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# UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

## FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN ELEKTRONIK DAN

KEJURUTERAAN KOMPUTER

BENT 4731
ELECTRONIC LABORATORY (WIRELESS COMMUNICATION) 3

LAB SESSION 6

PATH LOSS PROPAGATION MODELS

Prepared by:
Department of Telecommunication Engineering
Sem 1, 2013/2014

LAB 6: PATH LOSS PROPAGATION MODELS

1.0 Objective:
a. To simulate 900 MHz path loss propagation models using Free Space Path-Loss
Model, Okumura Model and Hata Model.
b. To predict the received power for each model.

2.0 Equipment/Software
Matlab

3.0 Theory:
By combining analytic and empirical methods the propagation models are derived.
Propagation models are used for calculation of electromagnetic field strength for the
purpose of wireless planning during preliminary deployment. It describes the signal
attenuation from transmitter to receiver as a function of distance, carrier frequency,
antenna heights and other significant parameters like terrain profile (e.g: urban,
suburban and rural). Model such as the Harald. T Friis free space model are used to
predict signal power at the receiver end when transmitter and receiver have line-of-
sight condition. The classical Okumura model is used in urban, suburban and rural
areas for the frequency range 150 MHz 1920 MHz for initial coverage deployment.
A deployment version of Okumura model known as Hata model also extensively
used for frequency range 150 MHz 1500 MHz in a build up area.

3.1 Free Space Path Loss for LOS Environment:
The path loss is defined by:

where:
f
c
: carrier frequency in MHz
d : distance in km

3.2 Okumura Model
The model is based on measured data taken in Japan. Thus is among models and
becomes the standard for path-loss modelling. The model is described by:

), ( log 20 ) ( log 20 45 . 32 ) (
10 10
km d MHz f dB FSPL
c
+ + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
AREA re te mu F
G h G h G d f A L dB L + = ,
50

where:
L
50
(dB): median path loss
L
F
: free space propagation loss
A
mu
(f,d): median attenuation relative to free space
G(h
te
): base station antenna height gain factor
G(h
re
): mobile antenna height gain factor
G
AREA
: gain due to the type of environment

G(h
te
) & G(h
re
) can be calculated through these formulas:

The median loss, A
mu
(f,d) and G
AREA
are available as Okumura curves shown in
figures below:

m 10 m 1000
200
log 20 ) ( > > |
.
|

\
|
=
te
te
te
h
h
h G
m 3 m 10
3
log 20 ) (
m 3
3
log 10 ) (
> > |
.
|

\
|
=
s
|
.
|

\
|
=
re
re
re
re
re
re
h
h
h G
h
h
h G

3.3 Hata Model
The basic formula for median path loss given by Hata is:

where
d: T-R separation (km)
f
c
: frequency in MHz (150MHz 1500 MHz)
h
te
: base station antenna height (30m 200m)
o(h
re
): correction factor for effective mobile antenna height
h
re
: mobile antenna height (1m 10m)

These correction factors for effective mobile antenna height o(h
re
), are shown below:

o (h
re
) for
(1.1log
10
f
c
- 0.7)h
re
(1.56log
10
f
c
- 0.8) dB Small to medium sized city
8.29(log
10
1.54h
re
)
2

1.1 dB Large city (f
c
s 300MHz)
3.2(log
10
11.75h
re
)
2

4.97 dB Large City (f
c
> 300MHz)

4.0 Procedure

1. Develop the Matlab code to predict path loss propagation using free space
model, Okumura model (suburban) and Hata Model (small to medium sized city)
for f
c
= 900MHz, h
te
= 100m, h
re
= 10m and d = 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 &
100km). Insert a simple comment for every line of the Matlab code.
2. Produce a graph, plotting path loss versus distance for the 3 models used.
3. Based on step 1 & 2, develop the Matlab Code to predict the received power, P
r

for each model based on following parameters: EIRP = 1kW and G
r
= 3 dB.
4. Produce a graph, plotting received power versus distance for the 3 models used.

5.0 Result
Attach the Matlab codes and the graphs.

L
50
(urban)(dB) = 69.55 + 26.16log
10
f
c
13.82 log
10
h
te
o(h
re
) + (44.9-6.55log
10
h
te
) log
10
d

6.0 Discussion
Analyze & criticize the graphs that have been produced.

7.0 Question
Explain the effect of frequency to the path loss and received power for each model.