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TEACHING METHODS TEACHING METHODS Teaching Across Ages, and Proficiency Levels Rhina Arely Benítez Diaz 2013 S
TEACHING METHODS
TEACHING METHODS
Teaching Across Ages, and Proficiency Levels
Rhina Arely Benítez Diaz
2013
S c h o o l
o f
A r t s
a n d
S c i e n c e s

1. In a chart, using the language function "COMPLAINING" describe what and how you will develop each of the four elements of communicative competences (grammatical, sociolinguistic, discourse, strategic) in your students. Highlight all elements per competence; for example, when dealing with the grammatical competences, sub area: lexicon, write the most useful phrases that are used to complain.

 

Communicativ

Language

 

Description/ Solution

   

e competence

Function

 
 
 

“Complaining”

Grammatical

“Teacher, I don‟t

The main problem is that the student does not know how to perform

 

understand the

the first activity because he/she does not have enough vocabulary

Sub area

first activity”

 

about seasons and the weather, so it is difficult to understand what he/she is going to do if there is a lack of knowledge about the topic.

Phonological

 
 

The solution is that the teacher provides resources that help the students and all those who do not understand the activity to learn vocabulary about the topic. This web site is very helpful to learn how to say the different season and weather, which is what the teacher requires in classes, so the students will have a better understanding about the topic.

Morphology

“Teacher, I don‟t

The situation is that the student have problem to build sentences

 

understand the

using the present simple, this structure is very basic but the student

 

simple present”

have some troubles at the time to make sentences because he/she feels that what the teacher explains is not enough.

 

The solution is that beside the explanation given in the class, here are some websites to visit in order to learn about some grammatical structure.

Teens

or

adults:

Semantics

“Teacher, I

do

This is a very common problem, this happens in any level, not only with beginners but also in all levels because there are always new words, so this kind of complain has to do with the semantic area of grammatical competence, in which students sometimes do not understand the meaning of some words, maybe some of them are not for the level in which the students are, so the teacher has to be careful

 

not

understand

when using words that maybe the students find hard to understand,

 

the

meaning

of

not also the meaning of it but the usage and the function that it has in

some words”

a sentence.

By: Rhina Arely Benítez Diaz

 
   

- The solution for this problem is that the teacher needs to provide enough explanation, and uses clearer examples, so in this way they

 

are going to know what some “unknown” words mean.

Also, the following website can help students not only to learn new word but also to improve their English since basic until Advanced level. http://www.duolingo.com/

Discourse

“Teacher,

I

In this case, the main problem is that student did not get what the

 

Sub area

didn‟t

teacher said, the pronunciation of the word “Work” confused the

understand,

did

student, and this happened because he or she has a lack of

Phonetics

you

say

work

knowledge about Minimal pairs.

sheet

or

word

 

sheet?”

Teacher need to explain that there are words that sometimes they

sound almost the same but they are not, and then practice the

 

pronunciation of some similar words.

Here is a website where students can learn and practice minimal pairs and to know what differs in words that sound almost the same

Discourse

“Teacher, I don‟t

The main problem is that the student does not know how to make

 

Sub area

know how to make questions

questions in the right way, he/she ask questions without any sense or coherence, the reason is because he/she has not develop the skill

Coherence

in English ”

to give sense to sentences and question in order to make a different between them at the time to speak.

 
 

The solution is that it is necessary to explain the different way to say or pronounce sentences and questions, and make the students

remember that the question mark “?” plays a very important role

besides the word order, and also the intonation given to the question

to emphasize it. Watch this video to learn basic questions:

Sociolinguistic

“Teacher, I don‟t

The problem here is that student is lacking of knowledge about

 

get the meaning

slangs and the use of pragmatics. The phrase means to order and

Sub area

of “get my ducks

organize everything efficiently and effectively, but the student does

Pragmatics

in a row!”

 

not use this kind of phrases too much.

Slang

 

-The solution would be that this student starts searching on the web

 

the usages of slangs, idioms, and the use of pragmatics. This link

By: Rhina Arely Benítez Diaz

 
leads the students to a Pdf document in which he or she can learn some of
leads the students to a Pdf document in which he or she can learn
some
of
the
most
common
slang.
http://www.uwplatt.edu/university/documents/international_student_handbook/
slang.pdf
Sociolinguistic
“Teacher, I don‟t
get the phrase:
Idioms,
“Blue Moon”, do
pracmatics
I have to take it
The problem is that the student ignores the uses of idioms, this kind
of social language is use in pragmatics, and many students do not
know how to interpret them, and most of them avoid using this
because of the lack of knowledge about it.
literally?”
A solution for this problem is that the teacher has to explain the
function of the idioms, and how or when use this kind of social
language, the teacher provide this link to visit a website to learn the
meaning of some idioms, and stop complaining about it.
http://www.idiomsite.com/
Strategic
“Teacher, I don‟t
know
Sub area
vocabulary
about
the
Heuristic
weather, why it
is necessary to
The situation is that the student is complaining because the teacher is
asking to use vocabulary referring to the weather in one of the
activities that they are going to perform in a class, but this student
does not know words of that topic, so he/she is having problems at
the time to do the activity.
be used?”
The solution is to search on the web for some websites and
documents that contain weather vocabulary, so this will help the
students to learn more and classify climate states per season. This
link leads to a website which contains season and weather
vocabulary, and there the student can practice some exercises.
Click on this link to learn weather vocabulary:
http://www.saberingles.com.ar/lists/weather.html
Sub Area
“Teacher, I can‟t
pronounce
Phonetical
“Autumn” can I
The problem is that the students cannot pronounce the word in the
right way, so he/she is looking for another way to refer to that
without losing the sense of the conversation.
say
it
in
a
Fortunately, the word “fall” has the same meaning as “Autumn”, so
different way?”
replacing the word can be a good strategy when the student cannot
say or pronounce a word in the right way, but it is important that
they practice the pronunciation.
By: Rhina Arely Benítez Diaz
  • 2. Explain how you are going to design a lesson plan when facing the Leaner Variable I:

Teaching Across Age levels; who are the learners? Do a lesson plan for each type of learner taking in consideration the structure of a lesson plan.

According to the pamphlet “Learner Variables I: Teaching Across age levels, a key aspect of effective teaching is to have a plan for what will happen in the classroom each day. Creating such a plan involves setting realistic goals, deciding how to incorporate materials, and developing activities that will promote learning. Teachers have to design a lesson plan per each class and according to each age level, as they should know, teaching is a very complex area, so it is necessary to be careful when designing a lesson plan. It is not the same to design a lesson plan for children, teenagers, and adults because they have a different manner of learning, and also the understanding of each age is very different. In the teaching area the teacher has to identify many things for example: the topic for the lesson plan, the linguistic content, the communication task, the learning strategies, and the goals that he or she has set when is designing the lesson plan.

TEACHING CHILDREN

The first one is how teachers are going to design a lesson plan to teach children, this is a big challenge because it is not easy to teach people who have a lack of easy comprehension, and their behavior sometimes is hard to control, so teachers need to be very patient and their lesson plan have to be well-structure, and well-done, taking into account all the requirements that it involves. Remember that when teaching children you as a teacher have to be also a child, how come? Sometimes it is necessary that teacher behave in that way to get children‟s attention, to joke, and make them laugh; the teacher has to know that children are interested in things like games, to play with things that they can see or touch, so things in the classroom can be very useful resources to teach them different kind of interesting and fun topics, but also the virtual things are very important to take into account, remember they are digital natives so their learning can be easier if teacher provide them virtual resources to learn. One important thing is that when your purpose is to get students attention very easy, you need to use entertaining things, if you want to teach a bit about grammar to children you need to use coloring objects, videos that are adequate for their age, and also choose topics that they would like to learn. The following lesson Plan shows an example of how to prepare a class for children in which the level, topic, goals, and activities make the difference to teaching children.

By: Rhina Arely Benítez Diaz

UNIVERSIDAD CAPITAN GENERAL GERARDO BARRIOS. Usulután School of Arts and Sciences
 

UNIVERSIDAD CAPITAN GENERAL GERARDO BARRIOS. Usulután School of Arts and Sciences

 

LESSON PLAN Teacher’s name: Rhina Arely Benitez Diaz - Date: Dec, 02 nd , 2013

Time: 45min.

 

Subject: English

Section: A

Unit: 2

Level: A 2

TOPICS

ACTIVITY

TO

WARM

UP

LESSON

LANGUAG

ACTIVITIES

FOR

TIMING

WRAP

UP

TO

BE

RECALL

ACTIVITY

OBJECTIVES

E

PRODUCTION

AND

ACTIVITY

COVERE

PREVIOUS

   

STRUCTUR

PRACTICE

 

D

FOR

LEARNING

E

THIS

 

UNIT

The round.

 

All

the

To identify the

Students will listen to a song

After

they

 

students stand

different

Simple

about the weather in English,

8min

finish

Make a circle and

up

and they

weather

present,

and then they will sing along

writing short

choose students

are

going

to

vocabulary in

and learn the weather names

sentences

 

randomly, one of

take

a

paper

English.

I like ____

in a fun way.

about

the

the

chosen

and

each

of

It is ____

seasons and

Seasons

students will say

them

repeats

To

compare

weather,

 

and

the

how

is

the

the vocabulary

climate

states

Wh

Students will watch a video

10min

students will

weather.

weather

by

about

the

on

different

questions

about the weather in

read

what

seeing

some

weather which

seasons.

and

different

seasons,

and

then

they

have

pictures.

Then

is in the paper,

statements

they will say what weather

wrote in the

Ask each student

they

do

this

belongs

to

certain

season

notebook

in

to say the type of

with

five

E.g.

What

depending

on

what

they

10min

front

of

the

weather

they

different types

do

you like

watched in the video.

class.

know.

The

of weather.

about fall?

 

vocabulary they

Students will write down in

7min

don‟t know will

5min

Is it sunny

No, it is ____

their notebooks how the

be presented after all the pictures are shown.

in ? ___

weather in this country is, using the language structure.

5min

They say 3 different types of weather.

TEACHING TEENS

They are not little kids, nor are they adults. They are teenagers, hurricanes of hormones and emotions transitioning from adolescence to adulthood as fast as they can in an increasingly malicious world. Teaching teens is of course a big challenge for the teacher because the methodology used for teaching them is very different than teaching children or adults, due to many reasons that teacher has to know, for example, the variation of attitudes vary, remember that they through a very hard age, but also the designing of a lesson plan for Teenagers has to be different than the one that is designed for children because teenagers are in a different age, and it means that their behavior, abilities, comprehension skill, communicative skill, and capacity of learning is higher than children‟s.

A lesson plan for teens has to include things according to their age, remember that most of them are interested in technological things, fun topics but without childish things, all those staff that has to do with the nowadays lifestyle are good to teach . Teacher has to design a lesson plan that include those kind of things to make the students learn in a way that they feel comfortable, using new devices to catch their attention, including relevant topics, and choose entertaining staff in which they feel that the learning process is easy and interesting, it is necessary to take into account that, students learn more when they do the activities. It is important to remember that many students are in different levels but the methodology is the same for all of them, because they are in the same age, so their behavior or way of thinking may be the same.

This lesson plan is an example of how to prepare a class for teens in which the topic have interesting and fun content and activities in which they will feel the process something easy. During the development of the class they will start to develop some communicative competences because there is too much speaking in the activities, also some comprehension skills will be develop by using methods that supports the necessary skills.

UNIVERSIDAD CAPITAN GENERAL GERARDO BARRIOS. Usulután
 

UNIVERSIDAD CAPITAN GENERAL GERARDO BARRIOS. Usulután

 
 

School of Arts and Sciences

 
 

LESSON PLAN

Teacher’s name: Rhina Arely Benitez Diaz - Date: Dec, 02 nd , 2013

Time: 45min.

 

Subject: English

Section: A

 

Unit: 2

Level: A 2

TOPICS

ACTIVITY TO

WARM

UP

LESSON

 

LANGUAGE

ACTIVITIES

FOR

PRODUCTION

WRAP

UP

TO

BE

RECALL

ACTIVITY

OBJECTIVES

STRUCTURE

AND PRACTICE

ACTIVITY

COVERED

PREVIOUS

 

FOR

THIS

LEARNING

UNIT

Interactive

To

mention

Simple

They will share ideas of what they

Students will

Ask for a letter

Video.

the

present,

know about Seasons and the

read what they

of

the

differences in

weather. Then Students will watch

wrote about

alphabet,

The students

the

climate

I like ____

slides about the different seasons

weather, and

students will

watch

a

states

of

the

It is ____

during

the

year

in

different

present the

Seasons

say

the

video, about

countries

countries,

and

after

they

will

poster with the

and

the

alphabet until

how is the

around

the

Wh

questions

discuss

about

the

differences

seasons and

weather.

they reach the

weather

in

world.

and

between their ideas and

the

the

letter pointing

different

statements

slides.10min

 

corresponding

at each student

countries

To

analyze

 

climate state,

per letter. The

around

the

why

the

E.g. What do

Students will watch a video about

then share it

student who is

world,

and

weather

is

you like about

the weather, and talk about which

with

their

pointed when

then they will

different

fall?

climate state they like and which

classmates.

reached the

mention the

according

to

they do not like.5min

 

After,

the

letter will say

weather

in

seasons.

Is

it

sunny

 

students will

a few words of

each country

 

in

?

Writing exercise. Students will

vote for which

___

what they

they

write sentences about the weather

season they

already know

watched, and

No, it is ____

in different countries that were

like the most.

about the

share ideas of

shown in the video. They will make

10min

weather

what

they

a poster with drawings and colors

vocabulary.

think about

with the weather corresponding to

5min

it. 5min

the right season.10min

 
 

TEACHING ADULTS

When teaching adults, teacher has advantages and also disadvantages; one of the

advantages is that it is easier to catch their attention because they have a certain level of maturity,

so when teacher is explaining something in the class, they are concentrated in what the teacher is

saying; one of the disadvantages of teaching adults is that when they are „beginners‟ it is a little bit

difficult that they develop some skills like pronunciation, many adults mispronunciate some

words, so the teacher has the challenge to correct those pronunciation mistakes, also something

that is hard for them is to get American accent, at the difference of children and teens that they get

a better accent, adults find a little bit difficult to have an authentic accent.

. Teacher needs to be prepared for diversity of cultural background, age, previous formal

education, and previous exposure to English, life experiences, and current life situations.

It is important to be comfortable with the subject matter that is being taught, and teacher has to

communicate enthusiasm for the subject matter and the role as a teacher, and that enthusiasm has

to be reflected in the preparation of the class taking into account the age of the students, in this

case are adults.

The following lesson plan shows how the class is prepared when teaching adults, the

resources, the content and the activities are different because the way of learning is also different.

This lesson plan contain a basic topic, and the activities are for the age of the students, it does not

contain childish content, nor games, but it include activities in which they feel comfortable to learn

in serious way, it is important to be focus on what to teach to this big students

   
UNIVERSIDAD CAPITAN GENERAL GERARDO BARRIOS. Usulután

UNIVERSIDAD CAPITAN GENERAL GERARDO BARRIOS. Usulután

   
 

School of Arts and Sciences

 
 

LESSON PLAN

 

Teacher’s name: Rhina Arely Benitez Diaz - Date: Dec. 02 nd , 2013

Time: 45min.

 
 

Subject: English

Section: A

Unit: 2 Level: A2

 
 

TOPICS

ACTIVITY TO

WARM

UP

LESSON

 

LANGUAGE

ACTIVITIES

FOR

PRODUCTION

TIMIN

WRAP UP

 

TO

 

BE

RECALL

ACTIVITY

OBJECTIVES

STRUCTURE

AND PRACTICE

G

ACTIVITY

COVERE

PREVIOUS

 

D

 

FOR

LEARNING

Students will make mimes; they will

THIS

 

Conversation.

To

learn

the

Simple

 

choose a paper containing a climate

5min

Speaking

UNIT

Teacher

The students

vocabulary

present,

state word and mime it. They cannot

Practice.

presents a

work in pairs

used

to

 

speak; only using body language and

Each

work sheet

and establish a

mention each

I like ____

the rest of the class will try to guess

student

with weather

conversation

season

and

It is ____

 

which type of weather they are

will say

all

Seasons

vocabulary

talking about

the weather.

 

miming.

the

and

 

the

and

other

the weather in

Wh questions

seasons

in

weather.

different

this country.

To

use

the

and

 

Students will present pictures, and

the

year

words,

Then they will

weather

statements

then in their notebooks, they will write

and how is

students

debate with

vocabulary in

down the name of the seasons and the

10min

the

would have to

the

other

the daily life.

E.g. What do

weather they saw, in the end they will

weather

in

find and circle

students and

you

like

compare their answer with their

each

the vocabulary

classify and

about fall?

classmates.

season.

of the weather,

best and worst

Students

and

then

climate states.

Is

it

sunny

Students choose a specific Season and

will choose

classify them

in

?

weather from a vocabulary bank and

what

___

in

their

5min

 

ask each other questions using the

season and

corresponding

No, it is ____

language structure, that are related to

5min

weather

is

season.

seasons and the weather they chose :

their

What do you like about

___?

Is it

in

favorite,

5min

your city?

saying the

reasons.

Students create a word map with the

10min

different

seasons

and

their

5min

corresponding weather.

 
     
  • 3. Explain how are you going to deal if you have class with the Variable II Teaching Across Proficiency levels.

Teaching is a very complex area in which teachers have a big challenge in every class

because they have to face with different kind of situations in which they have to be very

careful. It is well-known that in order to teach teachers have to know that have to design a

plan for each age, and also for each level and sometimes this is complicated because in the

classroom the teacher can find a variety of levels, and the preparation of the class has to be

different, taking into account what is needed to teach depending on the level.

Teaching beginning level

This level is the most challenging of language teaching, because it is more difficult to treat with

people who do not know anything about the target language. In this level, grammar translation

method is very used because beginners do not understand full English, and it is not correct that the

teacher pretends to speak as if they are advanced; teacher has to mix both languages, Spanish and

English.

One of the most important things is that the teacher has to explain as many times as the students

need until they understand what is pretending to be taught, so teachers have to be patient with

them, and make repetitions until students get the word, phrase, or sentence. Teachers have to

prepare interesting and fun classes as well in order to the students feel that they can learn in a

good way. You have to go slowly with beginners because they are expecting to learn in an easier

way, and it is not good to try to push them because they would feel frustrated, so the class has to

be understandable, fun, and with a fresh environment in which students feel like there are at

home, so the learning process would be interesting for them.

For beginners is of course necessary that teachers teach only basic topics, to get teach the most

common words used in English like words t introduce themselves, greetings, days of the week,

seasons, the alphabet and things like that, the language has to be authentic. Fluency is something

that is developing through the time and practice that is why teacher as to provide resources and

help them to practice the vocabulary they learn in each class. Feedbacks are necessary because in

this way they refresh what they learn in the previous classes. The techniques that are used in this

level are simple but entertaining, it is not necessary to push the students, and do not assign them

too much task, instead of that it is better to ask them to perform activities, so they will learn by

doing which is the best way.

Teaching intermediate levels

Teaching intermediate levels is different from teaching beginning levels because at this level

students have a better understanding of the target language and they have already developed

some skills, so what they need is to learn more and improve the skills that they have develop. For

teachers could be better because intermediate classes are more interactive, teachers and students

 

interact each other but there are always questions in students mind, it does not mind that teacher

 

will not answer but beside the explanation that you as a teacher give, students look for their own

resources.

They have already learned many different things, and have cross the line from being beginners to

go to a new level in which the language is more penetrated in their brain, so the step to go to an

advanced level is short. Their skills a better developed at this level. The methodology that is used

is different and more extensive. At this level, the native language has not to be allowed in the

classroom, so as the teacher you have to avoid speaking Spanish, and when they use Spanish make

them to ask questions and say comments only using the target language, which is English.

Teaching advanced levels

Due to students are in this level, they can understand better, because their skills are better

developed, so they can keep a long conversation without making too much mistakes. Deal with

students at this level is sometimes an easy task because they have a better understanding of the

language, but the activities to develop in the classroom are more complex due to the level, it

requires having more analytical task than to be playing in the classroom. Advanced students are

more focused on learning more than structures and vocabulary, so it is also a challenge for the

teacher to prepare a good class, in order that these advanced students can learn something new.

It is important to take into account the experiences that these students already have, but it does not

mean that your students know more than you just because they are in an advanced level, so as a

teacher you have to take your place and do the best to help those students to improve in any area

that they are lacking of knowledge. This not completely easy but, in comparison to beginners, it is

kind of easier to teach in an advanced level that teaching to beginners.

 

By: Rhina Arely Benítez Diaz

 
 

4. Choose digital resources you will include and describe how it will help students learn

 

English according to your lesson plans.

This page will help the student to learn vocabulary referring to the season and the weather,

including the pronunciation and translation.

4. Choose digital resources you will include and describe how it will help students learn Englishhttp://quizlet.com/1762914/weatherseason-vocabulary-flash-cards/ - This page if for children, in which they can learn some about grammar, they can practice takin g the test that the website provides. http://www.anglomaniacy.pl/index.html - A very useful digital resource in which students can learn more, and also improve their En g lish since basic to an advance level. http://www.duolingo.com/ By: Rhina Arely Benítez Diaz " id="pdf-obj-12-20" src="pdf-obj-12-20.jpg">
  • - This page if for children, in which they can learn some about grammar, they can practice

taking the test that the website provides.

4. Choose digital resources you will include and describe how it will help students learn Englishhttp://quizlet.com/1762914/weatherseason-vocabulary-flash-cards/ - This page if for children, in which they can learn some about grammar, they can practice takin g the test that the website provides. http://www.anglomaniacy.pl/index.html - A very useful digital resource in which students can learn more, and also improve their En g lish since basic to an advance level. http://www.duolingo.com/ By: Rhina Arely Benítez Diaz " id="pdf-obj-12-35" src="pdf-obj-12-35.jpg">
  • - A very useful digital resource in which students can learn more, and also improve their

English since basic to an advance level.

4. Choose digital resources you will include and describe how it will help students learn Englishhttp://quizlet.com/1762914/weatherseason-vocabulary-flash-cards/ - This page if for children, in which they can learn some about grammar, they can practice takin g the test that the website provides. http://www.anglomaniacy.pl/index.html - A very useful digital resource in which students can learn more, and also improve their En g lish since basic to an advance level. http://www.duolingo.com/ By: Rhina Arely Benítez Diaz " id="pdf-obj-12-50" src="pdf-obj-12-50.jpg">
 

By: Rhina Arely Benítez Diaz

 
This page will allow students to get information about the formation of the simple sentence, which
This page will allow students to get information about the formation of the simple sentence,
which one of the language structure of the lesson plan, visiting thins page will help you to
understand better the structure of simple present.
http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verb-tenses_present-simple.htm
Students can use this dictionary online to know the meaning of words that they do not
know.
http://www.vdictionary.com/
-
This video is about weather, so it would be very helpful for all students who want to learn
about it. But not only this video, there many more to be watched to learn new vocabulary.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CVuKr5y9AbY
By: Rhina Arely Benítez Diaz
 

Bibliography

 

Alberta Government. (s.f.). Supporting English Language Leraners. Recuperado el 30 de November de 2013, de Supporting English Language Leraners:

http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/eslapb/about_communicative_competence.html

H.G Douglas Brow. (2001). Teaching Across Age levels. En H.G Douglas Brow, Teaching Across Age levels. Longman.

shares, S. (01st de November de 2011). Slide shares. Recuperado el 30 de nov de 2013, de Slide shares:

http://www.slideshare.net/tefainfo/teaching-across-age-levels-9968312

Vagaric, V. (30th de September de 2008). Defining communicative competences. Recuperado el 30 de november de 2013, de Defining communicative competences: hrcak.srce.hr/file/42651

 

By: Rhina Arely Benítez Diaz