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MEEN 207
EXAM-III

ELEMENTRY THERMODYMENICS
FALL 06

Q#1

A Carnot heat engine receive heat at 750 K and rejects the waste heat to the environment
at 300 K. The entire work output of the heat engine is used to drive Carnot refrigerator
that removes heat from cooled space at -15C at a rate of 400 kJ/min and rejects it to the
same environment at 300 K. Determine,
a) the rate of heat supplied to the heat engine and
b) the total rate of heat rejection to the environment

Q#2

Steam enters adiabatic turbine steadily at 7 MPa, 500C, and 45 m/s, and leaves at 100
kPa and 75 m/s. If the power output of the turbine is 5 MW and isentropic efficiency is
77 %, determine,
a) the mass flow rate of steam through turbine
b) the temperature at the turbine exit
c) the rate of entropy generation during the process.

Q#3

Steam at 6 MPa and 500C enters a two-stage adiabatic turbine at a rate of 15 kg/s. 10 %
of the steam is extracted at the end of the first stage at a pressure of 1.2 MPa for other
use. The reminder of the steam is further expanded in the second stage and leaves turbine
at 20 kPa. Determine the power output of the turbine, assuming
a) the process is reversible and
b) the turbine has isentropic efficiency of 88 %.

Dr. Pankaj Chandra

MEEN 207
EXAM-III

ELEMENTRY THERMODYMENICS
FALL 06

A#1
Analysis (a) The coefficient of performance of the Carnot refrigerator is
COPR, C =

1
1
=
= 6.14
750 K
(TH / TL ) 1 ( 300 K ) / ( 258 K ) 1

QH, HE

Then power input to the refrigerator becomes


W net,in

Q
400 kJ/min
L
=
=
= 65.1 kJ/min
COPR, C
6.14

HE

which is equal to the power output of the heat engine, W net, out .
The thermal efficiency of the Carnot heat engine is determined from
th,C = 1

-15C

QL, HE

400 kJ/min
R

QH, R

300 K

TL
300 K
=1
= 0.60
TH
750 K

Then the rate of heat input to this heat engine is determined from the definition of thermal
efficiency to be
W net,out
65.1 kJ/min

Q
=
= 108.5 kJ/min
H , HE =
th, HE
0.60

(b) The total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air is the sum of the heat rejected by the heat

engine ( Q
L , HE ) and the heat discarded by the refrigerator ( QH , R ),

Q
L , HE = QH , HE Wnet, out =108.5 65.1 = 43.4 kJ/min

Q
H , R = QL , R +Wnet, in = 400 +65.1 = 465.1 kJ/min

and

Q
Ambient = QL , HE +QH , R = 43.4 +465.1 = 508.5 kJ/min

Dr. Pankaj Chandra

A#2
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Potential energy changes are negligible.
Analysis (a) The properties of the steam at the inlet of the turbine and the enthalpy at the exit for
the isentropic case are (Table A-6)

P1 = 7 MPa h1 = 3411.4 kJ/kg

T1 = 500 C s1 = 6.8000 kJ/kg.K


P2 = 100 kPa

h2s = 2466.6 kJ/kg


s2 = s1 = 6.8000 kJ/kg.K

Steam, 7 MPa
500C, 45 m/s

The power output if the expansion was isentropic would be


W s =

W a

5000 kW
=
= 6494 kW
0.77

An energy balance on the turbine for the isentropic process


may be used to determine the mass flow rate of the steam

Turbine

100 kPa
75 m/s

V2
V2

h1 + 1 = m
h2 s + 2 +W
m
s

2
2

(45 m/s) 2 1 kJ/kg


(75 m/s) 2
3411.4 kJ/kg +

m
=
m
2466
.
6
kJ/kg
+

2 2
2
2
1000 m /s

= 6.886 kg/s
m

1 kJ/kg

2 2
1000 m /s

+ 6494 k

(b) An energy balance on the turbine for the actual process may be used to determine actual
enthalpy at the exit

V2
h1 + 1
m

(45 m/s) 2 1 kJ/kg


(6.886 kg/s) 3411.4 kJ/kg +

2 2
2
1000 m /s

V2
=m
h2 + 2 + W a

(75 m/s) 2 1 kJ/kg

= (6.886 kg/s) h2 +

2 2
2

1000 m /s

h2 = 2683.5 kJ/kg

Now, other properties at the exit state may be obtained

P2 = 100 kPa T2 = 103.7 C

h2 = 2683.5 kJ/kg s2 = 7.3817 kJ/kg.K


(c) Since the turbine is adiabatic, the entropy generation is the entropy change of steam as it
flows in the turbine
Dr. Pankaj Chandra

+ 5000 kW

( s2 s1 ) = (6.886 kg/s)(7.3817 - 6.8000) kJ/kg.K = 4.01 kW/K


S gen = m

A#3
Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time. 2 Kinetic and
potential energy changes are negligible. 3 The turbine is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is
negligible.
Properties From the steam tables (Tables A-4 through 6)

P1 = 6 MPa h1 = 3423.1 kJ/kg

T1 = 500C s1 = 6.8826 kJ/kg K


P2 = 1.2 MPa
h2 = 2962.8 kJ / kg
s2 = s1

s3s s f 6.8826 0.8320


x
=
=
= 0.8552
P3 = 20 kPa 3s
s fg
7.0752

s3 = s1

h3s = h f + x3s h fg = 251.42 + ( 0.8552 )( 2357.5) = 2267.5 kJ/kg


Analysis (a) The mass flow rate through the second stage is
3 = 0. 9 m
1 = ( 0.9 )(15 kg/s ) =13.5 kg/s
m

We take the entire turbine, including the connection 6 MPa


part between the two stages, as the system, which is a 500C
control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that one fluid stream enters the turbine and
STEAM
two fluid streams leave, the energy balance for this
15 kg/s
steady-flow system can be expressed in the rate form
I
as
1.2 MPa

E
out
in

Rate of net energy transfer


by heat, work, and mass

0 (steady)

E
system
10%90%

STEAM
13.5 kg/s

I
I

=0

20 kPa

Rate of change in internal, kinetic,


potential, etc. energies

E
in = Eout
Dr. Pankaj Chandra

1h1 = ( m
1 m
3 ) h2 +W out + m
3h3
m
1h1 ( m
1 m
3 ) h2 m
3h3
W out = m
1 ( h1 h2 ) + m
3 ( h2 h3 )
=m

Substituting, the power output of the turbine is

W
out = (15 kg/s )( 3423.1 2962.8) kJ/kg + (13.5 kg )( 2962.8 2267.5) kJ/kg = 16,291 kW

(b) If the turbine has an adiabatic efficiency of 88%, then the power output becomes
W a =T W s = ( 0.88)(16,291 kW ) = 14,336 kW

Dr. Pankaj Chandra

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