

6.8

9,655

6.7

10,678

6.7

10,664

7.3

11.9

11.6

-0.1

Women

9,255

6.7

10,115

7.2

10,620

7.4

12,485

7.9

12,704

8.7

37.3

25.6

1.8

12,232

8.9

12,657

9.0

12,714

8.8

14,047

8.8

13,720

9.4

12.2

8.4

-2.3

Men

5,904

4.3

5,835

4.2

5,737

4.0

6,160

3.9

5,898

4.1

-0.1

1.1

-4.3

Women

6,328

4.6

6,822

4.9

6,977

4.8

7,887

5.0

7,822

5.4

23.6

14.7

-0.8

Hispanic

3,580

2.6

3,795

2.7

4,076

2.8

5,024

3.2

5,231

3.6

46.1

37.8

4.1

Men

1,963

1.4

1,966

1.4

2,047

1.4

2,435

1.5

2,508

1.7

27.8

27.6

3.0

Women

1,617

1.2

1,829

1.3

2,029

1.4

2,589

1.6

2,723

1.9

68.4

48.9

5.2

2,243

1.6

2,511

1.8

2,736

1.9

3,332

2.1

3,541

2.4

57.9

41.0

6.3

1,244

0.9

1,388

1.0

1,470

1.0

1,718

1.1

1,847

1.3

48.5

33.1

7.5

999

0.7

1,123

0.8

1,266

0.9

1,614

1.0

1,694

1.2

69.6

50.8

5.0

African American

Asian Americana
Men
Women
American Indianb

726

0.5

709

0.5

749

0.5

760

0.5

876

0.6

20.7

23.6

15.3

Men

415

0.3

368

0.3

401

0.3

365

0.2

411

0.3

-1.0

11.7

12.6

Women

311

0.2

341

0.2

348

0.2

395

0.2

465

0.3

49.5

36.4

17.7

279

0.2

642

0.5

422

0.3

456

0.3

634

0.4

127.2

-1.2

39.0

185

0.1

392

0.3

242

0.2

281

0.2

375

0.3

102.7

-4.3

33.5

94

0.1

250

0.2

180

0.1

175

0.1

259

0.2

175.5

3.6

48.0

Foreign Administrators
Men
Women

a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.


b American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

Note:

Details may not add to totals because of rounding.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education System (IPEDS), Fall Staff Survey, 1993 through 2001.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

97

Table 28

College and University Presidents,


by Institutional Type, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender: 1994, 2003, and 2004a

Private

1994
Public

Total

Private

2003
Public

Total

Private

2004
Public

Total

Total
Percent
Change
19942004

Total
Percent
Change
200304

1,689

1,560

3,249

1,724

1,467

3,191

2,196

1,700

3,896

19.9

22.1

1,376

1,316

2,692

1,384

1,119

2,503

1,700

1,263

2,963

10.1

18.4

313

244

557

340

348

688

496

437

933

67.5

35.6

1,536

1,321

2,857

1,558

1,223

2,781

1,963

1,400

3,363

17.7

20.9

1,254

1,134

2,388

1,264

946

2,210

1,536

1,059

2,595

8.7

17.4

282

187

469

294

277

571

427

341

768

63.8

34.5

Total Minority

153

239

392

166

244

410

233

300

533

36.0

30.0

Men

122

182

304

120

173

293

164

204

368

21.1

25.6

31

57

88

46

71

117

69

96

165

87.5

41.0

74

133

207

79

134

213

95

163

258

24.6

21.1

Men

61

101

162

56

95

151

64

107

171

5.6

13.2

Women

13

32

45

23

39

62

31

56

87

93.3

40.3

Hispanic

53

63

116

63

82

145

88

101

189

62.9

30.3

Men

38

49

87

43

59

102

61

70

131

50.6

28.4

Women

15

14

29

20

23

43

27

31

58

100.0

34.9

20

18

38

19

14

33

44

13

57

50.0

72.7

18

15

33

18

10

28

35

44

33.3

57.1

13

160.0

160.0

25

31

14

19

23

29

-6.5

52.6

Men

17

22

12

18

22

0.0

83.3

Women

-22.2

0.0

TOTAL
Total
Men
Women

White
Men
Women

Women

African American

Asian Americanb
Men
Women

American Indianc

Continued on next page


a Data based on presidents in office July 1 of each year.
b Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.
c American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

Note:

Figures include presidents of regionally accredited, degree-granting institutions in the United States or its outlying areas (e.g., Puerto Rico). The term president is defined within the American Council on
Educations ART database as the president, chancellor, superintendent, executive director, campus dean, etc., including interim/acting president, heading regionally accredited institutions,
branches, and affiliates.

Source: American Council on Education, ART database. Data compiled in August 2004.

98

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Table 28 continued

College and University Presidents,


by Institutional Type, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender: 1994, 2003, and 2004a

Private

1994
Public

Total

Private

2003
Public

Total

Private

2004
Public

Total

Total
Percent
Change
19942004

Total
Percent
Change
200304

TWO-YEAR INSTITUTIONS
Total

229

950

1,179

259

909

1,168

403

1,019

1,422

20.6

21.7

Men

154

797

951

179

671

850

260

728

988

3.9

16.2

75

153

228

80

238

318

143

291

434

90.4

36.5

White

208

815

1,023

238

773

1,011

367

840

1,207

18.0

19.4

Men

140

701

841

165

584

749

236

616

852

1.3

13.8

Women

68

114

182

73

189

262

131

224

355

95.1

35.5

Total Minority

21

135

156

21

136

157

36

179

215

37.8

36.9

Men

14

96

110

14

87

101

24

112

136

23.6

34.7

39

46

49

56

12

67

79

71.7

41.1

68

73

71

76

10

91

101

38.4

32.9

Men

49

51

44

45

53

57

11.8

26.7

Women

19

22

27

31

38

44

100.0

41.9

13

36

49

12

48

60

21

63

84

71.4

40.0

Men

27

36

10

32

42

16

40

56

55.6

33.3

Women

13

16

18

23

28

115.4

55.6

Asian Americana

11

13

11

-15.4

22.2

Men

10

-20.0

33.3

Women

0.0

0.0

American Indianb

20

21

10

12

17

19

-9.5

58.3

Men

12

13

14

15

15.4

87.5

Women

-50.0

0.0

Women

Women

African American

Hispanic

Continued on next page


a Data based on presidents in office July 1 of each year.
b Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.
c American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION

99

Table 28 continued

College and University Presidents,


by Institutional Type, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender: 1994, 2003, and 2004a

2003
Public

Total

Private

2004
Public

Total

Total
Percent
Change
19942004

1,465

558

2,023

1,793

681

2,474

19.5

22.3

1,741

1,205

448

1,653

1,440

535

1,975

13.4

19.5

91

329

260

110

370

353

146

499

51.7

34.9

1,328

506

1,834

1,320

450

1,770

1,596

560

2,156

17.6

21.8

1,114

433

1,547

1,099

362

1,461

1,300

443

1,743

12.7

19.3

214

73

287

221

88

309

296

117

413

43.9

33.7

Total Minority

132

104

236

145

108

253

197

121

318

34.7

25.7

Men

108

86

194

106

86

192

140

92

232

19.6

20.8

24

18

42

39

22

61

57

29

86

104.8

41.0

69

65

134

74

63

137

85

72

157

17.2

14.6

Men

59

52

111

55

51

106

60

54

114

2.7

7.5

Women

10

13

23

19

12

31

25

18

43

87.0

38.7

Hispanic

40

27

67

51

34

85

67

38

105

56.7

23.5

Men

29

22

51

33

27

60

45

30

75

47.1

25.0

Women

11

16

18

25

22

30

87.5

20.0

18

25

17

24

41

46

84.0

91.7

16

23

16

22

32

36

56.5

63.6

10

400.0

400.0

10

10

0.0

42.9

Men

-22.2

75.0

Women

200.0

0.0

1994
Public

Total

Private

1,460

610

2,070

1,222

519

238

Private

Total
Percent
Change
200304

FOUR-YEAR INSTITUTIONS
Total
Men
Women

White
Men
Women

Women

African American

Asian Americanb
Men
Women

American Indianc

a Data based on presidents in office July 1 of each year.


b Asian American includes Pacific Islanders.
c American Indian includes Alaska Natives.

100

STATUS REPORT ON MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

American Council on Education


Center for Advancement of Racial and Ethnic Equity
Center for Policy Analysis

and

GE Foundation

ST

MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION 21 ANNUAL STATUS REPORT

This report has been produced with generous grants from