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# The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories

## The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories

John Huerta
Department of Mathematics UC Riverside

## The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Introduction

This talk is an introduction to the representation theory used in The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM); Certain extensions of the SM, called Grand Unied Theories (GUTs).

## The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Introduction

Theres a lot I wont talk about: quantum eld theory; spontaneous symmetry breaking; any sort of dynamics. This stuff is essential to particle physics. What I discuss here is just one small piece.

## The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Introduction

Theres a loose correspondence between particle physics and representation theory: Particles basis vectors in a representation V of a Lie group G. Classication of particles decomposition into irreps. Unication G H ; particles are unied into fewer irreps. Grand Unication as above, but H is simple. The Standard Model a particular representation VSM of a particular Lie group GSM .

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories The Standard Model The Group

## The Standard Model group is GSM = U(1) SU(2) SU(3)

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories The Standard Model The Group

The Standard Model group is GSM = U(1) SU(2) SU(3) The factor U(1) SU(2) corresponds to the electroweak force. It represents a unication of electromagnetism and the weak force.

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories The Standard Model The Group

The Standard Model group is GSM = U(1) SU(2) SU(3) The factor U(1) SU(2) corresponds to the electroweak force. It represents a unication of electromagnetism and the weak force. Spontaneous symmetry breaking makes the electromagnetic and weak forces look different; at high energies, theyre the same.

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories The Standard Model The Group

The Standard Model group is GSM = U(1) SU(2) SU(3) The factor U(1) SU(2) corresponds to the electroweak force. It represents a unication of electromagnetism and the weak force. Spontaneous symmetry breaking makes the electromagnetic and weak forces look different; at high energies, theyre the same. SU(3) corresponds to the strong force, which binds quarks together. No symmetry breaking here.

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories The Standard Model The Particles

Name

## Standard Model Representation Symbol GSM -representation L eL

b r uL , uL , uL g b r dL , dL , dL g

Left-handed leptons

C1 C2 C C 1 C2 C3
3

Left-handed quarks Right-handed neutrino Right-handed electron Right-handed up quarks Right-handed down quarks

R
eR r b uR , uR , uR r b dR , dR , dR g g

C0 C C C2 C C C 4 C C3
3

C 2 C C3
3

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories The Standard Model The Particles

Here, weve written a bunch of GSM = U(1) SU(2) SU(3) irreps as U V W , where

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories The Standard Model The Particles

Here, weve written a bunch of GSM = U(1) SU(2) SU(3) irreps as U V W , where
1 Z. The underlying vector U is a U(1) irrep CY , where Y 3 space is just C, and the action is given by

z = 3Y z ,

U(1), z C

## V is an SU(2) irrep, either C or C2 . W is an SU(3) irrep, either C or C3 .

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories The Standard Model The Particles

## Physicists use these irreps to classify the particles:

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories The Standard Model The Particles

Physicists use these irreps to classify the particles: The number Y in CY is called the hypercharge. C2 = u , d ; u and d are called isospin up and isospin down. C3 = r , g , b ; r , g , and b are called red, green, and blue.

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories The Standard Model The Particles

Physicists use these irreps to classify the particles: The number Y in CY is called the hypercharge. C2 = u , d ; u and d are called isospin up and isospin down. C3 = r , g , b ; r , g , and b are called red, green, and blue. For example:
r = 1 u r C C2 C3 , say the red left-handed up uL 1

## quark is the hypercharge 1 3 , isospin up, red particle.

eR = 1 1 1 C2 C C, say the right-handed electron is the hypercharge 2 isospin singlet which is colorless.

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories The Standard Model The Representation

We take the direct sum of all these irreps, dening the reducible representation, F = C 1 C2 C C 2 C C3
3

## which well call the fermions.

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories The Standard Model The Representation

We take the direct sum of all these irreps, dening the reducible representation, F = C 1 C2 C C 2 C C3
3

which well call the fermions. We also have the antifermions, F , which is just the dual of F.

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories The Standard Model The Representation

We take the direct sum of all these irreps, dening the reducible representation, F = C 1 C2 C C 2 C C3
3

which well call the fermions. We also have the antifermions, F , which is just the dual of F. Direct summing these, we get the Standard Model representation VSM = F F

## The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories

The GUTs Goal: GSM = U(1) SU(2) SU(3) is a mess! VSM = C1 C2 C C 2 C C3 is a 3 mess!

## The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories

The GUTs Goal: GSM = U(1) SU(2) SU(3) is a mess! VSM = C1 C2 C C 2 C C3 is a 3 mess! Explain the hypercharges!

## The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories

The GUTs Goal: GSM = U(1) SU(2) SU(3) is a mess! VSM = C1 C2 C C 2 C C3 is a 3 mess! Explain the hypercharges! Explain other patterns:
dim VSM = 32 = 25 ; symmetry between quarks and leptons; asymmetry between left and right.

## The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories

The GUTs trick: if V is a representation of G and GSM G, then V is also representation of GSM ; V may break apart into more GSM -irreps than G-irreps.

## The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories

More precisely, we want: A homomorphism : GSM G. A unitary representation : G U(V ). An isomorphism of vector spaces f : VSM V . Such that /G GSM

U(f )

U(VSM ) commutes.

/ U(V )

## The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories

More precisely, we want: A homomorphism : GSM G. A unitary representation : G U(V ). An isomorphism of vector spaces f : VSM V . Such that /G GSM

U(f )

U(VSM ) commutes.

/ U(V )

## In short: V becomes isomorphic to VSM when we restrict from G to GSM .

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The SU(5) Theory

The SU(5) GUT, due to Georgi and Glashow, is all about 2 isospins + 3 colors = 5 things:

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The SU(5) Theory

The SU(5) GUT, due to Georgi and Glashow, is all about 2 isospins + 3 colors = 5 things: Take C5 = u , d , r , g , b . C5 is a representation of SU(5), as is the 32-dimensional exterior algebra: C 5 = 0 C 5 1 C 5 2 C 5 3 C 5 4 C 5 5 C 5

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The SU(5) Theory

The SU(5) GUT, due to Georgi and Glashow, is all about 2 isospins + 3 colors = 5 things: Take C5 = u , d , r , g , b . C5 is a representation of SU(5), as is the 32-dimensional exterior algebra: C 5 = 0 C 5 1 C 5 2 C 5 3 C 5 4 C 5 5 C 5 Theorem Theres a homomorphism : GSM SU(5) and a linear isomorphism h : VSM C5 making GSM


/ SU(5)  / U(C5 )

U(VSM ) commute.

U(h)

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The SU(5) Theory

Proof Let S(U(2) U(3)) SU(5) be the subgroup preserving the 2 + 3 splitting C2 C3 = C5 .

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The SU(5) Theory

Proof Let S(U(2) U(3)) SU(5) be the subgroup preserving the 2 + 3 splitting C2 C3 = C5 . Can nd : GSM S(U(2) U(3)) SU(5).

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The SU(5) Theory

Proof Let S(U(2) U(3)) SU(5) be the subgroup preserving the 2 + 3 splitting C2 C3 = C5 . Can nd : GSM S(U(2) U(3)) SU(5). The representation C5 of SU(5) is isomorphic to VSM when pulled back to GSM .

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The SU(5) Theory

Proof Let S(U(2) U(3)) SU(5) be the subgroup preserving the 2 + 3 splitting C2 C3 = C5 . Can nd : GSM S(U(2) U(3)) SU(5). The representation C5 of SU(5) is isomorphic to VSM when pulled back to GSM . We dene by : (, g , h) U(1)SU(2)SU(3) 3 g 0 0 2 h SU(5)

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The SU(5) Theory

maps GSM onto S(U(2) U(3)), but it has a kernel: ker = {(, 3 , 2 )|6 = 1} = Z6

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The SU(5) Theory

maps GSM onto S(U(2) U(3)), but it has a kernel: ker = {(, 3 , 2 )|6 = 1} = Z6 Thus GSM /Z6 = S(U(2) U(3)) The subgroup Z6 GSM acts trivially on VSM .

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The SU(5) Theory

## Because GSM respects the 2 + 3 splitting C 5 = (C2 C3 ) = C 2 C 3

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The SU(5) Theory

## Because GSM respects the 2 + 3 splitting C 5 = (C2 C3 ) = C 2 C 3 As a GSM -representation, C 2 = C 0 0 C 2 C 1 1 C 2 C 2 2 C 2

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The SU(5) Theory

## Because GSM respects the 2 + 3 splitting C 5 = (C2 C3 ) = C 2 C 3 As a GSM -representation, C 2 = C 0 0 C 2 C 1 1 C 2 C 2 2 C 2

As a GSM -representation, C 3 = C0 0 C3 C 2 1 C3
3

C 4 2 C3
3

C2 3 C3

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The SU(5) Theory

Then tensor them together, use C2 = C2 and CY1 CY2 = CY1 +Y2 to see how VSM = C 5 as GSM -representations.

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The SU(5) Theory

Then tensor them together, use C2 = C2 and CY1 CY2 = CY1 +Y2 to see how VSM = C 5 as GSM -representations. Thus theres a linear isomorphism h : VSM C5 making GSM


/ SU(5)  / U(C5 )

U(VSM ) commute.

U(h)

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

## The idea of the PatiSalam model, due to Pati and Salam:

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

The idea of the PatiSalam model, due to Pati and Salam: Unify the C3 C representation of SU(3) into the irrep C4 of SU(4). This creates explicit symmetry between quarks and leptons.

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

The idea of the PatiSalam model, due to Pati and Salam: Unify the C3 C representation of SU(3) into the irrep C4 of SU(4). This creates explicit symmetry between quarks and leptons. Unify the C2 C C representations of SU(2) into the representation C2 C C C2 of SU(2) SU(2). This treats left and right more symmetrically.

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

Name

## Standard Model Representation Symbol GSM -representation L eL

b r uL , uL , uL g b r dL , dL , dL g

Left-handed leptons

C1 C2 C C 1 C2 C3
3

Left-handed quarks Right-handed neutrino Right-handed electron Right-handed up quarks Right-handed down quarks

R
eR r b uR , uR , uR r b dR , dR , dR g g

C0 C C C2 C C C 4 C C3
3

C 2 C C3
3

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

Name

## The PatiSalam representation Symbol SU(2) SU(2) SU(4)representation

b r L , uL , uL , uL g r b eL , dL , dL , dL r b R , uR , uR , uR g r b eR , dR , dR , dR g g

Left-handed fermions

C2 C C4

Right-handed fermions

C C2 C4

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

Name

## The PatiSalam representation Symbol SU(2) SU(2) SU(4)representation

b r L , uL , uL , uL g r b eL , dL , dL , dL r b R , uR , uR , uR g r b eR , dR , dR , dR g g

Left-handed fermions

C2 C C4

Right-handed fermions

C C2 C4

## Write GPS = SU(2) SU(2) SU(4).

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

Name

## The PatiSalam representation Symbol SU(2) SU(2) SU(4)representation

b r L , uL , uL , uL g r b eL , dL , dL , dL r b R , uR , uR , uR g r b eR , dR , dR , dR g g

Left-handed fermions

C2 C C4

Right-handed fermions

C C2 C4

## Write GPS = SU(2) SU(2) SU(4). Write VPS = C2 C C4 C C2 C4 dual.

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

To make the PatiSalam model work, we need to prove Theorem There exists maps : GSM GPS and f : VSM VPS which make the diagram GSM


/G PS  / U(V PS )

U(VSM ) commute.

U(f )

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

## Proof Want : GSM SU(2) SU(2) SU(4):

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

Proof Want : GSM SU(2) SU(2) SU(4): Pick so GSM maps to a subgroup of SU(2) SU(2) SU(4) that preserves the 3 + 1 splitting C4 = C3 C and the 1 + 1 splitting C C2 =CC

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

## We need some facts:

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

We need some facts: Spin(2n) has a representation Cn , called the Dirac spinors. SU(2) SU(2) = Spin(4), and C2 C C C2 = C 2 SU(4) = Spin(6), and C4 C4 = C 3 .

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

We need some facts: Spin(2n) has a representation Cn , called the Dirac spinors. SU(2) SU(2) = Spin(4), and C2 C C C2 = C 2 SU(4) = Spin(6), and C4 C4 = C 3 . VPS = C2 C3 as a representation of GPS = Spin(4) Spin(6).

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

We need some facts: Spin(2n) has a representation Cn , called the Dirac spinors. SU(2) SU(2) = Spin(4), and C2 C C C2 = C 2 SU(4) = Spin(6), and C4 C4 = C 3 . VPS = C2 C3 as a representation of GPS = Spin(4) Spin(6). 4 C = odd C3 = 1 C3 3 C3 has a 3 + 1 splitting the grading!

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

We need some facts: Spin(2n) has a representation Cn , called the Dirac spinors. SU(2) SU(2) = Spin(4), and C2 C C C2 = C 2 SU(4) = Spin(6), and C4 C4 = C 3 . VPS = C2 C3 as a representation of GPS = Spin(4) Spin(6). 4 C = odd C3 = 1 C3 3 C3 has a 3 + 1 splitting the grading! C C2 = ev C2 = 0 C2 2 C2 has a 1 + 1 splitting the grading!

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

Build so that maps GSM onto the subgroup S(U(3) U(1)) Spin(6) that preserves the 3 + 1 splitting: (, x , y ) U(1) SU(2) SU(3) y 0 0 3

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

Build so that maps GSM onto the subgroup S(U(3) U(1)) Spin(6) that preserves the 3 + 1 splitting: (, x , y ) U(1) SU(2) SU(3) y 0 0 3

maps GSM onto the subgroup SU(2) S(U(1) U(1)) Spin(4) that preserves the 1 + 1 splitting: (, x , y ) U(1) SU(2) SU(3) x, 3 0 0 3

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

## The payoff: As a GSM -representation, C 2 = C 1 0 C 2 C 0 1 C 2 C 1 2 C 2

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

## The payoff: As a GSM -representation, C 2 = C 1 0 C 2 Earlier, we had C 2 = C 0 0 C 2 C 1 1 C 2 C 2 2 C 2 C 0 1 C 2 C 1 2 C 2

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

## The payoff: As a GSM -representation, C 2 = C 1 0 C 2 Earlier, we had C 2 = C 0 0 C 2 C 1 1 C 2 C 2 2 C 2 C 0 1 C 2 C 1 2 C 2

As a GSM -representation, C 3 = C1 0 C3 C 1 1 C3
3

C 1 2 C3
3

C1 3 C3

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

## As a GSM -representation, C 3 = C1 0 C3 Earlier, we had C 3 = C0 0 C3 C 2 1 C3

3

C 1 1 C3
3

C 1 2 C3
3

C1 3 C3

C 4 2 C3
3

C2 3 C3

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

We can recycle the fact that VSM = C2 C3 from the SU(5) theory.

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The PatiSalam Model

We can recycle the fact that VSM = C2 C3 from the SU(5) theory. Thus theres an isomorphism of vector spaces f : VSM C2 C3 such that GSM


## / Spin(4) Spin(6)  / U(C2 C3 )

U(VSM ) commutes.

U(f )

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The Spin(10) Theory

Extend the SU(5) theory to get the Spin(10) theory, due to Georgi: In general, SU(n)
/ Spin(2n) KK KK KK KK K% 

U(Cn )

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The Spin(10) Theory

Extend the SU(5) theory to get the Spin(10) theory, due to Georgi: In general, SU(n)
/ Spin(2n) KK KK KK KK K% 

U(Cn )

Set n = 5: SU(5)


/ Spin(10)  / U(C5 )

U(C5 )

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The Spin(10) Theory



## / Spin(2n + 2m)  / U(Cn+m )

U(Cn Cm )

U(g )

The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Grand Unied Theories The Spin(10) Theory



## U(Cn Cm ) Set n = 2 and m = 3:

U(g )

Spin(4) Spin(6)


/ Spin(10)  / U(C5 )

U(C2 C3 )

U(g )

## Theorem The cube of GUTs G n SM n n nnn nnn n n v n n

Spin(4) Spin(6)

/ Spin(10)

/ SU(5) s s ss sss s s y s

U(C2 C3 ) commutes.

n nnn v nn n

U(f ) nnnn

U(VSM )
U(g )

U(h)

 / U(C5 )

 / U(C5 ) ss 1 sss s s y ss s

## The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Conclusion

Proof The vertical faces of the cube commute. The two maps from GSM to U(C5 ) are equal: GSM

/ SU(5) 

Spin(4) Spin(6)

/ Spin(10)

/ U(C5 )

## The Algebra of Grand Unied Theories Conclusion

Proof The vertical faces of the cube commute. The two maps from GSM to U(C5 ) are equal: GSM

/ SU(5) 

Spin(4) Spin(6)

/ Spin(10)

/ U(C5 )

/ SU(5) 

Spin(4) Spin(6)

/ Spin(10)

## The intertwiners commute: VSM

f

C 2

C 3

/ C 5 s9 s s ss ssg s ss
h

## The intertwiners commute: VSM

f

C 2

C 3

/ C 5 s9 s s ss ssg s ss
h

U(f ) U(h)

/ U(C5 ) 
1

U(C2 C3 )

U(g )

/ U(C5 )

## Thus the cube G n SM n n nnnn nnn n n v n

Spin(4) Spin(6)

/ Spin(10)

/ SU(5) s s ss sss s s y s

U(C2 C3 ) commutes.

n nnn v nn n

U(f ) nnnn

U(VSM )
U(g )

U(h)

 / U(C5 )

 / U(C5 ) ss 1 sss s s y ss s