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Social Movements and Leftist Governments in Latin America: Introduction Gary Prevost, Harry E.

Vanden, Carlos Oliva Campos [A] Social Movements In Context The last decade in Latin America has witnessed two important simultaneous and interrelated developments the rise in prominence o! social movements, and the election o! a num"er o! le!t and center#le!t $overnments. The social movements have ran$ed !rom the "road, community or$ani%ed &pi'ueteros( o! Ar$entina that "rou$ht down three $overnments in the space o! one month in )**+ to the indi$enous#"ased movements o! Ecuador and ,olivia that have "een instrumental in topplin$ !ive $overnments in the two countries within the last decade, the Landless -ovement in ,ra%il .-/T0, A!ro#Colom"ians resistin$ displacement in a re$ion coveted "y investors, the Cocalaros and the mo"ili%ations a$ainst water privati%ations and $as pipeline investments in ,olivia, to the 1apatistas in -e2ico, who "urst on the scene to challen$e the !ormation o! 3A4TA and the mar$inali%ation o! the mostly indi$enous peasants in Chiapas. The social movements o! Ar$entina, ,ra%il, -e2ico, Colom"ia, Ecuador, and ,olivia are complemented across the re$ion "y a myriad o! or$ani%ations that en$a$e on a ran$e o! issues !rom land ri$hts to women5s ri$hts to environmental concerns. These $roups have "een studied in detail under the ru"ric o! &new social movements,( "ut they are e'ually a continuation o! a lon$ history o! social movements in Latin American history that have resisted the domination o! the continent "y colonialism, neo#colonialism and native elites !or centuries and more recently have en$a$ed in vi$orous !orms o! collective action that have reinvi$orated the political stru$$le !or economic and social 6ustice in the conte2t o! $lo"ali%ed resistance. They have also continued to develop ever wider repertoires o! contentious actions and ever stron$er and more dynamic !orms o! participatory democracy. These movements have "een the !ocus o! a wide ran$e o! academic studies in the past decade. This wor7 will draw most heavily in its analysis on the !ramewor7 provided "y 8ichard /tahler#/hol7, Harry E.Vanden, and Glen 9uec7er articulated in their )**: volume, Latin American /ocial -ovements in the )+ st Century 8esistance, Power, and +

;emocracy. The primary ar$ument o! the authors is that while the recent social movements are $rounded in centuries#lon$ stru$$le o! Latin Americans a$ainst colonialism, neo#colonialism and elite domination, they have "rou$ht new !orms o! stru$$le into play o!ten with somewhat di!!erent political o"6ectives than their predecessors. Other 7ey scholars providin$ a re!erence point to the analysis o! the authors include the wor7 o! /onia <lvare%, Evel=na ;a$ino and Arturo Esco"ar, eds. Culture o! Politics, Politics o! Culture, 8e#visionin$ Latin American /ocial -ovements, +>>:, ?oe 4owera7er, Theori%in$ /ocial -ovements, and /idney Tarrow5s important +>>: contri"ution to our understandin$ o! social movements in a "road conte2t, Power in -ovement /ocial -ovements Contentious Politics. Other wor7s in!luential in the analysis are ;e"orah @ashar, Contestin$ Citi%enship in Latin America The 8ise o! Andi$enous -ovements and the Post 3eoli"eral Challen$e, )**B, ?ames Petras and Henry Veltmeyer5s /ocial -ovements and /tate Power Ar$entina, ,ra%il, ,olivia, and Ecuador, )**B, and /usan Ec7stein, Power and Popular Protest, Latin American /ocial -ovements, )**+, and -ar$aret 9ec7 and 9athyrn /i77in7. Activists ,eyond ,orders Advocacy 3etwor7s in Anternational Politics, +>>:.+ How can we understand the evolution o! social movements durin$ the past two decades in the conte2t o! the pastC These movements have a rich history which cannot "e developed here in $reat detail "ut as is the case today they arose out o! the social condition o! the continent. That is the poverty and ine'uality that was the le$acy o! centuries o! /panish and Portu$uese

The 7ey contri"utions to scholarship in this area in recent years include /onia <lvare%, Evel=na ;a$ino and Arturo Esco"ar, Culture o! Politics, Politics o! Culture, 8e#visionin$ Latin American /ocial -ovements. ,oulder Destview, +>>:E 8ichard /hahler#/hol7, Harry E. Vanden, and Glen ;avid 9uec7er. eds. Latin American /ocial -ovements in the )+st Century 8esistance, Power, and ;emocracy. Lanham, -; 8owman and Little!ield Pu"lishers, )**:E /usan Ec7stein, ed., Power and Popular Protest, Latin American /ocial -ovements, )nd ed. ,er7eley Fniversity o! Cali!ornia Press, )**+E /idney Tarrow. Power in -ovement /ocial -ovements and Contentious Politics. Cam"rid$e Fniversity Press, +>>:E and ?oe 4owera7er, Teori%in$ /ocial -ovements. London Pluto Press, +>>BE ;e"orah @ashar. Contestin$ Citi%enship in Latin America The 8ise o! Andi$enous -ovements and the Post 3eoli"eral Challen$e . 3ew @or7 Cam"rid$e Fniversity Press, )**BE ?ames Petras and Henry Veltmeyer, /ocial -ovements and /tate Power Ar$entina, ,ra%il, ,olivia, and Ecuador. London and Ann Ar"or, -A Pluto Press, )**BE Geor$e 8eid Andrews, A!ro#Latin America +:**#)***. 3ew @or7 O2!ord Fniversity Press, )**GE /idney Tarrow. The 3ew Transnational Activism. 3ew @or7 Cam"rid$e Fniversity Press, )**B, and -ar$aret 9ec7 and 9athyrn /i77in7. Activists ,eyond ,orders Transnational Advocacy 3etwor7s in Anternational Politics. Athaca Cornell Fniversity Press, +>>:.

coloni%ation !ollowed "y ,ritish, 4rench and 3orth American neocolonialism and the ever more intense internationali%ation o! capitalism. Earlier centuries had witnessed primarily rural, peasant "ased movements "ut the twentieth century also saw the $rowth o! la"or#"ased movements $rounded in the re$ion5s e2tractive industries and nascent manu!acturin$ sectors. The twentieth century movements were o!ten in!luenced "y -ar2ist and in a !ew cases anarchist ideas. 4or the -ar2ist#in!luenced movements this meant that the o"6ectives o! a wor7ers5 or peasants5 movement were !re'uently channeled throu$h the e!!orts o! political parties, "oth re!ormist and revolutionary.) The movements were $rounded in the livin$ conditions o! their mem"ers "ut ultimately su"ordinated to party structures. An all o! these cases, the parties o! the Le!t did not $enerally $ain state power, so these movements remained outside o! $overnment as an oppositional !orce. However, Latin America did have two uni'ue models o! the role o! social movements in the political process. An "oth -e2ico and Ar$entina traditional wor7ers

movements were co#opted "y $overnment leaders LH%aro CHrdenas .+>IG#+>G*0 and ?uan PerJn .+>GI#+>BB0 to play a 7ey role in the maintenance o! political power "y these leaders in return !or an improvement in the standard o! livin$ !or the wor7in$ people. This arran$ement, du""ed corporatism "y political scientists, "ecame deeply im"edded in -e2ico providin$ the party o! CHrdenas, the Anstitutional 8evolutionary Party .P8A0, un"ro7en rule until )***. An the case o! Ar$entina, the party PerJn "uilt has sustained itsel! success!ully over almost seventy years to a$ain "e the dominant !orce in Ar$entine politics. I

4or an overview o! the role o! -ar2ism in Latin American politics see /heldon Liss, -ar2ist Thou$ht in Latin America. ,er7eley Fniversity o! Cali!ornia Press, +>:G and ;onald Hod$es. Latin American 8evolution Politics and /trate$y !rom Apro#-ar2ism to Guevarism. 3ew @or7 Dilliam -orrow, +>KG. I /ee also Harry E. Vanden, Latin American -ar2ism A ,i"lio$raphy, 3ew @or7 Garland, +>>+, especially the introduction, and, in re$ard to peasant mo"ili%ation, Harry E. Vanden, L-ar2ism and the Peasant in Latin America -ar$inali%ation or -o"ili%ation,L Latin American Perspectives AM, 3o. G ,4all, +>:), pp. KG#>:. 4or $ood overviews !or corporatism see, Howard Diarda. Corporatism and Comparative Politics The Other Great Asm. Armon7, 3@ -.E. /harpe, +>>K and Peter Dilliamson. Corporatism in Perspective An Antroductory Guide to Corporatist Theory. London and 3ew"ury Par7, CA /a$e, +>:>. Also !or the application o! corporatist theory and two newly democrati%ed countries, Geor$ia and /outh A!rica, see ,rian Grods7y. &4rom 3eo#Corporatism N ;ele$ative CorportismC The Empowerment o! 3GOs durin$ Early ;emocrati%ation( ;emocrati%ation Vol. +O, 3o.B, Octo"er )**>, p. :>:#>)+.

,e!ore proceedin$ to an analysis o! the relationship "etween contemporary Latin American social movements and the re$ion5s pro$ressive $overnments it is also necessary to provide some "ac7$round to the contemporary social movements and the political conte2t in which they have emer$ed over the last twenty years. The !all o! the East European socialist camp, which "e$an in +>:> with the political revolutions in Eastern Europe and culminated with the collapse o! the /oviet Fnion at the end o! +>>+ opened a new era o! international relationships 7nown as the Post Cold Dar. President Geor$e H.D. ,ush declared that there would "e a 3ew Dorld Order dominated "y democracy and !ree enterprise .i.e. capitalism0, !reed !rom the presence o! the socialist countries and their dra$ on the world economy. At was ar$ued that the mechanisms o! the !ree mar7et i! adhered to "y all $overnments, includin$ those o! the less developed world, would lead to a world o! $reater prosperity !or all, includin$ those in the poorer countries who had "een mar$inali%ed traditionally. These views were operationali%ed in what "ecame 7nown as the Dashin$ton Consensus which was to "e implemented worldwide throu$h the policies o! the Dorld ,an7 and the Anternational -onetary 4und. The 7ey ideas were reduced $overnment spendin$ and downsi%in$, privati%ation o! state run utilities and industries, and trade li"erali%ation carried out throu$h re$ional trade a$reements and the launchin$ o! the Dorld Trade Or$ani%ation as the third and !inal le$ o! the Anternational 4inancial Anstitution .A4A5s0 !irst envisioned at the ,retton Doods con!erence in +>GG. An the early nineties these ideas resonated well with the political elites in Latin America as well as all o! the re$ion5s $overnments, with the e2ception o! Cu"a. This even included the traditionally nationalistic $overnment o! Ar$entina, which also em"raced the neoli"eral Dashin$ton Consensus model. The hi$h water mar7 o! this political consensus occurred at the 4irst /ummit o! The Americas meetin$ convened "y F./. President Dilliam Clinton in -iami in ;ecem"er +>>G. The summit o! heads o! state, to which 4idel Castro was not invited, enthusiastically endorsed the idea o! a 4ree Trade Area o! the Americas .4TAA0, a hemispheric wide customs union that would "e !ully implemented "y )**B alon$ stron$ly neoli"eral lines. G

However, these detailed plans would eventually $o o!! trac7 and seventeen years later the idea o! the 4ree Trade Area o! the Americas is a dead letter. The de!eat o! the 4TAA came a"out as the result o! a variety o! !actors. Fltimately it was opposition to the pact "y several 7ey $overnments in Latin America## Vene%uela, Ar$entina, and ,ra%il in particular## that doomed the pro6ect. To understand how these $overnments came to voice the stron$ ne$ative positions that 7illed the idea it is necessary to analy%e how opposition to the 4TAA within Latin American civil society developed, how the opposition was mo"ili%ed "y an array o! social movements, and !inally how the anti#4TAA, anti#neoli"eral sentiment was re!lected in the election o! $overnments o! the le!t and center#le!t across the re$ion, "e$innin$ with the election o! Hu$o ChHve% in Vene%uela in ;ecem"er o! +>>:. The startin$ point !or the "rea7down o! the Dashin$ton Consensus occurred when the promises that these policies would lead to "etter social and economic indicators !or the re$ion5s poor ma6ority was not reali%ed, especially in the 7ey countries o! Vene%uela, Ar$entina, and ,ra%il. An each o! the three, "e$innin$ with Vene%uela in the late +>:*s, a$$ressively neoli"eral $overnment policies were implemented that involved privati%ation o! state#owned companies and a cuttin$ o! $overnment services. These policies $enerally did cut in!lation and stimulate macroeconomic $rowth. The control o! runaway in!lation that had mar7ed the so#called &lost decade( o! Latin American economies in the +>:*s was popular across all classes. However, "eyond cuttin$ in!lation these policies did little to improve the lives o! the ma6ority poor and the conse'uent hi$her unemployment rates and cuts in $overnment su"sidies actually worsened the situation o! $rowin$ num"ers o! poor Latin Americans. 3or did they improve the horri"le disparity in wealth and income that has lon$ "een Latin AmericaPs nemesis. The macroeconomic $ains served to improve the circumstances o! the re$ion5s "etter o!! citi%ens and in the process !urther widened the $ap "etween the rich and poor. The o"6ective conditions o! the people in Latin America most ne$atively a!!ected "y the neoli"eral re!orms were re!lected !irst in mo"ili%ations o! Latin American civil society that came !rom a variety o! sources, some B

traditional and others that were new. The +>:> uprisin$ in Caracas and other Vene%uelan cities .the Caraca%o0 is here representative o! the $rowin$ an$er o! the masses when con!ronted with structural ad6ustment and neoli"eral policies. A$ainst this historical "ac7drop it is important to analy%e the new dimensions that emer$ed !ull "lown in the last twenty years, the phenomenon that has "een called the &new social movements.( These movements have come to !ull !ruition durin$ the era when Latin American countries have returned to $reater political democracy !ollowin$ the era o! the +>O*s to the +>:*s when 7ey Latin American countries li7e ,ra%il, Ar$entina, Chile, and Fru$uay were under the rule o! "rutal military dictatorships. An reality many o! these &new social movements(

representin$ women, the indi$enous, human ri$hts concerns, Latin Americans o! A!rican herita$e, and reli$ious re!ormers emer$ed durin$ the era o! the military dictators. /ome new social movements li7e the -others o! the ;isappeared in Chile and the -others o! the Pla%a de -ayo in Ar$entina arose directly in response to the military repression "ut most o! the others emer$ed !irst durin$ the military era as the result o! deterioratin$ economic condition !or wide sectors o! the population and wider international !actors emanatin$ !rom di!!erent corners o! the world. The winds o! chan$e in the 8oman Catholic Church, em"odied in the movements o! Li"eration Theolo$y, were initiated "y the /econd Vatican Council .+>O+#+>OB0, and the meetin$ o! the Latin American "ishops in -edellin in +>O:. G The rise o! women5s movements is part o! a second wave o! !eminism that derived !rom the push !or women5s e'uality in late +>O*s in the Fnited /tates and elsewhere.B The consciousness o! A!rican herita$e was $rounded in the civil ri$hts and ,lac7 Power movements o! the +>O*s in the Fnited /tates and the Cari""ean. O Greater consciousness on the pli$ht o! the !irst citi%ens o! the hemisphere came in part !rom Fnited /tates
4

4or an overview o! li"eration theolo$y and the Latin American movements it spawned see Philip ,erryman. /tu""orn Hope 8eli$ion, Politics and 8evolution in Central America. -ary 9noll, 3@ Or"is ,oo7s, +>:G. 5 4or an overview o! women5s movements in Latin America see Lynn /tephen, Domen and /ocial -ovements in Latin America. Austin Fniversity o! Te2as Press, +>>K. 6 4or an overview o! race and race#"ased social movements in contemporary Latin America, see Geor$e 8eid Andrews. A!ro#Latin America +:**#)***. 3ew @or7 O2!ord Fniversity Press, )**G.

and Canadian "ased movements, Hemispheric $atherin$s o! indi$enous peoples and then $ained resonance in the wider world throu$h the awardin$ o! the +>>) 3o"el Peace Pri%e to Guatemalan indi$enous leader 8i$o"erta -enchQ on the B**th anniversary o! the Colum"us voya$e.K These international !actors, united with the local conditions and new dimensions o! $lo"ali%ation on the $round in Latin America, resulted in the emer$ence o! these movements across the continent "e$innin$ in the +>:*s "ut !lowerin$ in the +>>*s. The +>>*s in Latin America was a time when conservative, neoli"eral $overnments pursued a political a$enda that ran counter to the needs and issues o! masses o! Latin Americans and the social movements descri"ed a"ove and !ormed in previous years. The chan$ed situation was that these new social movements could or$ani%e openly with !ull le$al status, !reed !rom the previous li7elihood that their political or$ani%in$ and street demonstrations would "e crushed "y harsh military repression. Authorities mi$ht use the police to "rea7 up certain 7inds o! more militant actions, such as stri7es and land occupations, "ut their or$ani%ations were no lon$er "anned, nor were their leaders 7illed or placed in 6ail !or lon$ periods o! time. Andeed, they !ound that they had an increasin$ num"er o! spaces in civil society in which they could operate and or$ani%e The social movements that have arisen in recent years in Latin America have "een mar7ed "y several 7ey attri"utes. They have tended to see7 autonomy !rom the traditional political parties, to practice hori%ontal and participatory processes in decision ma7in$ and to see7 social 6ustice "ased on raceRethnicity, $ender andRor traditional mar$inali%ation !rom the political process or economic "ene!its. These principles have en$endered some rethin7in$ o! traditional concepts o! revolution in the conte2t o! see7in$ !undamental social chan$e. 4or decades the concept o! social chan$e was lin7ed to armed revolution in Latin America and a commitment to construct socialism with the Cu"an e2perience as the $uide. O!ten connected to the paradi$m
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4or an overview o! Latin American indi$enous movements see Hector ;=a% Polanco. Andi$enous Peoples in Latin America. ,oulder, CO Destview Press, +>>K. /ee also, ;onna Van Cott, 4rom -ovements to Parties in Latin America the Evolution o! Ethnic Politics. 3ew @or7 Cam"rid$e Fniversity Press, )**B and Van Cott, 8adical ;emocracy in the Andes. 3ew @or7 Cam"rid$e, )**>.

were political parties o! a van$uard nature. The lan$ua$e and tactics o! the contemporary movements have $one in a di!!erent directionE tactically they have !ocused on non#violent direct action and pro$rammatically they have stressed "road themes o! social and economic 6ustice without an e2plicit commitment to radical socialism. Em"lematic o! the approach is the commonly heard declaration &another world is possi"le.( This phrase "ecame a popular rallyin$ cry o! social movements that came to$ether in the last decade at the Dorld /ocial -ovement in Porto Ale$re, ,ra%il and Caracas, Vene%uela and at numerous alternative /ummits o! the Americas .e.$. -ar del Plata, Ar$entina in )**B0. /cholars o! the contemporary social movements also emphasi%e that these movements arose durin$ the era o! the neoli"eral !ree mar7et pro6ect that "e$an with the structural ad6ustment pro$rams o! the +>:*s and continued with the imposition o! the so#called Dashin$ton Consensus o! the +>>*s. -any Latin American $overnments led "y Vene%uela, Ar$entina, and ,ra%il implemented such re!orms in the +>>*s "ut their $eneral !ailure to achieve economic and social success led to a 'uestionin$ o! the principles in the new century. However, the power o! these pro$rams and the earlier Latin American military re$imes o! the +>O*s and +>K*s severely dama$ed the political capa"ilities o! the traditional parties and social movements. At was that crisis o! the traditional wor7in$ class "ased la"or movements and many political parties that created the political space !or new social movements to then come to the !ore to resist the pro6ects o! the Dashin$ton Consensus. ,eyond the !act that the movements which emer$ed !ull "lown in the +>>*s !aced a di!!erent, more open Latin American political climate more !avora"le to dissent, one is prone to as7, what a"out them was &new(C Clearly part o! their &newness( was that they were raisin$ issues that were recent in the Latin American political scene and o!ten were issues not "ein$ raised in a serious way "y political parties o! either the le!t, middle or the ri$ht women5s ri$hts, "lac7 ri$hts, $ay and les"ian ri$hts, environmental issues, and indi$enous concerns, continued mar$inali%ation o! the masses. An other cases the issues were not new, !or e2ample, unemployment and wor7ers ri$hts in Ar$entina. The pic7eters5 movement "ac7in$ the :

unemployed o! Ar$entina5s cities was a new phenomenon discussed in detail in the Ar$entina chapter. The issues raised "y ,ra%il5s landless movement, the -/T, was raisin$ a time honored issue, land re!orm, "ut usin$ a myriad o! tactics includin$ actual provision o! services !or those en$a$in$ in the traditional tactic o! land ta7e#over and occupation. Another area o! interest in the new social movements is in the arena o! tactics and how they contested power. -any o! the tactics and political actions that were employed were not unprecedented "ut some were, 'uite novel, !or e2ample, cortar ruas .closin$ streets0 and other actions were employed "y the pi'ueteros in Ar$entina. The indi$enous movements and their supporters in ,olivia and Ecuador utili%ed the tactic o! "loc7in$ $round access to the capital city and transit on other ma6or thorou$h!ares "y "arricadin$ roads with material at hand and in the process stallin$ much o! the transit and commercial activity o! their countries. Twice in each country within the last decade this tactic succeeded in !orcin$ the resi$nation o! elected $overnments. -assive mo"ili%ation and occupation o! central spaces in the capital and other ma6or cities was also employed. An "oth countries the dominant issues were that the indi$enous ma6orities were "ein$ mar$inali%ed economically and politically and that the esta"lished $overnment was sellin$ o!! the country5s assets and soverei$nty to !orei$n interests. The issue was not new "ut their articulation and the swi!tness o! the movements5 success was startlin$. An "oth cases new elections eventually "rou$ht to power the pro$ressive $overnments o! Evo -orales and 8a!ael Correa. The success o! the movement5s tactics in ,olivia and Ecuador must "e credited in part to their creative actions and the chan$ed political climate. An an earlier era o! military rule such non#violent acts o! political protest would li7ely have "een "ro7en up "y the army and the disruptions to the commercial li!e o! the country prevented. The new social movements have also "een seen as adoptin$ a di!!erent stance toward the political parties, lar$ely re!usin$ to interact with them and remainin$ in a more independent stance, less availa"le to "e co#opted. This o"servation is reasona"ly accurate, especially in comparison to movements o! the twentieth century that were wedded to traditional parties o! the >

le!t. /uch an independent position was natural, "ecause the movements o!ten arose outside o! the political party structures which i$nored their issues. This phenomenon is not uni'ue to Latin America. Dhen similar movements arose in Europe and the Fnited /tates, their issues were not $enerally championed "y the mainstream parties, even those on the le!t. However, in the 3orth, eventually their issues were adopted and the independence o! these movements came to "e si$ni!icantly compromised. This can especially "e seen with women5s and environmental

movements in Europe and the Fnited /tates where, !ollowin$ adoption o! their ideas "y mainstream parties, the $oals o! these movements were either !ully or partly reached, demonstratin$ that cooptation is not necessarily a ne$ative result !or the social movement. That level o! cooptation has not !ully arrived in Latin America "ut with pro$ressive $overnments in power across the re$ion, the possi"ilities !or cooptation "ecome $reater. At is si$ni!icant that the $reatest amount o! cooptation in the re$ion occurred in the country with the lon$est time period o! pro$ressive $overnments, Chile. Another 7ey !actor in cooptation may "e the a"ility o! the pro$ressive $overnment in power to co#opt social movements and some o! their leaders, and may turn on their a"ility or willin$ness to ma7e ma6or $ains on "ehal! o! the movement5s $oals. 4or e2ample, in the Fnited /tates the civil ri$hts movement "ecame wedded to the ;emocratic Party "ecause leaders o! that party in the Con$ress and Dhite House delivered on ma6or re!orms o! civil ri$hts laws in the Fnited /tates in the mid +>O*s. An contrast, the $overnment o! Luis AnHcio da /ilva .Lula0 in ,ra%il was unwillin$ to ma7e any si$ni!icant concession in the area o! land re!orm. As a result, the landless movement does not have much to show !or its "ac7in$ o! Lula in the )**) and )**O elections and has remained politically independent and critical o! $overnment policy in this area. [A] Electoral Victories of the Left The past decade has also witnessed the electoral triumph o! a num"er o! political parties and coalitions o! the le!t and center#le!t. The trend started with the election o! populist challen$er Hu$o ChHve% in Vene%uela in +>>:. ChHve% has revised the constitution, created mechanisms o! +*

political participation and access to services !or hither#to#!ore mar$inali%ed nei$h"orhood residents, has "een reelected twice and he and his supporters "een a"le to mo"ili%e popular support to de!eat a coup and a re!erendum desi$ned to remove him !rom power and stop his re!orms. 4urther, he has moved si$ni!icantly to the le!t, committed to what he has la"eled &twenty#!irst century socialism( and launched several re$ion#wide anti#neoli"eral pro6ects, most importantly the ,olivarian Alliance !or the Peoples o! Our America .AL,A0.( An )**) the ChHve% victory was !ollowed "y the election o! socialist Ta"arS VHs'ue% in Fru$uay, populist LQcio GutiSrre% in Ecuador, and most importantly, Dor7er5s Party leader, Lui% AnHcio da /ilva .Lula0 in ,ra%il in his !ourth run !or the presidency. Lula reelected !or a second term in )**O and his anointed successor, ;ilma 8ousse! e2tended Dor7ers Party control o! the ,ra%ilian presidency until )*+B with her Octo"er )*+* landslide victory. Also, in Fru$uay e2#Tupamaro $uerrilla and socialist ?osS -u6ica triumphed in )**: to continue the domination o! the le!tist 4rente Amplio. An )**I 3estor 9irchner was elected president in Ar$entina on a political plat!orm that returned the Peronist ?ustice Party to its traditional center#le!t stance !ollowin$ a lon$ detour to center#ri$ht neoli"eralism under Carlos -enemE this le!tward tilt was validated "y the election o! Christina 9irchner in )**K. The momentum o! pro$ressive electoral victories was also mani!ested with the )**B election o! socialist Evo -orales to the presidency o! ,olivia as the country5s !irst indi$enous leader. He was reelected in )**> with OGT o! the vote and has carried out "road constitutional re!orm that has moved the country in a pro$ressive direction a$ainst the wishes o! the lon$ rulin$ traditional oli$archs. The last !ive years also have seen the election o! center#le!t candidates 8a!ael Correa and 4ernando Lu$o in Ecuador and Para$uay. Lu$o5s election in Para$uay in )**: on a le!t plat!orm ended the lon$ hold o! the country5s oli$archy on the o!!ice o! the presidency. Correa was !irst elected in )**O !ollowin$ the removal o! previous president LQcio GutiSrre% "y social movement led massive street demonstrations. Correa was reelected in )**>, validatin$ pro$ressive constitutional re!orms enacted durin$ his !irst term. Central America was also not immune to the le!tward trend. An )**O ;aniel Orte$a, ++

lon$ time leader o! the once revolutionary /andinista 3ational Li"eration 4ront .4/L30, returned to power a!ter a si2teen year hiatus, and in )**K center#le!t candidate <lvaro Colom won a surprisin$ victory in Guatemala "rea7in$ a more than !i!ty year hold on power "y the ri$ht. An )**: 4ari"undo -art= 3ational Li"eration 4ront .4-L30 Party candidate -auricio 4unes "ro7e two decades o! ri$htist control when he was elected president in )**>. An Honduras President -anuel 1elaya "e$an to dri!t to the le!t in Honduras a!ter his election in )**B. However, a coup d5etat ultimately resulted in his removal !rom power "y the traditional elites in ?une )**>E "ut the coup also stimulated the development o! new social and political movements in Honduras. An -e2ico, the center#le!t ;emocratic 8evolutionary Party o! -e2ico nearly won the )**O presidential election, losin$ "y only a sin$le percenta$e point in hi$hly disputed results. The le!tward tilt in Latin American politics has "een clear. 3umerous scholarly studies have %eroed in on this development, most importantly, Le!tist Governments in Latin America /uccesses and /hortcomin$s edited "y 9urt Deyland, 8aQl -adrid, and Dendy Hunter.: Others have endeavored to cate$ori%e the new le!tist political movements as, to use ?or$e CastaUeda5s strained cate$ories, a &$ood( le!t that only wants moderate chan$e and can wor7 with the Fnited /tates and a &"ad( le!t that is too closely tied to the populist tradition in Latin America and would not as easily con!orm to li"eral democratic and neoli"eral economic policies more similar to those o! the Fnited /tates and Destern Europe. > The idea o! two le!ts, was actually articulated "y Teodoro Plet7o!! in his article &Las dos i%'uierdas( in Nueva Sociedad in )**B, a year "e!ore CastaUeda5s article was pu"lished. Pet7o!! sees one le!t that moves away !rom real socialism, see7in$ to deepen social e'uity and democracy and another radical current that operates throu$h &personalism, authoritarianism, the steel control o! pu"lic

9urt Deyland, 8aul -adrid, Dendy Hunter. Eds. Le!tist Governments in Latin America /uccesses and /hortcomin$s. 3ew @or7 Cam"rid$e Fniversity Press, )*+*. 9 /ee ?or$e CastaUeda, &Latin America5s Le!t Turn,( 4orei$n A!!airs, Vol :B, 3o. I, -ay#?une, )**O, pp. ):#GI, and ?or$e CastaUeda and -arco A. -orales, Le!tovers Tales o! the Latin American Le!t. 3.@. 8outled$e, )**:. 4or a di!!erent ta7e on the &$ood( and &"ad( le!t see, -a2well Cameron, )**>. &Latin America5s Le!t Turns ,eyond Good and ,ad( Third Dorld Vuarterly I*, no. ) II+#IG:.

+)

power,( and which operated at the mar$in o! !ormal democracy. +* Another approach is seen in ,en6amin Arditi5s )**: article, which proposes a sli$htly di!!erent conceptual !ramewor7 to discuss the le!t and le!t turns in Latin American Politics. ++ At is, then, entirely appropriate to spea7 o! the political trend to the le!t in Latin America that "e$an with the ChHve% victory in Vene%uela in +>>:, "ut it is necessary to analy%e the variety o! pro$ressive politics that are practiced "y the various parties o! the le!t that have come to power durin$ the past decade. As a result, scholars o! Latin American politics have "e$un to create typolo$ies to help us de!ine this process and analy%e what their pro$ressive $overnments have accomplished. /ome o! these, li7e CastaUeda and Pet7o!!, pro6ect the type o! le!tist parties that $ained election as indicators o! the type o! $overnment and thus carry their cate$ori%ation o! a moderate le!t and a radical le!t into their characteri%ation o! the le!tist $overnments now in power. An re$ard to the actual $overnments in power, the a!orementioned edited volume o! 9urt Deyland, et.al. is the most comprehensive to date. +) Deyland ar$ues that the attempts to cate$ori%e the various presidents have met with controversy and disa$reement. He as7s i! some

o! them are Populists, and i! so, "ased on what de!inition o! PopulismC /imilarly, he wonders whether others are social democratic and, i! so, what would that notion mean in contemporary Latin AmericaC Can one even spea7 o! social democracy, he 'ueries, in a settin$ in which the
10

Pet7o!!, Tedoro.&Las dos i%'uierdas( 3ueva /ociedad +>K .-ay#?une )**B0 ++G#): ,en6amin Arditi. &Ar$uments a"out the Le!t Turns in Latin America A Post#Li"eral PoliticsC( Latin American 8esearch 8eview. )**:, GI.I0, B>#:+. 12 Deyland et.al. 4or related literature see Teodor Pet7o!!, )**BE. ?or$e CastaUeda, )**O. Cleary, -atthew. &E2plainin$ the Le!t5s 8esur$ence( ?ournal o! ;emocracy +K, no. G .Octo"er )**O0 IB#G>. Arnson, Cynthia. ed. )**K. The &3ew Le!t( and ;emocratic Governance in Latin America. Dashin$ton, ;C Doodrow Dilson Center Press. ,oec7h, Andreas. ed. &;ie lateinameri7anische Lin7e und die Glo"alisierun$( Lateinameri7a Analysen +K .?uly)**K0 O>#+>K. Hunter, Dendy. &The 3ormali%ation o! an Anomaly The Dor7er5s Party in ,ra%il( Dorld Politics B>, no. I .April)**K0 GG*#KB. 8o"erts, 9enneth.. &Latin America5s Populist 8evival( /AA/ 8eview )K, no. + .Dinter#/prin$ )**K0 I#+B. Castaneda, ?or$e, and -arco -orales. eds. Le!tovers Tales o! the Latin American Le!t. 3ew @or7 8outled$e, )**:. ;e la Torre, Carlos, and Enri'ue Peru%%otti, eds. El 8etorno del Pue"lo Populismo y 3uevas ;emocracias en America Latina. Vuito 4LA/CO N -inisterio de Cultura, )**:. -adrid, 8aQl. &The 8ise o! Ethnopopulism in Latin America( Dorld Politics O*, no. I .April )**:0 GKB#B*:. Cameron, -a2well and /ilva, Eduardo. Challen$in$ 3eoli"eralism in Latin America. Cam"rid$e, F.9. Cam"rid$e Fniversity Press, )**>. Deyland, 9urt. &The 8ise o! Latin America5s Two Le!ts Ansi$hts !rom 8entier /tate Theory( Comparative Politics G+, no. ) .?anuary )**>.0 +GB#OG. Levits7y, /teven, and 9enneth 8o"erts, eds. Latin America5s Le!t Turn. 3ew @or7 Cam"rid$e Fniversity Press, !orthcomin$.
11

+I

&wor7in$ class( .strictly de!ined0 is small and shrin7in$, trade unions are wea7, and e2ternal economic constraints are o!ten ti$htC+I The main di!!erences over cate$ori%ation revolve around multi#dimensional vs. more simplistic, less theoretically sophisticated cate$ori%ations. +G The multi#dimensional approach is epitimi%ed "y Livits7y and 8o"erts in their !orthcomin$ "oo7, Chan$in$ Course Parties, Populism, and Political 8epresentation in Latin America5s 3eoli"eral Era. +B The authors are more sympathetic to the approach o! Deyland that emphasi%es primarily the di!!erences in strate$y and tactics o! Latin America5s le!t $overnments, distin$uishin$ a moderate $roup !rom a more radical one alon$ a continuum. The approach o! 8o"erts may "e especially use!ul in helpin$ to understand the diverse ori$ins o! the le!tist parties "ut the authors, li7e Deyland, are more interested in comparin$ the pro$rams and policies these movements have pursued once they have achieved power. This approach !acilitates our !undamental tas7 o! understandin$ the

contention "etween le!t $overnments and social movements in the current moment o! le!tist state power. The authors adopt the term Contestatory Le!t to descri"e the $overnments on the most pro$ressive side o! the continuum. This term avoids the cate$ori%ation o! &radical,( or $ood, "ad, or permitido to ac7nowled$e that none o! the current parties in power are pursuin$ policies in the manner o! the revolutionary $overnments o! the )*th century, most nota"ly the Cu"an communists and the /andinistas o! the +>K*s. Dhile virtually all o! the le!t $overnments under study em"race the concept o! socialism, all o! them are operatin$ within the !ramewor7 o! a capitalist system in each o! their countries. There is $eneral a$reement that Hu$o ChHve% and his
13 14

9urt Deyland, &The Per!ormance o! Le!tist Governments in Latin America( in Deyland et.al. 4or a sli$htly di!!erent "i!urcated classi!ication o! the le!t as &permitido( .permitted "y or accepta"le to "our$eois democracy and the empire and thus not capa"le o! ma7in$ the radical structural chan$ed needed0 and a le!t &no permitido( .not allowed "y Destern style li"eral "our$eoisie democracy or the empire, and thus truly radical and capa"le o! ma7in$ necessary chan$e0, see ?e!!rey 8. De""er and ,arry Carr, eds., The 8esur$ence o! Latin American 8adicalism ,etween Crac7s in the Empire and an A%'uierda Permitido . Latham, -aryland 8oman and Little!ield, !orthcomin$. 15 Livits7y, /teve, and 9enneth 8o"erts. Chan$in$ Course Parties, Populism, and Political 8epresentation in Latin America5s 3eoli"eral Era. 3ew @or7 Cam"rid$e Fniversity Press, !orthcomin$.

+G

,olivarian revolution in Vene%uela is "oth in rhetoric and action the most radical o! the si2 countries that will "e studied in detail in this volume. ChHve% !irst won the presidency without re!erence to socialism, "ut over thirteen years in power has de!initely moved to the le!t and !or nearly a decade has spo7en o! constructin$ &)+st Century /ocialism( in his country and does so throu$h the e2plicitly socialist, Fnited /ocialist Party o! Vene%uela .P/FV0. His close alliance with the revolutionary $overnment in Cu"a and his use o! e2plicitly anti#imperialist lan$ua$e to evaluate the international scene underscore his rhetorical position on le!t end o! our spectrum. An reality his pro$rams are not as radical "ecause he operates in the !ramewor7 o! the Vene%uelan capitalist system which controls the ma6ority o! the country5s economic activity outside o! the oil sector. However, ChHve% has pursued limited nationali%ations o! land and !actories as a strate$y !or lon$ term e2pansion o! the state sector. The pro6ect that trac7s closest to that o! Vene%uela is that o! Evo -orales5 ,olivia. /ince assumin$ power in )**B -orales and his -ovement Toward /ocialism .-A/0 party have pursued a policy o! radical re!orm centered around the nationali%ation o! the country5s hydrocar"on industry and the empowerment o! the ma6ority indi$enous population !or the !irst time in the country5s history. Another si$n o! ,olivia5s radical stance is its mem"ership in AL,A and its willin$ness to ma7e close ties with Cu"a. 3ot too !ar "ehind ,olivia on the scale would "e Ecuador where 8a!ael Correa identi!ies himsel! as a socialist and pursues policies o! wealth redistri"ution and nationali%ation o! natural resources. Thou$h not initially a mem"er o! AL,A, Ecuador has now 6oined and has moved closer in its ties to ,olivia, Cu"a, and Vene%uela. However, li7e his counterparts in ,olivia and Vene%uela, Correa operates in the !ramewor7 o! the dominance o! the Ecuadoran economy "y private interests. On the other end o! the political spectrum is the ,ra%ilian model o! President Lula and now ;ilma 8ousse!! and the now out o! power $overnments o! the Chilean /ocialist, La$os and ,achelet. Dhile some mi$ht see the Chilean case much !urther to the ri$ht end o! the spectrum than ,ra%il, in reality "oth pursued a similar strate$y o! almost completely acceptin$ the neoli"eral !ramewor7s o! their predecessors "ut pursuin$ $overnment pro$rams aimed s'uarely at +B

reducin$ the level o! a"solute poverty in their countries. 4or the Dor7ers Party led $overnments this has meant !ood and income su"sidies and e2panded educational opportunities. The most di!!icult $overnment to cate$ori%e is that o! the revived Peronist Party in Ar$entina and its late leader 3estor 9irchner and current president Christina 9irchner. ,ecause o! its amorphous and o!ten chan$in$ character many analysts, includin$ Deyland, are reluctant to place the Peronists de!initively on the le!t "ut others "elieve that the policies pursued "y the 9irchners are in reality very close to that o! Chile and ,ra%il and place them in that part o! the political spectrum !or the purposes o! this volume. An the views o! the author the Peronists have returned much closer to a pro$ressive orientation, distancin$ themselves almost completely !rom the decade lon$ neoli"eral detour under Carlos -enem. [A] Ho Social Movements Have !rou"ht the Left to #o er The electoral victories o! the pro$ressive $overnments have o!ten "een directly tied to the wor7 o! the social movements. An the cases o! Ar$entina, ,olivia, and Ecuador the victories o! the le!t came a"out a!ter massive street demonstrations had removed a previous $overnment !rom power and le!t a careta7er administration responsi"le !or conductin$ new elections. An ,olivia street demonstrations in )**I !orced the neoli"eral /Hnche% de Lo%ada !rom power and when his successor and Vice President Carlos -esa !ailed to deliver on promised re!orms he was driven !rom power "y a massive mo"ili%ation and $eneral stri7e in )**B. These actions paved the way !or elections or$ani%ed "y a careta7er $overnment that were won in a landslide "y Evo -orales in ;ecem"er )**B, and a$ain with OGT o! the vote in a second election in )*+*. An Ecuador the social movements !irst e2ercised their muscle in +>>K with the removal o! A"dala ,ucaram "ut they were not a"le to shape the re$ime o! ?amil -ahaud that !ollowed. However, in )**+ they !orced -ahuad !rom o!!ice and threw their support "ehind Lucio GutiSrre% and his anti#neoli"eral plat!orm in the elections that !ollowed in )**). GutiSrre% won the election "ut once in o!!ice moved to the ri$ht and carried out a pro#F./. a$enda. As a result, he was driven !rom o!!ice in )**B "y street demonstrators !rom the same social movements that had supported him in the )**) +O

elections. The departure o! GutiSrre% and esta"lishment o! a careta7er $overnment led to the )**O election o! socialist 8a!ael Correa. Correa was not or$anically a candidate o! the social movements "ut his victory was !acilitated "y their de!eat o! the discredited GutiSrre%. An many ways the developments in Ar$entina were the most dramatic. An +>>> the Ar$entine people had elected a center#le!t $overnment headed "y 4ernando de la 8ua as a repudiation o! the ten year presidency o! neoli"eral apostle, Carlos -enem. However, once in o!!ice de la 8ua carried out policies that were essentially a continuation o! -enem. An ;ecem"er )**+, de la 8ua tried to carry out a series o! currency re!orms that were particularly unpopular and resulted in massive stri7es and street demonstrations that !orced his resi$nation. ;e la 8ua5s chosen successor and a su"se'uent appointee !ailed to 'uiet the demonstrations resultin$ in !our di!!erent Ar$entine presidents in one month. The political crisis ended only when the man who de la 8ua had de!eated two years earlier, Peronist Eduardo ;uhalde, assumed the presidency pled$in$ to reverse the neoli"eral policies o! his Peronist predecessor -enem and call new elections in early )**I. ;uhalde carried out his promises and the -arch )**I elections "rou$ht to power Peronist 3estor 9richner, who pled$ed to carry out a pro$ressive a$enda. An the case o! ,ra%il the social movements li7e the power!ul landless movement, the -/T, has not !acilitated the removal o! a neoli"eral $overnment as in the a"ove descri"ed cases "ut nonetheless it was instrumental in helpin$ Lui% AnHcio da /ilva .Lula0 win the presidency in )**), !ollowin$ twelve years o! neoli"eral rule in that country. They also supported his reelection in )**O, despite some reservations. [A] Social Movements and #ro"ressive Governments The position o! the social movements once these pro$ressive $overnments ta7e power "ecomes an interestin$ 'uestion that up until now has received relatively little scholarly attention. At is necessary to close that si$ni!icant $ap and o!!er insi$ht into one o! the most important 'uestions o! contemporary Latin American politics and its !ull transition to democratic !unctionin$. The !ollowin$ 'uestions are as7ed once in power does the pro$ressive $overnment +K

view the country5s social movements as partners in $overnment to "e consulted or as is !re'uently the case co#opted in support o! $overnment policies or, conversely, to "e held at arm5s len$th as continuin$ opponentsC ;oes the $overnment in power reach out to the social movements and see7 to "rin$ 7ey leaders into posts in the new $overnmentsC A! the social movements continue their street mo"ili%ations a$ainst the $overnment, how does that $overnment respond to such challen$esC Are the police and military used in the same manner as a 8i$htist $overnment would li7ely have doneC 4rom the social movements5 side, how do they view the new $overnment that they may have helped to put in powerC ;o they initially $ive that $overnment the "ene!it o! the dou"t and suspend their street protests or do they continue the pressureC A! the incomin$ $overnment o!!ers positions to social movement leaders, do they accept such postsC A! such posts are accepted, how lon$ do social movement leaders remain in $overnment i! the demands o! the movements are not si$ni!icantly metC An a $eneral sense, do the social movements act as actors independent o! the $overnment or do they "ecome merely cheerleaders !or the implantation o! $overnment policiesC And, ultimately, can the social movements achieve their demands without a political movement or party that can ta7e the $overnment and implement their demands. The answers to these 'uestions vary widely !rom country to country where the le!t has achieved power. ,olivia !ollowin$ the election Evo -orales in )**B is one o! the most interestin$ and pro"a"ly the country where the social movements, especially the ones $rounded in the indi$enous community have had the $reatest success in havin$ their demands articulated "y the le!tist $overnment in power. An the wa7e o! -orales5 initial victory and his su"se'uent reelection in )**> hundreds o! local, re$ional, and national social movements have emer$ed to !ill the void created "y the collapse o! the traditional political party system. An the process they have stren$thened civil society and ener$i%ed and consolidated a more democratic society in ,olivia that spea7s to the needs o! the country5s lon$ su!!erin$ ma6ority poor throu$h $overnment pro$rams !inanced "y the newly nationali%ed ener$y sector, a 7ey demand o! the social +:

movements that "rou$ht -orales to power. These social movements have also contri"uted to a ree2amination and rede!inition o! citi%enship, the "asis and content o! ,olivian national identity, and the intimate relationship "etween culture and power in a multi#ethnic and multi#cultural state. As the -orales $overnment has !aced a hard "ac7lash !rom the traditional landownin$ elites o! the ,olivian lowlands, the support o! the social movements have "een central to the implementation o! the -orales re!orms, especially the wholesale constitutional chan$es that validated the multiethnic character o! the state and the state control o! the country5s natural resources. The on$oin$ challen$e !or the ,olivian social movements is to provide important tactical support to the -A/#led $overnment in its con!rontation with the traditional elites while maintainin$ enou$h independence to critici%e the $overnment when it does not move !orthri$htly to tac7le the country5s deep seated poverty and underdevelopment. /ustained demonstrations in -arch )*++ a$ainst perceived unreasona"le $overnment#"ac7ed price increases indicated a willin$ness to display such independence. Ar$entina "ears some resem"lance to ,olivia in that the $overnment in power since the "e$innin$ o! )**) has wor7ed hard to "oth meet the needs o! the power!ul social movements that arose in the years "e!ore )**) while also see7in$ to "rin$ these movements under the control o! the dominant Peronist Party a!ter its political trans!ormation !rom )**) onward. Dhen Peronist Eduardo ;uhalde too7 power at the start o! )**), a!ter a month o! turmoil that saw three $overnments !all, he "e$an a comple2 process o! reesta"lishin$ traditional Peronist control o! the social movements that was "e$un "y the !ounder o! the ?ustice Party, ?uan Peron. An classic corporatist style, the Peronists had ta7en almost !ull control over the population "y $rantin$ si$ni!icant social "ene!its where 7eepin$ a ti$ht lid on any independent political action "y unions or other or$ani%ations. That control evaporated in the +>:*s under Carlos -enem when he moved the Peronist a$enda to the neoli"eral ri$ht and "ro7e its historic ties to Ar$entina5s popular classes. Dhen 8adical Party leader 4ernando de la 8ua continued -enem5s ri$htist politics and was driven !rom power "y social movement#led street demonstrations in ;ecem"er +>

)**+, it provided the Peronists with an opportunity to reposition themselves to the le!t and re$ain its historic domination o! the country5s politics. That process "e$an when ;uhalde, the de!eated Peronist candidate in the +>>> who assumed the presidency in the wa7e o! the street demonstrations, acted to meet the protestors demands and to wor7 systematically to co#opt the pic'ueteros movement that had "een at the heart o! the demonstrations. The pic'ueteros were primarily unemployed city dwellers, the victims o! -enem5s neoli"eral policies that slashed employees !rom the economy. ;uhalde not only created new 6o"s "ut also put many pic'uetero leaders in char$e o! the nei$h"orhood "ased 6o" pro$rams. The strate$y was success!ul and in )**I the endorsed Peronist candidate, 3estor 9irchner, de!eated Carlos -enem5s attempted political come"ac7. Once in o!!ice 9irchner continued the populist direction o! $overnment policies and the party was rewarded with the election o! Christina 4ernande% de 9irchner, 3estor5s spouse to the presidency in )**K. 4ollowin$ 3estor5s death in )*+* it now appears that Peronist domination o! Ar$entine politics and the relative demo"ili%ation o! the social movements will continue with Christina5s li7ely reelection in the !all o! )*++. The case o! Vene%uela has some parallels with that o! ,olivia and Ar$entina "ut has its own distinct characteristics. Li7e ,olivia, the rulin$ party o! Vene%uela, the Fnited /ocialist Party o! Vene%uela .P/FV0, has its roots in anti#neoli"eral social movements that arose in the streets in the early +>>*s in reaction to the austerity measures o! the $overnment o! Carlos Andres Pere%. The sym"olic leader o! those protests was army o!!icer Hu$o Chave% who led a !ailed coup attempt and was su"se'uently 6ailed. However, in +>>: Chave% reemer$ed as a populist, anti#li"eral presidential candidate. He scored an impressive victory a$ainst the

country5s two traditional parties "y mo"ili%in$ popular support !rom the people and or$ani%ations that had "een in the streets earlier in the decade. However, the Vene%uelan case ta7es on a somewhat di!!erent !ramewor7 durin$ the thirteen years that Chave% has "een in power. At can "e ar$ued that the lar$e scale resources availa"le to the Vene%uelan state !rom its oil and $as revenues allows Chave% to create a state that "orders on corporatism where 7ey constituencies, )*

primarily poor ur"an dwellers, are wedded to the state "y the provision o! $overnment pro$rams in health, education, and !ood security that were never previously availa"le on such a si$ni!icant scale. On the other hand, Vene%uela is home to numerous social movements, especially in the la"or arena, that maintain their distance and independence !rom the $overnment. The country with ar$ua"ly the most contentious relationships "etween the $overnment and the social movements, especially indi$enous ones, is Ecuador. /ocialist 8a!ael Correa came to power in )**O !ollowin$ the removal o! the previous president "y street demonstrations and he has pursued a pro$ram o! radical re!orm $eared to the country5s poor ma6ority. However, the social movements have $enerally 7ept an arm5s len$th !rom the president. Dhen voters in Ecuador approved a new constitution "y a wide mar$in in /eptem"er )**:, "oth President Correa and power!ul social movements claimed responsi"ility !or the victory. Ecuador5s stron$ and well#or$ani%ed social movements have lon$ "een a"le to pull down $overnments they opposed "ut have "een repeatedly !rustrated in their attempts to "uild concrete alternatives. /ocial

movements have not e2perienced much success in the electoral realm, o!ten "ein$ de!eated at the hands o! populist candidates who steal their le!tist rhetoric "ut rule in !avor o! the oli$archy once in o!!ice. Correa5s predecessor, Lucio Gutierre%, was a prime e2ample o! that duplicity. Given that history, the social movements approached Correa5s $overnment with a $ood deal o! reservations. Althou$h Correa shared the social movements5 criticism o! neoli"eral economic policies, he had not risen throu$h their ran7s. An particular, indi$enous movements resented Correa !or occupyin$ political spaces that they had previously used to advance their concerns. At the same time, the new constitution was the most pro$ressive one in Ecuador5s history and codi!ied many o! the aspirations o! the social movements. Ecuador is a dramatic e2ample o! how political parties and social movements can "e in si$ni!icant tension even as they em"race similar visions "ut !ollow di!!erent paths to reali%e their o"6ectives. The $overnments o! ,ra%il, under the Dor7ers Party, and Chile, under the /ocialist, were pro"a"ly closest to$ether in their overall political strate$ies and de!initely less radical than )+

Vene%uela, Ecuador, or ,olivia.

,oth pro$ressive $overnments pursued social democratic

policies o! poverty alleviation aimed at the most vulnera"le sectors o! their societies while "asically acceptin$ the "road neoli"eral policies o! the more conservative $overnments that proceeded. Pro$rams o! education and !ood security received priority attention in "oth countries and "oth achieved enou$h success to sustain themselves in power. An the case o! ,ra%il, that continues into the present with the election o! /ilma 8ousse!!. The /ocialists lost power in the )*+* election in Chie a!ter "ein$ part o! the concertacion rulin$ coalition !or twenty years. However, these social democratic policies played out di!!erently in each country in terms o! their relations with important social movements. The case o! Chile is one o! classic co#optation o! social movements "y a rulin$ pro$ressive party with si$ni!icant $ains !or "oth sides in the process. ;urin$ the dictatorship, power!ul nei$h"orhood#"ased movements developed that

contri"uted to the de!eat o! Pinochet in the +>:> re!erendum. At mi$ht have "een e2pected that these movements would have !lourished with the return o! democratic civil li"erties "ut twenty years later with a !ew important e2ceptions, li7e the -others o! the ;isappeared, the nei$h"orhood $roups were lar$ely demo"ili%ed throu$h the inte$ration o! the 7ey activists o! the movements into positions o! local authority implementin$ $overnment pro$rams that responded positively to some o! the needs o! the community lon$ ne$lected under the dictatorship. Dhen protest movements did emer$e durin$ the concertacion period, they o!ten came !rom unli7ely sources such as hi$h school students. The ,ra%ilian case is an interestin$ one !rom the perspective o! the Dor7ers Party $overnment and the social movements. 4irst o! all, the Dor7ers Party itsel! emer$ed !rom the social movements o! the period o! the dictatorship, primarily the Christian "ase communities and newly#!ormed trade unions, especially in the auto industry. As an electoral party, the Dor7ers Party has drawn on those "ases throu$hout its twenty#!ive year history. An the last !i!teen years, the country5s most prominent social movement has "een the Landless -ovement .-/T0 which has mo"ili%ed tens o! thousands o! rural wor7ers to occupy unused !arm land and to pressure the ))

$overnment !or land re!orm. The -/T has openly supported the candidates o! the Dor7ers Party in a tactical alliance a$ainst the neoli"eral ri$ht while maintainin$ its !ull independence !rom the $overnment. At has done so out o! reco$nition that President Lula has championed the interests o! lar$e scale commercial !armin$ to "olster ,ra%il5s $rowin$ role in the world economy. /uch an alliance ma7es si$ni!icant pro$ress on land re!orm unli7ely and leaves the two sides in a position o! an uneasy truce where "oth "ene!it !rom the arran$ement. Dhere does this review o! case studies leave us twenty years a!ter the triumph o! the !irst le!tist $overnment in Chile in +>>*C As demonstrated, the relationship "etween le!tist

$overnments and social movements is a comple2 one with many peculiar national characteristics Generali%ations are di!!icult to ma7e. However, one pattern does $enerally emer$e. The

relationship is a sym"iotic one. An the !ace o! the traditional elites and their political parties the parties o! the le!t need the enthusiasm and renewin$ 'ualities o! the mass social movements in they are to achieve state power, either directly "y street mo"ili%ation or throu$h elections. On the other hand, no matter how power!ul they may "e, the social movement cannot hope to achieve all or party o! their am"itious pro6ects without the mechanisms o! the state apparatus that a le!t party in power can provide. Anevita"ly their relations will "e !illed with con!lict "ut that is the nature o! politics.

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