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Chapter 16 Horizontal Well Testing

M stafa On Mustafa Onur r

Useful References
Kuchuk, F., Goode, P.A., Brice, B.W., Shrerrard, D.W., Thambynayagam, Pressure-Transient Analysis for Horizontal Wells, JPT, Aug 1990, 1022-1030 (paper SPE 18300). Odeh, A.S., and Babu, D.K.: Transient Flow Behavior of Horizontal Wells: Pressure Drawdown, and Buildup Analysis, SPEFE March 1990, 7-15. Odeh, A.S., and Babu, D.K.: Productivity of a Horizontal Well, SPERE Nov. 1989, 417-421. Abbaszadeh M Abbaszadeh, M. and Hegeman Hegeman, P P.S.: S : Pressure-Transient Pressure Transient Analysis for a Slanted Well in a Reservoir With Vertical Pressure Support, SPEFE (September 1990) 277. Kuchuk, F., Goode, P.A., Wilkinson, Thambynayagam, R.K.M.: PressureTransient Behavior of Horizontal Wells With and Without Gas Cap or Aquifer, SPEFE, March 1991, 86-94 (paper SPE 17413). Kuchuk, F., and Habashy, T.: Pressure Behavior of Horizontal Wells in Multilayer Reservoirs With Crossflow, SPEFE, March 1996, 55-66. Thompson, L.G., and Temeng, K.O., Automatic Type-Curve Matching for Horizontal Wells, paper SPE 25507, March 1993.
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Useful References
Onur, M., Hegeman, P.S., and Kuchuk, F.J.: Pressure-Transient Analysis of Dual Packer-Probe Wireline Formation Testers in Slanted Wells, paper SPE 90250 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held in Houston, Texas, U.S.A., 2629 September 2004. Ozkan, E.: Analysis of Horizontal-Well Responses: Contemporary vs. Conventional, SPEREE, Aug 2001, 260-269. gy PennWell Publishing g Co. Tulsa, OK., Sada, D.J.: Horizontal Well Technology, 1991. Bourdet, D.: Well Test Analysis: The Use of Advanced Interpretation Models, Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Nethelands, 2002. Horne, R.: Modern Well Test Analysis-A Computer-Aided Approach, Second Edition, Petroway, Inc., Palo Alto (1995). Modern Reservoir Testing, Schlumberger publication, Houston, TX, 1994.

Introduction
Since 1980s, horizontal wells have been extremely popular. The major purpose is to enhance reservoir contact and hence well productivity. In general, a horizontal well is drilled parallel to the reservoir bedding plane (see below figure w = 90o), while a vertical well is drilled perpendicular to the bedding plane (w = 0o). The wells intersecting the bedding plane with an angle w different from 0 to 90o are called slanted (or deviated) wells.
rw (x,y,z)

w
h

zw z y x

Introduction (Contd)
The increase in the applications of horizontal (and also slanted) wells has brought an impetus development of the procedures to evaluate the performances and productivity of horizontal wells. Here, we will focus only on the interpretation of pressure transient measurements from horizontal wells to be able to determine formation parameters that control performance and productivity of horizontal wells. However, I should note that interpretation of pressure transients is much more difficult than interpretation of those from vertical wells:
3D nature of the flow geometry (so many parameters affecting the pressure behavior of the horizontal well; This makes the application of classical conventioal analysis methods very difficult. Non linear regression seems to be the most useful)
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Introduction (Contd)
Considerable wellbore storage effects (this mask critical reservoir flow regimes, e.g., early-radial flow governed by the vertical permeability of the reservoir. Deconvolution can be useful to eliminate wellbore storage effects, but requires accurate measurements of sandface rates, although there are wellbore storage deconvolution methods not requiring sandface rate measurements which assume that a constant wellbore storage model is adequate to represent the wellbore storage effect) effect). Wellbore haydraulic (conductivity of the wellbore is in general finite). Non uniform skin effect along the wellbore. Selective completions along the horizontal well. Heterogeneities in vertical direction as well as lateral directions.
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Pressure Transient Behavior of a Horizontal Well

Basic Flow RegimesInfinite System in the x-y Plane


kx x kz z ky y

Early (or Vertical) radial flow due to convergence of flow only in the vertical (y-z) plane normal to the well axis. Slope of p vs. lnt controlled by

k y k z Lw

Intermediate-time linear flow regime (occurs if Lw >> h) Slope of p vs. sqrt(t) controlled by

Late (or Horizontal) radial flow (some people referred to as pseudo-radial flow). Slope of p vs. lnt controlled by

k y ct Lw h

kxk y h

On Anisotropic Permeability
If we define principal directions of permeability as kx, ky ( in x-y plane) and kz (z is the vertical direction), then

k x k y k z (3D anistotropic reservoir).

k x = k y = k h , k z = k v ( k h k v ) (isotropic in the x-y plane, but anisotropic in the z-direction)

For vertical wells, the radial flow is governed by the horizontal permeability, k h (= k x k y ) For horizontal wells, early radial flow is governed by the geometric mean of kh and kv, while late-radial flow is governed by horizontal permeability, only.
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On Anisotropic Skin Factor


If we have anisotropy in permeability in the horizontal and/or vertical plane, this causes our well to be an ellipse in the equivalent isotropic system, and this appear as skin effect on pressure. Horizontal/Vertical plane

4 k / k + 4 k max / k min = rw min max rw 2

well

kmax kmin

s ani

4 k /k + 4 k max / k min = ln min max < 0 2

kmax/kmin = 1 ise, sani = 0 kmax/kmin = 10 ise, sani = -0.2 kmax/kmin = 500 ise, sani = -0.9 10

On Mechanical Skin
I believe it is more appropriate to define a mechanical skin factor based on the producing well length (Lw) than based on the formation thickness because skin pressure drop has noting to do with formation thickness and, particularly if we do not observe the effects of top and bottom boundaries.
s= kh kv Lw kh Lw pskin or sw = pskin sw = 141.2qsc B 141.2qsc B kv s kh

sh =

kh h pskin 141.2qsc B
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Pressure Behavior of Horizontal Wells


100

p and dp/dln t, psi

10

kh or k x k y

k h or k y
kh kv or k y k z
1

0.1 0.0001

Early radial (0-slope) Intermediate linear (1/2-slope) Late radial (0-slope)


0.001 0.01 0.1 1 Time (h) 10 100 1000
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Early Radial Flow Pressure Equation


Radial flow in the vertical direction (pwf vs. lnt plot):
kv h Lw
p i p wf = 162 . 6 q sc B k h k v Lw

zw

kh
3 . 23 + 0 . 87 s tre

khkv log t + log c r 2 t w kv stre = s + sani kh


4

4 k /k + s ani = ln v h 2

kh / kv

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Intermediate Linear Flow Pressure Equation


Linear flow analysis (pwf vs. t1/2 plot):
8.128qsc B 141.2qsc B kv L t+ s+ w hLw ct kh h kh kv Lw kh kv sz kh

pi pwf =

sz =

kh h rw kv zw 1 + ln sin kv Lw h k h h
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Late Radial Flow Pressure Equation


Late-time radial flow (pwf vs. lnt plot):
pi pwf = kh 162.6qsc B 1.93 + 0.87 strg log t + log 2 kh h ct Lw
strg = h s + sp Lw
2 k h 2h 2 1 zw zw k L2 3 h h 2 v w
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sp =

kh h rw kv ln 1 + kv Lw h kh

zw sin h

Geometric Skin for Horizontal Wells


In practice, the efficiency of a horizontal well is described by the total skin STH defined with reference to a fully penetrating vertical well of radius rw:
pi pwff = 162.6qsc B kh h kh 3.23 + 0.87 sTH log t + log 2 c r t w

sTH =

h s + sG Lw
+ sp
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L sG = 0.81 ln w 2

The equation of Sp is given in the previous slide.

Geometric Skin for Horizontal Wells (Contd) Ref: Bourdets book

Short horizontal well lengths and/or low kv can give positive geometric skin.

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Investigating the Effect of Some Parameters on Horizontal Well Pressure Behavior

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Conventional Analysis
If the data exhibit all of these flow regimes, then we determine kh, kv, (Or even kx, ky and kz) and s mechanical skin factor by the specialized plots of bottom-hole pressure vs time as explained before. However, data exhibiting all three flow regimes are rare. If the early-radial is masked by the wellbore storage effects, we will not t have h a chance h t to estimate ti t vertical ti l permeability bilit from f its it conventional analysis. Because of the large wellbore volumes, wellbore storage effects usually mask the early-time radial and part of intermediate-time linear flow characteristics. Only recourse seems to attempt to use nonlinear regression or try to use deconvolution to eliminate wellbore storage effects.
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Conventional Analysis
Also, the existence of a well-defined intermediate-time linear flow period usually requires extremely long horizontal wells. On the other hand, the beginning of the late-radial flow is further delayed as the horizontal well becomes longer. T To be b able bl to t see both b th linear li and d late l t radial di l flows fl on the th d data, t we may need to run tests with duration of several months, which may not be practical. For most of the horizontal well tests that I have seen, the intermediate linear and/or late-radial flow periods do not exist.

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Effect of Wellbore Storage, C


100

p
10

p and dp /d ln t, psi

C = 0 bbl/psi C = 5 bbl/psi 1

dp/dlnt

0.1

Lw = 2626 ft, kh = 196 md, kv/kh = 0.06, zw/h = 0.5


0.01 0.01 0.1 1 10 Time (h) 100 1000 10000 100000
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Effect of Horizontal Well Length, Lw


100

p p and dp /d ln t, psi
10 Lw = 200 ft Lw = 500 ft 1 Lw = 1500 ft Lw = 3000 ft

dp/dlnt

kh = 196 md, kv/kh = 0.06, zw/h = 0.5, h = 84 ft


0.1 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Time (h) 100 1000 10000 100000
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Effect of Lw and kv
100 kv and Lw in such a way that sqrt(khkv)Lw is fixed

p p and d p/dln t, psi


10 Lw = 1000 ft kv/kh = 0.54 0 54 dp/dlnt

1 Lw = 1500 ft kv/kh = 0.24

Lw = 3000 ft kv/kh = 0.06

kh = 196 md, zw/h = 0.5, h = 84 ft


0.1 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Time (h) 100 1000 10000 100000
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Effect of Vertical Offset (zw)


100

kh = 196 md, kv/kh = 0.1, h = 84 ft


p p and d p/dln t, psi
10 dp/dlnt zw /h= 0.25 zw/h = 0.06 1

zw/h = 0.5 0.1 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Time (h) 100 1000 10000 100000
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Investigation of Various Factors Complicating p g Horizontal Well Test Interpretation

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Effect of Nonuniform Skin along the Wellbore


Aritmetic mean value of skin is 0.367 for Cases 2 through 4.

Conical skin distribution, skin is linearly decreasing from the heel to toe. From SPE 52199, Ozkan

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Effect of Nonuniform Skin (Contd)

True kykz = 2500 md

Conical skin distribution, skin is linearly decreasing from the heel to toe. From SPE 72494, Ozkan

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Effect of Nonuniform Discontinous Skin

Discontinous skin distribution, SPE 72494, Ozkan

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Selective Completed or Partially Open Horizontal Wells


It is a common practice to selectively complete horizontal wells. In some other cases, some segments of the well may not be open to flow from the reservoir because of high-skin or low permeability streaks. All such cases can be called selective completion and may be treated as a nonuniform skin distribution case where some segments have extremely large formation damage. Goode and Wilkonson (SPE 19341, 1991), Kamal et al. (SPE 26444, 1993, and Yildiz and Ozkan (SPE 28388, 1994) have studied the effect of selective completion on productivity and pressure-transient behavior of horizontal wells. Production logging could be useful to identify productive intervals in identifying the productive and low productive segments.

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Selective Completed or Partially Open Horizontal Wells

From SPE 19341 by Goode and Wilkinson


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10

Effect of Selective Completion on PT Behavior

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Effect of Selective Completion on PT Behavior


The slope of early-time radial will be proportional to the open well length, but its duration depends on the length of individual open segments. intermediate time radial radial, with a slope equal to mlr We observe a intermediate-time l /m; where mlr is the slope of the late-radial semilog str. line, and m is equal to the total number of open segments, each segment acts as a horizontal well.How about if the open segments are not equal? Still we see intermediate radial, but slope equation is not available. The slope of the late-time semilog str. line is not affected by the length or the distribution of open segments.
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Effect of Wellbore Hydraulics


The conventional horizontal well models assume infinite conductivity horizontal wells, i.e., no pressure drop along and inside the wellbore. In the literature, there is evidence horizontal wells can, in fact, display finite-conductivity characteristics. This problem has been investigated by Dikken (JPT Nov. 1990); Ozkan et al (SPE Advanced Technology Series al. Series, Vol. Vol 3, 3 March 1995; and Suzuki (SPEFE, Sept. 1997). These studies indicate that finite-conductivity horizontal wells do not lend themselves to simple well-test analysis techniques. Finite conductivity destroys the characteristics of early radial and intermediate linear flow unless if the effects of finite conductivity is low or moderate. Ignoring wellbore hyraulics can lead to a significant underestimation of sqrt(khkv)Lw ( a factor of 3 or more). 33

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Effect of Wellbore Hydraulics on PT Behavior


ChD = 7.395 1013
N Re t = 6.157 102 LD = rwD = Tcorr = Lw 2h kv kh
4 rw khLw

q rw

rw 1/ 4 1/ 4 ( k h / k v ) + ( kv / k h ) 2h

( N Ret ft )
ChD

0.65 1.5 rwD

if Tcorr < 6 106 , wellbore hyraulics are negligible

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Slanted Wells

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Slanted and Horizontal Wells


w
(r, , z) h zw z r z

Lw =

h cos w

For full penetration

w is the wells inclination angle measured from vertical to well axis.


If w = 0o, a vertical well If w = 90o, a horizontal well
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Possible Flow Regimes

Early-time

radial flow - kh k w masked by storage).


kw = kh cos2 w + kv sin2 w

(but, usually

Spherical (and/or hemispherical) flow - k s = (kh2kv )


If it is limited entry

1/ 3

Late-time radial flow - kh


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Slanted Well Flow Regimes


Early time radial flow:

h Lw

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Flow Regimes For Slanted Wells


Early time radial flow equation:
p i p wf = kh 162.6 q sc B l t + log l log 2 k h k w Lw ct rw 3.23 + 0.87 kw s + s ani kh

k w = k h cos 2 w + k v sin 2 w

stre

1 + 1 / cos 2 w + (k v / k h )sin 2 w s ani = ln 2

Sani, changes between -0.4 ile 0 arasndadr, it depends on kv/kh and w.

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13

Flow Regimes For Slanted Wells


From early-time radial flow analysis, we can estimate:
m re = 162.6 q sc B k h k w Lw kh kw 162.6 q sc B m re Lw

k w = k h cos 2 w + k v sin 2 w p1hre kh stre = 1.151 m log c r 2 + 3.23 t w re stre = kw s + sani kh

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Flow Regimes For Slanted Wells


Late time radial flow:

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Flow Regimes For Slanted Wells


Late-time radial flow equation:
pi pwf = kh 162.6qsc B l t + log l 3.23 + 0.87 strg log 2 kh h ct rw h cos w s + sani + sp cos2 w + (kv / kh )sin 2 w Lw

strg =

42

14

Flow Regimes For Slanted Wells


Bessons equation for pseudo skin:
2 2 4 hD hD hwD hD cos w + (kv / kh )sin w s p = ln h + 2h ln 4 + h ln 2 i 2 w wD wD wD 1 + cos w + (kv / kh )sin

h wD =

Lw rw

(k h / k v )cos 2 w + sin 2 w
hD = h rw kh kv

It is valid for inclination angles, but assumes fully penetrating slanted well, 0<w<90, sp typically changes between 0 ile -5. 43

Flow Regimes For Slanted Wells


From the late-time radial flow analysis, we can determine:
m rg = 162.6 q sc B kh h kh 162.6 q sc B m rg h

p kh + 3.23 strg = 1.151 1hrg log 2 mrg c r t w strg = h cos w s + sani + sp cos2 w + (kv / kh )sin 2 w Lw
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Pressure and Derivative Behaviors of Slanted Wells

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PT Behavior of Slanted Wells


(No wellbore storage effect, kh = kv = 1 mD, fully penetrating slanted well)

1000

w = 0o
100 d p /d ln t, ps si

w = 30o w = 65o w = 85o

10

w = 89o

0.1 0.01

0.1

10 Time (h)

100

1000

10000

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Effect of Storage on PT Behavior of Slanted Wells


1000

p and dp/dlnt, psi

100

10 C = 0 bbl/psi (Slanted well Theta_w = 70) C = 0.03 bbl/psi (Slanted well Theta_w = 70) C = 0.3 bbl/psi (Slanted well Theta_w = 70) C = 0.3 bbl/psi (Vertical well Theta_w = 0) 1 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Time (h) 100 1000 10000
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