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A DC machine (either generator or motor) essentially has two parts.
a. Stator: Stationary member b. Rotor: Rotating member

In a D.C Machine, Stator is magnetic field & Rotor is Armature. Whenever there is a relative motion between magnetic field & conductor , an e.m.f will be induced in the conductor.

A four-pole DC generator

All d.c. machines have five principal components. They are

i. field system

ii. armature core iii. armature winding iv. commutator v. brushes

The function of the field system is to produce uniform magnetic field within which the armature rotates. It consists of
a. a number of salient poles b. yoke c. field coils

Field coils are mounted on the poles and carry the d.c. exciting current. The field coils are connected in such a way that adjacent poles have opposite polarity. Most of the m.m.f. of field coils is required to set up flux in the air-gap.


It consists of slotted soft-iron laminations. The purpose of laminating the core is to reduce the eddy current loss. The armature has slots in it in order to hold insulated conductors. Armature winding:
This is the winding in which working e.m.f. is induced. The armature conductors are connected in seriesparallel.

A commutator is a mechanical rectifier which converts the alternating voltage generated in the armature winding into direct voltage across the brushes. It is made of copper segments insulated from each other by mica sheets and mounted on the shaft of the machine.

The purpose of brushes is to ensure electrical connections between the rotating commutator and stationary external load circuit. The brushes are made of carbon and rest on the commutator.

Let = flux/pole in Wb Z = total number of armature conductors P = number of poles A = number of parallel paths = 2 ... for wave winding = P ... for lap winding N = speed of armature in r.p.m

Eg = e.m.f. of the generator = e.m.f./parallel path Flux cut by one conductor in one revolution of the armature, d= P webers Time taken to complete one revolution, Revolutions/min = N dt = 60/N second
Revolutions/sec = N/60

e.m.f. of generator, Eg = e.m.f. per parallel path = (e.m.f/conductor) X No. of conductors in series per parallel path

Where A = 2 for wave winding = P for lap winding

According to the method of field excitation (i) Separately excited (ii) Self-excited Self-Excited D.C. Generators: There are three types of self-excited generators depending upon the manner in which the field winding is connected to the armature, namely;

Series generator: The field winding is connected in series with the armature. Shunt generator: The field winding is connected in parallel with armature. Compound generator: It is subdivided into two. They are
a) Short shunt: Shunt field is in parallel with the armature & this combination in series with series field.

b) Long shunt: Shunt field is connected in parallel with the series combination of armature & series field.

1. An 8-pole, wave-connected armature has 600 conductors and is driven at 625 rev/min. If the flux per pole is 20 m Wb, determine the generated e.m.f. Sol: P = 8; Z =600; N = 625 r.p.m; = 20 m Wb. A = 2 ( for a wave winding)
Eg =


P X = 500 V A

2. A 4-pole generator has a lap-wound armature with 50 slots with 16 conductors per slot. The useful flux per pole is 30mWb. Determine the speed at which the machine must be driven to generate an e.m.f. of 240 V. Sol: P =4; = 30 X 10-3 Wb; Eg = 240 V No. of conductors = No. of slots X (conductors/slot) ZN P Z = 50 X 16 = 800 Eg = X 60 A A = P = 4 ( for lap winding)


E g 60

3. A shunt generator supplies a 20 kW load at 200 V. If the field winding resistance, Rsh = 50 & the armature resistance, Ra= 40 m, determine the e.m.f. generated in the armature. Allow 1 V per brush for contact drop. Sol: PL = V.I = 20 X 103 W; V = 200 V; Rsh = 50

= 600 r. p.m

I sh

V 200 = = R sh 50

= 4A

Ia = Ish + I = 4 + 100 = 104 A Eg = V + Ia Ra + Brush drop = 200 + 104(0.04) + 2 = 206.16 V 4) A series generator supplies a 22 kW load at 220 V. If the field winding resistance, Rse = 0.05 & the armature resistance, Ra= 0.02 , determine the e.m.f. generated in the armature.


V.I = 22000 W; V = 220 V I = 100 A; I = Ise = Ia = 100 A; Eg = V + Ia ( Ra + Rse ) = 220 + 100 ( 0.07) = 227 V


Open Circuit Characteristic (O.C.C.):
This curve shows the relation between the generated e.m.f. at no-load (Eo) and the field current (If) at constant speed. It is also known as magnetic characteristic or no-load saturation curve.

C Eg B

Its shape is practically the same for all generators whether separately or self-excited.

Fig. Open Circuit Characteristic ( O.C.C )

Its shape is practically the same for all generators whether separately or self-excited. The data for O.C.C. curve are obtained experimentally by operating the generator at no load and constant speed and recording the change in terminal voltage as the field current is varied.

2) Internal or Total characteristic (Eg/Ia)

This curve shows the relation between the generated e.m.f. on load (Eg) and the armature current (Ia).


Fig. Internal Characteristic of D.C shunt generator


3) External characteristic
This curve shows the relation between the terminal voltage (V) and load current (IL).

Fig. External characteristic of DC shunt generator

V Eg



Eg Volts V Ia (Ra + Rse)