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TEACHING TO DIFFERENT LEVELS AND DIFFERENT AGES

MILTON ORLANDO MARTINEZ

TEACHING METHODS, BACHELOR DEGREE VIII

ELMER JORGE GUARDADO MaT.

DECEMBER 2ND, 2013


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Communicativ Language e Competence. Function Complaining. Grammar Sub area Morphology Teacher, I dont understand the difference between the superlative and the comparatives.

Description / Solution.

Description: The student does not understand how to use the superlative and the comparatives. Solution: First, we have to know what the function of both of them is. The comparative adjectives are as their name says, to compare two or more things, places or people. While the superlative refers to a highest or extreme degree of a quality. (paulinaortiz0.tripod.com) But there are some rules to use both of them, for example: if the adjective has only one syllable, ending in e. Examples: wide, fine, cute. To form the comparative we just have to add an r at the end of the word (wider, finer, and cuter). While on the other hand, to form the superlative, we have to add st at the end of the word (widest, finest and cutest). When the adjective has one syllable, with one vowel and one consonant at the end, we have to double the final consonant and add er to form the comparative and to form the superlative we have to double the final consonant and add est. Examples: hot, big and fat. Comparatives: hotter, bigger and fatter. Superlatives: hottest, biggest and fattest. (web2.uvcs.uvic.ca, 2008) And there are more information about it, I recommend you to go to the next link in order to get more information about this topic. http://www.edufind.com/english/grammar/adjectives_comparati ve_superlative.php And after you had visited that website, it would be good that you prove yourself how much you got after have read the information in link above, therefore, you should go to the next link in order to do a Little test about this topic. http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=6 009#a

Discourse Sub area Pronunciation

Teacher, it is hard for me to pronounce the article a after the verb had, what can I do?

Description: In this case, the student faces difficulty to pronounce the indefinite article a, after the verb had in the hypothetic structure. Solution: The difficulty of pronunciation is a problem that affects a lot of English learners. When we speak, we do it naturally we do not pronounce a word, stop and pronounce the next word of the sentence. Fluent speech has to flow with a rhythm and the words run into each other. To make our speech flow smoothly the way we pronounce the end and beginning of some words can change depending on the sounds at the beginning and at the end of those words. That is called Connected Speech. (bbc.com.uk, 2011) In this case, the pronunciation of had a sounds a little different, it sound more like hara, and in that way, it is easier to pronounce. If you want to know more about connected speech, I suggest you to go to the next link: http://www.elementalenglish.com/tag/connected-speech/ I hope you check it up, it is a very interesting website, you will not regret about it.

Sociolinguistic Teacher, what is the Sub area difference between Sensitivity to habitat and environment? Dialect or Variety

Description: In this situation the student does not know the difference between the words habitat and environment. Solution: A lot of people get confuse when they are asked about the difference between those two words. And the difference is so easy. The habitat is where a specific kind of animals, insects or any other living beings live. It is surrounded by another species. While in the other hand, the environment is the combination of the biological forms. A habitat always has life in it, while the environment does not necessarily have life in it. Usually, the environment governs the properties of a habitat, but not vice versa. (differencebetween.com, 2010)

I suggest you to go to the next link to get more information. http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-habitatand-vs-environment/

Strategic Sub area Heuristic

Teacher, why do we use the form were with the pronoun I we are supposed to use was with that pronoun?

Description: In this case the student has misinterpreted the function of the Hypothetical form, the student has taken the structure in a very literal way. Solution: As we all know, the form of the verb be in the past are was and were, and we use were with all the pronouns, the only pronoun that uses the form was is the pronoun I. But in the structure that we are studying the use of the past of the verb be changes, because this is a Hypothetical or an unreal situation. In the Hypothetical form we use the verbs in past to make reference to the present tense. To get a clearer point of view about this form and its use, go to the next link: http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/conditional.htm

2) Explanation Variable I. Teaching Children. It is well known that children learn in a very different way than adults. Children learn by playing games and interaction with physical things. That is why the lesson plan will be an interactive one, because it is important to catch the students attention in order to get them into the learning process through by games and simple questions. In this case, the topic will be The Animals, and the structure will be the following: Opening: Here, it is supposed to be where we as teachers, are going to catch the students attention, and in this case, a game with modelling clay will be used, as we know, the physical contact with the object is a very important tool in the teaching children process. They will use their imagination to model the animal they want to. In this way, the topic is being introduced. The objective will be simple, but meaningful, because if we do not achieve the objective, the whole class would be a waste of time. Language Structure: There will be some simple questions that will be asked during the activities that students will develop during the class. Sequence: The activities that the students will perform have to be interactive, avoiding getting them bored during the class, because if they get bored, they will get distracted, and the learning process would not be completed at the end of the class. The meaningful learning has to be blended with interaction and games to achieve it. Pacing: It is very important to keep under control the time of each activity, because if we take too much time in one activity, we will take the time of another activity to keep developing the same activity, and we would not finished the class as we supposed to. And if we develop an activity in less time than the planned, we would have to take more time to cover that empty space in the class, and it is not recommendable to improvise in a class, that is why the lesson plan was created for, to know what exactly we are going to do during the class.

Closure: Here, the activity to close the class of the day is located. In this activity, the interaction and creativity does not have to be loos. The children have to feel the same dynamism from the beginning to the end of the class. At the end of the lesson plan we can find the resources that the teacher is going to use to fulfill the activities. The lesson plan will have the name, address and phone number of the institution where it will be applied. It has to have the name of the teacher, the date, and level of the topic that will be developed, the time that the class will be long, the unit, the subject and the grade. In this way the lesson plan will be recognize where it belongs to. Teaching Methods Involved: Total Physical Response, Audio-lingual Method, and Direct Method.

ESCUELA BARRIO EL CALVARIO 8a Calle Oriente Barrio El Calvario, Usulutn, El Salvador. PBX. (503) 2662-0846 LESSON PLAN Teachers name: Milton Orlando Martinez Date: Dec 2nd, 2013 Time: 45 min Subject: English Section: A Unit: 2 Grade: 1st Grade Level: A 1.1 Topic Warm up Activity Objective Language and Structure What is your favorite animal? Students will make figures of two animals with modelling clay. 10 min. To learn vocabulary about the animals. Activities to do The students will choose their favorite animal from a projected image that contains different animals. 5 min. There will be some images of animals posted on the white board and the students will be asked to identify the domestic animals from the wild animals.10 min. Students will watch a video with a song of the sounds of the animals and then they will repeat the sounds. 10 min. Wrap up Activity Resources

Data show Sing a song with the names of the animals and their sounds. 10 min. Internet Laptop Marker Whiteboard Paper images Tape Speakers

The Animals

What kind of animals do we have in our houses?

What are the sounds that the animals make?

Teaching Teenagers. To teach teens, it is important to take in consideration that there are some situations that we have to avoid as much as possible, because it can be an obstacle for the teaching process. The teenagers are very sensible and the teacher has to avoid embarrassment of students, because if the student suffers an embarrassing situation, he/she would be a passive student since that moment. Affirming the talents that they have is important, because they will try to develop them and if they do it correctly they will succeed in the subject and will have a positive attitude. To promote working in groups is essential, because they will realize about the importance of trust in somebody else. The lesson plan will have the following structure: Opening: The activity to catch their attention has to be strong; otherwise, they will not be focused on the class. Teens are very difficult to control, and if this part of the lesson plan fails, it will be hard to catch their attention later on. In this case, the activity will be a song related to the topic, in this way, students will listen to some vocabulary to be introduced to the topic. Language Structure: Here, the wh-questions are suggested in this case, in order to know how to manage some of them. Sequence: The activities to do have to be interesting, avoiding boring readings, because teens dislike to read more than half a page, that is why the lesson plan includes a prezi presentation and video, after that, the students will have to write a little, but I will be a couple of lines to avoid boring them. In these activities, we can teach some adjectives as characteristics of the animals, (big, small, wild, hairy, fat, etc.) Pacing: The time for developing each activity is essential, because we have to do more than one activity, and we have to know how to manage the time in order to successfully develop the activities in the lesson plan. Closure: The final activity or wrap up activity, is essential, because we not only close the topic, we notice how much the students have learnt during that class. This activity can be a quick quiz, but it is too traditional, therefore, a game will be added as a final activity. It is true that it will be a kind of quiz too, but it will be interactive and funny for them. Teaching Methods Involved: Audio-lingual Method, Total Physical Response, Grammar Translation Method.
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INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE BARRIO EL CALVARIO 9a Calle Oriente Barrio El Calvario, Usulutn, El Salvador. PBX. (503) 2662-1246 LESSON PLAN Teachers name: Milton Orlando Martinez Date: Dec 2nd, 2013 Time: 45 min Subject: English Section: A Unit: 4 Grade: High school Level: A 2.1 Topic Warm up Activity Objective Language and Structure Activities to do Wrap up Activity Resources

The Animals

Students will watch a video with the different names of the most common animals. 5 min.

What animal is this? To learn some vocabulary about the animals and some of their characteristics. Where does this animal live?

Students will watch a prezi presentation with the image and a short description of some animals, students will have to guess the animal. 10 min. Students will watch a video about the different habitats where the animals live, and after that they will be asked to write a description of at least three animals. 15 min.

There will be some balloons (with the name of an animal written on a piece of paper inside of each balloon) posted on a wall, students, one by one, will throw a dart to one balloon to exploit it and will describe the animal that will be written on the paper.15 min.

Data show Internet Laptop Marker Whiteboard Paper Balloons Tape Darts

Teaching Adults. It is easier to teach adults, in a way, because their cognitive capacity is much better than the cognitive capacity of a teenager or a child, because they have better comprehension of the grammatical processes, but even though their age give them advantages, it gives them disadvantages as well. They brain does not have the capacity to develop a good pronunciation nor accent, while children and teens, can develop in a better way those abilities. By taking in consideration the cognitive capacity of the adults, the class will be more analytical. Opening: The opening activity will motivate them to get into the topic. The representation or imitation of an animal will be a good experience for them to break the barriers of learning a new language, because shyness does not have to exist if someone wants to learn a foreign language. And they will have a funny moment to share with their classmates. Language Structure: The abilities that an animal has are adjectives that can be learnt through descriptions. There will be a structure that it would be hard or impossible to learn for teens, which is the Hypothetical structure, even for adults it will be a little hard to understand this structure, but they will do it because of their cognitive capacity. Adults, with their more developed abstract thinking ability, will be able to understand quickly the functions of the superlative and comparative adjectives. Sequence: The activities that the students will do are more complex than the activities for children; however, those activities have to be interactive too, because even though, adults are more mature and have a better behavior in the class, they can get bored and lose the interest in the topic. There will be a blend between abstract knowledge and interactive teaching. Pacing: The activities do not have to take longer than they will be suggested, nor even shorter, because improvising is not recommendable for a teacher. That is why a teacher has to be always prepared, in case that it would be necessary to improvise. Closure: The final activity will be a cognitive challenge for the students, in order to them to show that the learning process has been successful in that class. Teaching Methods involved: Total Physical Response, Audio Lingual Method, Grammar Translation Method, and Community Language Learning.
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UNIVERSIDAD CAPITAN GENERAL GERARDO BARRIOS Km. 113 Carretera del Litoral, Desvo a Santa Mara Usulutn, El Salvador. PBX. (503) 2662-0846 LESSON PLAN Teachers name: Milton Orlando Martinez Date: Dec 2nd, 2013 Time: 45 min Subject: English Section: B Unit: 3 Semester: V Level: B 1.1 Topic Warm up Activity Objective Language and Structure Activities to do Wrap up Activity Resources

Abilities. 5 students will have to imitate their favorite animal by doing movements but no sounds and the rest of the class will have to guess what animal is being imitated. 10 min. To know the different abilities that some animals have to defend themselves.

Students will watch a video that describes the abilities of three animals. 5min Students will write 5 sentences describing what animal they would like to be and why. 10 min. Students will work in groups of four and will choose the most complete animal and then they will compare their results with the other groups. 10 min.

The Animals

If I were/if I had____.

Comparatives/ Superlatives.

Students will make a comparison between two wild animals in a 10 lines paragraph, describing which of them is the most lethal. 10 min.

Data show Internet Laptop Marker Whiteboard Digital images

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3)

Explanation variable II.

Having to teach to different kind of levels into the same classroom is difficult, but it is not impossible. Some time ago, the teacher had to create a different lesson plan for the different levels he/she had in the classroom, obviously, that was a hard job for the teacher to be doing two or three lesson plans for each class. Sometime after that, it was created the Multi-level Classroom, it consists in teaching to the whole group by using the same level. A not too high level for students who are less advanced than the others, and a not so low level for those who are more advanced level, it would be a middle level, and the teacher can manage the levels in a better way. By using this, I can teach better, and I can use some strategies in order to help the students who are in a low level. One of the best strategies to help the students with a lower level is to work in pairs, I can form Like-ability groups, and it is where students of the same proficiency level work together, the students with the highest level can work together and they will not feel that they are doing all the job, and the students with a low level can work together and do their best in order to learn more. Or, I can use the Cross-ability, where students of different proficiency levels work together. The benefit of cross-ability matching is that the higher-level students can help the lower-level students. Remember that sometimes a student understands in a better way when another classmate explains the problem. And by doing that, I can help to create a more friendly environment between the students. Assigning individual homework is another activity that can help to improve the level of the ones who are in a lower level. It works, because when the student realizes that there is nobody else besides of him/her, he/she has to start to try, research and practice; in that way, the student will improve the level. But this depends of the positive attitude of the student, personality and motivation are essential factors that are required, otherwise, the student will not learn as he/she should. But as a teacher, I have to be aware and motivate students in order to reach the goal with them.

4)

Digital resources for teaching children. A projected image: it will contain images of some animals, it will catch their attention and will help them to decide what they like and what they dislike. A video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IrsOW4bjVRc this video will keep them entertained and they will learn some sounds of the animals. Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wCfWmlnJl-A this video is interactive and they will be able to dance it like the Little child that appears in the video. Children will have funny moment and they will learn a couple of words.

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Digital resources for teaching teens.

Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X85qqoAFSbM through this video,


students will now the correct pronunciation of the name of some animals. Prezi presentation: students will watch the presentation with the image and some characteristics of some animals in order to them to guess what animals are being showing. This will help them to keep in mind the vocabulary. Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOoIBf61GX4 by watching this video, students will know something else about the habitat of some animals, and then they will describe three animals they like according to what they saw in the video, in order to practice the vocabulary.

Digital resources fort teaching adults. Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1i22vV9Xe0U students will realize about some characteristics of some animals; this video will help to improve their Reading and reading comprehension skills.

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Bibliography
web2.uvcs.uvic.ca. (2008). Retrieved November 2, 2013, from web2.uvcs.uvic.ca: http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/regcom.htm differencebetween.com. (2010). Retrieved November 2, 2013, from differencebetween.com: http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-habitat-and-vs-environment/ bbc.com.uk. (2011, August 17). Retrieved November 2, 2013, from bbc learning English: http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/pron/features/connected.shtml paulinaortiz0.tripod.com. (n.d.). Retrieved November 2, 2013, from paulinaortiz0.tripod.com: http://paulinaortiz0.tripod.com/id1.html

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