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Technical Catalogue

Index
The company Production features Material Die-casting Mechanical tooling Pre-treatment and conversion treatment Results of pre-treatment Painting Health and safety of FARAL paints Tables and technical data Tables and technical data FARAL Tropical Tables and technical data FARAL Etal Tables and technical data FARAL Esse Tables and technical data FARAL Trio Tables and technical data FARAL Trio HP Tables and technical data FARAL Tropical 80 Tables and technical data FARAL Green Tables and technical data FARAL Green HP Tables and technical data FARAL Lineal 80 Tables and technical data FARAL Alliance Tables and technical data FARAL 140 Tables and technical data FARAL Longo 80 Technical information FARAL Longo 80 Working conditions The heating system total efficiency Sizing the heating emitters Calculation of the effective thermal output of heating emitters Installation procedures Washing and cleaning up the heating system Venting the heating system Installation and output efficiency Positioning the heating emitter Connections to the distribution network Thermal insulation of the back wall Selling conditions and guarantee Orders Changes in orders Cancellation of orders Delivery Complaints Package Delivery time Returns of goods Drawings, dimensions and weights Guarantee Responsibility Competent court of justice pag. 4 pag. 5 pag. 5 pag. 5 pag. 6 pag. 7 pag. 7 pag. 7 pag. 8 pag. 9 pag. 10 pag. 12 pag. 14 pag. 16 pag. 18 pag. 20 pag. 22 pag. 24 pag. 26 pag. 28 pag. 30 pag. 32 pag. 34 pag. 35 pag. 36 pag. 38 pag. 39 pag. 41 pag. 42 pag. 42 pag. 42 pag. 43 pag. 45 pag. 46 pag. 48 pag. 48 pag. 48 pag. 48 pag. 48 pag. 48 pag. 48 pag. 48 pag. 48 pag. 49 pag. 49 pag. 50 pag. 50
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The Company
FARAL S.P.A is a company, whose name has been closely associated with vanguard technology in the field of domestic heating for more than 40 years. The first die-cast aluminium radiator in the world was born with Faral.

Production
The raw materials employed for the manufacturing of Faral radiators are aluminium alloys, specifically developed to enable complex items to be produced. The radiators undergo specific multistage treatments before the final coating, making the external and internal surfaces highly resistant to the corrosive action of the water in the system and the surrounding environment. The painting which follows is carried out through a double coating and stoving process. The successive polymerisation in high temperature kilns guarantees long lasting and glossy coats. FARAL radiators are subjected to strict technological and aesthetical controls before they undergo the final leakage test to ensure they comply with the EN 442-1 standard.

Aluminium and Thermal Characteristics


Aluminium is an excellent heat conductor and this ability has been optimised since the early stages of the designing of FARAL radiators to guarantee comfort in any environment. Aluminium with its high conductivity reacts swiftly to changes in the temperature of the fluid circulating inside it and its low thermal inertia allows it to respond instantly to thermostatically controlled systems. This ability, combined with a low water content, constitutes a substantial saving of energy.

Light Weight and Easy to Install Radiators-Accessories


Thanks to light weight and easy handling, any installation of FARAL radiators constitutes a substantial saving of time. FARAL radiators are supplied in preassembled sets, depending on the customers requirements. Its wide range of accessories makes the installation of FARAL radiators simple and cost effective.

The Package
FARAL wraps its radiators in a layer of shrink-wrapping polyethylene and than place them in a strong cardboard box. This way the radiator is guaranteed to be transported safely and easily.

The Colours
FARAL radiators can be supplied in an extensive range of colours.
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Production Features
Material
The aluminium alloy used for the manufacturing of FARAL radiators is an alloy used in many fields, from transport (engines, gearboxes, etc.) to household appliances, including the use in food, chemicals, pharmaceutical and aerospace industries. This alloy used by FARAL is identified as UNI 5076-74 according to Italy standards, but if we consider the European standard the new identification is EN 132/12 Al Si 9 Cu. The composition is the following:
81,7 11,0 1,75 0,70 Al Si Cu Fe Mn Mg Zn Ni Ti Pb Sn 86,55 12,5 2,5 1,00 0,50 0,30 0,80 0,30 0,15 0,15 0,10

The quality of aluminium alloy is constantly monitored using mass spectrometer analysis, despite the fact that it is already accompanied by ample certification at the time the ingots are supplied. Further to these checks, systematic samplings from the smelting furnaces are carried out to confirm the alloy composition of the ingots. Tests are also performed in order to determine the gas content in the molten alloy, and those sections which have shown defects are examined with a microscope

Die-casting
The first operation is the smelting of the pure aluminium ingots: it takes place in 25 tons capacity basin furnaces at a temperature of 700/730 C. These furnaces are cleaned internally every day to remove the slag that forms during the smelting process. The heat required to smelt the ingots is delivered by powerful natural gas fired burners. The molten alloy is removed from the furnace by tipping of the entire unit so that the contents pour out into a suitably located ladle; from this position the molten alloy is transferred by way of electric trucks and winches to the press holding furnaces where it is kept at a temperature of 670-680 C. From the holding furnaces a sufficient quantity of alloy is extracted to make the casting desired, the molten metal is poured into an injection chamber from where it is forced into the die at a pressure of 500 bar at a high speed. The castings are lifted from the die by an extractor arm and routed to a station dedicated to cutting the excess material in correspondence with the casting channels. The resulting workpieces are inspected visually one by one and then transferred to the production facilities. In addition to the individual visual check of all the components, FARAL withdraws sample pieces from the rough cast sections and tests them by immersion in
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water filled tanks at an internal pressure 1,3 times higher than the foreseen operating pressure in order to detect any flaws. Dimensional tolerances are checked by cutting open several sample sections and making all the relevant measurements. Every model that is being manufactured does daily undergo a mechanical strength test at a pressure 1,69 times higher than the foreseen operating pressure. If a radiator has an operating pressure of 10 bar, the leakage test is carried out at a pressure of 13 bar and the mechanical strength test at a pressure higher than 16,90 bar. The above described technologies are also used to manufacture the two diecast terminal collectors of radiator Faral Longo 80. The collectors undergo the various mechanical tooling stages and are then jointed to an extruded aluminium central profile by means of special anaerobic resins. The central extruded profile is made of an alloy of primary aluminium identified as EN AW-6060, according to EN 573-3 standard.

Mechanical tooling
The individual radiator sections are subjected to polishing (rough finishing) of the front and rear surfaces: an operation performed with dry abrasive belts of increasing fineness. The waterways of the sections have to be sealed: a cap, in the same material as the rest of the section, is welded into position using a special process known as flash welding. This operation utilises the heat generated by the Joule effect caused by the passage of current though both components (radiator section and cap), which are pressed tightly one against the other. The fusion takes place when the metal parts in the same areas melt, so that no extraneous materials are required. In order to join several sections to form an assembled radiator, the next operations in the production process are thread cutting and spot facing of the sections. These operations are performed on dedicated machine tools with a total of four work heads able to cut both the right and the left threads of the connections simultaneously and to spot face the sealing surfaces. The fact that all the operations are carried out simultaneously ensures that the contact surfaces will be perfectly parallel so that the radiators will be correctly aligned when assembled, irrespective of the number of sections involved. The threaded and spot faced sections are assembled together in accordance with the configuration required by the customer, with a minimum of two and a maximum of fifteen sections in each radiator. The sections are assembled by the use of threaded nipples each fitted with a gasket. The assembly machine is connected to a programming unit to establish the composition of the finished radiator, and also features an automatic device for selecting and loading the nipples and for fitting the gaskets. The high level of automation adopted for these processes, combined with the constant presence of human operators performing specialised tasks of surveillance and control, enable FARAL to optimise process quality and reduce the risk of rejects when the assembled radiators arrive at the next process in the line. The final leakage test is carried out by injection of compressed air into the radiators at a pressure 1,3 times higher than the foreseen operating pres6

sure and by successive immersion in a water filled tank. This test is carried out on 100% of the production and enables to detect defects in casting, welding or assembling. The radiators that pass this test are finally transferred to the painting plant, after being subjected to a further polishing stage using abrasive belts of finer and finer grit.

Pre-treatment and conversion treatment


The exclusive treatment cycle to which the internal and external surfaces of the radiators are subjected allows to wash deeply the waterways, thus removing all remnants of the previous operations and providing an appropriate and permanent barrier against possible corrosion at the same time. The outer surfaces are treated to better receive the successive coats of painting so that they can anchor firmly to the surfaces. The treatment is carried out by transferring the radiators through a total of 12 tanks. FARAL plants work through a complex cycle, which is composed by the following passages, preceded and followed by rinses with running or demineralised water: High temperature alkaline degrease: the chemical action combined with the mechanical one coming from forced circulation allow to eliminate and emulsify most of the oils and greases present on the internal and external surface of radiators. Acid deoxidisation: this stage eliminates the residual oxides, removes the damaging metals from the first layers of the metal and prepare it for the conversion treatment. Conversion treatment: pre-treatment of radiators provides the basis for an excellent quality, but the conversion treatment is a fundamental point. In this stage the aluminium surface is converted into an inert film of aluminium oxide, chemically bound to the passivating product. Very strict checking parameters, such as the final ultra-filtered rinse, ensure an optimal treatment cycle and guarantee that no trace of salt is left over on treated radiators.

Results of pre-treatment
Thanks to the exclusive chemical passivation of its surfaces, FARAL aluminium alloy radiator limits the formation of gas within the heating system. Gas formation rises from oxidation of all the metallic elements of the heating system such as heat exchangers of boilers; pipes; valves and wet radiators surfaces. The gases coming from the splitting of water plant thorough electrolysis accumulate right in the points, where water doesnt run very fast: inside the radiators. Thanks to chemical passivation and metallic conversion of internal surfaces, Faral radiators are artificially aged, thus being already highly corrosion resistant from the very first time on they are installed. It is to be highlighted that, in Italy, the UNI 8065 standard requires the pre-treatment of heating plant water. The strict observance of this standard avoids gas formation and accumulation. Similar standards are effective in any other country and must be observed and applied considering all the materials that the plant is composed of.
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Painting
FARAL radiators are painted through a double deposition process followed by stoving of the used pigments. The first coat layer is applied by electrophoresis: the radiator is submerged in a tank where the paint is suspended in demineralised water. The paint is deposited on the whole radiator thanks to the effect of an ionising field created by D.C. electricity. The painting process continues by submerging the radiators into a sequence of three tanks: one for painting alone and the successive two for washing the radiators in demineralised water. After this coat deposition phase, the radiators are sent to the stove where polymerisation takes place at a temperature of 180C for 35 minutes. At the stove exit a visual check is carried out on painting quality. After this check the radiators undergo the final painting process, achieved by electrostatic application of epoxy-polyester powders followed by stoving at a temperature of 180C for 40 minutes. At the stove exit, the radiators are visually checked again before they are transferred to the packaging department. It is important to underline a number of aspects, which make this painting process so exclusive. From the production point of view, we wanted the characteristics of the finished radiator to be absolutely stable: the system guarantees that radiators spend the due time in any single processing station. If an electrical black-out or any other type of mechanical or electrical failure occurs, the control system continues to work even during the emergency and automatically moves the radiators away from the zone in which, for example, the paint might be burnt for too long, thus giving a final colour with a slightly different nuance. The absolutely constant results of pre-treatment play a major role too: they prepare the surface of radiators to receive the paint properly. Obviously this is all guaranteed by a UPS, which thanks to a specific programming software, provides the necessary power for emergency operations to be carried out automatically.

Health and safety of FARAL paints


The paints used by FARAL on its radiators are certified harmless by their suppliers. The paint used during the electrophoresis process is acrylic and does not give off any substance when utilized. The mainly utilized solvent is demineralised water, which evaporates during stoving. In the event of fire (complete combustion of the organic part of the film of paint), only carbon dioxide and water vapour will be given off. The same is valid for the final coating. The utilized powder paints have a heavy metal content well below the limits stipulated for products used to paint toys, according to EN 71-3 standard. In the event of fire FARAL radiators will not give off toxic fumes or vapours. It is clear that a painting process carried out on industrial scale with specific products, is much safer, environment-friendly and healthy than painting by hand or on site, or even worse when radiators have already been installed, using products with in appropriate formulae or hazardous solvents.
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Tables and technical data


FARAL Tropical FARAL Etal FARAL Esse FARAL Trio FARAL Trio HP FARAL Tropical 80 FARAL Green FARAL Green HP FARAL Lineal 80 FARAL Alliance FARAL 140 FARAL Longo 80

FARAL Tropical
A 35 D

45 50

10

Model FARAL Tropical FARAL Tropical 800 FARAL Tropical 700 FARAL Tropical 600 FARAL Tropical 500 FARAL Tropical 350

A B C D
Depth mm 95 95 95 95 95 Height mm 880 780 680 580 430 Centres mm 800 700 600 500 350 80 80 80 80 80

Length mm

Connection diameter inches 1" 1" 1" 1" 1"

Water content Weight liters/section Kg/section 0,620 0,460 0,410 0,350 0,440 2,110 2,020 1,740 1,560 1,120

Heat output EN442T= 50 K 182 166 150 129 92,8

Exponent n 1,38237 1,36182 1,34353 1,33973 1,30461

The maximum operating pressure is 600 kPa (6 bar) The thermal outputs expressed at T= 50 K comply with the European regulation EN 442-2

Tables for calculation of thermal outputs with different T


Thermal outputs data expressed in Watt.
FARAL Tropical 800 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 51,3 89,8 134 182 234 290 1 54,8 93,9 138 187 239 295 2 58,5 98,1 143 192 245 301 3 62,2 102 148 197 250 307 4 65,9 107 152 202 256 313 5 69,8 111 157 208 261 319 6 73,7 116 162 213 267 324 7 77,6 120 167 218 273 330 8 81,6 124 172 223 278 336 9 85,7 129 177 229 284 342

1 watt = 0,860 Kcal/h


FARAL Tropical 700 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 47,8 83,0 123 166 213 263 1 51,1 86,8 127 171 218 268 2 54,4 90,6 131 176 223 273 3 57,8 94,5 136 180 228 279 4 61,3 98,4 140 185 233 284 5 64,8 102 144 189 238 289 6 68,3 106 149 194 243 294 7 71,9 110 153 199 248 300 8 75,6 115 157 204 253 305 9 79,3 119 162 208 258 310

FARAL Tropical 600 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 43,8 75,6 111 150 192 236 1 46,8 79,0 115 154 196 240 2 49,8 82,4 119 158 200 245 3 52,9 85,9 123 162 205 250 4 56,0 89,4 126 166 209 254 5 59,2 93,0 130 171 214 259 6 62,4 96,5 134 175 218 263 7 65,6 100 138 179 222 268 8 68,9 104 142 183 227 273 9 72,2 108 146 187 231 278

FARAL Tropical 500 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 37,8 65,1 95,6 129 165 202 1 40,3 68,0 98,9 132 168 206 2 42,9 70,9 102 136 172 210 3 45,6 73,9 105 139 176 214 4 48,2 76,9 109 143 180 218 5 51,0 80,0 112 147 183 222 6 53,7 83,1 115 150 187 226 7 56,5 86,2 119 154 191 230 8 59,3 89,3 122 157 195 234 9 62,2 92,5 126 161 199 238

FARAL Tropical 350 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 28,1 47,6 69,3 92,8 118 144 1 29,9 49,7 71,6 95,2 120 147 2 31,8 51,8 73,9 97,6 123 149 3 33,7 53,9 76,2 100 125 152 4 35,6 56,1 78,5 103 128 155 5 37,6 58,3 80,9 105 131 157 6 39,5 60,4 83,2 108 133 160 7 41,5 62,6 85,6 110 136 163 8 43,5 64,8 88,0 113 139 166 9 45,6 67,1 90,4 115 141 168

11

FARAL Etal
A 35 D

45 50

12

Model FARAL Etal FARAL Etal 800 FARAL Etal 700 FARAL Etal 600 FARAL Etal 500 FARAL Etal 350

A B C D
Depth mm 95 95 95 95 95 Height mm 880 780 680 580 430 Centres mm 800 700 600 500 350 80 80 80 80 80

Length mm

Connection diameter inches 1" 1" 1" 1" 1"

Water content Weight liters/section Kg/section 0,600 0,450 0,410 0,350 0,440 2,170 2,000 1,730 1,480 1,120

Heat output EN442T= 50 K 184 166 148 130 92,7

Exponent n 1,36642 1,36291 1,35939 1,35590 1,30642

The maximum operating pressure is 600 kPa (6 bar) The thermal outputs expressed at T= 50 K comply with the European regulation EN 442-2

Tables for calculation of thermal outputs with different T


Thermal outputs data expressed in Watt.
FARAL Etal 800 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 52,5 91,3 135 184 235 291 1 56,1 95,5 140 189 241 296 2 59,8 99,7 145 194 246 302 3 63,5 104 149 199 252 308 4 67,3 108 154 204 257 314 5 71,2 113 159 209 263 319 6 75,1 117 164 214 268 325 7 79,1 122 169 219 274 331 8 83,1 126 174 225 279 337 9 87,2 131 179 230 285 343 FARAL Etal 700 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 47,6 82,6 122 166 213 262 1 50,8 86,4 127 170 217 267 2 54,2 90,2 131 175 222 273 3 57,5 94,1 135 180 227 278 4 61,0 98,0 139 184 232 283 5 64,5 102 144 189 237 288 6 68,0 106 148 193 242 293 7 71,6 110 152 198 247 299 8 75,2 114 157 203 252 304 9 78,9 118 161 208 257 309

1 watt = 0,860 Kcal/h

FARAL Etal 600 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 42,6 73,9 109 148 190 234 1 45,5 77,3 113 152 194 238 2 48,5 80,7 117 156 198 243 3 51,5 84,1 121 160 203 248 4 54,6 87,6 124 164 207 252 5 57,7 91,1 128 168 211 257 6 60,8 94,7 132 173 216 262 7 64,0 98,3 136 177 220 266 8 67,3 102 140 181 225 271 9 70,6 106 144 185 229 276

FARAL Etal 500 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 37,5 65,1 96,1 130 167 205 1 40,1 68,0 99,4 134 170 209 2 42,7 71,0 103 137 174 213 3 45,4 74,0 106 141 178 217 4 48,1 77,1 109 144 182 221 5 50,8 80,2 113 148 186 225 6 53,6 83,3 116 152 189 229 7 56,4 86,5 120 155 193 234 8 59,2 89,6 123 159 197 238 9 62,1 92,9 127 163 201 242

FARAL Etal 350 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 28,0 47,6 69,3 92,7 118 144 1 29,8 49,6 71,5 95,1 120 147 2 31,7 51,7 73,8 97,6 123 149 3 33,6 53,9 76,1 100 125 152 4 35,5 56,0 78,4 103 128 155 5 37,5 58,2 80,8 105 131 157 6 39,5 60,4 83,1 107 133 160 7 41,4 62,6 85,5 110 136 163 8 43,5 64,8 87,9 113 139 166 9 45,5 67,0 90,3 115 141 169

13

FARAL Esse
A 35 D

45 50

14

Model FARAL Esse

A B C D
Depth mm Height mm Centres mm

Length mm

Connection diameter inches

Water content Weight liters/section Kg/section

Heat output EN442T= 50 K

Exponent n

The maximum operating pressure is 1000 kPa (10 bar) The thermal outputs expressed at T= 50 K comply with the European regulation EN 442-2

Tables for calculation of thermal outputs with different T


Thermal outputs data expressed in Watt. 1 watt = 0,860 Kcal/h

15

FARAL Trio
A 35 D

45 50

16

Model FARAL Trio FARAL Trio 800 FARAL Trio 700 FARAL Trio 600 FARAL Trio 500 FARAL Trio 350
Thermal output tests in course

A B C D
Depth mm 95 95 95 95 95 Height mm 880 780 680 580 430 Centres mm 800 700 600 500 350 80 80 80 80 80

Length mm

Connection diameter inches 1" 1" 1" 1" 1"

Water content Weight liters/section Kg/section 0,600 0,550 0,490 0,440 0,450 2,300 2,020 1,740 1,420 1,010

Heat output EN442T= 50 K 192 175 * 156 137 98

Exponent n 1,314 1,31 * 1,306 1,298 1,282

The maximum operating pressure is 1000 kPa (10 bar) The above thermal outputs expressed at T = 50 K comply with European regulation EN 442-2

Tables for calculation of thermal outputs with different T


Thermal outputs data expressed in Watt.
FARAL Trio 800 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 57,6 98,1 143 192 244 299 1 61,4 102 148 197 249 304 2 65,3 107 153 202 255 310 3 69,2 111 157 207 260 316 4 73,2 116 162 212 266 321 5 77,2 120 167 218 271 327 6 81,3 125 172 223 277 333 7 85,4 129 177 228 282 339 8 89,6 134 182 233 288 344 9 93,8 139 187 239 293 350 FARAL Trio 700 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 52,7 89,6 131 175 222 272 1 56,2 93,6 135 180 227 277 2 59,7 97,5 139 184 232 282 3 63,3 102 144 189 237 287 4 66,9 106 148 194 242 292 5 70,6 110 152 198 247 298 6 74,3 114 157 203 252 303 7 78,1 118 161 208 257 308 8 81,9 122 166 213 262 313 9 85,7 126 170 217 267 319

1 watt = 0,860 Kcal/h

FARAL Trio 600 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 47,1 80,0 117 156 198 242 1 50,2 83,5 120 160 202 247 2 53,4 87,1 124 164 207 251 3 56,6 90,7 128 168 211 256 4 59,8 94,3 132 172 215 260 5 63,1 97,9 136 177 220 265 6 66,4 102 140 181 224 270 7 69,8 105 144 185 229 274 8 73,1 109 148 189 233 279 9 76,6 113 152 194 238 284

FARAL Trio 500 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 41,7 70,6 103 137 174 212 1 44,5 73,7 106 141 177 216 2 47,2 76,8 109 144 181 220 3 50,0 79,9 113 148 185 224 4 52,9 83,1 116 151 189 228 5 55,7 86,2 119 155 193 232 6 58,6 89,5 123 159 196 236 7 61,6 92,7 126 162 200 240 8 64,6 96,0 130 166 204 244 9 67,6 99,2 133 170 208 248

FARAL Trio 350 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 30,2 50,8 73,5 97,8 124 151 1 32,2 53,0 75,8 100 126 153 2 34,1 55,2 78,2 103 129 156 3 36,1 57,4 80,6 105 132 159 4 38,2 59,6 83,0 108 134 162 5 40,2 61,9 85,4 111 137 164 6 42,3 64,2 87,9 113 140 167 7 44,4 66,5 90,3 116 142 170 8 46,5 68,8 92,8 118 145 173 9 48,6 71,1 95,3 121 148 176

17

FARAL Trio HP
A 35 D

45 50

18

Model FARAL Trio HP FARAL Trio HP 500 FARAL Trio HP 350

A B C D
Depth mm 95 95 Height mm 580 430 Centres mm 500 350 80 80

Length mm

Connection diameter inches 1" 1"

Water content Weight liters/section Kg/section 0,440 0,450 1,420 1,010

Heat output EN442T= 50 K 137 98

Exponent n 1,298 1,282

The maximum operating pressure is 1600 kPa (16 bar) The above thermal outputs expressed at T = 50 K comply with European regulation EN 442-2 The testing pressure is 2400 kPa (24 bar)

Tables for calculation of thermal outputs with different T


Thermal outputs data expressed in Watt.
FARAL Trio HP 500 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 41,7 70,6 103 137 174 212 1 44,5 73,7 106 141 177 216 2 47,2 76,8 109 144 181 220 3 50,0 79,9 113 148 185 224 4 52,9 83,1 116 151 189 228 5 55,7 86,2 119 155 193 232 6 58,6 89,5 123 159 196 236 7 61,6 92,7 126 162 200 240 8 64,6 96,0 130 166 204 244 9 67,6 99,2 133 170 208 248

1 watt = 0,860 Kcal/h


FARAL Trio HP 350 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 30,2 50,8 73,5 97,8 124 151 1 32,2 53,0 75,8 100 126 153 2 34,1 55,2 78,2 103 129 156 3 36,1 57,4 80,6 105 132 159 4 38,2 59,6 83,0 108 134 162 5 40,2 61,9 85,4 111 137 164 6 42,3 64,2 87,9 113 140 167 7 44,4 66,5 90,3 116 142 170 8 46,5 68,8 92,8 118 145 173 9 48,6 71,1 95,3 121 148 176

19

FARAL Tropical 80
A 35 D

45

20

Model FARAL Tropical 80

A B C D
Depth mm Height mm Centres mm

Length mm

Connection diameter inches

Water content Weight liters/section Kg/section

Heat output EN442T= 50 K

Exponent n

The maximum operating pressure is 1000 kPa (10 bar) The thermal outputs expressed a tT= 50 K comply with the European regulation EN 442-2

Tables for calculation of thermal outputs with different T


Thermal outputs data expressed in Watt. 1 watt = 0,860 Kcal/h

21

FARAL Green
A 35 D

45

22

Model FARAL Green FARAL Green 800 FARAL Green 700 FARAL Green 600 FARAL Green 500 FARAL Green 350

A B C D
Depth mm 80 80 80 80 80 Height mm 880 780 680 580 430 Centres mm 800 700 600 500 350 80 80 80 80 80

Length mm

Connection diameter inches 1" 1" 1" 1" 1"

Water content Weight liters/section Kg/section 0,470 0,410 0,360 0,330 0,260 2,030 1,860 1,650 1,420 1,070

Heat output EN442T= 50 K 164 148 133 115 87,2

Exponent n 1,36820 1,36225 1,35051 1,34494 1,31901

The maximum operating pressure is 1000 kPa (10 bar) The thermal outputs expressed at T= 50 K comply with the European regulation EN 442-2

Tables for calculation of thermal outputs with different T


Thermal outputs data expressed in Watt.
FARAL Green 800 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 46,7 81,3 121 164 210 259 1 49,9 85,1 125 168 215 264 2 53,2 88,8 129 173 220 269 3 56,5 92,7 133 177 224 275 4 59,9 96,5 137 182 229 280 5 63,4 100 142 186 234 285 6 66,9 104 146 191 239 290 7 70,4 108 150 196 244 295 8 74,0 112 155 200 249 301 9 77,6 116 159 205 254 306 FARAL Green 700 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 42,6 73,9 109 148 190 235 1 45,5 77,3 113 152 194 239 2 48,5 80,7 117 156 199 244 3 51,5 84,2 121 161 203 248 4 54,6 87,7 125 165 208 253 5 57,7 91,2 128 169 212 258 6 60,9 94,8 132 173 216 262 7 64,1 98,4 136 177 221 267 8 67,3 102 140 182 225 272 9 70,6 106 144 186 230 277

1 watt = 0,860 Kcal/h

FARAL Green 600 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 38,5 66,5 98,1 133 170 209 1 41,1 69,5 101 136 173 213 2 43,7 72,6 105 140 177 217 3 46,5 75,6 108 143 181 221 4 49,2 78,8 112 147 185 225 5 52,0 81,9 115 151 189 229 6 54,8 85,1 118 155 193 233 7 57,7 88 122 158 197 238 8 60,6 91,5 125 162 201 242 9 63,5 94,8 129 166 205 246

FARAL Green 500 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 33,4 57,7 85,0 115 147 180 1 35,7 60,3 87,8 118 150 184 2 38,0 62,9 90,7 121 153 187 3 40,4 65,6 93,6 124 157 191 4 42,7 68,3 96,6 127 160 194 5 45,2 71,0 99,5 130 163 198 6 47,6 73,7 103 134 167 201 7 50,1 76,5 106 137 170 205 8 52,6 79,3 109 140 173 209 9 55,1 82,1 112 143 177 212

FARAL Green 350 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 26,0 44,5 65,0 87,2 111 136 1 27,8 46,4 67,1 89,5 113 139 2 29,5 48,4 69,3 91,9 116 141 3 31,3 50,4 71,5 94,2 118 144 4 33,1 52,4 73,7 96,5 121 146 5 35,0 54,5 75,9 98,9 123 149 6 36,8 56,6 78,1 101 126 152 7 38,7 58,6 80,4 104 128 154 8 40,6 60,7 82,7 106 131 157 9 42,5 62,9 84,9 109 133 159

23

FARAL Green HP
A 35 D

45

24

Model FARAL Green HP FARAL Green HP 500 FARAL Green HP 350

A B C D
Depth mm 80 80 Height mm 580 430 Centres mm 500 350 80 80

Length mm

Connection diameter inches 1" 1"

Water content Weight liters/section Kg/section 0,330 0,260 1,420 1,070

Heat output EN442T= 50 K 115 87,2

Exponent n 1,345 1,319

The maximum operating pressure is 1600 kPa (16 bar) The above thermal outputs expressed at T = 50 K comply with European regulation EN 442-2 The testing pressure is 2400 kPa (24 bar)

Tables for calculation of thermal outputs with different T


Thermal outputs data expressed in Watt.
FARAL Green HP 500 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 33,5 57,9 85 115 147 181 1 35,8 60,5 88 118 150 184 2 38,1 63,1 91 121 154 188 3 40,5 65,8 94 124 157 191 4 42,9 68,5 97 128 160 195 5 45,3 71,2 100 131 164 198 6 47,7 73,9 103 134 167 202 7 50,2 76,7 106 137 170 206 8 52,7 79,5 109 140 174 209 9 55,3 82,3 112 144 177 213

1 watt = 0,860 Kcal/h


FARAL Green HP 350 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 26,0 44,5 65,0 87,2 111 136 1 27,8 46,4 67,1 90 113 138 2 29,5 48,4 69,3 92 116 141 3 31,3 50,4 71,5 94 118 144 4 33,1 52,4 73,7 97 121 146 5 35,0 54,5 75,9 99 123 149 6 36,8 56,5 78,1 101 126 151 7 38,7 58,6 80,4 104 128 154 8 40,6 60,7 82,6 106 131 157 9 42,5 62,8 84,9 108 133 159

25

FARAL Lineal 80
A 35 D

45

26

Model FARAL Lineal 80 FARAL Lineal 80 800 FARAL Lineal 80 700 FARAL Lineal 80 600 FARAL Lineal 80 500 FARAL Lineal 80 350

A B C D
Depth mm 80 80 80 80 80 Height mm 880 780 680 580 430 Centres mm 800 700 600 500 350 80 80 80 80 80

Length mm

Connection diameter inches 1" 1" 1" 1" 1"

Water content Weight liters/section Kg/section 0,470 0,420 0,380 0,320 0,260 2,040 1,840 1,640 1,440 1,050

Heat output EN442T= 50 K 164 149 133 118 88,8

Exponent n 1,35192 1,35584 1,33232 1,33671 1,30293

The maximum operating pressure is 1000 kPa (10 bar) The thermal outputs expressed at T= 50 K comply with the European regulation EN 442-2

Tables for calculation of thermal outputs with different T


Thermal outputs data expressed in Watt.
FARAL Lineal 80 800 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 47,5 82,1 121 164 210 258 1 50,7 85,9 125 168 214 263 2 54,0 89,6 129 173 219 268 3 57,3 93,4 134 177 224 273 4 60,7 97,3 138 182 229 278 5 64,2 101 142 186 234 283 6 67,7 105 146 191 238 289 7 71,2 109 151 196 243 294 8 74,8 113 155 200 248 299 9 78,5 117 159 205 253 304

1 watt = 0,860 Kcal/h


FARAL Lineal 80 700 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 43,0 74,5 110 149 191 235 1 45,9 77,9 114 153 195 240 2 48,9 81,3 118 157 199 244 3 52,0 84,8 121 161 204 249 4 55,0 88,3 125 165 208 253 5 58,2 91,8 129 169 213 258 6 61,4 95,4 133 174 217 263 7 64,6 99,0 137 178 221 267 8 67,8 103 141 182 226 272 9 71,1 106 145 186 230 277

FARAL Lineal 80 600 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 39,2 67,3 98,8 133 170 208 1 41,9 70,3 102 137 173 212 2 44,5 73,4 105 140 177 216 3 47,3 76,5 109 144 181 220 4 50,0 79,6 112 147 185 224 5 52,8 82,7 116 151 189 228 6 55,7 85,9 119 155 193 232 7 58,5 89,0 122 158 196 236 8 61,4 92,3 126 162 200 241 9 64,4 95,5 129 166 204 245

FARAL Lineal 80 500 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 34,5 59,4 87,2 118 150 184 1 36,9 62,0 90,2 121 153 188 2 39,2 64,7 93,1 124 157 191 3 41,6 67,4 96,1 127 160 195 4 44,1 70,2 99,1 130 163 199 5 46,5 73,0 102 134 167 202 6 49,0 75,8 105 137 170 206 7 51,6 78,6 108 140 174 209 8 54,1 81,4 111 143 177 213 9 56,7 84,3 114 147 181 217

FARAL Lineal 80 350 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 26,9 45,7 66,4 88,8 113 138 1 28,7 47,7 68,6 91,1 115 140 2 30,5 49,7 70,8 93,5 118 143 3 32,3 51,7 73,0 95,8 120 145 4 34,1 53,8 75,2 98,2 123 148 5 36,0 55,8 77,4 101 125 151 6 37,9 57,9 79,7 103 128 153 7 39,8 60,0 81,9 105 130 156 8 41,7 62,1 84,2 108 133 159 9 43,7 64,3 86,5 110 135 161

27

FARAL Alliance
A 35 D

45

28

Model FARAL Alliance FARAL Alliance 800 FARAL Alliance 700 FARAL Alliance 600 FARAL Alliance 500 FARAL Alliance 350

A B C D
Depth mm 80 80 80 80 80 Height mm 880 780 680 580 430 Centres mm 800 700 600 500 350 80 80 80 80 80

Length mm

Connection diameter inches 1" 1" 1" 1" 1"

Water content Weight liters/section Kg/section 0,450 0,400 0,350 0,300 0,210 2,040 1,840 1,640 1,440 1,050

Heat output EN442T= 50 K 160 145 130 112 84,7

Exponent n 1,36471 1,35762 1,33882 1,33491 1,31621

The maximum operating pressure is 1000 kPa (10 bar) The thermal outputs expressed at T= 50 K comply with the European regulation EN 442-2

Tables for calculation of thermal outputs with different T


Thermal outputs data expressed in Watt.
FARAL Alliance 800 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 45,7 79,5 118 160 205 253 1 48,9 83,2 122 164 210 258 2 52,1 86,9 126 169 214 263 3 55,4 90,6 130 173 219 268 4 58,7 94,4 134 177 224 273 5 62,0 98,2 138 182 228 278 6 65,4 102 143 186 233 283 7 68,9 106 147 191 238 288 8 72,4 110 151 196 243 293 9 75,9 114 155 200 248 298

1 watt = 0,860 Kcal/h


FARAL Alliance 700 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 41,9 72,6 107 145 186 229 1 44,8 75,9 111 149 190 234 2 47,7 79,3 115 153 195 238 3 50,6 82,7 118 157 199 243 4 53,7 86,1 122 161 203 247 5 56,7 89,6 126 165 208 252 6 59,8 93,0 130 170 212 257 7 63,0 96,6 134 174 216 261 8 66,1 100 137 178 221 266 9 69,4 104 141 182 225 270

FARAL Alliance 600 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 38,2 65,8 96,7 130 166 205 1 40,8 68,8 100 134 170 209 2 43,5 71,8 103 137 174 213 3 46,1 74,8 107 141 178 216 4 48,8 77,8 110 145 182 220 5 51,6 80,9 113 148 185 224 6 54,3 84,0 117 152 189 228 7 57,2 87,2 120 155 193 232 8 60,0 90,3 123 159 197 237 9 62,9 93,5 127 163 201 241

FARAL Alliance 500 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 32,9 56,5 83,0 112 143 175 1 35,1 59,0 85,7 115 146 178 2 37,4 61,6 88,6 118 149 182 3 39,6 64,2 91,4 121 152 185 4 42,0 66,8 94,2 124 155 189 5 44,3 69,4 97,1 127 159 192 6 46,7 72,1 100 130 162 195 7 49,1 74,8 103 133 165 199 8 51,5 77,5 106 136 168 202 9 54,0 80,2 109 139 172 206

FARAL Alliance 350 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 25,4 43,2 63,1 84,7 108 132 1 27,0 45,1 65,2 86,9 110 134 2 28,7 47,1 67,3 89,2 112 137 3 30,5 49,0 69,5 91,5 115 139 4 32,2 51,0 71,6 93,7 117 142 5 34,0 53,0 73,7 96,0 120 144 6 35,8 55,0 75,9 98,3 122 147 7 37,6 57,0 78,1 101 125 150 8 39,5 59,0 80,3 103 127 152 9 41,4 61,1 82,5 105 129 155

29

FARAL 140

A 35

C B

45

30

Model FARAL 140 FARAL 200/140

A B C D
Depth mm 140 Height mm 280 Centres mm 200 80

Length mm

Connection diameter inches 1"

Water content Weight liters/section Kg/section 0,300 1,100

Heat output EN442T= 50 K 74,0

Exponent n 1,27368

The maximum operating pressure is 600 kPa (6 bar) The thermal outputs expressed at T= 50 K comply with the European regulation EN 442-2

Tables for calculation of thermal outputs with different T


Thermal outputs data expressed in Watt.
FARAL 200/140 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 23,0 38,6 55,7 74,0 93,3 114 1 24,5 40,2 57,5 75,9 95,3 116 2 26,0 41,9 59,3 77,8 97,3 118 3 27,5 43,6 61,1 79,7 99,3 120 4 29,1 45,3 62,9 81,6 101 122 5 30,6 47,0 64,7 83,5 103 124 6 32,2 48,7 66,5 85,5 105 126 7 33,8 50,4 68,4 87,4 107 128 8 35,4 52,2 70,2 89,4 109 130 9 37,0 53,9 72,1 91,4 112 132

1 watt = 0,860 Kcal/h

31

FARAL Longo 80
A 21 D

21

32

Model FARAL Longo 80 FARAL Longo 80 2000 FARAL Longo 80 1800 FARAL Longo 80 1600 FARAL Longo 80 1400 FARAL Longo 80 1200 FARAL Longo 80 1000

A B C D
Depth mm 80 80 80 80 80 80 Height mm 2042 1842 1642 1442 1242 1042 Centres mm 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 80 80 80 80 80 80

Length mm

Connection diameter inches 1" 1" 1" 1" 1" 1"

Water content Weight liters/section Kg/section 0,750 0,680 0,620 0,550 0,490 0,430 2,67 2,44 2,20 1,97 1,74 1,50

Heat output EN442T= 50 K 293 271 248 224 200 174

Exponent n 1,349 1,350 1,350 1,350 1,351 1,351

The maximum operating pressure is 600 kPa (6 bar) The thermal outputs expressed at T= 50 K comply with the European regulation EN 442-2

Tables for calculation of thermal outputs with different T


Thermal outputs data expressed in Watt.
FARAL Longo 80 2000 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 85,1 147 217 293 375 461 1 90,9 154 224 301 383 470 2 96,8 160 232 309 392 479 3 103 167 239 317 400 488 4 109 174 247 325 409 497 5 115 181 254 333 417 506 6 121 188 262 341 426 515 7 128 195 270 350 435 525 8 134 202 277 358 444 534 9 141 210 285 366 452 543 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 78,6 136 200 271 346 426 1 84,0 142 207 278 354 435

1 watt = 0,860 Kcal/h


FARAL Longo 80 1800 2 89,4 148 214 285 362 443 3 94,9 155 221 293 370 451 4 101 161 228 300 378 460 5 106 167 235 308 386 468 6 112 174 242 315 394 476 7 118 180 249 323 402 485 8 124 187 256 331 410 493 9 130 194 263 338 418 502

FARALLongo 80 1600 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 71,9 124 183 248 317 390 1 76,8 130 190 255 324 398 2 81,8 136 196 261 331 405 3 86,9 141 202 268 339 413 4 92,0 147 209 275 346 421 5 97,2 153 215 282 353 428 6 103 159 221 289 361 436 7 108 165 228 296 368 444 8 113 171 235 303 375 452 9 119 177 241 310 383 460

FARAL Longo 80 1400 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 65,1 113 166 224 287 353 1 69,5 118 172 230 293 360 2 74,0 123 177 236 300 367 3 78,6 128 183 243 306 374 4 83,2 113 189 249 313 381 5 87,9 139 195 255 320 388 6 92,7 144 200 261 326 395 7 97,6 149 206 268 333 402 8 102 155 212 274 340 409 9 107 160 218 280 346 416

FARAL Longo 80 1200 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 58,0 100 148 200 256 315 1 61,9 105 153 205 261 321 2 65,9 109 158 211 267 327 3 70,0 114 163 216 273 333 4 74,1 119 168 222 279 339 5 78,4 123 173 227 285 346 6 82,6 128 179 233 291 352 7 86,9 133 184 239 297 358 8 91,3 138 189 244 303 364 9 95,7 143 194 250 309 371

FARAL Longo 80 1000 T 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 50,4 87,3 129 174 223 274 1 53,9 91,2 133 179 228 279 2 57,4 95,2 137 183 233 285 3 60,9 99,2 142 188 238 290 4 64,5 103 146 193 243 296 5 68,2 107 151 198 248 301 6 71,9 112 155 203 253 306 7 75,7 116 160 208 258 312 8 79,5 120 165 213 264 317 9 83,3 124 169 218 269 323

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FARAL Longo 80
Specific technical information for Longo 80
In case of connection 140 or 320 (pict. 1), 120 or 340 (pict. 2) no particular installation problems exist. In case of connection 240 or 420 (pict. 3), it is necessary to insert the flow diverter present in the packing.

Picture 1

Picture 2

Picture 3

Picture 4

In case of installation with one-pipe valve it is needed.

NOTICE LONGO 80
Due to its particular assembling and painting process FARAL Longo 80 radiators cannot be disassembled, but further elements can be added by the use of nipples. In case it is needed to assemble further elements to one radiator, original and suitable Faral nipples and gaskets must be used. The assembling must be carried out also by means of driving torque 100 Nm and thread-locking glue. FARAL will not take any responsibility for radiators to which further elements have been assembled or disassembled by a third party.

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Working conditions
There is a distinct and strong tendency towards the reduction in the working temperature of the heating emitters that it is being developed in the world of the heating equipment. The decrease of the average working temperature of the heating emitters is positive in terms of both energy saving and thermal comfort in any environment. In the past, the radiators used to me measured considering the water flow temperature of 90C and the return temperature of 70C which produces an average temperature of 80C; assuming that the room temperature is 20C, the T is 60K (Kelvin degrees), which corresponds to the difference between the average temperature of the radiator and the room one of 60C Nowadays and in the future, such temperatures can and must be lowered. The regulation EN 442 provides for a T equal to 50K, whereas in some countries the average working temperature equal to 50C is gaining ground which corresponds a T of 30K. The low temperature heating systems allow a better hygiene of the warmed rooms. The heating emitter working in the winter season when the rooms are less ventilated than in the summer, affects in a considerable and complicated way the healthiness of the rooms in which it is installed. Because of the convection currents the radiator generates, a consequent movement of all the substances normally suspended in the air is caused in our domestic and working environment. The main substances are powders, environmental dust, pollen, bacteria, fibres from fabrics and curtains, and dandruff of animal and human origin. When the convective currents move at high speeds these substances are dragged from the surfaces on which they are normally deposited and circulate in the room, causing phenomena such as irritation of the respiratory tracts and allergies as well as the not to mention the dirty on the wall behind the radiator. The best way of limiting the scale of these phenomena is to reduce the average temperature of the radiator. This solution also offers very large advantages in terms of stratification of the temperatures, a rise in the general sensation of comfort, and a decrease in the carbonisation of suspended organic matter (black "streaks" on the wall behind the radiator). The ideal method to size heating emitters provides for the following: To limit the cold air coming down from the windowpanes and running down on the floor towards the lower extremities of the occupants, the radiators must have the same size of the window; In order to limit the heat losses by irradiation towards the outside, as in the case of windowpanes right behind the heating emitter, an insulating panel between the radiator and the windowpane is absolutely recommended;
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Particularly low working temperatures must be chosen so that all the heating system components perform at best. This is necessary in order to take advantage of the newest and technically advanced heat generators, developed for low temperature and condensation. Moreover the calculation of seasonal heat requirement, which should be carried out by every heating system design engineer, allows to enhance the total seasonal efficiency of every kind of heating system. The choice of a bigger heating emitter working at lower temperatures is widely justified by a lower recovery time, that is much shorter than the average life of heating emitters.

Temperature Very high High Medium Low Very low

T intake 90 75 56 55 50

T outlet 70 65 55 45 40

60 50 40 30 25

Thermal output % 127% 100% 75% 51% 41%

The Heating system total efficiency


Every heating system has its own system efficiency. The heating system efficiency is defined according to the part of energy contained in the fuel which is effectively transferred to the environment to be heated. The remaining part of energy get lost and disperse due to inefficiencies of the heating system or its components. The heating system total efficiency is traditionally expressed through the following formula:

tot = prod distr emiss reg


legend: tot prod distr emiss reg total heating system efficiency production efficiency distribution efficiency emitters efficiency regulation efficiency

Actually all the four efficiencies depend on the heating system working temperature. At this point it is interesting to express the total heating system efficiency with a different formula: tot = f (components, typology, capacity) + f (heating system average temperature) 1 2
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If we look at the graph expressing the tendency of f2, we clearly notice how important is to keep the average working temperature of a heating system low. This is achieved by projecting the heating emitters for use at low temperatures.

1,000 0,900 0,800 0,700 0,600 0,500 0,400 0,300 0,200 0,100 0,000 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85

Average Temperature

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Sizing the heating emitters


The radiator is the end point of the heating system or the component representing the interface between the heating system and the environment to be heated. The radiator is passed through by hot water produced by a boiler and then sent to the heating system by means of a circulating pump that must have the right capacity and the right head. After calculating the heat losses through walls, assessing the need for ventilation and estimating any free heat inputs, the system design engineer must calculate the amount of heat which must be supplied in the unit of time in order to maintain the temperature of a room at the required level. The size of the radiator will be decided by ensuring that its effective thermal output is equal to the heat required in the room:

Q = Peff
Legend: Q Peff heat required in the room effective thermal output of the radiator

As far as pre-assembled or full radiators are concerned, once the effective thermal output has been calculated, the system design engineer can size the heating emitter by choosing in a catalogue the radiator model, whose thermal output is more similar to the calculated one. In case of modular radiators, the necessary number of sections to be assembled together can be simply found by dividing the heat requirement of the room by the effective thermal output of the single section. For this reason, in case of modular radiators, only this simple equation is necessary: Q : Peff per section = number of sections to be assembled

Correct sizing of the radiator

Wrong sizing of the radiator

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Calculation of the effective thermal output of heating emitters


Once the heat requirement of a room is known, the intake and outlet temperatures are fixed. These information determine also the hot water supply to the heating emitter, according to the following equation:

m = Q / ( c (t1 - t2 ))
legend: m Q t1 t2 c hot water flow into circulation heat requirement of the environment water intake temperature water outlet temperature maximum thermal capacity of water

The effective thermal output of the heating emitter depends on t1 and t2. The calculation is to be carried out as follows: Legend: t1 t2 tm ta water intake temperature water outlet temperature water average temperature inside the radiator room temperature

Equation: tm = ( t 1 + t 2 ) / 2 And Teff = tm - ta

Two-pipe system

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In case of radiators connected by a single pipe system each radiator works at a different average temperature and, as a consequence, at a different Teff.

Single pipe system

If the T is different from the nominal one it is necessary to consult the conversion charts or to calculate the effective output with the following equation:

Peff = PEN 442 (Teff / 50)n


Legend: n Peff PEN 442 characteristic exponent of heating emitters, experimentally calculated during certification tests for thermal output. effective thermal output nominal thermal output according to EN442

The EN 442-2 standard gives the same equation with a different formula:

Peff = KM (Teff)n
In this formula the characteristic coefficient of heating emitters KM is used. In addition to the nominal thermal output and the exponent, the tests results issued by the official laboratories contain also this value. Anyway the value KM can always be calculated starting from the data normally given on catalogues:

KM = PEN 442 / (50)n

40

Installation procedures
Here below a brief outline of the operations required for the proper installation of a FARAL radiator is provided. The use of original accessories (brackets, nipples, plugs, adapters, gaskets) is recommended Never use hemp or similar products since the original gaskets are absolutely watertight Original plugs and adapters are specially designed to be used in combination with the special gaskets supplied. It is recommended to screw nipples, caps and reductions with the prescribed maximum torque values: 100 Nm for nipples equipped with flat gaskets; 30 40 Nm for caps or reductions equipped with silicon O-ring gaskets The water flow rate of the radiator must comply with the nominal one, with a 50% tolerance. The radiators must be positioned in the right way - by means of the specially designed brackets - before the room receive the final plastering (only the wall behind the radiator must have been already plastered) and before the connections to the hot water distribution network are definitively fixed. The thermal output of the boiler must be proportioned to the thermal output of the installed radiators. By choosing the boiler or regulating the heat output it must be considered that the supplied thermal output cannot exceed the radiators output more than 25%. If aluminium radiators are installed, then a bracket or a floor mount support every 50 cm of radiator is recommended. Once the connections of the valve and outlet tap (or single pipe valve) have been fixed and tightened, the pipes can be built into or fixed to the wall. It is necessary to check the circuit to ensure it is watertight before plastering the pipes. To this purpose the circuit must be filled with cold water at the maximum rated pressure. During this check, the radiator must be cut off from the system by closing its valve and outlet tap so that it is protected against damages, scratches and dirt. After the watertight test of the distribution network, the radiator itself must be tested at its maximum working pressure. If the radiator is installed as part of a renovation project, the existing radiator and its brackets must be removed. After the new radiator has been installed on its own brackets, the connections can be repositioned to suit the size of the new unit. It is very important to mount the wall brackets exactly between two elements: the use of adjustable wall brackets is recommended, since they allow the recovery of
41

any small positioning error, saving a great deal of time during installation and maintenance. The radiator can be uninstalled again in order to finish the building works and to flush and clean the circuit. The radiator can be put back into its position and reconnected to the hot water distribution network only after all the building works are finished.

Washing and cleaning up the heating system


When installation is complete, whether in a new system or in replacing old radiators, the system must be washed thoroughly before it is started. The pipes contain all the residues of welding, thread cutting and tapping. It is important to remove this dirt from the system, if possible before connecting the heating emitters and the boiler to the distribution network. To this purpose the system must be emptied after the watertight test and the distribution network should be washed. By single pipe system it is simply necessary to shut the valve and make the network water run through the pipes; by two-pipe system it is necessary to remove the radiator, connect the valve to the water outlet by means of a temporary pipe and then make water run. It is possible to carry out a simplified washing of the system with radiators and heat generator already installed - by filling the system, running the circulating pump and then emptying the system again. To simplify this operation it is necessary to provide a drain tap of adequate diameter at the lowest point of the system, that can be removed once the system is washed. When each of the operations described above has been carried out at least twice, most of the dirt will have been removed from the system. If the radiators are installed in a system which has been working since a lot of years and needs a more drastic washing, it is necessary to clean up the distribution network with a specific product before installing the radiators.

Venting the heating system


Before the system is started the present air must be vented from it. The quantity of air present in the system depends on various factors, above all the speed at which the system is filled, the height of the water inlet and the natural gas content of the water used. The first time a heating system is filled with water, it is commonly recommended to operate from a low point, as slowly as possible, venting air constantly from the highest points of the system. Once the system is brought to the normal working pressure with cold water, the circulating pump and the heat generator must be started until the maximum temperature is reached. After this, the pump must be stopped and, after some minutes, air must be vented again from the highest points of the system. The above described operation is much simpler if automatic vent valves
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with floats are used, as they immediately remove all the gases accumulated in the high points. Obviously, after venting operations, the system must be brought back to its normal working pressure by opening the feeder tap slowly.

Installation and output efficiency


The radiator transfers a quantity of heat equal to its nominal heat output to the room within the unit of time provided that: It is installed in accordance with the manufacturers instructions; It is fed with hot water at its nominal flow rate; The intake and outlet water temperatures comply with the reference standard.

Positioning the heating emitter


The radiator generates convective currents which travel up along the wall where it is installed in. If not adequately controlled, these currents make the room temperature uneven. The fact is, hot air tends to rise towards the ceiling, while colder air tends to stratify in the areas closer to the floor where people normally spend their time. To avoid this unpleasant phenomena, the heating emitters must be correctly positioned. Radiators must be installed close to sources of cold air: on the outside wall, under windows or beside French windows. In this way, any cold air seeped in through poor seals, or simply cooled by contact with a windowpane will immediately be mixed with the air heated by the radiator. In practice, the cold air current generated by the window and the hot air current generated by the radiator meet in the zone between the radiator and the window. This leads to a reduction in the speed of the two currents, thus cancelling their negative effects and forming a single flow of moderately warm air which spreads evenly through the room. Moreover, installation on an outside wall also increases the average radiating temperature of this wall, thus creating a greater comfort with the same air temperature, without increasing energy consumption. Last but not least, condensate does not form on the window. For top performances, the radiators must be installed respecting the recommended clearances, which are valid for any type of heating emitter: The distance between the floor and the bottom part of the radiator must not be under 10 cm; The distance between the back part of the radiator and the wall against which it is positioned must be above 2 cm. If there is an overhang above or beside the radiator (edge of a recess, shelves) a clearance not under 10 cm must be left even if this is not envisaged by the European standards.
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The clearances mentioned above must be respected also if radiator covers are installed, so that an adequate air circulation is allowed and convective movements are less obstructed. In order to respect the recommended clearances, also the final floor height must be known.

min 100 mm 12

min 20 mm

min 100 mm

35 min 100 mm

45

50 for depht 95 mm 40 for depht 80 mm

45 for depht 95 mm 40 for depht 80 mm

min 100 mm

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Connectionstothedistributionnetwork
In case of radiators composed by a number of elements, the position of the connections to the heating system distribution network may influence the effective radiator output. The nominal heat output tests are carried out on radiators connected with water intake at the top and water outlet at the bottom, both on the same side of the radiator. This layout is not always adopted in ordinary heating systems and the following connections may be preferred: 1) 2) 3) 4) intake at the top and outlet at the bottom on the same side (TBSE); intake at the top and outlet at the bottom on the same side (TBOE); intake and outlet at the bottom (BOE); intake and outlet at the bottom on only one side of the radiator, with coaxi al flow valve Loss of output = 0% Loss of output = 0%

Loss of output = 2-12%

Loss of output = 2-12%

Each of these options has its own advantages and disadvantages, which can be summarized as follows: 1) This type of connection is the one used for the thermal output test according to the EN 442-2 standard. This solution makes it possible to increase the number of elements for each radiator, even on second thought, after the first installation. If the radiator is particularly long, the loss in efficiency remains quite negligible (max. 12%). Moreover this type of connection, as for typology 2, the distance of the thermostatic valve from the floor is equal to the sum of the height of the radiator and
45

its floor clearance. For example, a radiator with centres 600 installed at 10/12 cm above the floor will have its eventual thermostatic valve at about 80 cm above the floor, thus measuring accurately the air temperature at the level where people normally stay (the standard EN 442 requires the temperature to be measured at 0,75 cm above the floor). 2) This type of connection is the one used for the thermal output test according to the fomer national standard. It is recommended in case of particularly long radiators. The loss of output is negligible compared to typology 1. 3) This type of connection is often used when the distribution network runs under the floor. Its main advantage is of aesthetic type while, like typology 2, it has no particular disadvantages from the technical point of view provided that it is not used for radiators having a number of elements assembled in vertical (the estimated loss of output is between 2-4% for short radiators, but rises up to 10-12% for very tall ones, without specific flow diverter). The only drawback is that if a thermostatic valve is used, , unless it is equipped with a remote sensor, this will be 15 cm above the floor and so the measured temperature will not indicate the real level of comfort of the rooms occupants. 4) The coaxial flow valve has begun to spread with the rise in popularity of single pipe systems, but coaxial flow valves for two-pipe systems are available on the market nowadays. These valves are easy to install and have a nice visual impact but combine the disadvantage of their position with the risk that the water doesnt circulate through the radiator properly, particularly when the inner pipe is not long enough. In addition, seeing that sometimes one sole regulator device is present and acts on both intake and outlet flowrate, the shutting of the valve can make it happen that the radiator is completely cut off from the rest of the system and is consequently not protected against overpressures. A part from the reduction in heat output (difficult to be estimated but, in any case, at low percentage), we remind that the size of a heating emitter installed in a single pipe system must be calculated using the specific method, which considers the difference in effective temperature between the radiator and the room.

Thermal insulation of the back wall


If possible radiators must be installed under windows or beside French windows. In addition to increased comfort in the room, this also gives advantages in terms of interior design, since the radiator is positioned on a part of the wall which would be in any case of little use for furnishings. The use of aluminium alloy radiators and heating emitters with minimum depth but same heat output allows installation under the window without impediments.
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In order to minimize the heat losses it is necessary to reduce the heat that gets lost towards the back wall. These losses depend on the chosen water intake temperature. When the radiator is fed with water at high temperature the heat that gets lost towards the back wall by irradiation and convection becomes significant. If preventive measures are not taken, up to 10% of the heat output may get lost to the outdoors. Back walls with high thermal insulation; heat reflecting surfaces (padding with aluminium foil surface) and the use of window sills and shelves with insulating gaps allow the recovery of a large proportion of this otherwise lost 10% heat output.

Correct execution of the wall behind the radiator 47

Selling conditions and Guarantee


The delivery of Faral radiators and of their accessories takes place according to the general selling and guarantee conditions listed below. Any change in the general selling conditions is subjected to the written acceptance from Faral S.p.A. The general selling, delivery and guarantee conditions are subjected to the Italian Law. Descriptions and indications in our catalogues and price lists are not binding: that is, prices and characteristics may be modified without notice. Regarding performances, dimensions and technical characteristics, Customers are invited to make sure that they are looking over the valid and current documentation. Orders The delivery of Radiators and of their accessories will be made according to our order confirmation. Our Customers are therefore kindly requested to check it always. Changes in orders Any change in an order must be communicated in writing to Faral S.p.A. within two days from the transmission of the order itself. Any change in an order could cause a delay in delivery. Cancellation of orders Cancellation of an order is subjected to the written agreement with Faral S.p.A. Incidental costs resulting from the cancellation will be at the Customers charge. Delivery The delivery of goods is at the receivers risk. He must verify in the presence of the hauler that the package is intact, that there is no damage, missing material or substitutions in the right moment when goods come to destination. Any damage or non-correspondence between transport documents and received material must be immediately notified to the hauler by signing with reservation the transport papers. The receiver must then confirm this reservation by means of a registered letter within three days from the receipt of the goods. Non-fulfilment of this clause frees the forwarding company from their responsibilities. The delivery can be insured against the risks of transport, if requested and at the Customers charge. The delivery conditions are ruled according to the INCOTERMS 2000. Complaints Complaints about the goods or apparent defects are taken into consideration only if they are notified in writing to Faral S.p.A. within three days from goods receipt or the manifestation of the defect. It must be clear that such goods were not altered from a third party. Package The kind of package will be the one that Faral S.p.A. considers the most suitable. It is included in the price of radiators and accessories and will not be taken back. Delivery time The delivery time is stated on our order confirmation. It coincides with the shipment day. Faral S.p.A engages to respect the delivery time, but cannot give absolute guarantees. Demands of indemnity for non-observance of delivery time will not be accepted. In case of force majeure (strikes, disturbances,...), Faral S.p.A will choose the solution to be adopted. Returns of goods We will not accept any returns of goods without our consent.
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Drawings, dimensions and weights Drawings, dimensions and weights are indicative and Faral S.p.A. retains the right to modify them without notice. In any case, dimensions are subjected to the normal production tolerances, as established in the UNI EN 442-1 standard. The colour RAL 9010, as well as the other colours delivered on request, are subjected to the tolerances of the colorimetric co-ordinates. Guarantee The terms of guarantee on Faral products are: Die-cast aluminium radiators: 10 years guarantee; original accessories: 2 years guarantee. The guarantee will be applied according to the European standard 1999/44/CE until the end of the second year. From the end of the second year on, the guarantee is limited to the sole replacement of the defective elements; the guarantee is provided only if the instructions for use reported below are adhered to. The customer has to demonstrate the date of purchase or installation. FARAL radiators are heating emitters to be used exclusively in hot water heating systems with a maximum temperature of 110C and a maximum working pressure as follows:
Model FARAL Tropical FARAL Esse FARAL Etal FARAL Trio FARAL Trio HP FARAL Tropical 80 FARAL Green FARAL Green HP FARAL Lineal 80 FARAL Alliance FARAL Longo 80 FARAL 140 X X X X X X X X X X Working Pressure 6 bar 600 kPa X X 10 bar 1000 kPa 16 bar 1600 kPa

Obvious limitations of use must be observed, such as protection from ice, installation on suitable brackets or floor mount supports, prohibition of using the radiator as a shelf, a seat, a staircase, etc and normal precautions of domestic living in order to avoid harm to people caused by impact against the radiator and similar occurrences. Regarding the heating system to which the radiator is connected it is necessary to provide: A correct earthing of the system and of its components including electric parts, in order to avoid electrocutions by touching the exposed parts of the system including the radiators; A correct system temperature in order to avoid burns by touching the surface of radiators, especially in rooms for children, elderly people and handicapped people; A correct setting and regulation of the working temperature;
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A water flow rate not above 200% and not under 25% in comparison to the nominal capacity; A thermal output supplied by the boiler not above 25% in comparison to the thermal output of the radiator. The rules regulating the treatment of system water being in force in the country where radiators are installed (the specific ones referring to the material of the radiator) must be adhered to. The use of products for treating the system water not specifically prescribed by Faral as well as of anti-freeze products is on full responsibility of the installer and of the supplier of these products. For top performances, the normal connection conditions and the following clearances must be respected: Distance from the wall: Distance from the floor: Distance from a possible shelf: 2 cm 10 cm 10 cm

The installation under shelves, in a niche or behind a radiator casing leads to a reduction of thermal output which is proportional to the kind of obstacle deviating the convective movements of air or blocking the emission of radiant heat. For periodic external cleaning of the radiator, no aggressive chemical products or abrasive material must be used, since a soft water-moistened cloth is sufficient. FARAL doesnt give guarantees on non-original accessories (plugs, nipples, adapters, gaskets): do not use hemp or similar products since the original gaskets are absolutely watertight. The prescribed driving torques for accessories are the following: 100 Nm for nipples equipped with flat gaskets; 30 40 Nm for caps or reductions equipped with silicon O-ring gaskets. Faral will not taken upon itself the responsibility for radiators assembled or disassembled by a third party; this is valid also for the mounting of plugs and adapters. Any risk caused by leaving parts of the package in places accessible to children who could swallow or be chocked by the packaging material must be avoided. Responsibility The responsibility of Faral S.p.A. is excluded unless it is caused by intention or serious negligence. For what is not explicitly cited, the national enforceable and current standards and laws are valid. The customer must in any case try to limit the proportion and the costs of any damage caused by defective products, for what is within his power. Specifically, regarding the responsibility for damages caused by defective products, the EEC 85/374 Guideline dated 24 July 1985 is applied, which became an Italian law through the D.P .R. No. 224 dated 24 May 1988. Competent court of Justice The competent court of Justice and execution place is in any case MODENA. FARAL S.p.A. reserves to itself the right to designate a different court.
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Total or partial reproduction is forbidden.


Concept: longa@studiolonga.it Layout: Cristian Testa Image processing: Hi Res Printing: Grafiche Bierre

Member of Zehnder Group Faral S.p.a. Via Ponte Alto, 40 41011 Campogalliano (MO) Italy www.faral.com Tel. +39.059.8890711 Fax +39.059.527236 info@faral.com

01-2007 3ACTIT1

longa@studiolonga.it

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