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iD-it RFID systems

Stentor 216 / Stentor 416 User Manual


September 2006

Stentor 216 / Stentor 416 User Manual

1. Safety
1.1. Warnings and signs
Warning Where this mark is found on the Stentor 216 or Stentor 416, there is a danger of injury. Please check the manual carefully to find out more about the danger.

Extra warning High voltage may be present. Where this mark is found on the Stentor 216 or Stentor 416 there is a danger of injury or death. Please check the manual carefully to find out more about the danger.

Attention This product will be notified in the country where it will be used.
Within this manual, the following icons depict text segments that deserve extra attention:

Caution This sign indicates a text passage of special importance, where the proper functioning or safety may be affected.

Tip This sign indicates a text passage containing practical tips on how to make the most effective use of the Stentor.

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1.2. General safety considerations


When using the Stentor, please pay attention to the following: During operation, the Stentor emits radio frequency signals in the 134,2 kHz band. Although the radiation levels are within those specified by CE certification, in certain environments such as hospitals or near electronic equipment, this may lead to Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI). Always check if there are special regulations in effect before operating the Stentor in such an environment. The Stentor may be connected to AC mains power through a power supply unit. Before opening the Stentor, disconnect the AC mains power. Observe the rules for safe working in an electrical environment as they apply to your situation at all times. Even when the reader is powered from a 12 VDC power source, the presence of dangerous voltage levels must be expected in the transmit circuit.

Caution High Voltage During operation, the transmit circuit can contain a voltage level of up to 800 V. Never operate the Stentor when either the antenna, antenna cable or the antenna connectors are damaged.

1.3. Disclaimer
Utmost care has been taken in assembling this handbook. All information disclosed in this document is deemed to be accurate at the time of publishing. The information released herein is available on an as-is basis. iD-it cannot be held responsible for any damages resulting from errors or omissions in this document. In case of questions regarding specific information regarding the Stentor and the application thereof, please contact: ID-It RFID systems Keulse Kamp 11 6665 ND Driel The Netherlands Phone: +31-6-514 70 271 Fax: +31-26-47 232 48 Email: info@id-it.nl

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2. Table of Contents

Safety ............................................................................................................ 2 1. 1.1. Warnings and signs .................................................................................. 2 1.2. General safety considerations ................................................................ 3 1.3. Disclaimer .................................................................................................. 3 2. Table of Contents......................................................................................... 4 3. General ......................................................................................................... 6 3.1. Introduction ............................................................................................... 6 3.2. Basic RFID technology .............................................................................. 7 3.3. HDX technology synchronization ......................................................... 7 3.4. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) ......................................................... 8 4. Detailed description .................................................................................... 9 4.1. Interface connectors .............................................................................. 10 4.1.1. Receive antenna connectors (CN1, CN6, CN8, CN10) ....................... 10 4.1.2. Receive antenna specifications ......................................................... 11 4.1.3. Digital inputs (CN14) ........................................................................... 11 4.1.4. Digital outputs (CN10) ............................................................................ 12 4.1.5. Transmitter module interconnection (CN12 and CN13) ................... 13 4.1.6. Auxiliary signals connector (CN18) .................................................... 14 4.1.7. RS-232 (CN19) ...................................................................................... 15 4.1.8. TCP/IP interface (U19) ......................................................................... 16 4.1.9. Sync network interface (J2)................................................................. 17 4.2. Interface indicators ................................................................................ 18 4.2.1. Detection Antenna n (LED 1 through LED 16) .................................... 18 4.2.2. Digital Input status (LED 23 LED 27) ............................................... 18 4.2.3. Digital Output status (LED28 LED32)............................................... 19 4.2.4. System LED's (LED 17 LED 22) ........................................................... 19 4.2.5. TCP/IP communication indicator (LED34) ........................................... 20 4.3. Stentor on-board controls ..................................................................... 20 4.3.1. On-board beeper controls (P1 - P3) .................................................. 20 4.3.2. Switch bank (DILSW8) .......................................................................... 21 5. Stentor Transmitter .................................................................................... 22 5.1. Interface connectors .............................................................................. 22 5.1.1. Transmit antenna connector header (H1) ......................................... 22 5.1.2. Reader/controller connector J1 ......................................................... 23 5.1.3. Supply power fuse F1 .......................................................................... 23 5.2. Stentor Transmitter indicators .............................................................. 24 5.2.1. Power indicator (LED1) ........................................................................ 24 5.2.2. Transmit burst indicator (LED2) .......................................................... 25 5.3. Stentor Transmitter controls .................................................................. 26 5.4. Tuning the Stentor Transmitter.............................................................. 27 5.4.1. Course tuning ....................................................................................... 27 5.4.2. Fine tuning............................................................................................ 29 5.4.3. Meter readout ...................................................................................... 29 5.5. Transmitter error condition.................................................................... 29 7. Communications ......................................................................................... 34 7.1. iSIP ............................................................................................................ 34 7.2. Communication ports.............................................................................. 34
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7.2.1. 7.2.2.

RS232 serial interface ........................................................................ 35 TCP/IP interface ................................................................................... 35

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3. General
3.1. Introduction
The iD-it Stentor 216 and Stentor 416 are low-frequency RFID readers for use with Texas Instruments Tiris transponders. The Stentor 216 is equipped with one transmitter module and capable of driving 2 transmit antennas. The Stentor 416 comes with 2 transmitter modules, and can drive up to 4 transmit antennas. Commonly, both models will be referred to as Stentor throughout this manual. Serial as well as TCP/IP communication ports are available to interface the Stentor to middleware or logistics control systems. The versatile iSIP (iD-it Serial Interface Protocol) communications protocol provides all the operations and control functionality you need. The Stentor is an advanced Digital Signal Processor (DSP) based RFID reader. The powerful design is capable of simultaneously reading 16 receive antennas for large-scale RFID applications whereby multiple tags can pass the reader station at the same time. One single Stentor can do the work of 16 conventional readers. The DSP technology guarantees optimal performance even under difficult conditions. Specially designed signal processing algorithms allow a transponder code several times weaker than the surrounding background noise to be read reliably. More than a decade of experience in day to day installation of RFID equipment in many different locations have led to the development of the Stentor Transmitter Module. This transmitter has a huge tuning range which offers a great degree of freedom in antenna designs, and easy installation and optimisation of the transmit antennas even in environments containing a lot of metal. The Stentor offers the best possible reliability and ease-of-use for largescale RFID applications.

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3.2. Basic RFID technology


The reader controls an RFID process. This process is capable of detecting and identifying transponders (sometimes called chips), which are within range of the antenna system. The Stentor uses a half-duplex (HDX) approach to communicate with the transponders: Approximately 16 times per second, the reader antenna emits a signal that is received by the transponders in the antenna range. This signal powers and activates the transponder. Immediately after the transmit signal is stopped, the transponder returns its unique code, which is read by the antenna system. The reader receives the code, can store it internally, send the code to a connected computer system,

Transponder
Reader

CC01234567

Antenna mat
Transmitting Energizing Receiving

or control some peripheral equipment when a transponder is recognised.

3.3. HDX technology synchronization


HDX (Half-DupleX) communication means that the transmitter and transponder each transmit their signals in turn. The transponder answers between two read bursts of the transmitter. The signal transmitted by the transmitter is many times stronger than the transponder signal (Picture 1). When two systems are operated close to each other and they are not synchronised, one reader can emit its (strong) signal while a transponder at the other system is transmitting its (weaker) response. The transponder signal is drowned by the signal from the other reader (Picture 2). The reader cannot read the transponder signal. If however both readers are synchronised so that they emit their read bursts exactly at the same time, they also share the same read period, and transponders at both readers can be read quietly (Picture 3).

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Multiple readers Synchronization is absolutely necessary when two half duplex readers are operated close together.

3.4. Electromagnetic interference (EMI)


The influence of one HDX reader on another HDX reader can be controlled by synchronisation. There are however many sources of electromagnetic radiation. The Stentor uses a relatively low frequency, which make it rather robust. There are however several types of equipment that emit signals in a similar frequency range. Examples of such systems are: Automatic door opener systems (monocode transmitters) Guidance systems for AGVs (automatic guided vehicles) The signals emitted by those systems may interfere with the proper operation of the Stentor (or any RFID application). Besides these specific signal sources, another source of interference are heavy load switches and frequency controlled electric motors. These emit signals in a broad spectrum, from very low to very high frequencies including the 134,2 range at which the Stentor operates. The Digital Signal Processing capabilities of the Stentor continuously monitor electromagnetic background signals, and take these in account when processing signals from a transponder. This means that a transponder signal can be detected by a Stentor even if the background noise is several times stronger than the transponder signal. Whenever the Stentor DSP detects heavy EMI, it will signal this with the EMI LED (see 4.2.4). In many cases, the Stentor is still capable of reading transponders, even if an analogue reader would long since fail to do this.

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4. Detailed description

The Stentor is a modular system consisting of the Reader/Controller module and one (Stentor 216) or two (Stentor 416) Transmitter modules. Each Transmitter module can connect to two separate antenna loops in parallel. In addition to this, provisions are made to connect two antenna loops in series. The Reader module can be connected to up to 16 different receive antennas simultaneously. The reader module consists of a DSP/Controller subsystem and an I/O subsystem in one housing. Besides the antenna connections the Reader module offers data communication connections (RS232C and TCP/IP over UTP network cable), digital inputs and digital outputs for interfacing of the Stentor with surrounding equipment. Stentor Reader module connections and controls overview

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The Stentor reader module provides an interface containing a number of connectors, indicator lights and controls, which are located on the printed circuit board extending from the housing:

The next chapters describe the functionality (function, pinouts) and specifications (ratings etc.) of the Stentor interfaces.

4.1. Interface connectors


4.1.1. Receive antenna connectors (CN1, CN6, CN8, CN10) The receive antennas -numbered Rx1 through Rx16- are connected through four connectors: CN1, CN6, CN8, CN10. For each Rx antenna, there is a corresponding LED indicator (see LED 1 LED 16, 4.2.1) indicating when an antenna reads a valid transponder code. The connection pinouts are as follows:

Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

CN1 Function Rx 1 + Rx 1 Rx 2 + Rx 2 Rx 3 + Rx 3 Rx 4 + Rx 4 -

Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

CN6 Function Rx 5 + Rx 5 Rx 6 + Rx 6 Rx 7 + Rx 7 Rx 8 + Rx 8 -

Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

CN8 Function Rx 9 + Rx 9 Rx 10 + Rx 10 Rx 11 + Rx 11 Rx 12 + Rx 12 -

CN10 Pin # Function 1 Rx 13 + 2 Rx 13 3 Rx 14 + 4 Rx 14 5 Rx 15 + 6 Rx 15 7 Rx 16 + 8 Rx 16 -

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4.1.2. Receive antenna specifications The receive antennas are basically just wire loop antennas. The characteristics are not very critical. Parameter Connector type Optimum inductance Value 8 pin 3,81mm Phoenix1803484 27 H

4.1.3. Digital inputs (CN14)

CN14 Pin # Function 1 I1+ 2 I13 I2+ 4 I25 I3+ 6 I37 I4+ 8 I49 I5+ 10 I 5 -

The Stentor provides 5 digital inputs for interfacing to peripheral equipment. The optically isolated inputs can be connected to a DC signal between 12 and 24 VDC. The inputs are polarity-sensitive. The status of the inputs is indicated by 5 corresponding LED indicators (see 4.2.2) and can be assessed by application software through the iSIP RDIO command via the serial- or TCP/IP interface.

Parameter Connector type Minimum input voltage positive 1 Maximum input voltage

Value 10-pin 3,81mm Phoenix1803507 12 V 24 V

Polarity The polarity of the inputs is important. The input will not function properly if + and are exchanged.

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4.1.4. Digital outputs (CN10) CN14 Pin # Function 1 O1+ 2 O13 O2+ 4 O25 O3+ 6 O37 O4+ 8 O49 O5+ 10 O 5 Parameter Connector type Voltage type Maximum voltage Maximum current 5 digital outputs are available. The outputs are under control from supervisory control software (external to the reader), and can be set and cleared through the iSIP command WRIO. The outputs are equipped with solid-state relays, capable of switching both AC and DC. The contacts are not polarity-sensitive (+ / - are not critical). The status of the outputs is indicated by LED 28 32 (see 4.2.3).

Value 10-pin 3,81mm Phoenix1803507 AC or DC 60 V (peak) 1A

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4.1.5. Transmitter module interconnection (CN12 and CN13)

Pin numbering The pins of CN12 and CN13 are numbered from-right-to-left instead of left-to-right. Pin 1 is the rightmost pin.

Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

CN12 Function +12V to TX 1 GND TX Level 1 134,2 KHz out GND PWM 1 ANT 1 phase in Amplitude 1 in

Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

CN13 Function +12V to TX 2 GND TX Level 2 134,2 KHz out GND PWM 2 ANT 2 phase in Amplitude 2 in

The Stentor Transmitter Modules are connected to the Stentor Reader/Controller through CN12 (first transmitter) and CN13 (optional second transmitter, Stentor 416 only)). These interfaces are proprietary, and not intended for any other use. The pinout description is provided for testing/measuring purposes.

Parameter Connector type

Value 8 pin 3,81mm Phoenix1803484

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4.1.6. Auxiliary signals connector (CN18)

Pin numbering The pins of CN18 are numbered fromright-to-left instead of left-to-right. Pin 1 is the rightmost pin.
CN18 Function +12V power in GND Opto Out + (Detection pulse) Opto Out (Detection pulse) Sync Out B Sync Out A Sync In B Sync In A CN18 provides connections for several I/O functions. On Pin 1 and 2 (on the right side of the connector) a twelve-volt power supply can be connected. Pin 3 and 4 provide the detection signal (runs in parallel to the system beeper) that indicates that a valid transponder has been read. The duration of the detection pulse can be set with P3 (see 4.3.1)

Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Synchronization of multiple readers is performed with RS485 compatible, balanced signal lines. Pins 5-6 are sync outputs used if the reader is in master mode. Pins 7-8 are inputs, only used if the unit is in slave mode. Simple twisted wire connections can be used in small systems. If a larger sync infrastructure is required, Pactor sync hubs should be used together with the J2 interface connector for CAT5 UTP cabling (see 4.1.9).

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Parameter Connector type Power supply Input voltage, minimal Input voltage, maximal Opto out Voltage type Maximum voltage Maximum current Sync signals Binary state Function Signal condition DC Voltage Nominal Voltage Minimum output differential Minimum Voltage for A and B Maximum Voltage for A and B Maximum device load Termination 4.1.7. RS-232 (CN19)

Value 8 pin 3,81mm Phoenix1803484 11 VDC 15 VDC AC or DC 60 V (peak) 1A 1 O Off On Mark Space B>A A<B A= +1V, B= +4V A= +4V, B= +1V 0,2V -7V +12V 32 units per network 120 between A and B

CN19 Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Function n/c RxD TxD n/c GND DSR (=RTS from DSP) n/c n/c

The RS-232 connector CN19 provides a serial interface to the Stentor control system. The communication protocol is described in a separate document. The RS-232 connector is a female, 9-pin Dconnector, wired as DTE. This means the unit can be connected to a standard PCF serial interface with a 1-on-1 serial (extension) cable. Pin 6, DSR is connected to the RTS pin at the DSP serial port. The baud rate is fixed at 115200 bps

n/c

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Max data rate When different transponders are continuously read on all 16 receive antennas, the data rate can exceed 115.200 bps. This may lead to communication errors and data loss when the RS232 interface is used. Use of the TCP/IP interface is recommended.

Parameter Connector type Interface standard Communication Rate (fixed) Data format 4.1.8. TCP/IP interface (U19)

Value D9 female RS-232C compliant, DTE wired (EIA 574) 115200 bps 8 bits, no parity, 1 stop bit

The Lantronix Xport (U13) provides a LAN interface for the Stentor. Communication with the Stentor uses the serial protocol described in over a Telnet connection. The default port used for telnet communication with the Stentor is 10001. Communications parameters can be set via a HTTP interface. Parameter Connector type Interface standard Communication Rate equivalent Protocol Port IP address HTTP interface port Value RJ45 female 10/100 Mbps Ethernet, UTP cabling 230400 bps Telnet 10001 (service configurable) Configurable via HTTP interface 80

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4.1.9. Sync network interface (J2)

Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

J2 Function n/c, future option n/c, future option n/c, future option Sync In B Sync In A n/c, future option Sync Out B Sync Out A

When several Stentor readers have to be operated in one location, they must be synchronised. J2 provides a connector for CAT5 UTP cabling. Using iD-it sync hubs, many readers can be connected in a sync network using industry standard cabling.

Parameter Connector type

Value RJ45 female

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4.2. Interface indicators


4.2.1. Detection Antenna n (LED 1 through LED 16)

For each one of the receive antennas (see 4.1.1), there is a separate LED signalling the reception of a valid transponder code by the respective antenna. The LED status is updated in real time i.e. approximately 16 times per second. The LEDs can be used as a quick check if an antenna sees a transponder. 4.2.2. Digital Input status (LED 23 LED 27)

The status of each one of the 5 optically isolated inputs (see 4.1.3) is indicated by one of these 5 indicator LEDs. For operational purposes, the status can be assessed through the RDIO iSIP command (see 7.1)

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4.2.3. Digital Output status (LED28 LED32)

The status of each one of the 5 optically isolated outputs (see 4.1.4) is indicated by one of these 5 indicator LEDs. For operational purposes, the status of the outputs can be controlled with the WRIO iSIP command (see 7.1) 4.2.4. System LED's (LED 17 LED 22)

System status is displayed by the 6 system LED indicators as follows: Name LED 17 LED 18 Function Master EMI Description Indicated that this reader is working stand-alone or as master in a multi reader system. (See 3.3) Indicates that EMI (Electro Magnetic Interference) is present. This may negatively influence the reader performance, although the Stentor DSP technology is capable of clearly reading transponder codes with a signal strength 4x below surrounding noise levels. See EMI 3.4 Indicates that communication between the DSP processor and a peripheral device (either via serial port (4.1.7) or LAN (4.1.8) is currently running. Pulses with each reader cycle. When this LED blinks, the reader is operational. Indicates an error in the operation of the transmitter connected to CN12 (see 5.5) Indicates an error in the operation of the transmitter connected to CN13 (see 5.5) Indicates that 12V power is supplied to CN18

LED 19 LED 20 LED 21 LED 22 LED 35

COM Reader TX 1 Error TX 2 Error Power

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4.2.5. TCP/IP communication indicator (LED34)

This LED is intended for future expansion of the Stentor Reader.

4.3. Stentor on-board controls


The Stentor is primarily intended for operation in a logics control network, and most of the Stentor settings are performed with iSIP commands via the serial port or LAN interface. Some setting however are controlled directly on-board because their function is purely local to one reader, or because the setting requires re-wiring of the readers communication. 4.3.1. On-board beeper controls (P1 - P3)

P1 and P3 are variable resistors. Their settings determine the duration and the volume of the beeper signalling a valid read by one of the receive antennas. The beeper can be switched on or of with switch DIPSW8-5 (see 4.3.2). P2 is reserved for future use. Control P1 P2 P3 Function Beeper volume Reserved for future use. Beeper & Opto Out duration (see also 4.1.6)

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4.3.2. Switch bank (DILSW8)

The switches in switch bank DILSW8 are used to set the following operating parameters:

Functions on PCB On some versions of the Stentor PCB, the on/off conditions are printed wrong. The values of this manual prevail over the PCB labeling.
Switch On state 1 Sync In 120 termination (always ON) 2 Sync Out 120 termination (always ON) 3 Use Sync Out as source for sync 4 5 6 7 8 Use Sync in as source for sync Beeper ON LAN interface via SC13 (future option) LAN Enabled Reserved Off state Sync In not terminated Sync Out not terminated Do not use Sync Out for synchronization Do not use Sync In for synchronization Beeper OFF (Opto-out remains functional). LAN interface via U13 (Xport) LAN Disabled Reserved

Sync source Under no circumstances should SW3 and SW4 be put in the ON position together. At least one of them must be set to 0.

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5. Stentor Transmitter

5.1. Interface connectors


5.1.1. Transmit antenna connector header (H1)

H1 Pin # 1 2 3 4 Function Tx + n/c (ISO A) n/c (ISO B) Tx -

Header H1 is a screw terminal to connect the transmit antenna. The two outer screw terminals are the + and poles. Two terminals (on the top and bottom side) are available so that two antennas van be connected in parallel. The A and B pairs of inner terminals are isolated, and can be used to connect antennas in series.

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Parameter Connector type Tx antenna self-inductance, nom. Tx antenna self-inductance, min. Tx antenna self-inductance, max. 5.1.2. Reader/controller connector J1

Value Screw terminals 27 +/- 3 H 17 H 70 H

Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

J1 Function +12V From controller GND TXlevel 134,2 KHz in from DSP GND PWM out ANT_Tx phase out Amplitude out

The Stentor Transmitter Modules are connected to the Stentor Reader/Controller through J1. This interfaces is proprietary, and not intended for any other use. The pinout description is provided for testing/measuring purposes.

Parameter Connector type 5.1.3. Supply power fuse F1

Value 8 pin 3,81mm Phoenix1803484

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Fuse The fuse is a protection mechanism. If the fuse is blown, always replace it with a correct replacement. Never short-circuit the fuse holder.
Parameter Power supply fuse type Value 5A slow

5.2. Stentor Transmitter indicators


5.2.1. Power indicator (LED1)

LED1 indicates that supply power is present (from connector J1). This LED is constantly on during operation of the Stentor Transmitter.

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5.2.2. Transmit burst indicator (LED2)

LED2 blinks during transmitter operation, indicating that transmit bursts are emitted.

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5.3. Stentor Transmitter controls

The Stentor Transmitter has A 12V power supply. In order to obtain a transmit field of sufficient strength, the transmit antenna needs a much higher voltage. The transmit antenna circuit acts as an L-C circuit. When fed with the correct frequency, this circuit oscillates, and the antenna voltage can reach levels of up to several 100 Volts!

Caution: High Voltage During operation of the Stentor Transmitter, high voltage is present in the transmitter circuit. Never touch any conductive areas of the transmit antenna circuit or tuning circuit while the transmitter is operated.
Optimal functioning of the transmit antenna depends upon a number of influence factors: The signal frequency: The frequency at which the Stentor Transmitter operates is fixed at 134,2 kHz. This is not a parameter that can be altered to change the transmit antenna behavior. Antenna inductance: The antenna inductance is determined by design parameters of the antenna loop: - Wire length - Antenna shape - Number of loops of wire - Material surrounding the antenna o Especially large concentrations of metal near the transmit

antenna will strongly influence the inductance.

Internal circuitry of the Stentor Transmitter

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Antenna capacitance: The capacitance too is determined by the antenna design parameters. In addition, the Stentor Transmitter circuitry contains a number of controls that can modify the antenna capacitance. These controls are used to influence the characteristics of an antenna system in such a way that optimal oscillation is achieved for a connected antenna. This is called tuning of the transmit circuit.

5.4. Tuning the Stentor Transmitter


Tuning of the Stentor Transmitter is done in two stages: Course tuning by means of switches S1..S6 Fine tuning with the tuning coil

The signal meter indicates the effect of the tuning. The signal meter gives a qualitative indication of the tuning, and certainly not an absolute value. A higher meter indication means better tuning with the same antenna. For two different antenna systems, respective meter readings cannot be compared. 5.4.1. Course tuning The Stentor Transmitter tuning circuit is designed to accommodate transmitantenna circuits with a self-inductance between 20 H and 70 H. Within this range, a sub range with a width of 5 H can be selected with the coarse tuning switches S1 through S6. The following table shows the settings for S1..S6 with the resulting tuning sub-range:

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iD-it Stentor 216/416


switch settings for coarse tuning [H]
70 68 65 63 60 58 55 53 50 48 45 43 40 38 35 33 30 28 25 23 20

[H]
70 67,5 65 62,5 60 57,5 55 52,5 50 47,5 45 42,5 40 37,5 35 32,5 30 27,5 25 22,5 20

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6

R L C R

L C R R

R L C R

R R R C

L C R C

R L C L

R R C C

C C R R

C R R C

C R R C

R C R C

R C C R

C C R C

C C R C

C C R R

C R C C

C C R R

C R C C

C C L R

R C C R

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6

R R L L R L L R L L L L R R L L L L L L L R R L R L L R R L L L R L R R R L L L

good tuning L acceptable tuning R bad tuning C

Switch in left position Switch in right position Switch in center position

If the antenna inductance is known, select the appropriate sub range by setting S1..S6 according the table above. If the antenna inductance is not known, the procedure is as follows: - Turn the fine-tuning coil core to a position halfway its range - Select the lowest sub range with the switches S1-S6 - If the signal meter gives an indication above 0%, continue with fine-tuning. - If the meter does not come off the 0-mark, try the next-higher subrange setting until you have found the sub range with the best result. Then continue with fine-tuning.

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5.4.2. Fine tuning After a coarse tuning sub-range is selected with the switches S1..S6, finetuning within this range is done by turning the tuning coil. Turning the coil core counter-clockwise (out) will increase the inductance setting. With the core completely out tuning is at the top of the sub-range. Turning the coil core clockwise (in) will decrease the inductance setting. With the coil core completely in, tuning is at the lower end of the sub-range. The total reach of the tuning coil is approximately 5 H, so that in combination with the coarse tuning, the total range from 20 to 70 H can be seamlessly covered. 5.4.3. Meter readout As a general rule, a meter reading of 30% will usually result in fair detection of transponders at a reasonable distance. A reading over 60% will give good results, and a reading of over 80% will show excellent reading.

Minimize emission Always consider that this equipment emits radiation that can cause electro-magnetic interference with surrounding equipment. Higher output settings may cause equipment heating. It is possible to tune the transmitter-antenna combination so that emission regulations are violated. Operating the equipment outside allowed parameters is strictly prohibited

Tip Always operate the Stentor Transmitter with the lowest possible settings that produce the desired read result.

5.5. Transmitter error condition


A transmitter error condition is signaled to the reader/controller. An indicator LED signals a transmitter error condition (see 4.2.4). A transmitter error means that tuning is incorrect. This may lead to excessive dissipation and heat generation in the reader. When a transmitter error is signaled, the following steps should be taken: - Set the course tuning switches to a lower capacitance (see 5.4.1) - Turn out (counter-clockwise) the tuning coil core (see 5.4.2)

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6.

Synchronization

When two Stentors (or other half-duplex RFID readers) are operated near to each other, the strong transmit burst of one reader can drown out the weaker signals of the transponders at the other RFID system. If both readers synchronize their transmit bursts, this interference is eliminated. Two Stentor readers can be synchronized using a simple twisted pair cable in a 1-on-1 connection. If more readers must be synchronized, a sync network can be built using the Optional Pactor sync-hubs. A synchronization network is built using industry standard CAT5e cabling and RJ45 connectors commonly used for Ethernet networks. In many Ethernet networks, only 4 of the available 8 wires are actually used for network communication. The Stentor/Pactor sync system uses the unused wires for synchronization purposes.

Ethernet and sync signals Although the sync network and Ethernet data connection may share the same cabling, the signals used for Stentor synchronization are completely different from the Ethernet data signals. For synchronization, a 134 kHz carrier wave is used with RS422 signal conditions.

Sharing Ethernet / sync cabling The Synchronization signals and Ethernet data communication can share a CAT5e cable. The synchronization signal however can not be transferred through data switches or hubs, or via other modes than direct electrical contact (such as glass fiber connections) There must be an electrical connection between the Pactor sync hub an the Stentors.

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6.1. Stentor sync connections and controls

Dil switch block Connector CN18 Xport Ethernet Sync RJ45 connector J2

The synchronization connections on a Stentor are made via either header connector CN18 or RJ45 connector J2. The sync signals of both connectors are wired in parallel. Operation is irrespective of the connector that is used. The DIL switch block switches 1-4 control the sync operation of the sync process: Switch On state 1 Sync In 120 termination (always ON) 2 Sync Out 120 termination (always ON) 3 Use Sync Out 4 Use Sync In Off state Sync In not terminated Sync Out not terminated Do not use Sync Out Do not use Sync In Preferred position On On On Off

The termination resistor for the sync In and Sync Out/Bi-dir lines should always be switched On.

6.2. Wiring sync signals on connector CN18

The Sync In signal from one reader is connected to the Sync out signal of the other reader. This way, both readers can be either master or slave, and will function stand-alone if the other reader is switched off.

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6.3. Wiring sync signals on connector J2

To connect two Stentors using the RJ45 connectors J2, a standard CAT5e cross cable can be used.

6.4. Wiring for a Stentor-Pactor connection

The sync connection between a Pactor and a Stentor is made with a standard straight-through CAT5e cable.

6.5. Combined sync/Ethernet wiring


The Stentor data connection (ethernet) cabling can be shared with the wiring for the sync network. In this case, the Pactor sync hub is placed in the same patch cabinet where the network cabling is connected. The data communication and signals are offered on separate RJ45 Connectors, so a Y-cable (split cable) is used to combine both signals in one CAT5e cable. A straight-through CAT5e cable connects the reader to the patch rack. In the patch rack, the cable is split into a sync part, which goes to the Pactor, and an ethernet part that is patched into the data network:

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7.

Communications

7.1. iSIP
The Stentor communicates with external control- and data-acquisition systems using the iSIP protocol (iD-it Serial Interface Protocol). This is a serial communications protocol optimized for large-scale RFID applications. The iSIP protocol offers efficient handling of the transponder data in dayto-day use. Besides this, the iSIP protocol supports an extensive set of control commands and status messages. iSIP commands include: PARM RDIO READ RETR HELP RSND FLASH MEAS SCPE Regular operation Change or display reader parameters Read digital input status Set read mode, initiate read in poll mode Retrieve data in poll mode Help display Error correction Resend earlier message Service commands Commands to download firmware into the readers flash memory Measure operational values such as Supply voltage, Date and time setting, buffer memory, transmit antenna field strength Digital oscilloscope data read

A more detailed description of the iSIP commands and data structure is available in the document iSIP iD-it Serial Interface Protocol, Interface Version 1.0, October 2005

7.2. Communication ports


Communication with the Stentor is performed either through the RS232 compatible serial interface or through the TCP/IP network interface.

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7.2.1. RS232 serial interface The RS232 compatible serial interface is a DCE (Data Communications Equipment) interface. This means that the reader can be connected to a PC using a 1-on-1 cable (not a so-called crossover cable). Connections are made to connector CN19 (see 4.1.7). The communication parameters are as follows: Parameter Value Data rate 115.200 bps Nr. Of bits 8 Parity None Stop bits 1

7.2.2. TCP/IP interface The TCP/IP interface provides another way to connect the Stentor to an external computer. The TCP/IP interface connects to an Ethernet network using CAT5 UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) cabling with RJ45 connectors. The network must support TCP/IP protocols. Actual communication between a service application and the reader is achieved by opening a telnet session on port 10001 on the reader. The readers IP address is a factory preset, and should only be changed by iD-it qualified personnel. The TCP/IP interface support data rates equivalent to 230.400 bps. The TCP/IP interface has twice the data throughput capacity of the RS232 serial interface. The TCP/IP interface has following specifications Parameter Value Network type Ethernet Cabling UTP CAT5 Connector RJ45 Network protocol TCP/IP Point-to-point communication protocol Telnet Reader IP address Factory set, field service settable Telnet data port 10001 Max. data rate 230.400 bps

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