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Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Mechanical Vibrations
Chapter 3
Peter Avitabile
Mechanical Engineering Department
University of Massachusetts Lowell
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
SDOF Definitions
lumped mass
stiffness proportional
to displacement
damping proportional to
velocity
linear time invariant
2nd order differential
equations
Assumptions
m
k
c
x(t)
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Harmonic Vibration
Consider the SDOF system with
a sinusoidally varying forcing
function applied to the mass as
shown
F=F
0
sint
From the Newtons Second Law,

= + + = t sin F kx x c x m ma f
0
& & &
(3.1.1)
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Harmonic Vibration
The solution consists of the complementary
solution (homogeneous solution) and the particular
solution. The complementary part of the solution
has already been discussed in Chapter 2.
The particular solution in the one of interest here.
Since the oscillation of the response is at the
same frequency as the excitation, the particular
solution will be of the form
( ) = t sin X x
(3.1.2)
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Harmonic Vibration
Substituting this into the differential equation,
the solution is of the form
Note that this is also seen graphically as
(recall that the velocity and acceleration are 90 and 180 degrees ahead of the displacement)
(3.1.4)
( ) ( )
2
2
2
0
c m k
F
X
+
=



=

2
1
m k
c
tan
(3.1.3)
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Harmonic Vibration
This is expressed in nondimensional form as
and can be further reduced recalling the following
expressions for a SDOF
(3.1.6)
(3.1.5)
( )
2
2
2
0
k
c
k
m
1
k
F
X

=

k m 1
k
c
tan
2
1
m
k
n
=
n c
m 2 c =
c
c
c
=
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Harmonic Vibration
The nondimensional expression is
(3.1.7)
(3.1.8)
2
n
2
2
n
0
2 1
1
F
Xk

=
2
n
n
1
1
2
tan

=

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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Harmonic Vibration
This yields the popular plot of forced response
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Harmonic Vibration
The complex force vector also yields useful
information for interpretation of the results
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Harmonic Vibration
The differential equation describing the system
and the complete solution of this problem is given
as
(3.1.10)
(3.1.11)
t sin
m
F
x x 2 x
0
2
n n
= + + & & &
( )
1 n
2 t
1
2
n
2
2
n
0
t 1 sin e X
2 1
) t sin(
k
F
) t ( x
n
+ +


=

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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Complex Frequency Response Function
The Complex FRF - real and imaginary parts
(3.1.17)
2
n
2
2
n
n
2
n
2
2
n
2
n
2 1
2
j
2 1
1
) j ( h

=
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Response - Rotating Unbalance
The effects of unbalance is a common problem in
vibrating systems.
Consider a one
dimensional system
with an unbalance
represented by an
eccentric mass, m,
with offset, e,
rotating at some
speed, , as shown
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Response - Rotating Unbalance
Let x be the displacement of the non-rotating
mass (M-m) about the equilibrium point, then the
displacement of the eccentric mass is
and the equation of motion becomes
t sin e x +
( ) x c kx t sin e x
dt
d
m x ) m M (
2
2
& & & = + +
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Response - Rotating Unbalance
This can easily be cast as
which is essentially identical to (3.1.1) with the
substitution of F
0
=me
2
The steady-state solution just developed is
applicable for this solution
(3.2.1)
(3.2.3)
( ) t sin me kx x c x M
2
= + + & & &
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
c M k
me
X
+

=
(3.2.2)



=

2
1
M k
c
tan
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Response - Rotating Unbalance
The differential equation describing the system
and the complete solution of this problem is given
as
(3.1.10)
(3.1.11)
t sin
m
F
x x 2 x
0
2
n n
= + + & & &
( )
1 n
2 t
1
2
n
2
2
n
0
t 1 sin e X
2 1
) t sin(
k
F
) t ( x
n
+ +


=

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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Response - Rotating Unbalance
Manipulating into nondimensional form
(3.2.4)
(3.2.5)
2
n
2
2
n
2
n
2 1
e
X
m
M

=
2
n
n
1
1
2
tan

=

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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Response - Rotating Unbalance
This yields the popular plot of forced response
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Response - Rotating Unbalance
The differential equation describing the system
and the complete solution of this problem is given
as
(3.1.10)
(3.1.11)
t sin
m
F
x x 2 x
0
2
n n
= + + & & &
( )
1 n
2 t
1
2
n
2
2
n
0
t 1 sin e X
2 1
) t sin(
k
F
) t ( x
n
+ +


=

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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Response - Rotating Unbalance
The complete solution of this problem is given as
(3.2.6)
( ) ( )
( )
1 n
2 t
1
2
2
2
2
t 1 sin e X
c M k
) t sin(
me ) t ( x
n
+ +
+

=

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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Response - Support Motion
Many times a system is excited at the location of
support commonly called base excitation
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Response - Support Motion
With the motion of the base denoted as y and
the motion of the mass relative to the intertial
reference frame as x, the differential equation
of motion becomes
Substitute
into the equations to give
) y x ( c ) y x ( k x m & & & & = (3.5.1)
y x z =
(3.5.2)
(3.5.3)
t sin Y m y m kz z c z m
2
= = + + & & & & &
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Response - Support Motion
This is identical in form to equation 3.2.1 where z
replaces x and m
2
Y replaces me
2
Thus the solution can be written by inspection as
(3.5.4)
(3.5.5)
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
c m k
Y m
Z
+

=



=

2
1
m k
c
tan
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Response - Support Motion
The steady state amplitude and phase from this
equation can be written as
(3.5.8)
(3.5.9)
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2 2
c m k
c k
Y
X
+
+
=
( ) ( )



=
2 2
3
c m k k
mc
tan
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Forced Response - Support Motion
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Vibration Isolation
Dynamical response can be minimized through the
use of a proper isolation design.
An isolation system attempts either to protect
delicate equipment from vibration transmitted to it
from its supporting structure or to prevent
vibratory forces generated by machines from
being transmitted to its surroundings.
The basic problem is the same for these two
objectives - reducing transmitted force.
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Vibration Isolation - Force Transmitted
Notice that motion transmitted from the
supporting structure to the mass m is less than
one when the frequency ratio is greater that
square root 2.
This implies that the
natural frequency of the
supported system must be
very small compared to the
disturbing frequency.
A soft spring can be used
to satisfy this requirement.
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Vibration Isolation - Force Transmitted
Another problem is to reduce the force transmitted
by the machine to the supporting structure which
essentially has the same requirement.
The force to be isolated is transitted through the
spring and damper as shown
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Vibration Isolation - Force Transmitted
The force to be isolated is transitted through the
spring and damper is
With the disturbing force equal to F0sinwt this
equation becomes
(3.6.1)
( ) ( )
2
n
2 2
T
2
1 kX X c kX F

+ = + =
(3.6.1a)
2
n
2
2
n
0
2 1
k
F
X

=
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Vibration Isolation - Force Transmitted
The transmissibility TR, defined as the ratio of
the transmitted force to the disturbing force, is
and when damping is small becomes
(3.6.2)
2
n
2
2
n
2
n
0
T
2 1
2 1
F
F
TR

+
= =
1
1
F
F
TR
2
n
0
T

= =
(3.6.3)
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Sharpness of Resonance
The peak amplitude of response occurs at
resonance. In order to find the sharpness of
resonance, the two side bands at the half power
points are required.
At the half power points,
(3.10.1)
2
n
2
2
n
2
2 1
1
2
1
2
1

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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Sharpness of Resonance
Solving yields
and if the damping is assumed to be small
Letting the two frequencies corresponding to the
roots of 3.10.3 gives
(3.10.2)
(3.10.3)
( )
2 2
2
n
1 2 2 1 =

2 1
2
n
n
1 2
2
n
2
1
2
2
2 4


=
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
Sharpness of Resonance
The Q factor is defined as
(3.10.4)

=


=
2
1
Q
1 2
n
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
MATLAB Examples - VTB2_3
VIBRATION TOOLBOX EXAMPLE 2_3
function VTB2_3(z,rmin,rmax,opt)
% VTB2_3 Steady state magnitude and phase of a
% single degree of freedom damped system.
>> vtb2_3([0.02:.02:.1],0.5,1.5,1)
>> vtb2_3([0.02:.02:.1],0.5,1.5,3)
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
Frequency Ratio
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Normalized Amplitude vers us Frequency Ratio
= 0.02
= 0.04
= 0.06
= 0.08
= 0.1
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
0
22.5
45
67.5
90
112.5
135
157.5
180
Frequency Ratio
P
h
a
s
e

l
a
g

(

)
Phas e vers us Frequency Ratio
= 0.02
= 0.04
= 0.06
= 0.08
= 0.1
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 3
MATLAB Examples - VTB1_4
VIBRATION TOOLBOX EXAMPLE 1_4
>> clear
>> x0=0; v0=0; m=1; d=.1; k=2; dt=.01; n=10000;
>> t=0:dt:n*dt; u=[sin(t)];
>> [x,xd]=VTB1_4(n,dt,x0,v0,m,d,k,u);
>>
>> plot(t,u); % Plots force versus time.
>> plot(t,x); % Plots displacement versus time.
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2