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Safety Requirements for LNG ships Audun Brandsæter 16 November 2010 Topics Ship design and features

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

Audun Brandsæter 16 November 2010

for LNG ships Audun Brandsæter 16 November 2010 Topics Ship design and features How safe is

Topics

Ship design and features How safe is LNG as an on-board fuel? How safe is it to transfer between two ships? Special Studies for risk identification and mitigation

Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

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and mitigation Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS. All

LNG Carriers

LNG has been traded and used in a large scale

for more than 50 years with more than 350 LNG carriers; old ones, BIG ones and small ones.

d o n e s , BIG ones and s m a l l ones. Safety

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

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2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved. 3 What is LNG? Condensed natural gas

What is LNG?

Condensed natural gas Volume reduced by factor 600 for transportation LNG is a cryogenic hydrocarbon liquid.

- Contains mainly methane with traces of LPG, and Nitrogen

- SO 2 , CO 2 , H 2 O, C6+ and other contaminants removed to allow for cooldown without frost formation, lean fuel.

- Normally stored at atmospheric pressure where it boils at -160 deg C

- Heat from surrounding will cause boil off. If boil off is contained the pressure and temperature will rise. Alternatively the boil off can be reliquefied.

Density of LNG is appr. 420 kg/m 3 Energy content of 1 m 3 LNG corresponds to 0.65 m 3 diesel Natural gas is flammable (as all hydrocarbons) Natural gas is non toxic Cold natural gas is heavier than air. At approximately -100 °C it will be buoyant and rise.

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

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be buoyant and rise. Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010 © Det Norske Veritas

LNG compared to other Hydrocarbon liquids.

- The combustion characteristics are less severe than other hydrocarbons

- Ignition requires higher temperatures compared to other HC

- The cold and dense gas close to the release and directly above the boiling liquid pool is too rich for ignition

- Diluted and flammable gas is buoyant

- Burning characteristics are less aggressive than eg propane; detonations are highly unlikely

- The cryogenic properties are particular for LNG and requires attention

properties are particular for LNG and requires attention Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

16 November 2010

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2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved. 5 … other LNG fuelled ships today

… other LNG fuelled ships today …

DNV has proven rules for LNG fuelled engines since 2001 The world’s ships on LNG
DNV has proven rules for LNG fuelled engines since 2001
The world’s ships on LNG fuel built to DNV class!*

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* LNG tankers excluded

Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

… and to come …

… and to come … Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010 © Det Norske

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

16 November 2010

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2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved. 7 DNV has contributed actively… Rules for

DNV has contributed actively…

Rules for Gas Fuelled Engine Installations
Rules for
Gas Fuelled
Engine
Installations

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

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Engine Installations Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS. All

Rules for Classification

Rules for Classification Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS.
Rules for Classification Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS.

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

16 November 2010

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2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved. 9 International and national regulations and guidelines

International and national regulations and guidelines

IMO - IGC Code

International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk

IMO - IGF Code

International Code of Safety for Gas-fuelled Ships (at present: Interim Guidelines on Safety for Natural Gas-fuelled Engine Installations in Ships)

Flag State, e.g. NMD Regulations concerning

cargo ships with natural gas fuelled internal combustion engines. the construction and operation of gas-fuelled passenger ships

SIGGTO

Guidelines for LNG transfer

OCIMF

Guidelines for Oil transfer, ship to ship oil bunker procedures

Port regulations

USCG, local authorities

Onshore regulations

EU , NFPA, FERC…

local authorities Onshore regulations EU , NFPA, FERC… Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

16 November 2010

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EU , NFPA, FERC… Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010 © Det Norske Veritas

Safety principles

Two alternative system configurations may be accepted:

Inherently gas safe machinery spaces: Arrangements in machinery spaces are such that the spaces are considered gas safe under all conditions, normal as well as abnormal conditions i.e. inherently gas safe.

ESD protected machinery spaces: Arrangements in machinery spaces are such that the spaces are considered nonhazardous under normal conditions, but under certain abnormal conditions may have the potential to become gas hazardous. In the event of abnormal conditions involving gas hazards, emergency shutdown (ESD) of non-safe equipment (ignition sources) and machinery shall be automatically executed while equipment or machinery in use or active during these conditions shall be of explosion protected design.

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

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2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved. 11 Some examples… Safety Requirements for LNG

Some examples…

Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved. 11 Some examples… Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

16 November 2010

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11 Some examples… Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS.

Documentation / Assessment requirements by NMD

Regulation 644 concerning cargo ships with natural gas fuelled internal combustion engines, § 8 Documentation:

- A formal safety assessment shall be undertaken for any new or altered concept, which is required to document a safety level which is at least equivalent to a new, comparable diesel-engine vessel.

Regulation 1218 concerning the construction and operation of gas-fuelled passenger ships, § 7 Risk Analysis:

- The safety level of a gas-fuelled passenger ship shall at least be equivalent to the safety level of a new diesel-powered ship.

Formal Safety Assessment / Risk Analysis

Explosion Assessment / Explosion Analysis

New:

Circular letter RSV-14-2010 opens for the use of IMO Interim Guidelines as alternative to above Regulations.

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

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2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved. 13 Assement structure Concept Risk Analysis Design

Assement structure

Concept Risk Analysis Design Risk Analysis incl. Explosion analysis Third Party Consequence and Risk Assessment
Concept
Risk Analysis
Design
Risk Analysis
incl. Explosion analysis
Third Party
Consequence and
Risk Assessment
Updated Design
Risk Analysis
incl. Explosion analysis
Updated 3 rd Party
Consequence and
Risk Assessment
Safety Requirements for LNG ships
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RA results - example

RA results - example Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010 © Det Norske Veritas

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

16 November 2010

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2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved. 15 Fatality risk per 1 billion passenger·km

Fatality risk per 1 billion passenger·km

5,60 6 5 3,88 4 3 2 1,45 1,15 0,86 1 0,18 0 Personbil Fly
5,60
6
5
3,88
4
3
2
1,45
1,15
0,86
1
0,18
0
Personbil
Fly
Fly
Tog
Tog (Åsta-
Trikk/T-
Ferries in
innenriks
(inkludert
ulykken
bane
Norway
rute
alle
inkludert)
kategorier
flyging)
Safety Requirements for LNG ships
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Drepte per mrd pkm

Ongoing QRAs for gas fuelled vessels

Offshore supply vessels:

Island Offshore / Rolls Royce, STX Brevik

DOF, STX Søvikneset – H738

Solstad, STX Langsten – H755

Eidesvik / Wärtsilä Norway, Kleven

Coaster:

Nordnorsk skipskonsult, 70 m general cargo vessel

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

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2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved. 17 Ship-to-Ship transfer of LNG A technology

Ship-to-Ship transfer of LNG

A technology development project called “LNG bunkering Ship to ship” is ongoing with the aim of developing a concept for transfer of LNG (liquefied natural gas), between two ships.

Challenge: rapid bunkering operation, in proximity to urban areas w/ simultaneous cargo and passenger handling.

Covering both the operational bunkering process and technical solutions.

Bunkering operation shall not affect the retention period in port.

Establishing a safe and time efficient bunkering procedure of LNG transfer from ship to ship.

To pave the way for establishing an international standard and accompanying guideline for safe and time efficient bunkering of LNG

A recognised standardized way of performing LNG-bunkering is believed to be an important contributor to a safe operation.

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

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to a safe operation. Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010 © Det Norske Veritas

Safety issues for LNG

Releases can lead to

- frost burns and personnel injuries

- brittle fractures and structural failure for exposed steel

- flammable clouds

- fires and explosions

- RPT (Rapid Phase Transition or “cold explosions”)

- RPT (Rapid Phase Transition or “cold explosions”) Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010
- RPT (Rapid Phase Transition or “cold explosions”) Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

16 November 2010

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2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved. 19 Safeguards against LNG releases Safeguards against

Safeguards against LNG releases

Safeguards against releases comprise

- Operational Procedures

- Strict requirements to the integrity of the containment to avoid release

- Personnel protective equipment

- Protection of exposed structures

- Fire and gas safeguards comparable with other hydrocarbons.

Fire and gas safeguards comparab le with other hydrocarbons. Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

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other hydrocarbons. Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS. All

Technically no obstacles and it is safe

LNG technology safe and well proven

- Half a century of LNG tanker operation

- Used as marine fuel since 2000, now in some 20 ships

- Ongoing research to further improve technical and economical aspects

- Even higher efficiency - thus reduced emissions - possible

Even higher efficiency - thus reduced emissions - possible Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November
Even higher efficiency - thus reduced emissions - possible Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November
Even higher efficiency - thus reduced emissions - possible Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

16 November 2010

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2010 © Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved. 21 Safeguarding life, property and the environment
Safeguarding life, property and the environment www.dnv.com
Safeguarding life, property
and the environment
www.dnv.com
Safeguarding life, property and the environment www.dnv.com Safety Requirements for LNG ships 16 November 2010 ©

Safety Requirements for LNG ships

16 November 2010

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