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IB Written Response Cell Biology Questions/Answers

May 2005 T2 2b. Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ratio as a factor limiting cell size. (3) the rate of material / heat exchange / diffusion is proportional to surface area; the rate of metabolism is proportional to mass/volume; as a cell grows, the volume increases faster than the surface area / as a cell grows, surface area to volume ratio decreases; (without cell division) material / heat cannot be exchanged fast enough to meet the needs of the cell; 2c. State one difference bet een the proteins produced by free ribosomes and those produced by ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. !"# free ribosomes synthesize proteins for use within the cell/cytoplasm and attached ribosomes produce proteins for export / use within lysosomes / membranes May 2005 T" 2 !he diagram below shows the structure of a cell

(a) "tate the names of # and ## $2% (b) &alculate the actual length of the cell, showing your wor'ing $2% (c) "tate the function of the structure labelled ### $(% (d) )educe which type of cell is shown in the diagram, giving reasons for your answer $2%

2. !a# $% is the plasma membrane&cell !surface# membrane&phospholipid bilayer' $$% is the mesosome' (2) !b# size of dra ing divided by magnification & figures using this e*uation' !units not re*uired# + ard (") for or,ing even if length measurement is incorrect. ".-" !. 0.02# /m' !units re*uired# (2) +ccept ans ers given in m0 cm0 mm and nm. !c# protection & support & maintains shape & prevents bursting (") !d# bacterium&bacteria&pro,aryote' reason% (" max) as no nuclear membrane & no nucleus' as no mitochondria & membrane bound organelles' as mesosomes & small size & circular 12+' !1o not accept na,ed 12+ or no histone.# (2 max) *e+ect reasons if cell type is incorrectly identified May 200- T2 , (a) )iscuss possible exceptions to the cell theory $-% !a# s,eletal muscle fibres are larger & have many nuclei & are not typical cells' fungal hyphae are !sometimes# not divided up into individual cells' unicellular organisms can be considered acellular' because they are larger than a typical cell & carry out all life functions' some tissues & organs contain large amounts of extracellular material' e.g. vitreous humour of eye & mineral deposits in bone & xylem in trees & other example' statement of cell theory & all living things&most tissues are composed entirely of true cells' (- max) May 200- T" 2 (a) .xplain how the surface area to volume ratio influences cell sizes $3% (b) "tate one function for each of the following organelles $3% (i) *ibosomes (ii) *ough endoplasmic reticulum (iii) /olgi apparatus (c) &ompare pro'aryotic and eu'aryotic cells in regards to three different features $3%

2. !a# small cells have larger ratio !than larger cells# & ratio decreases as size increases' surface area&membrane must be large enough to absorb nutrients&oxygen&substances needed' surface area&membrane must be large enough to excrete&pass out aste products' need for materials is determined by !cell# volume' cell size is limited !by S+ vol & ratio# & cells divide hen they reach a certain size' reference to diffusion across&through membrane&surface area' (3 max) !b# + ard (" max) for each organelle. Mar, first ans er only. !i# translation & produces polypeptides & proteins & protein synthesis' !ii# support of ribosomes & site of protein synthesis & synthesis of proteins for secretion & folding of polypeptides' !iii# produces glycoproteins & processing of proteins & forms lysosomes & formation of vesicles !for exocytosis#' (3 max) !c# + ard (") for each of the follo ing pairs. Mar, first ans er only in boxes "0 2 and 3. pro,aryotic cells eu,aryotic cells nucleoid & no nucleus & nuclear membrane vs. nucleus & nuclear membrane' na,ed 12+ & no histones vs. 12+ associated ith protein & histone' no mitochondria vs. mitochondria present' no 4olgi & no E5 vs. 4olgi & E5 present' circular 12+ vs. linear 12+' no&very fe membrane6bound organelles vs. membrane6bound organelles' ribosomes smaller & 70S vs. ribosomes larger & 80S' no mitosis & meiosis vs. mitosis & meiosis' flagella lac, internal microtubules vs. flagella have microtubules !9:2#' (3 max) +llo (") only for a similarity. May 2003 - (a) )raw a diagram of the ultrastructure of an animal cell as seen in an electron micrograph $,% -. !a# + ard (") for each of the follo ing structures clearly dra n and labelled correctly. + ard mar,s for labelled eu,aryotic structures0 then deduct (") per labelled pro,aryotic structure sho n e.g. mesosome0 cell all. nuclear membrane & nucleus ! ith nuclear membrane sho n double ith pores#' ribosomes !free or attached to E5#' endoplasmic reticulum & E5' plasma & cell membrane !re;ect if sho n as double line#' mitochondria !sho n ith inner and outer membrane#' 4olgi !apparatus#' lysosomes'

2ov 2003 0 (c) .xplain the role of vesicles in transportation of materials within cells (c) 1ar's can be achieved by means of a suitable annotated diagrams vesicles are membrane bound pac'ages/droplets; formed by pinching off/budding off a piece from a membrane; can carry proteins; rough .* synthesizes proteins; proteins enter/accumulate inside the .*; transported to /olgi apparatus for processing; targeted to/transported to specific cellular organelles; fuse with membrane of organelle so contents of vesicle +oin the organelle; transported to the plasma membrane; fuses with plasma membrane releases/secretes contents; exocytosis; $2 max% May 2002 , (a) )raw the structure of a mitochondrion as seen in an electron micrograph $3% , (a) 4ward $(% for each of the following structures clearly drawn and labelled correctly outer membrane; intermembrane space / outer compartment; inner membrane; matrix; cristae; ribosome; na'ed / circular )54; 4!6 synthase; )o not accept plasma membrane 2ov 2000 - (a) )raw a diagram to show the organelles which are found in the cytoplasm of plant cells $,% - (a) (4ward $( mar'% for each of the following structures accurately drawn and labelled ) rough endoplasmic reticulum; (free) ribosomes; /olgi apparatus; mitochondrion; chloroplast;

vacuole; nucleus; lysosome and smooth endoplasmic reticulum; May "999 - (c) )iscuss whether the light microscope or the electron microscope is more useful for studying cells, tissues and organs $3% (Award 1 mark for any of the below; up to a maximum of 5 marks) +dvantages of light microscope &olours of material from tissues/organ can be seen; 7iving material can be studied/less damage to specimen; &ell activities/movement can be studied 7arger field of view +dvantages of electron microscope /reater resolution "maller structures can be seen/greater magnification; (Award up to 2 marks for the following overall assessment) .lectron microscope better for cells/small structures; 8ut light microscope better for organs;