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Challenges and Strategies in Translated Childrens Literature: J.K.

Rowlings Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone as a Case Study

DEDICATION
To my parents.

Acknowledgment
There is no task that is more delightful than thanking those who have participated in a way or another to the accomplishment of this paper. I would like to start by expressing my gratitude to my professor and supervisor, Dr. Ali AnoirEl Majdouli, for his kind assistance, his valuable pieces of advice and his patience throughout the writing of this research paper. My gratitude goes also to my parents for their care and love. And at last, but not least, I want to thank my two roommates, Mehdi and Mohamed, for all the help and moral support they gave me and also for the memorable moments we have spent together. To all these people, thank you. Anas Khalfaoui Hassani

Table of Contents
DEDICATION..1 ACKNOWLEDGMENT.2 INTRODUCTION4 I-Review of literature7 1-Childrens literature.7 1.1-Defining childrens literature...7 1.2-Childrens literature and translation7 2-Culture and ideologyin childrens literature...9 2.1-On culture9 2.2-On ideology10 II-Methodology....12 1-Data collection...12 2-Proceeding with the Data..12 3-Limitations of the study12 III-The challenges of translating childrens literature13 1-Cultural differences...13 2-Idealogical differences...16 3-The question of power...19 IV-The strategies of translating childrens literature..23 1-Domestication and foreignization..23 2-Omission and addition...26 3-The rendition of proper nouns28 V-Case study32 1-case study reviewed...32 2-Major findings of the analysis38 CONCLUSION40 BIBLIOGRAPHY...42 TRANSLATION PART.45 APPENDIX..77

INTRODUCTION
This research paper investigates the translation of childrens literature together with its potential obstacles and some of the strategies adopted by translators in order to render foreign texts into Arabic and trespass the impediments which are particularly cultural and ideological most of the time. Age and gender are important factors which should be taken into account when transferring adults texts into ones for children. Moreover, this paper highlights the various strategies translators resort to in order to bridge the gap between a totally foreignpiece of writing to a target culture and avoid any possible cultural or ideological breakdowns. Such strategies are: omission, addition and sometimes modification. For the purposes of this research, an Arabic translation of J.K. Rowlings Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone will be considered for analysis. This research paper adopts a descriptive and analytical approach in the examination of the data collected. Furthermore, an evaluation of the Arabic translation, mainly in terms of mistranslations, strategies used by the translator and breakdowns caused by cultural and ideological fault lines between Arab and western cultures will be provided during the analysis. Finally, the study will conclude with the major findings of the case study.

1. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY


After having been exposed, myself, to childrens literature when I was a child, and due to my infatuation with literature in general, I have decided to choose translated childrens literature as a subject study for my academic research. It is widely acknowledged that childhood is a significant phase in every human beings life given the fact that children get to shape their character, identity, and acquire moral values. And because literature can be one way to instruct

children and educate them in accordance with the dominant values and morals of their country;translation becomes an indispensable tool for this purpose. However, when looking into the translation of childrens texts, few articles and papers researching this topic are found; the lack of literature is very astounding concerning material discussing this issue in the Arab world. Throughout the stages of my research, I encountered many difficulties; the scarcity of related literature is included. Almost nothing has been written about the translated childrens literature in Arabic. Therefore, I relied wholly on references written in English. Based on this research paper, and to the best of my knowledge, there are onlythree MA theses dealing with the translation of childrens literature.The first one discusses the topic in question in terms of strategies and motivations in childrens literature (Khwira, 2010), the second covers childrens literature and its translation(wohlgemuth,1998), and the third sheds light on thetreatment of personal names in the Finnish and German translations of the Three First Harry Potter Books (Makinen, 2010). Moreover, few articles and books dealing directly with translated childrens literature were found, especially ones focusing on books translated into Arabic or vice versa.Thus, I believe that conducting such a research can be a good addition to the field of translation and specifically to the translation of childrens literature.

2. STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY


Regarding the structure of this study, the first chapter is a review of literature of the main topics involved in this research. An introduction toChildrens literature is introduced in which a general overview of this discipline is provided in addition to a preliminary review of the translation of childrens literature. The second chapter consists respectively of the methodology used in conducting this research; data collection, proceeding with the data and limitations of the study. Chapter three presents the major challengesmost translators encounter while embarkingon
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the transfer ofa given text into one targeting children. Chapter four revolves about the strategies and techniques used to overpass potential difficulties and challenges. Finally, chapter five includes the analysis ofa case studytogether with potential findings.

CHAPTER I: REVIEW OF LITERATURE


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CHILDRENS LITERATURE
1.1Defining childrens literature

According to the Britannica Online Encyclopedia, childrens literature is:The body of written works and accompanying illustrations produced in order to entertain or instruct young people. The genre encompasses a wide range of works, including acknowledged classics of world literature, picture books and easy-to-read stories written exclusively for children, and fairy tales, lullabies, fables, folk songs, and other primarily orally transmitted materials.1 This definition does not cover the major aspects of this discipline and provides a basic definition for childrens literature. Similarly, Wikipedia does not seem to have a relatively different definition and describeschildrens literature as:Children's literature (also called juvenile
literature) consists of the books, stories and poems which are enjoyed by or targeted primarily at children. Modern children's literature is classified in different ways, including by genre or the intended age of the reader.2

We can deduce form the above definitions that both of them seem to ignore some intrinsic sides of childrens literature such as the cultural aspect, let alone its relation to translation, which is going to be analyzed in the following section of this research. 1.2Childrens literature and translation

Once we examine the field of childrens literature in relation to translation, we immediately find out that it has been marginalized for a good deal of time. Xenie (2007:2),mentions in her research, quoting from OConnel (2006), that Childrens literature has

1 2

Available at: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/111289/childrens-literature Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Children%27s_literature

long been the site of tremendous translation activity and so it has come as something of surprise to me to discover recently the extent to which this area remains largely ignored by theorists, publishers and academic institutions involved in translation research and training. We get to learn, at this stage of the study, that the translation of childrens literature has known a long marginalization and has been recently acknowledged as an important scientific domain.

Since the need for translation is basically cultural in that it stimulates and enhances cultural dialogue between different cultures and promotes, in one way or another, tolerance and mutual acceptance among people of different ethnicities, races and religions, the central role of childrens literature in introducing children to new patterns and features of an alien culture which they may not have been exposed to becomes essential. According to Khwira (2010: 28), who quotes from (Shammas 2004: 106-7) translation is: Important in two main aspects: the human aspect related to the interaction which goes beyond its target culture to reach other societies. The social aspect is related to the absorption of a new coming culture that enhances the native one.

We can notice from this quote that both the human and social roles of translation are of paramount significance in childrens literature and constitute its backbone and objective. In addition, it is essential to mention that translation occupies a significant position in the framework of the target language, mainly the Arabic language, in terms of its culture and literature. And if we consider this fact, the translation of childrens literature becomes one of the most effective and didactic devices for teaching youngsters the morals and values that do not contradict with what society deems appropriate for them. Khwira maintains, in accordance with what Lathey (2006: 4) says, that translating for children is quite different from translating for adults in two aspects: the social status of children
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and their development and the status of their literature which in turn characterizes whatever is written for them. She strongly believes that the "unequal relationship" between the adult as a writer and the child as a reader does govern the way of writing and even translating for children, since adults dictate the child's behavior (ibid: 5).For her, the transportation ofchildren's literature form one language and culture into another reflects distinct expectations and interpretations of childhood (ibid: 2).

2- CULTURE AND IDEOLOGY IN CHILDRENS LITERATURE

2.1- On culture A number of researchers think that childrens literature can be a means of cross-cultural communication mainly because it is a way for both children and adults to communicate with one another. According to Khwira (2010: 3), who quotes fromVandergift,children are introduced to literature read by people of their age in other countries and become exposed to domains of other lives and cultures through which they begin to understand and accept each other as being unique and having different literary and cultural experiences. Given the fact that any work of literature, be it targeting children or adults, is abundant with culture specific items and is, most of the time, a representation and a mirror of a certain culture, children of the target culture may not understand some cultural features of the source culture. In this regard, Zohar Shavit (1981: 171-172) thinks that a translator can allow himself complete authority regarding the peripheral nature of children's literature as long as they abide by the following principles:
Adjusting the text in order to make it more appropriate and useful to the child; in other terms, in accordance with what society thinks is good for the child.

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Adjusting plot, characterization and language to the childs level of comprehension and reading abilities.

According to Shavit (1981:172), these two principles dictate, to a certain degree, the character and choice of the text to be translated. Furthermore, the first principle, which suggests that children's literature is primarily didactic, was dominant for a long time. Nowadays, the other concept,the one adjusting the text to the level of childrens comprehension, is more dominant. A case in point, the aforementioned principles may contradict each other but they always serve as the basis for the selection and manipulation of the text to be translated. The cultural aspect in childrens literature is so important due to the enormous influence it can exert on children. Most children get to learn through what they read and this is enough reason for translators to be careful in selecting the suitable books and stories in order to avoid culture shock, or cultural alienation for the Arab child reader. 2.2- On ideology According to Wikipedias definition, ideology is a set of conscious and unconscious ideas that constitute one's goals, expectations, and actions. An ideology is a comprehensive vision, a way of looking at things as in several philosophical tendencies, or a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to all members of this society (a "received consciousness" or product of socialization).3 In other words, ideologies are sets of thoughtsthat govern patterns of human behavior within a given society. Similarly,every social, political or economic act becomes an expected attitude to certain stimuli within a given community. It is actually how society conceives all that is related to society in general.

Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ideology

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Almostno work of literature is free form ideological affiliation and sometimes supervision. But such supervision and ideological restriction becomes more obvious in totalitarian and fascist regimes. For instance, in the years when Spain went through successive fascist governments, especially when General Franco was in power, translation was heavily supervised, censored and even directed to maintain the actual state of things. All different forms of art, literature and translation, were monitored by the military forces and the church through special committees called juntas de censurawhose job was to perform all acts of supervision, manipulation, censorship and deciding whether a work of art is good for readers or not. Another important factor is the translators own ideology and background. A translators ideology and attitudes may influence his/her decisions and choices. A case in point, sometimes the translator finds himself/herself in a dilemma; s/he should either preserve the source texts original ideology, or intervene and make some necessary changes to make it appear more appropriate to the target audiences ideology. Similarly, Xeni (2007:20) quotes Hervey (1997: 60) who believes that a translators ideology may relate to a number of issues:
In developing a strategy for translating a given ST under given circumstances, translators invariably face a major ideological choice: should their primary task be to represent, as closely as possible, the ideology of the ST, and (in so far as this can be determined) the ideology held by the author of the ST? Or should the TT be substantially adapted to the ideological needs of the target culture, even at the cost of gross ideational distortion of the ST? Similarly, should translators, as paid professionals, serve the (implicitly or explicitly) prescribed ideology of the organization financing publication of a TT? Or should they insist on their intellectual and moral autonomy in matters of ideology? It is noticeable that there is a real dilemma in determining whether to abide by the ideology of the author or adopt one that is in conformity and accordance with what the target text- represented by the translator- dictates and thinks suitable and not dangerous for its target audience who are children in this case.

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CHAPTER II: METHODOLOGY


1. DATA COLLECTION
For the purposes of this study, the famousbook of J.K. Rowlings Harry Potter and the Sorcerers stone will be provided for analysis.As to the translation, I was lucky enough to stumble on an electronic copy of the book, published by "" , an Egyptian publishing house as the name suggests. As to the remaining references, all of them are electronic articles and M.A theses discussing the topic of childrens literature and its relation to translation.

2.

PROCEEDING WITH THE DATA


With regard to the linguistic combination,the study will be conducted to examine the

Arabic translation of the English source text. The study will be conducted based on an analytical approach in order to detect both the majorchallenges and the techniques used to renderthis text. Besides, in thisresearch paper, I will try to answer the following question: To what extent is the Arabic translation faithful to the English source text? Some tentative explanations will be provided, too.

3.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


During the search for references on the translation of childrens literature, I was struck by

the unexpected small number of resources dealing with the translation of childrens literature, few of which are Google Books. The majority of the available references are mainly articles and studies conducted by researchers and experts in the field. Another impediment was the scarcity of stories intended to be read by children and translated into Arabic, which made my search for the adequate case study somewhat difficult.

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CHAPTER III: THE CHALLENGES OF TRANSLATING CHILDRENS LITERATURE


1. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES
While this research is basically concerned withforeign childrens literature and its rendering into Arabic, I think it is significant to mention that the translator, just as the writer of the original text, findshimself/herself challenged by a range of constraints most of which are fundamentally societal views on childhood, parental tastes and the demands of publishers who care mostly about financial gain. It follows from this that the only books that can be translated into Arabic are the oneswhich do not transgress social and sometimes religious taboos, andshare, more or less,the same moral conventions; which is not always the case. However, according to Khwira who quotes Lefevere (1992: 79)moral conventions vary across cultures, hence; any transfer across cultures causes challenges. For Lefevere, translation is a means by which foreign influences can challenge the native culture and may sometimes subvert it.Therefore; the work of the translator would not be confined to merely rendering a language X to a language Y; instead, the need to be thoroughly knowledgeable about the source and target cultures for a translator is of paramount significance. In the same context, Khwira quotes Olk (2002: 121) who points out that: Translators who seek to create target texts which will be accepted in the target culture need to identify culture specificity in the ST and to find a communicatively satisfactory mediating position for cultural divergences. Viewed from this perspective, translation in its very essence is a form of intercultural communication which draws heavily on the translators intercultural competence.
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It can be deduced from the above quote that in order to perform its communicative purpose, translation in general and the translation of childrens literature in particular should take into consideration culture-specific items. Given the fact that cultural implications are exceedingly substantial to rendering any source text, many theorists have embarked on the definition of culture. In her article Culture Specific Items in Literary Translations, ZareBehtash (2010) quotes Larsen (1984: 431), who defines culture as a complex of beliefs, attitudes, values, and rules which a group of people share. As a matter of fact, the most difficult sides of translating literature in general are the differences existing between cultures. These cultural differences include history, social structures, traditional customs, and most importantly of all, religion. Mdallel thinks (2003: 300) that Islamas a religion is a major theme in the Arab literature for children. The figures show that 1,457 publications (11.80%) of the 12,323 books published have explicit religious themes like the Prophet Mohammeds life, tradition and deeds [] in the category of non-fiction, we find other publications about Islam that teach Arab children how ideal Muslims should behave. It is worthwhile mentioning that even historical stories are mostly about prominent characters from the bright age of Islam, or leaders and war heroes like Khalid ibn al-Walid or Salah Dine alAyoubi. (ibid: 301) Mdallel (2003: 301) explains that this concern with celebrating the glorious Arab past, heroic Arab figures and the moralizing tone impregnating most of the Arab childrens literature is a reaction to the frustration in the Arab world due to the Middle East conflict and the marginal role the Arabs play on the international scene. Though Mdallel does touch one side of the sad reality describing the actual status quo of the Arab world, I think that there is no harm if most of Arab childrens books of fiction relate the glories of the past because, after all, one should get to

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learn about ones past, ancestors and origins in order for ones identity to be complete and immune to subversion. Yet, there are those who lament this situation and think that children should have the right to read for pleasure, too. Mdallel (2003: 301) quotes from Faiza Nawars article Imagination in Childrens Fiction (published in Arabic, 2001) where the latter proclaims that the lack of imagination in Childrens Arab literature is mainly due to the multiple taboos and the traditional educational and religious concerns governing the process of writing for children in the Arab world. In addition to moral stories, children need to get exposed to pieces of literature which can stimulate their imagination and broaden it. A case in point, Saudi Arabian children are not allowed to have the chance to read the Arabic translated version of J.K Rowlings Harry Potter mainly because the books describe acts of sorcery and witchcraft; deeds Islam does not tolerate, according to Saudi Arabian board of literary censors. This is an example to illustrate that sometimes cultural specificities, religious in this case, make it impossible for some works of literature to reach other audiences around the world. To conclude, it is true that literature is a major reflector of culture and an important medium of facilitating intercultural understanding and mutual dialogue between people all over the world, but when it comes to rendering childrens literature, namely between western and Arabo-Muslim cultures, a number of factors and restraints are to be taken into account in order to ensure the smooth and riskless transition of a given text targeting a special audience as children.

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2.

IDEOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES
Due to the general belief that childrens literature has a major part in molding the way

children will think and interact within their social environment, I assume it will serve the purpose of this study to examine whether the assumption that foreign literature and western one in particular can affect the values and morals of little children who, unlike adults, absorb whatever they read and take it for granted, especially when we know how different and exotic AraboMuslim and Western cultures are to each other. In order to have a clear idea about what ideology really means, I think providing a definition would be crucial. Merriams Webster online dictionary defines ideology asa systematic body of concepts especially about human life, culture or manner, or the content of thinking characteristic of an individual, group or culture, or the integrated assertions, theories and aims that constitute a sociopolitical program.4 However, Khwira (2010: 28) happens to have another definition in her M.A thesis that was provided by Hollindale (1992: 19-27) in which he explains that ideology is a systematic scheme of ideas relating to politics or society or to a conduct of a class or group, and regarded as justifying actions.Since literature reflects the set of ideological values adopted or enforced by a group of people or society, which sometimes differ from one country to another, it should come as no surprise the extent to which childrens literature can be impregnated with the kind of values and social or even political guidelines each society wants to teach to its children. It is definitely inevitable to talk about childrens literature without highlighting its didactic role. In this respect, Mdallel (2003: 301) quotes Nikolajeva (1996: 3) who argues that childrens literature has from the very beginning been related to pedagogics and that childrens

Available at http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ideology

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literature has always been regarded as a powerful means for educating children. Compared to western countries where there is less inclination to use literature for educational and doctrinal purposes, Arab countries still rely on it, together with school textbooks, to instill in the minds of children the values of Good versus evil, embedded in fables, moral stories and fairy tales, as one of the most prominent themes present in the majority of Arabo-Muslim literature. In order to understand how the translation of childrens literature can be affected by ideological and political trends, one has to go back to the socialist regime in the German Democratic Republic5 where literature was practically used, to a certain extent, as a key factor in developing and raising socialist generations with no allegiance to individual, egotistic and consumerist tendencies; traits that marked the capitalist ideology.In this regard, Wohlgemuth (2003: 242) points out that literature played a key role within the socialist framework and was widely used as a tool for education and indoctrination. Literary policy quite blatantly demanded that literature be partisan, i.e. loyal to the party line. Childrens literature was assigned the same role and therefore held the same status as literature written for adults. As stated before, in a socialist regime like the GDRs, where literature had to be partisan to the ruling elites interests, there were some rigid criteria that decided which to be translated and which not. Therefore, In order to establish and maintain control over the book market in East Germany, the literary and cultural authorities resorted to creating a powerful censorship system. This means that all foreign literature, namely the western one, had to undergo a scrutinizing process to see if there is some kind of ideological convergence between the two regimes. As a result, Wohlgemuth (2003: 247) says that the GDR censorship committee insisted that publishers and translators write more than one report, if necessary, to the censorship authority within the

Informally known as East Germany; a State within the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.

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ministry of culture. He maintains that these reports had to describe the main reasons why a particular book had been chosen to be introduced to children and the possible benefits they can get from it. On the other hand, Wohlgemuth (2003: 246) illustrates that all literature was ruled out which dealt with anti-Semitic, antisocial and anti-humanistic issues or which did not portray a clear and unquestionably progressive socialist image. And once dealing with western literature, since this latter represents capitalist patterns of thought, Wohlgemuth (2003: 248) states that the most frequently claimed justification for having selected the book for translation was to depict a morally depraved capitalist west, inhuman, aggressive and drifting towards its unavoidable decline. Seemingly, publishers and translators of childrens literature were compelled to exercise some sort of self-censorship in order to avoid the rejection of their work and opted for, by and large, selecting works that would be welcomed by the board of censors. It would be beneficial to learn first-hand GRD censors reasons to decline the publication of a certain book. Wohlgemuth (2003: 248) included in his article what the external expert6 thought of Winnie the Pooh: Winnie the Pooh is exclusively about fantasy, happiness and child play. Certainly our children are not less imaginative in their play, but it cannot be denied that the fantasy of our children moves in another direction. Our time is not so much about a single child with his toys on his own_ and if this does prevail in a child, it is not desired and does not match with our didactic ideals. (DR1/5039a, 1959)

It goes beyond doubt that all ideologies, be it socialist, capitalist or Islamic, exerts fundamental State control over both what is to be published and translated when it comes to foreign literature targeting young children. This explains the prestigious and central position
6

The author did not specify which kind of expert exactly, though it is quite clear that it is about an expert in censorship.

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childrens literature occupies as a major key agent in boosting cultural, educational and social awareness among youngsters; totalitarian regimes; however,tend to take more interest in it to ensure the continuity of their ideologies and the cultural and social homogeneity of their subjects mostly through exercising some sort of mind control over them.

3.

THE QUESTION OF POWER


In the field of translation, thereare a number of factorsor agents acting and influencing

one another and the process of translation in general. These agents are: the publisher, the translator, intermediary groups and children themselves. However, it is worthwhile to stress the fact that the aforementioned parties involved in the whole translation process of childrens literature do not share the same equal amount of power to decide on what is to be translated or not. In a capitalist economy, money is the most important instrument of all business transactions and; hence, creates power. This does not apply to non-capitalist and socialist economic systems where trade is State governed. At first glance, one would think that publishers, being in a privileged financial position, have the final say in the decision making of the books which can be translated, whether there is profit in publishing the books in question or not, and choosing the translators who will do the work. Wohlgemuth (1998: 113), on the interactive relationship of the different components involved in the issue of power, believes that one of the manifestations of power is asymmetrical relationships. He goes on to say that an example of this asymmetry is peripheral cultures dependence on imported literature, in which the values of their own culture take second place to those of the stronger source text[] another example of asymmetry is the relationship between parents and children. Being weak and inexperienced, children depend on adults to explain the

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world and how it works; adults can and do exploit this dependency in order to perpetuate their ideals and norms - in fact, to perpetuate their culture. In this perplexing asymmetrical and interactive relationship that binds many components together, one finds it compelling to ask the following question: which participant dominates the others? And why? According to Wohlgemuth (1998: 114), those who appear to be more influential in the process of translation are translators,since they get to choose what to be adapted in the target culture text and what to remain intact. In fact, it is thanks to Skopos theory7 that modern translators enjoy this current state of affairs where they have a margin of liberty to manipulate the original text taking into account the needs of the target reader instead of being bigotedlyfaithful to the source text; provided that the meaning does not get compromised. Illusionary as it might seem, the role of translators is somewhat exaggerated. After all, translators are mere paid professionals; and no matter what high or low their wages might be, it is who pays them who has the last say. Publishers of childrens literature, contrary to expected, are surrounded by a number of constraints, too. According to Wohlgemuth (1998: 116) publishers operate according to the strict demands of the economy. They select for translation books they believe can be sold for a profit. In doing so, they must balance likely demand against estimated cost. Both demand and costs are therefore factors which constraint the publishers choice. In the Arab countries, just like the western sphere, the issue of demand in publishing translated literature is governed by what adults (parents, relatives) deems appropriate and fit for their children to read. However, this does not apply to teenagers who, at this point of their age, start buying books by themselves.

Skopos theory is a concept from the field of translation studies that was established by the German linguist Hans Vermeer. It comprises the idea that translating and interpreting should primarily take into account the function of both the source and target text. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skopos_theory

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It is clear now that, being limited by the constraint of demand, publishers are not totally in control of this business. Because parents want to raise their children the way it pleases them, literature intended for youngsters becomes a powerful instrument for the purposes of this end. However, parents are not the only group affecting the choices of childrens readings; governments exercise their influence through libraries, schools and their own houses of publication to ensure the smooth integration of children in society. Wohlgemuth (1998: 118) calls all these participants together intermediary groups given the nature of their function in the procedure of translation. It is true that intermediary groups affect the demand on translated books, which eventually govern the choice of publishers who decide which translators do the work; however, children, being the target consumers of the whole industry, seem to have a say in the process, too. Nowadays, being in a position of power more than ever before, children and teenagers alike are both freer to buy the books they like. This is mainly because most children are given more money than before by their parents who may sometimes prefer their children to develop a sense of independence and free will. As a result, children often opt for pop literature as an incredible source of entertainment. Wohlgemuth (1998: 120) explains that such a choice is basically due to the fact that pop literature avoids explosive or controversial subjects and is often vague, socially uncommitted and easy entertainment; It is hardly what most parents would to choose to improve their children. However in possession of money, children have a powerful tool in their hands; they have become an influential participant in the market. In fact, the question of the distribution of power in childrens literature in general is multi-faceted and the participants in it do not possess fair shares of power, nor does one

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prevailover the others. It is an interdependent situation where all agents involved have a specific role to play.

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CHAPTER IV: THE STRATEGIES OF TRANSLATING CHILDRENS LITERATURE


1. DOMESTICATION AND FOREIGNIZATION
Due to the general feeling among Arab scholars, writers, translators and publishers that the values of the Islamic culture are being endangered by western thought and values through childrens literature, the formers think it is their duty to keep future generations safe from such a threat. In order to do so, andfor cultural and ideological reasons, foreign books, which are meant to target young readers, may undergo a series of alterations, modifications and filter stages so as to, either adapt the translated text to the dominant cultural and ideological norms in the target audience, or preserve most of the culturally and linguistically marked features of the source text. Such strategiescan be: domestication and foreignization. To begin with, in order to formulate a comprehensive idea about how domestication and foreignization work in the field of translation, it would be more practical to define each separately. Being two completely different methods of translation, both domestication and foreignization represent two extreme strategies.In his book The Translators Invisibility: A History of Translation, Lawrence Venuti (1995: 5) defines foreignizing as the complete opposite of domesticating texts: when a reader is taken to the foreign text, the translation strategy in question is called foreignization, whereas when the text is accommodated to the reader, it is domesticated. Bearing in mind this definition, it becomes clear how these two techniques are distinct from each other, and thus one may wonder about the reasons why

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translators opt for one method and may reject the other, and whether it is possible to use both strategies in a sensitive literary field as the translation of childrens literature. As far as domestication is concerned, Makinen (2012: 19)quotes Ottinen (2004: 905) who thinks that when adopting a domesticating method, translators assimilate the text to the target cultures values both linguistically and culturally. The main reason for doing so is that the advocators of such a method proclaim that translation should focus on transferring the meaning above anything else. Similarly, Natalia Vid (2008: 2) states in her article that Translators who are disposed to the domesticated method proclaim that the essential component of any literary work is not its technical side, but something visible and often called the spirit has to be successfully transferred into the target culture. According toNikolaeva (1996: 27), mentioned in Vid (2008: 5), another reason that makes translators choose domestication over foreignization is that, since childrens semiotic experience does not allow them to interpret the signs of an alien semiosphere,a variety of explanations, adaptations or direct changes may be necessary. Maintaining the same point, Shavit (1986: 112-113) suggests that the translator of childrens literature may manipulate the text in various ways. Such freedom is allowed as long as the translator is adjusting the text to make it appropriate and comprehensible for children. Considering childrens ability to read and comprehend, some translators may even choose to modify the plot, characters and language. Therefore, the accuracy of the task performed by a translator of childrens literature is measured by how much it is relevant for the target audience. Ottinen (2003: 128) states that in translating as in rewriting for target-language audiences, we always need to ask the crucial question: for whom? Hence, while writing childrens books is writing for children,

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translatingchildrens literature is translating for children. Therefore,the interests of children as target readership in this case, should be taken even more seriously than the interests of the adults. To put it in a nutshell, vid (2008: 6) quotes Zena Sutherland (1981: 67) who firmly believes that what may be a mild hazard for an adult can pose a serious barrier for a child. For instance, names, titles, complex syntax, or allusions to cultural heritage or common knowledge in foreign literature may be unfamiliar to members of recipient cultures. The translator of childrens literature must keep this fact in mind in order to avoid creating an overly difficult uninteresting translation which may alienate children from reading.Sutherland (1981: 69) agrees that in the realm of childrens literature a new, domesticated and familiar text can be created instead of a literary translation of the original text.(ibid: 2008:6) However, domesticating childrens literature does not seem to be the perfect strategy for some translators. Lawrence Venuti (1995: 18-22), as cited in Paloposki and Ottinen (1998: 374), is one of the most prominent critics of domestication who attacked domestication as a site of ethnocentric racism and violence and an ethnocentric reduction of the foreign text to targetlanguage cultural values (ibid: 20). As a matter of fact,though proved very practical in translating foreign children stories, domestication received much criticism from the proponents of foreignization. For Venuti (1995: 291), quoted by Paloposki and Ottinen (1998: 374), foreignization is more desirable than domestication in that the latter conforms to dominant cultural values;whereas foreignization challenges the dominant aesthetics (ibid: 309). Secondly, foreignized translations signal the linguistic and cultural differences of the foreign text (ibid: 311). And thirdly, foreignization seeks to restrain the ethnocentric, violent translation (ibid: 20). Based on the previous arguments which are in favor of foreignization, it can be deduced that
26

the main purpose of translation is not to conform to the target culture rules and features but to challenge them instead. To put it differently,Venutis preference for foreignization is not a celebration of the foreign other itself, it is rather a strategic device to defy the image of the other linguistically, culturally and aesthetically. However, when it is about a very special audience as children, the question to use foreignization in translated texts is open to debate. Ruokonen (2004: 78) claims that the foreignness in the text should not surpass the readers ability; the text may become incomprehensible and confusing. He continues, especially if the target readership consists of children, the demands of a foreignizing text might be too hard for some readers.(ibid: 78) This explains the reason why most translators of childrens literature happen to favor domestication over foreignization. Finally, bearing in mind the aforementioned arguments for and against both domestication and foreignization, it seems that the latter is more desirable in the field of translated children stories, especially in the Arab countries. Moreover, it should be noted that it is not only up to the translator to decide which method to use; just like the distribution of power, the choice involves many participants including publishers and sometimes censorship committees.

2.

OMISSION AND ADDITTION


Both omission and addition are regarded to be typical deviations from the original text.

These two techniques prove necessary when adopting a domesticating or a foreignizing method_ addition is usually associated with foreignization_ in the translation of childrens literature. OSullivan (2005), quoted in Cut Mansfields essay: Adaptation in Childrens

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LiteratureTranslation: a Narrative Theory Approach, argues that decisions about what to include and exclude in childrens literature translation are based on two key factors: the ideological aim of transmitting cultural norms and the translator or publishers beliefs about the extent to which the child reader can understand foreignness. Seemingly, both cultural norms and the target texts readability for children are the reasons which make a translator use either omission or addition. Backing up the idea of understandability, Khwira (2010: 20) argues that when a translator sees that a specific part may be difficult for children to understand, they might change or deletethis part to make it appropriate to the childrens cognitive abilities. She goes on to say that this is why the three Arab translations of Daniel DefoesRobinson Crusoedelete the opening dialogue between Crusoe and his father about the complicated ethos of bourgeoisie for the sake of their target readers.(ibid: 20-21). Another case where omission and addition become necessary is, according to Shavit(2006: 128), cited in Khwira (2010: 20), when the model of the source text is not available in the target system, translators modify it by omitting elements from the source text and adding others from the target system to make this model fit in the target system, especially if these omissions and additions do not affect the plot and the characterization of the text. To make this argument even clearer, Khwira (2010: 21) gives an example of how a sentence in RobinsonCrusoe was rendered into Arabic: -No executioner in Germany could have done it sooner or better . -

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It is clear now how the translator in this example made some changes in the Arabic translation in order to make it fit into a model Arab readers are familiar with, even though the meaning was somewhat altered. In dealing with foreign literature intended for children, Arab translators are usually confronted with certain themes which they omit and refuse to render in any other way. Such themes may include racial attitudes, gender inequity, and magic as in the case of Harry Potter. Khwira (2010: 22-23) explains that racial discrimination is the main reason why Khashafa and the committee of translators omitted the story of Xury, a character in Robinson Crusoe, as it is a clear depiction of racism and colonization in the book and these do not match the Arab culture. As to Addition, it should be stated that this technique, as it is usually associated with a foreignizing strategy, is less used than omission. This is mainly because domestication happens to be the most favored strategy for the Arab world, taking into account the several religious and ideological constraints imposed on translation. Nevertheless, in a foreignized text, addition can be applied through the use of footnotes in order to provide the readers with more details and information about the alien element kept in the translation; otherwise, the translator may choose to explain it using brackets.

3.

THE RENDITION OF PROPER NOUNS


The translation of proper nouns in childrens literature is one of the problems any

translator has to face. According to Farghal and Shunnaq (1999: 61), as quoted by Khwira (2010: 54), proper nouns include names of specific people, places countries, months, days and holidays. This definition, though not quite comprehensible, sheds light on the major constituents of proper nouns to which we can add: a proper noun is one that begins with a capital

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letter. The question now is: when we learn that proper nouns and proper names specifically, are the product of the local culture and not just mere linguistic elements void of any meaning, we may wonder about the strategies translators use to render proper nouns in childrens literature. Normally, proper names (names of people, surnames) are meant to be significant and semantically loaded in the cultural context they are used in. this explains why writers are usually inclined to give their fictive characters names with a semantic transparence, as mentioned in Makinen (2010: 26), which serve the plot of the story. She goes on to add that to a degree names were semantically transparent, often describing their referent somehow, for instance profession (such as Smith, Potter in English, or Muller in German), or physical features (Crane, Armstrong; Jung). (ibid: 26-27). Therefore, name creation in literature is by no means arbitrary or random. After having considered the central role characters names play in the world of fiction, it is no wonder how important it is for proper names in children stories to have the same function. This leads us to inquire about the ways proper nouns in general are rendered in literary texts targeting young readers. Given their delicate and sensitive position in any literary work, some translators may not venture into translating proper nouns and keep them as they are. For Newmark (1981: 70-71), as mentioned in Makinen (2010: 36), names in literature are usually left as they are. Since proper nouns are fundamentally related to their cultural context, Van Coillie (2006: 131) backs up this argument and says: the more important the context is to the book, the less self-evident it is to change [them]. (ibid: 36). The strategy of leaving proper nouns as they are in translation is

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called transliteration8. In fact, this strategy was adopted in one of the Arabic translations of Robinson Crusoe where, as stated in Khwira (2010: 54), names are transliterated abiding by the principle of foreignization. Because translators take unlimited liberties in dealing with childrens literature on the grounds of understandability, the childrens cognitive abilities and the flow of the text, they may choose to translate some proper nouns in case they have meaning. Klinberg (1986: 45), quoted in Agulilera (2008: 6), recognizes that [descriptive names] with a content or a meaning have to be translated. He even assumes that a meaningful name plays a role within a story and not translating it is suppressing part of the function it was created for. However, Khwira (2010: 54) directs our attention to a very important point in an example where the three translators of Robinson Crusoe were not successful when they transliterated all the names of characters in the story and rendered only the name of the Indian savage Friday into "", since it suggests that Friday has an Arab nationality. This means that all the humiliating behaviors of kneeling and servitude [of Friday] come from an Arab (ibid: 54). After all, domesticating proper names is not an easy task; translators are required to be more careful while rendering names with religious or cultural connotations into the target text. It is quite inevitable to discuss the issue of rendering proper nouns in children stories and not to mention the unique case of Harry Potter. Aguilera (2008: 7) believes that the case of Harry potter proves to be an interesting and phenomenal one in that: initially written for the British and American culture industry, the books were soon translated into more than forty seven languages, and when inquired about the reason why several publishers in France turned the series down at first, he said: the books to date contain more than one hundred proper names of
8

Transliteration means transcribing, in this case proper nouns, into another language system on the level of phonology, spelling, etc. E.g. Robinson Crusoe can be transliterated into Arabic as "

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people (and many place names), nearly all of which, in our opinion, should have been changed in translation, since they are not really names, but comic spoofs on names made up out of English words in the original. In short, the translation of proper nouns in childrens literature can be a serious challenge to most translators. Either opting for transliterating them or transferring their meaning to the target culture text, certain aspects need to be taken into consideration in order not to compromise the whole message, plot, events and mostly the characterization of the source text and hence jeopardize the whole work.

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CHAPTER V: CASE STUDY


1. CASE STUDY REVIEWED
I have chosen, for the purpose of this research paper, to analyze and discuss the first five chapters of the Arabic translation of J.K. Rowlings Harry Potter and the Philosophers stone. This book, intended for young readers,is the first novel inthe Harry Potter series and was first published on 26 June, 1997 byBloomsburys publishing house in London. However, in 1998, Scholastic Corporation published an edition for the United States market under the title ofHarry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, the version which is going to be the subject of this analysis. As to the Arabic translation, except for being published by 9" , it does not include any information about the translator, nor the date of publication. The reason why I have chosenthis book for my case study is due to its being a perfect example of a literary text targeting children and adolescents alike, and due to the huge success and positive criticism it received worldwide. Most reviews praised J.K. Rowlings work as an original, folkloric and imaginative piece of literature; nonetheless, this did not spare it the harsh attacks of some religious groups, be them Christian or Muslim, because of the acts of witchcraft and sorcery exemplified in the book. These attacks were translated into action when the series were banned in a few countries; Saudi Arabia is an example. Translated to more than sixty languages, the series were rendered into Arabic, but was the rendition successful or not? This is what we are going to see in the following analysis. On the level of form, the translator rendered the title as " " which means that the hefavored the British version of the title over the American one. To the best of my " isa publishing house which was founded in 1938. It publishes translations of international books for children and was the first publishing house to ever translate the Harry Potter series. Adapted from Wikipedia
9

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knowledge, this was not a successful choice becausemost Arab children readers are not familiar with what the Philosophers stone10 stands for. A clearer translation of the title would be " " . Though a literal translation of the American version, this title may be within the grasp of young children. As to the arrangement of chapters, the translator maintained the same order of the original book and assigned numbers to each one. Concerning content, it should be said that proper nouns in Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone, namely names of characters, can be divided into three categories: names of Hogwarts students, names of Hogwarts professors and other staff members, and names of wizards other than Hogwarts students or personnel. The total is 99 names. When compared to the source text, we find out that the Arabic translation preserved the same number of characters names, almost all of which were transliterated.Here is a list of some proper names as they occur in the original text, their origin or meaning, and their transliteration into Arabic:

PROPER NAME Harry

ORIGIN OR MEANING Medieval English form of Henry, a popular name for rulers and has Germanic origins Heinrichor home ruler.11 Derived from the Old Norse Ragnvaldr, a composite of regin advice, counsel and valdr ruler.12 Of Greek origin. It can be associated with the word ermine; a small animal in the Weasel tribe.13 Has Latin origins and means dragon; it could also mean draconic, harsh and severe.14

TRANSLITERATION

Ronald

Hermione

Draco

10

The Philosopher's Stoneis a man-made, blood-red stone with magical properties. It could be used to create the Elixir of Life, which extends the drinker's lifespan, as well as transforms any metal into pure gold. Available at http://harrypotter.wikia.com/wiki/Philosopher%27s_Stone 11 Makinen(2010: 76) 12 (Ibid: 77) 13 (Ibid: 78) 14 (Ibid: 79)

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Dumbledore McGonagall

An old English word for bumblebee: a large hairy bee.15 Rowling said that she named this character after William McGonagall, a Scottish poet she just loved16 It comes directly from Latin Severus and means severe.17

Severus

Proper names in Harry Potter and the sorcerers stone, or at least most of them, have either English or Latin origins and sometimes have good or bad connotations given the nature, be it good or evil, assigned to each character. However, the translator opted for the safest and easiest way and decided to retain most of them as they are without manipulating or using their semantic reference, with the exception of Sirius Blacks last name which was translated as ". This could lead young Arab readers to associate Sirius Black, though a good character in the book, with evilness because of the unpleasant and negative connotations this color represents for Arabs in general. I think, of all the semantically significant names in the story, this one is the least to be translated; transliterating it is the right choice for me. After analyzing the firstfive chapters of Harry Potter and the Sorcerers stone in terms of the strategies and techniques the translator used to render the terms, sentences and even passages which may have been problematic to translate into Arabic, I have decided to draw the following table to display the examples extracted from the book, their translations and some tentative explanations and commentary.

15 16

Makinen(2010: 79) (ibid: 80) 17 (ibid:81)

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THE ORIGINAL TEXT Because her sister and her good-for-nothing husband were as unDursleyish as it was possible to be. p: 1 He supposed this was some stupid new fashion. p: 2

THE TRANSLATION Omitted

COMMENTARY The translator may have omitted this sentence because s/he thought this was unnecessary information and rendering it would only make the readers feel bored. The translator was not completely faithful in rendering this sentence and added extra information that does not occur in the original text. Doughnuts are some sort of cake that Arab readers are not familiar with. This could be a culture-specific item exclusive to Western countries. However, it could have been replaced by " or simply "". You-Know-Who is a nickname for lord Voldemort, an evil character in the book. The translator did not try to render it at all. I believe the translator should have inserted some footnotes for the target readers to better understand what Muggles really means. The translator did not indicate, using footnotes for example, that it is about a national event in Great Britain. The translator opted for Domesticating it for the sake of understandability.

" 4:" .

Clutching a large doughnut in a gab. p: 3

Omitted

You-Know-Who has gone at last. p: 3

" 6:" .

Muggles18 p: 3

6 :""

Perhaps people have been celebrating Bonfire Night19 early. p: 4

:".

"
8

18

Muggles are the non-magical community according to wizards and witches. This special proper noun was transliterated in almost all the languages into which the book was translated except in Arabic and French. French translators preferred to translate it as Moldus. 19 Bonfire Night is an annual event dedicated to bonfires, fireworks and celebrations. In Great Britain, this modern event is held on 5 November and no longer retains its sectarian significance: it is now simply a night of revelry and fireworks. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bonfire_Night

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After all, they normally pretended she did not have a sister. p: 5 His nose was very long and crooked as though it had been broken at least twice. p: 6

This information was already introduced to the readers. This could be the main reason why it was omitted. " This sentence was clearly ". mistranslated. 10 :

Omitted

A fine thing it would be if, on the day You-Know-Who seems to have disappeared at last, the Muggles found out about us all. p: 7 Would you care for a lemon drop? [] A lemon drop. They are a kind of Muggle sweet I am rather fond of. p: 8

" Again, this sentence was mistranslated. .. blatantly Actually, it does not make any 11 :" .
sense at all. Omitted The translator may have thought it would be more appropriate if this sentence was omitted because eating sweets does not suit the way Dumbledore, a venerable character, was introduced to children as they are the target readers. Seemingly, the translator did not realize how much irony there is in this sentence and mistranslated it eventually. The translator omitted that part of the sentence for cultural reasons. Translating it literally would have sounded odd for Arab, Muslim young readers. Omitted for cultural reasons. The milk delivery is very specific to England. For religious reasons, the translator rendered bacon as "only. The effect of the original sentence was mitigated after

It is lucky it is dark. I have 11 :" ." not blushed so much since Madam Pomfrey told me she liked my new earmuffs. p: 8 How in the name of Heaven The text in bold was omitted. did Harry survive? p: 9 "" 13:

As she opened the door to The text in bold was omitted. put out the milk bottles.20 p: 13 I want you to look after the 19 :" " bacon. p: 14 I wont blow up the house. p: 17
20

"

"Milk bottles are bottles used for milk. They may be reusable glass bottles used mainly for doorstep delivery of fresh milk by milkmen. Customers are expected to rinse the empty bottles and leave on the doorstep for collection." Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milk_bottle

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22 :" .

You will be in that cupboard from now until Christmas. p: 18

" 23 :" .

Aunt Petunia hammering on the door to wake you up. p: 20

..." 25 :" .

Aunt Petunia had to run and get him a large brandy. p: 22 Dudley had already broken his new video camera, crashed his remote control airplane, and, first time out on his racing bike, knocked down old Mrs. Figg as she crossed Private Drive on her crutches. p:21 As he looked at Dudley in his new Knickerbockers21 p: 24

" 28 :" .
".

"
30:

being translated. Perhaps, the translator thought blowing up the house by a kid is a bit exaggerated. Christmas was rendered as mainly because most Arab young readers are not yet aware ofthe significance of Christmas for Christians. The translator added to the fact of waking up. This addition can be explained as a religious specificity to Muslims who are expected to wake up at this time for prayer. A large brandy was replaced by for religious reasons. This whole paragraph was reduced to a short sentence where almost all of the items mentioned in the original text were omitted.

" The translator domesticated 31 :" ... the text in bold.

Ah, go boil your head22, both of you! p: 39

". " The

translator clearly domesticated the text in bold because translating it literally 50 : would mean nothing to Arab readers.

21

Knickerbockers are a form of men's or boys' baggy-kneed trousers particularly popular in the early twentieth century USA. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knickerbockers_%28clothing%29 22 An insult, roughly equivalent to get lost. it is mainly used in Britain. Available at: http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=go%20boil%20your%20head

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While Hagrid read his newspaper, the Daily Prophet. p: 49 It was a tiny, grubby-looking Pub. p: 52

names of " Translating 59 :" . newspapers is considered a

"."
62 :

And the bartender reached for a glass saying p: 53 Passing an underground lake where huge stalactites and stalagmites grew from the ceiling and floor. p: 58

" 63 :" . " 67 :" .

mistake in translation. Transliterating it is the right choice. The translator replaced pub by for purely religious reasons. A pub, a place where alcohol is served, cannot be rendered into a text in Arabic and especially for Arab children readers. The translator clearly tried his/her best to avoid all that is related to pubs and alcohol in general. The translator opted for simplifying what stalactites, and stalagmites, mean instead of using these two technical words which most young readers would not be able to understand or are not familiar with.

2.

MAJOR FINDINGS OF THE ANALYSIS


After going through the first five chapters of the book, it can be deduced form the above

analysis that the translator of Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone relied on many techniques and strategies in rendering most of the culture and religious specific items existing in the text. As a matter of fact, omission was the translators most used device, which explains that s/he adopted a domesticating strategy. As to addition, except for one example, the analyzed five chapters do not include any added items or explanations to the target text. Moreover, throughout the analysis, I could detect some mistranslations which were rather the result of misunderstanding the source text. As a case in point, the translator was very careful in rendering some religious-specific items

39

which s/he replaced or omitted in most cases. Concerning proper nouns, I believe that this book proves to be one of the most difficult and challenging pieces of literature targeting children because of the variety and semantic significance that distinguishes proper nouns in J.K. Rowlings Harry Potter. However,the translator preferred transliterating most of the proper nouns and clung to a foreignizing method. All in all, we can say that the translator was quite successful in his endeavor to translate Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone into Arabic using mainly a domesticating method despite making a few mistakes. After modifying the source text, the book became ready and safe for children to read and enjoy it as well.

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CONCLUSION
This research paper was a study of the translation of childrens literature in terms of some challenges and strategies translators manipulate to render such texts accurately and professionally. Throughout this study, we have noticed how different the nature of childrens literature is compared to the adult one and how this fact influences its translation. In the first part, we have gone through the main challenges which translators have to cope with: mostly cultural and ideological. As to the selection of the appropriate material for children, we have reached the conclusion that all the participants in this procedure share almost the same amount of power in deciding what to translate or not and eventually depend on one another. The second part does focus on some of the strategies used to better render culture-specific items taking into account two different strategies. Most translators resort to either a domesticating or a foreignizing method to render culture or religious specific items into the target culture, Arabic in this case. To do this, translators may rely on two distinct techniques. Omission and addition prove to be the two favorite tools for childrens literature translators. Concerning the texts to be rendered into Arabic, most translators favor a domesticating method over a foreignizing one given the childrens possible inability to decipher some cultural items in the source text. The last part was an analytical study of J. K. Rowlings Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stonewhich shed light on the major techniques the translator used to render a text into Arabic despite some mild grumblings in some Arab countries that the book contains too much sorcery. The results came to back up the main points and arguments discussed in the first and second part.

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This research was a modest endeavor to shed more light on a long marginalized discipline in the field of translation studies. Hopefully, this work will be an addition to enrich the sphere of childrens literature not only with a comparative piece of work but also with a refer ence work that could be used for the purpose of consultation.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Aguilera, E. C. (2008) The Translation of Proper Names in Childrens Literature. Unpublished Article. University of Granada. Khwira, Z. H. T. (2010) Strategies and Motivations in Translated Childrens Literature: Defoes Robinson Crusoeas a Case Study. Unpublished MA Thesis. An-Najah National University. Makinen, K. (2010) Harry Potter and the Challenges of Translation: Treatment of Personal Names in the Finnish and German Translations of the Three First Harry Potter Books by J. K. Rowling. Unpublished MA Thesis. University of Jyvaskyla. Mdallel, S. (2003) Translating Childrens Literature in the Arab World: The State of the Art. Meta: Translators Journal. 48(1-2): 298-306. Paloposki, O. and Oittinen, R. (1998) The domesticated foreign. In A. Chesterman and N. G. San Salvador and Y. Gambier (eds.)Translation in Context. Granada: EST Congress: 373-390. Shavit, Z. (1981) Translation of Childrens Literature as a Function of its Position in the Literary Polysystem. Poetics Today. 2(4): 171-179. Thomson-Wohlgemuth, G. (1998) Childrens Literature and its Translation: An Overview. Unpublished MA Thesis. Surrey University. Thomson-Wohlgemuth, G. (2003) Childrens Literature and Translation Under the East German Regime. Meta: Translators Journal. 48(1-2): 241-249. Venuti, L. (1995) The Translators Invisibility: A History of Translation (1st edition). London: Routledge.

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Vid, N. (2008) Domesticated Translation: the Case of Nabokovs Translation of Alices Adventures in Wonderland. Nabokov Online Journal. 2(1): 1-24.

Zare-Behtash, E. (2010) Culture-Specific Items in Literary Translation. Internet. http://www.bokorlang.com/journal/51culture.htm. 04/05/2013.

Websites:
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/111289/childrens-literatureAccessed 03/04/2013 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Children%27s_literature Accessed 04/04/2013 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ideology Accessed 08/04/2013 http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ideology Accessed 12/04/2013 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skopos_theory Accessed 18/04/2013 http://harrypotter.wikia.com/wiki/Philosopher%27s_Stone Accessed 18/05/2013 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bonfire_Night Accessed 24/05/2013 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milk_bottle Accessed 25/05/2013 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knickerbockers_%28clothing%29 Accessed 25/05/2013 http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=go%20boil%20your%20head 26/05/2013 Accessed

Case Study: Download link for the Source text: http://www.google.co.ma/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CC wQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fce.sharif.edu%2F~safarnejad%2Ffiles%2Fbooks%2Fharry_pot ter_and_the_sorcerers_stone.pdf&ei=QuCjUbTrG8OO7AaghYHoBQ&usg=AFQjCNFWJ402cx cJUEAqdM4ZL05u6glFuw&sig2=7pH_w1ce09AqO-cgmi3sPQ&bvm=bv.47008514,d.bGE

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