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Heat is thermal energy produced in a material by either supplying heat directly to it or by applying some other form of energy to it such as mechanical work or an electric current. Temperature is the property which can generally be measured when studying thermal properties. The common units are degrees centigrade (oC). The name Celsius is sometimes used in place of centigrade and has the same meaning. For many calculations degrees Kelvin (oK) must be used. The temperature in oK is obtained from the temperature in oC by adding 273.12. This figure is used because 0 oK, i.e. -273.12 oC is the temperature at which the vibration of atoms (which is responsible for the temperature that we observe) stops. It is actually impossible to finally reach it however good a cooling system is used. 32oF = 0oC 212oF = 100oC Energy is measured in Joules. 1 Joule is defined as the energy required for pushing against a force of 1 Newton over a distance of 1 metre. Thermal energy is commonly expressed in British thermal units (Btu) or as calories. One Btu is the quantity of thermal energy required to increase the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at the water's greatest density, which is 39F. One calorie is the energy needed to increase the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius at 15C. Power is the rate of doing work =1 Watt of power = 1 Joule/second When we buy energy in the form of electricity the units on the meter are kilowatt hours. One kilowatt hour is 60 x 60 x 1000 = 3.6 million Joules. i.e. the Joule is a very small unit. Specific Heat The Specific Heat Capacity (Cp) of a material is the number of Joules required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the material through 1 oC. Thus:
Temperature Change = T 2 - T 1 = ENERGY C p MASS

Cp has the units of Joules/(kg oC) Thermal Conductivity The Thermal Conductivity (k) is the measure of the ability of a material to transmit heat by conduction. The heat (Q) is measured in Watts. k is defined from the equation:
Q= kA( Ta - Tb) d

Where Ta and Tb are the temperatures either side of an element of material with thickness d and cross sectional area A. k has the units of Watts/(m oC)

Example: How to calculate heat loss through a cavity wall?

The air is equivalent to a very thick skin of brickwork with thickness 65mm k1/k2
Q k1 A(T1 T2 ) 0.2 0.065 k1 / k 2


Other Thermal Properties Thermal capacity = Specific heat x Mass

In SI, the unit is to the joule per kilogram kelvin (J/kg-K).
Thermal diffusivity : In heat transfer analysis, thermal diffusivity (usually denoted but a, , and D are also used) is the thermal conductivity divided by density and specific heat capacity at constant pressure. It measures the ability of a material to conduct thermal energy relative to its ability to store thermal energy. It has the SI unit of m/s. The formula is:

Thermal diffusivity = Thermal Conductivity/ Density x Specific Heat

Its unit is m /s Where S is second is thermal conductivity (W/(mK))=( joule/second) / meter. K is density (kg/m) is specific heat capacity (J/(kgK)) can be considered the volumetric heat capacity (J/(mK)).


Thermal inertia: Thermal inertia is the tendency of a material to resist changes in temperature. I = (kc) [Its unit is = J m-2 K-1 s-] where: k=thermal conductivity [W m-1 K-1] = density [kg m-3] c = heat capacity [J kg-1 K-1] Coefficient of Thermal Expansion This is defined as the proportionate length change per oC of temperature change. If the coefficient is , the length change will be: L = L0 T linear

A = 2 A0T


Where L0 is the length, A0 is the area and T is the change in temperature. Thermal resistance is a heat property and a measurement of a temperature difference by which an object or material resists a heat flow (heat per time unit or thermal resistance). Thermal resistance is the reciprocal of thermal conductance.

R Thermal Resistance

L Thickness of the specimen (m) T Temperature (K) q Heat flow rate (W/m2)
Thermal stresses are stresses induced in a body as a result of changes in temperature. An understanding of the origins and nature of thermal stresses is important because these stresses can lead to fracture or undesirable plastic deformation.

Stresses Resulting from Restrained Thermal Expansion and Contraction

Let us first consider homogeneous and isotropic solid rods that is heated or cooled uniformly; that is, no temperature gradients are imposed. For free expansion or contraction, the rod will be stress free. If, however, axial motion of the rod is restrained by rigid end supports, thermal stresses will be introduced. The magnitude of the stress resulting from a temperature change from T0 to Tf is

= E1(T0 - Tf ) = E1T

where E is the modulus of elasticity and 1 is the linear coefficient of thermal expansion. Upon heating (Tf > T0), the stress is compressive (< 0), since rod expansion has been constrained. Of course, if the rod specimen is cooled (Tf < T0), a tensile stress will be imposed ( > 0). Also, the stress in Equation 1 is the same as that which would be required to elastically compress (or elongate) the rod specimen back to its original length after it had been allowed to freely expand (or contract) with the (T0 _ Tf ) temperature change.

EXAMPLE PROBLEM Thermal Stress Created Upon Heating

A brass rod is to be used in an application requiring its ends to be held rigid. If the rod is stress free at room temperature [20C (68F)], what is the maximum temperature to which the rod may be heated without exceeding a compressive stress of 172 MPa (25,000 psi)? Assume a modulus of elasticity of 6 100 GPa (14.6 x 10 psi) for brass. Solution Use Equation 1 to solve this problem, where the stress of 172 MPa is taken to be negative. Also, the initial temperature T0 is 20C, and the magnitude of the linear coefficient of thermal expansion is 20.0 x 10 (C) . Thus, solving for the final temperature Tf yields Tf = T0 _/E1 Tf= 20C-[-172 MPa /{100x 10 MPa}x 20.0 x 10 (C) ] = 20C + 86C = 106C
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