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Homework #8 : Chapter 22 131101

AP Bio Period: 4
Objectives "hat #$ a %pe&ie$' 1. Distinguish between anagenesis and cladogenesis. 1. Anagenesis - A pattern of evolutionary change involving the transformation of an entire population, sometimes to a state different enough from the ancestral population to justify renaming it as a separate species (phyletic evolution) . !ladogenesis - A pattern of evolutionary change that produces biological diversity by budding one or more species from a parent species that continues to e"ist (branching evolution) Define #rnst $ayr%s biological species concept. 1. &iological species concept - 'he definition of a species as a population or group of populations whose members have the potential in nature to interbreed and produce fertile offspring (also called a se"ual species) (. Distinguish between pre)ygotic and post)ygotic isolating mechanisms. 1. *re)ygotic isolating barriers - A reproductive barrier that impedes mating between species or hinders fertili)ation of ova if interspecific mating is observed. . *ost)ygotic isolating barriers - Any of several species isolating mechanisms that prevent hybrids from being viable or fertile, or from producing viable, fertile offspring. +. Describe five pre)ygotic isolating mechanisms and give an e"ample of each. 1. ,abitat isolation - 'wo species that live in the same are but do not come into contact. ('hamnophis) . &ehavioral isolation - -pecial behavior that attracts mates, as well as special signals (male fireflies) (. 'emporal isolation - 'wo species that breed during different times of data, different seasons, etc. (-pilogale .racilis, -pilogale *utonis) +. $echanical isolation - !losely related species may attempt to mate, but fail to have se" because they are anatomically incompatible. (/loral anatomy) 0. .ametic isolation - #ven if the gametes of different species meet, they rarely fuse to form a )ygote. 0. #"plain a possible cause for reduced hybrid viability. 1. .enetic incompatibility between two species may abort development of the hybrid at some embryonic stage. 1. #"plain how hybrid brea2down maintains separate species even if fertili)ation occurs. 1. 3ffspring of hybrids may be wea2 or sterile . ,ybrids may maintain a presence but cannot become genetically independent 4. Describe some limitations of the biological species concept. 1. #"tinct forms cannot be tested . Ase"ual forms are isolated, period (. -ubspecies have a wide range of gene flow

Name: Mandeep Chhabra Date Comp eted: 13110!

5. Define and distinguish among the following6 ecological species concept, paleontological species concept, phylogenetic species concept, and morphological species concept. 1. $orphological6 distinct structure only7 the most-used . 8ecognition6 will they recogni)e each other and mate (. !ohesion or pluralistic6 ta2es into account all isolating mechanisms +. #cological6 where they live and what they do instead of morphology 0. #volutionary or genealogical6 recogni)es separating groups or organisms Mode$ o( %pe&iation 9. Distinguish between allopatric and sympatric speciation. 1. Allopatric speciation - A mode of speciation induced when the ancestral population becomes segregated by a geographic barrier. . -ympatric speciation - A mode of speciation occurring as a result of radical change in the genome of a subpopulation.

1:. #"plain the allopatric speciation model and describe the mechanisms that may lead to divergence of isolated gene pools. 1. A population forms a new species while geographically isolated from its parent generation. ;solated gene pools may form once the two species have adapted to their own surroundings and can no longer interbreed. 11. Describe e"amples of adaptive radiation in the .al<pagos and ,awaiian archipelagoes. 1. Adaptive radiation - 'he emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced into an environment. . ;t occurs in the ,awaiian ;slands and the .alapagos because they are relatively new volcanic islands, so they are still brea2ing apart and the organisms can evolve to their individual environments. 1 . #"plain how reproductive barriers evolve. Describe an e"ample of the evolution of a pre)ygotic barrier and the evolution of a post)ygotic barrier. 1. #volve by separation followed by selection and=or drift . *re)ygotic e"ample6 fruit flies adapted to different foods showed assortative mating (. *ost)ygotic6 mon2eyflower hybrid fertility is inversely proportional to distance 1(. Define sympatric speciation and e"plain how polyploidy can cause reproductive isolation. 1. -ympatric speciation - A mode of radical change in the genome of a subpopulation. *olyploidy aids in reproductive isolation because an organism with more than two sets of chromosomes cannot always produce offspring. 1+. Distinguish between an autopolyploid and an allopolyploid species and describe e"amples of each. 1. Autoployploids a. $ultiple chromosome sets from one species b. *rimrose, +n > 5 . Allpolyploids a. ,ybrids having sets from two species b. 'hree goatsbeard species were introduced to the ?-7 various hybrids are now 2nown

c. &read wheat is a hybrid of an original wheat and goatgrass 10. Describe how cichlid fishes may have speciated in sympatry in @a2e Aictoria. 1. !onsider two closely related species of cichlids, p. *unamilia and p. Beyeri. /emales of each species mate with males of their own color. ;n orange light, however, the colors loo2 the same and the species interbreed. Adapti)e *adiation 11. Define adaptive radiation and describe the circumstances under which adaptive radiation may occur. 1. Adaptive radiation - 'he emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced into an environment. ;t occurs on new volcanic island chains because they are constantly brea2ing up so the organisms are e"posed to different climates. Describe the two gene loci implicated in speciation in Mimulus. 1. 'wo gene loci have been identified that are largely responsible for pollinator choice. . 3ne locus influences flower color7 the other affects the amount of nectar flowers produce. (. &y determining attractiveness of the flowers to different pollinators, allelic diversity at these loci has led to speciation. +rom %pe&iation to Ma&roe)o ,tion 15. 19. #"plain in general terms how a comple" structure can evolve by natural selection. 1. !omple" structures evolve by natural selection in the same way as less comple" organisms. Define exaptation and illustrate this concept with an e"ample. 1. #"aptation involves a new adavantageous use for an old trait . #"ample6 originally feathers may have conserved heat=energy :. #"plain how slight genetic divergences may lead to major morphological differences between species. 1. -light genetic divergences may lead to major morphological differences between species because natural selection acts upon the morphological divergence over and over again. 1. #"plain how the evolution of changes in temporal and spatial developmental dynamics can result in evolutionary novelties. 1. 8elatively few genes control timing a proportions7 small alterations have big results . Define evo-devo, heterochrony, allometric growth, and paedomorphosis. 1. #vo-devo6 interface between developmental and evolutionary biology . Allometric growth6 relative growth rates in different parts (. ,eterochrony6 evolution of morphology from modifying allometric growth +. *aedomorphosis6 retention of juvenile characteristics in the adult due to altered timing of reproductive development (. #"plain why e"tracting a single evolutionary progression from a fossil record can be misleading. 1. #"tracting a single evolutionary progression from the fossil record can be misleading because the organism may have also evolved before or after the e"traction.

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Define and illustrate the concept of species selection. 1. -uccessful, long-lived, widespread species speciate more often . 'he traits of the long-lived, fecund species appear as a trend in the fossil record (. 'raits ma2ing species fecund, li2e better dispersal, ma2e it loo2 li2e all the species traits are important

#"plain why evolutionary change is not goal-directed. 1. #volutionary change is not goal directed because natural selection can never created a perfect organism.

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Concept Map Words: adaptive radiation allometric growth allopatric speciation allopolyploid autopolyploid biological species concept ecological species concept heterochrony homeotic gene macroevolution microevolution morphological species concept paedomorphosis paleontological species concept phylogenetic species concept polyploidy post)ygotic barrier pre)ygotic barrier punctuated eCuilibrium reproductive isolation speciation species species selection sympatric speciation

Homework #8 : Chapter 2131101


AP Bio Period: 4
Objectives The Tree of Life: An Introduction to Biological Diversit Objectives The Origin of Life 1. Describe the four stages of the hypothesis for the origin of life on Earth by chemical evolution. 1. Abiotic (nonliving) synthesis of small organic molecules, such as amino acids and nucleotides 2. The oining of these small molecules into macromolecules, including proteins and nucleic acids !. "ac#aging of these molecules into $protobionts$, droplets %ith membranes that maintained an internal chemistry different from that of their surroundings &. 'rigin of self(replicating molecules that eventually made inheritance possible Describe the contributions that A. ). 'parin, *.+.,. -aldane, and ,tanley .iller made to%ard developing a model for the abiotic synthesis of organic molecules. Describe the conditions and locations %here most of these chemical reactions probably occurred on Earth. 1. 'parin and -aldane/ conditions on the early Earth favored the formation of small organic molecules 2. .iller simulated conditions on the early Earth !. 0ater for oceans &. -2, 1-!, and 2-& for reducing atmosphere 3. ,par#s for lightning 4. 5ormed amino acids !. Describe the evidence that suggests that 61A %as the first genetic material. E7plain the significance of the discovery of ribo8ymes. 1. 6ibo8ymes have a variety of catalytic functions9 pre(date en8ymes 2. 61A is central to information transfer in cells !. 61A can be copied abiotically &. Describe ho% natural selection may have %or#ed in an early 61A %orld. 1. 61As %ith stability and replicability are favored in vivo. 2omplementary catalytic functions allo% groups of 61As. :uasispecies in hypercycle$ could recombine into a single, multi(trait molecule. 2ovalent lin#age %ith amino acids may have enhanced catalytic function 3. Describe ho% natural selection may have favored the proliferation of stable protobionts %ith self(replicating, catalytic 61A. 1. A protobiont %ith self(replicating, catalytic 61A %ould be different than neighbors %ithout those characteristics.

Name: Mandeep Chhabra Date Comp eted: 13110!

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2. )f the protobiont could gro%, split and pass on its 61A to its $daughters$ its limited inherited characteristics could be acted on by natural selection. !. Although very rare those fe% protobionts, out of the trillions in a body of %ater, %ith a limited capacity for inheritance %ould have had a huge advantage over the rest.

Introduction to the History of Life 4. E7plain ho% the histories of Earth and life are inseparable. 1. The histories of Earth and life are inseparable because geological events affect biological evolution9 similarly, organisms cause ma or chemical changes on Earth. Ta#en together, such changes provide a grand vie% of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. E7plain ho% inde7 fossils can be used to determine the relative age of fossil(bearing roc# strata. E7plain ho% radiometric dating can be used to determine the absolute age of roc# strata. E7plain ho% magnetism can be used to date roc# strata. 1. )nde7 fossils can be used to determine relative age of fossils by using radiometric dating. +y comparing the half(lifes of the isotopes, you can get an accurate date. <ranium 2&= decays at &.3 billion years, so you can use that to determine the oldest of roc#s. =. Describe the ma or events in Earth>s history from its origin until 2 billion years ago. )n particular, note %hen Earth first formed, %hen life first evolved, and %hat forms of life e7isted in each eon. 1. &.4 billion years ago (bya) Earth forms 2. !.? bya conditions suitable for life !. !.3 bya oldest fossils &. ,tromatolites in fossil record match those gro%ing today@ mounds formed of layered biofilms and sediment 3. 2.; bya o7ygen gas appears in large amounts ?. Describe the mass e7tinctions of the "ermian and 2retaceous periods. Discuss a hypothesis that accounts for each of these mass e7tinctions. 1. "ermian E7tinction a. "ermian @ 231 mya b. 'ccurred over a time period of maybe a fe% thousand years to no more than 3 million years c. "eriod of most e7treme volcanism in last half billion years d. .ass 2'2 released A global %arming A slo%s mi7ing of ocean %ater A reduced '2 in ocean %ater 2. 2retaceous E7tinction a. 2retaceous mass e7tinction @ about 43.3 mya b. Bost over 3CD of marine species, many families of terrestrial plants E animals, including most dinosaurs

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c. 2ollision creates huge cloud of debris that %ould have bloc#ed sunlight and changed global climate d. 2rater in Fucatan peninsula in .e7icoG e. 2lue is a layer of iridium in sediments around the %orld The Major Lineages of Life 1C. Describe ho% chemiosmotic AT" production may have arisen. 1. .ost li#ely evolved from an o7ygen deprived environment. 2. '7ygenic photosynthesis significance causes high concentration of o7ygen doomed the survival of many pro#aryotic groups, can attac# chemical bonds, damage cells

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Describe the timing and significance of the evolution of o7ygenic photosynthesis. 1. .ost '2 is from the splitting of -2C in photosynthesis, the first amount of '2 probably ust dissolved in the %ater until the %ater levels became to saturated %ith '2, then iron %as precipitated, and finally additional '2 began to gas itself out, it had an enormous impact on life

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E7plain the endosymbiotic theory for the evolution of the eu#aryotic cell. Describe the evidence that supports this theory. 1. Endosymbiosis is the idea that certain organelles found in eu#aryotic cells today, li#e mitochondria and chloroplasts %ere originally separate organisms %hich %ere absorbed into early eu#aryotic cells and had a symbiotic relationship %ith them. 'ver time, they evolved along %ith the cells until they %ere fully part of the cell and no longer self(sufficient organisms. 2. 2hloroplasts and mitochondria have their o%n D1A, %hich is different than the D1A stored in the nucleus. This ma#es sense since they %ould have needed their o%n genetic material %hen they %ere independent organisms.

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E7plain ho% genetic annealing may have led to modern eu#aryotic genomes. 1. These transfers may have ta#en place during the early evolution of life, or may have happened repeatedly until the present day, %hich causes genetic variation.

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Describe the timing of #ey events in the evolution of the first eu#aryotes and later multicellular eu#aryotes. 1. 2.1 bya oldest definite eu#aryote fossils 2. 1.3 bya multicellular eu#aryotes by D1A seHuence !. 1.2 bya fossil multicellular algae &. 3;3 mya large diverse multicellular fossils 3. 2orresponds to the tha%ing of sno%(ball Earth

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E7plain ho% the sno%ball(Earth hypothesis e7plains %hy multicellular eu#aryotes %ere so limited in si8e, diversity, and distribution until the late "rotero8oic. 1. The ,no%ball Earth hypothesis refers to the idea that at some point during the Earth>s history, specifically during the 2ryogenian period (=3C to 4!C million

years ago), the entire surface %as fro8en over, including the oceans. 14. Describe the #ey evolutionary adaptations that arose as life coloni8ed land. 1. This gradual process depended on adaptations that allo%ed them to9 2. 6eproduce on land !. Avoid dehydration 1;. E7plain ho% continental drift e7plains Australia>s uniHue flora and fauna. 1. As Australia became isolated from the rest of the %orld, the environmental conditions %ere uniHue to the land causing certain traits to become favored. These favored traits %ere uniHue to the land. 1=. E7plain %hy 6. -. 0hitta#er>s five(#ingdom system has been replaced by a ne% system %ith three domains. 1.Dhita2erEs 0 Fingdom system was replaced because it was based mainly upon nutritional characteristics instead of phylogenetic studies and cladistics analysis. Dhita2er used visible characteristics and modes of nutrition instead of genetic analysis.

. 3rganisms are grouped nowadays by their evolutionary traits, instead of how they appear or function. ;n other words, this is a much more Cuantitative comparison than what was used before.

Concept Map Words:

colony genetic annealing geologic record half(life magnetic reversal

"angaea protobiont radiometric dating ribo8yme serial endosymbiosis

sno%ball Earth hypothesis stromatolite three(domain system

Memori.e the "ord *oot$

proto- 3 first (protobionts: aggregates of abiotically produced molecules) stromato- 3 something spread out9 -lite 3 a stone (stromatolite: roc#s made of banded domes of sediment in %hich are found the most ancient forms of life