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Differentiated Instruction

Adapted From:

Directions: Walk around the room and find someone to respond to the questions on your Super Sleuth paper. After a verbal answer the person will initial the square. Rules: - A person can only answer and initial one square. - The goals are to activate prior knowledge and to meet new people with new ideas.

Super Sleuth
What is your definition of differentiated instruction? Give an example of when you have used DI? What is something you would like to learn about DI?

When do you use small group instruction? What is one way you can form groups in your classroom?

Differentiation means as many lesson plans as you have students. Agree? What are some quick on-going assessments in your class?

How do you discover how your students learn? Are DI and assessment related?

Why Differentiated Instruction?

Dealing with the reality of diverse learners

Differentiation is classroom practice that looks eyeball to eyeball with the reality that kids differ, and the most effective teachers do whatever it takes to hook the whole range of kids on learning.

Even though students may learn in many ways, the essential skills and content they learn can remain steady. Students can take different roads to the same destination.
-Carol Ann Tomlinson

Jigsaw Reading Activity


Mapping A Route Toward Differentiated Instruction, C. Tomlinson, Educational Leadership, 57:1, September 1999

Objective: Participants become experts in one area of an article relating to Universal Design for Learning and Differentiated Instruction, share their expertise, and finish by relating new information to their current practice.

Draw a number Read corresponding numbered section of article Make notes

Meet with others who drew the same number to form Expert groups and assign group roles Work with group members to create a summary that presents the critical points of the article section Come to consensus on what will be presented back to Jigsaw groups

Expert group members return to their Jigsaw groups and assign group roles Group members present a summary of their section of the article Group members ask clarifying questions until everyone feels they understand the entire article

Is a teachers response to learners needs


Guided by general principles of differentiation, such as Respectful tasks

Flexible grouping

Ongoing assessment & adjustment

Source: The Differentiated Classroom, Tomlinson 1999

Content

Process
according to students

Product

Readiness

Interests

Learning Profile

through a range of instructional and management strategies


Source: The Differentiated Classroom, Tomlinson 1999

Ask yourself about:


CONTENT

PRODUCTS/ ASSESSMENTS

PROCESS/ ACTIVITIES

Content:
How do we adjust or modify the knowledge and skills we expect students to learn?

3-Minute Buzz

Activities:

How do we modify our teaching strategies to help students acquire the knowledge and skills they need?

Think Pair - Share

Products/Assessments:

How do we adjust or modify the way we assess student learning to better measure student growth?

Differentiation of Instruction
Is a teachers response to learners needs
Guided by general principles of differentiation, such as Respectful tasks

Flexible grouping

Ongoing assessment & adjustment

Source: The Differentiated Classroom, Tomlinson 1999

Assessment is organic!
Quick, not always recorded for a grade Is a tool that directly affects ongoing plans for instruction

Leads to increased yields in academic growth

Is a teachers response to learners needs

Guided by general principles of differentiation, such as Respectful tasks

Flexible grouping

Ongoing assessment & adjustment

Source: The Differentiated Classroom, Tomlinson 1999

What is meant by Flexible Grouping?


Students move frequently between
groups as learning objectives change, as their needs evolve, and as they gain proficiency defined by interests and/or learning styles groups to provide instruction

Students sometimes work in groups Teachers sometimes move between

Teacher becomes more of a facilitator of knowledge and skills


Removes the negatives and stigma of static groups, i.e. Once a buzzard, always a buzzard syndrome Students see that they can and will progress as they learn. Growth becomes a visible and expected part of the classroom culture

Back and forth over time or course of unit

Individual Group Individual

Small Group Small Group

Whole

Homogenous/Ability
-Clusters students of similar abilities, level, learning style, or interest. -Usually based on some type of pre-assessment

Individualized or Independent Study


-Self paced learning -Teaches time management and responsibility -Good for remediation or extensions

Heterogeneous Groups
-Different abilities, levels or interest - Good for promoting creative thinking.

Whole Class
-Efficient way to present new content -Use for initial instruction

Differentiation of Instruction
Is a teachers response to learners needs
Guided by general principles of differentiation, such as Respectful tasks

Flexible grouping

Ongoing assessment & adjustment

Source: The Differentiated Classroom, Tomlinson 1999

Just a sampling of strategies that support Differentiated Instruction


Multiple Intelligences
Jigsaw Taped material Anchor Activities Varying Organizers Varied Texts Varied Supplementary Materials Literature Circles Cubing

Tiered Lessons
Tiered Centers Tiered Products Learning Contracts Small Group Instruction Group Investigation Orbitals Independent Study Tiered Assignments

4-MAT
Varied questioning strategies Interest Centers Interest Groups Varied Homework Compacting Varied Journal Prompts Complex Instruction Reading Buddies

Source: The Differentiated Classroom, Tomlinson 1999

Cubing

Im a secondary teacher. How can I differentiate? It can be done!


Anchoring Activities

Adjusting Questions
Tiered Assignments

What are Anchor Activities?

1.

Tiered Instruction Changing the level of complexity or required readiness of a task or unit of study in order to meet the developmental needs of the students involved.

Key Concept Or Understanding

Those who do not know the concept

Those with some understanding

Those who understand the concept

Processes,

content and

Assessments Writing

products
prompts activities
Assignments Anchor Homework Materials Learning

stations

Level of complexity Amount of structure Pacing Materials Concrete to abstract Options based on student interests Options based on learning styles

1. 2. 3.

Identify the standards, concepts, or generalizations you want the students to learn. Decide if students have the background necessary to be successful with the lesson. Assess the students readiness, interests, and learning profiles.

4.

5.

6.

Create an activity or project that is clearly focused on the standard, concept or generalization of the lesson. Adjust the activity to provide different levels or tiers of difficulty that will lead all students to an understanding. Develop an assessment component for the lesson. Remember, it is on-going!

4.

Compacting Curriculum
Compacting the curriculum means assessing a students knowledge and skills, and providing alternative activities for the student who has already mastered curriculum content. This can be achieved by pre-testing basic concepts or using performance assessment methods. Students demonstrating they do not require instruction move on to tiered problem solving activities while others receive instruction.

Student Best

Centered

Multiple

practices approaches

approaches to content, process, and product

Different 3

way of thinking and planning grouping

or 4 different activities

Flexible

One A

Thing

35

different plans for one classroom chaotic classroom

Program
A

The

Goal
Just

Hard

questions for some and easy for others

homogenous grouping

Appoint a class expert (student) Have clear, written directions for all activities Grade judiciously Schedule quiet days Post procedure list for early birds Have sponge/anchoring activities available at all times and well-known to your class

Goal: Participants actively engage in a discussion about the essential question, beginning with personal reflection and ending with group sharing.

Define the essential question for the workshop.

1. Present the essential question (5)

2. Think about your answer individually (5) 3. Pair with a partner and discuss your reflection(s) (10)
4. Share your reflections with the group (15)

They have fewer discipline issues Student growth is significantly increased Their interactions with students are more positive and productive Even most traditionally reluctant learners become focused and motivated when appropriately challenging tasks are assigned for them