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Terrorism Rafiuddin Ahmed with Fasahat H. Syed,Zafar N. Jaspal Ahmed I Malik,Faisal S.

Cheema & Huma A Shah Introduction T errorism has been a dreaded phenomenon during the later half of the Twentieth Ce ntury. Since the Second World War, it had continued to grow and expand, firstly as a part of anti-colonial guerrilla or resistance movements and secondly as a p rotest against unjust political dispensations resulting in imposed or unresolved territorial disputes and the problem of identity and self-rule by large ethnic/ communal minorities. Despite its growth as a multi-faceted political concept, te rrorism is not well-understood nor well portrayed particularly by the Western me dia which virtually presents any act of violence against the state or society as terrorism. No distinction is drawn between anti-government protests, militant a ctions by dissidents or separatists, rioting and arson by unruly mobs or state r epression, ethnic discriminations, religious or sectarian fanaticism, sabotage s ponsored by hostile states, organized syndicate crimes and violence or individua l acts by lone psychotics. All are herded together and treated as terrorism. Thi s vagueness and ensuing confusion have frequently resulted in condemnation of ot herwise legitimate politically motivated militant protest, causing further alien ation and spread of terrorism. The fact that terrorism originated as an instrument of repressive st ate power is either not generally known or has not been emphasised deliberately. Its strong psychological impact to cause fear and insecurity and to intimidate and demoralize people was first pointed out by the ancient Greek historian Xenop hon (c.430-349 B.C) and effectively applied through the ages by the imperial pow ers to discourage rebellion and enforce submission. The notorious Courts of Inqu isition used terror to punish religious dissidence and heresy. The reactionary role of Hasan ibn Sabah s Assassins during the Abbaside period to spread chaos and anarchy are well known. [1] It was however during the French Revolution that pe rhaps for the first time, terrorism was politicized as a revolutionary measure t o consolidate power against the opposing forces the enemies of the people . When Ma ximillien Robespierre, a French revolutionary leader during the Reign of Terror , d eclared that terror is nothing but justice; prompt, severe and inflexible , [2] he brought it dangerously close to the ideals of political governance and public vi rtue. What began under the drums of public executions in France, spread an d took roots in the anti-monarchist and anti-imperialist sentiments in Europe, A sia and the Americas, constantly changing or adding new meanings to known precep ts of terrorism. This was also a period of great political changes caused by the advent of nationalism and constitutional federalism and the challenge posed by Marxist ideologies. Republican extremists were zealously preaching violence, al beit selective violence for the furtherance of their revolutionary cause and Car lo Pisacane was arguing for violence as a necessity, not only to draw attention t o, or generate publicity for a cause, but to inform, educate and ultimately rall y the masses behind the revolution . According to him, the purpose of violence coul d never be effectively replaced by propaganda posters or assemblies. [3] As the r evolutionary fervour settled down, the meaning and application of terrorism reve rted back to their traditional repressive, fearful and intimidating mould. Fasci st regimes in Germany and Italy and the communists in the USSR came to power and set horrifying examples in state-sanctioned or explicitly ordered acts of intern al/domestic violence or as it is now termed - state terrorism . During the years foll

owing the Second World War, the inevitable anti-colonial backlash swept across A sia and Africa with political violence as the order of the day to gain freedom, in which terrorism was employed as an integral part of these political movements . Countries such as Israel, Algeria, Cyprus and Kenya are known to have won thei r independence at least partly through terrorist violence. Its close association with and accepted contributions to nationalist freedom movements are therefore fully acknowledged. The modern concept of terrorism has since maintained itself between the two ends of pendulum the traditional and the revolutionary. It is th is paradox that defies its precise and consistent definition and understanding. Although revolutionary terrorism has maintained its older context as the champion of national liberation and self determination with political legit imacy, it has gradually expanded to include sub-nationalist and ethnic separatis t groups outside the older framework and controversial radical elements with rel igious and ideological agendas, posing new threats domestically as well as acros s the frontiers. This has brought in outside support and involvement and interna tional linkages. But more seriously, a change in the nature of objectives and op erational methods is obvious which now seeks to threaten and overthrow the estab lished political and social order with much lowered ethical and humanitarian con cerns. It is this new face of terrorism extremely dogmatic and ruthless that fr ightens the world for its chaotic consequences and has become the subject of pub lic debate and negative criticism. It is in this background that this paper aims at critically examinin g the modern concept of terrorism in its numerous forms and variations, its thre at to peace and stability in the world in general and the region in particular, and the new developing trends in international terrorism. Definition Terrorism has proved increasingly elusive against attempts to formulate an agree d definition, mainly because it has constantly shifted and expanded its meaning and usage in a long chain of conflicts and violence. The adage that one man s terro rist is another s freedom fighter , reveals the wide range of variation in its inter pretation. Simply stated, terror is extreme or intense fear [4] ; a psychologic al state which combines the physical and mental effects of dread and insecurity. Terrorism thus implies a system or a concept in which terror is applied to caus e fear, panic and/or coercive intimidation to exert direct or indirect pressure to achieve political objectives. Invariably the people are the main targets and the means employed are frequently violent though not necessarily extreme or exce ssive. It is a simpler explanation and may seem inadequate to capture the full m agnitude of problems and new factors that are now associated with terrorism worl dwide. But it provides a literal beginning by combining the intrinsic meaning wi th its purpose and application. In the contemporary historical perspective, the League of Nations in 1937, adopted a resolution that defined terrorism as, all criminal acts directed against a state and intended or calculated to create a state of terror in the m inds of particular persons or a group of persons or the general public. [5] Its i mperial bias and background and inadequacy of its meaning and application to a v astly changed political environment after the Second War World were obvious. In October 1970, the UN passed a declaration on the Principles of International Law on inter state relations, laying down that, Every state has the duty to refrain fr om organizing, assisting or participating in acts of civil strife or terrorist a cts in another state or acquiescing in organized activities within its territory directed towards the commission of such acts, when the acts referred to in the present paragraph involve a threat of use of force . [6] To remove the ambivalence

created by the above declaration, the UN further added that, Every state has the duty to refrain from any forcible action which deprives people referred to abov e in the elaboration of the present principles of their right to self-determinat ion, freedom and independence. In their actions against, and resistance to such forcible action in pursuit of the exercise of their right of self determination, such peoples are entitled to seek and receive support in accordance with the pu rposes and principles of the Charter . [7] Following the 1972 Munich Olympic massacre, there was a serious atte mpt under the UN patronage to condemn such wanton acts and take practical steps to prevent terrorist violence. In the ensuing debate however, it was argued that people struggling to liberate themselves from foreign oppression and exploitati on had the right to use all means at their disposal, including force. This posit ion was justified with two main arguments. Firstly, that all liberation movement s were invariably declared terrorists by the oppressive regimes against whom the s truggles were directed and by condemning terrorism the UN would be endorsing the power of the strong over the weak and denying the oppressed people perhaps the only weapon available to them to oppose oppression. Secondly, that it was not vi olence that was germane but the root causes in form of frustration, grievances a nd despair that produced the violent acts. People who were denied freedom, self dignity and basic human rights could not be condemned as terrorists. The UN deba te was rendered inconclusive, though the political character of terrorism, its j ustification and legitimacy remained contentious. In 1973, an Ad-hoc Committee o n International Terrorism, clarified in unequivocal terms, the importance of the right to self-determination, the inalienable right to self-determination and inde pendence of all peoples under colonial and racist regimes and other forms of ali en domination and the legitimacy of their struggle, of national liberation movem ents, in accordance with the purposes and principles of the charter and the rele vant resolutions of the organ of the UN. [8] A detailed study of the several de bates in the UN on the issue of terrorism clearly indicates a consistent emphasi s and acceptance of the oppressed people s right to self-determination, but the qu estion of admissibility of terrorism as a part of the militant struggle for the right to self-determination was however consistently evaded. Subsequently, in the following years, the UN adopted a number of conventions on the subject, which defined a terrorist as, any person who, acting independently o f the specific recognition of a country, or as a single person, or as a part of a group, not recognized in any part of division of a nation, acts to destroy or to injure civilians or destroy or damage property belonging to civilians or to g overnments in order to affect some political goals [9] , and terrorism as, `the a ct of destroying or injuring civilians lives or the act of destroying or damaging civilian or governments property without the expressly chartered permission of a specific government, thus by individuals or groups acting independently of gov ernments, on their own accord and belief in the attempt to effect some political goals. [10] It is evident from these definitions that the UN, having accepted th e political nature and goal oriented terrorist acts of violence, denied it poli tical legitimacy. In doing so, the UN restricted the definition by the nature of the terrorist act and not by the political identity of the terrorists or the na ture of their cause. It is obvious that the UN focus was on protection of the ex posed and innocent civilians from terrorist outrage and violence. But by missing state terrorism which is equally if not more outrageous, the UN by ignoring to condemn it, almost legitimized all repressive measures and policies by terrorist state(s). We witness its dreadful effects every day in the Palestine and Kashmi r. In December 1985, the UN adopted a resolution condemning all acts of terroris m as criminal [11] and closed the process for a better understanding of the phen omenon, thus prompting an escalation in terrorist incidents and eventually leadi ng to the tragedy of September 11, 2001. The latest sanctions passed by the UNSC are conspicuously harsh and once again seem to ignore the root causes of terror ism.

In the wake of these developments, terrorism has come to be regarded as a depreciatory term with negative connotation and disagreeable moral implica tions. It is plausible that such an impression has been created and extensively propagated by the vested interest the countries or governments who provoke terro rism by their unjust and oppressive practices and against whom the struggles are directed. Such countries or governments themselves are in most cases involved i n state terrorism and find it convenient to take cover behind such propaganda an d condemnation. The most obvious examples are those of India and Israel. This pe rception however is vehemently protested by the alleged terrorist. We are not ter rorists , declared a Hezbullah militiaman, we are fighters mujahideen who fight a H oly War for the people . Similar protestations could be heard from the valleys of Kashmir, where Hezb ul Mujahideen identify themselves as freedom fighters struggli ng to win the right of self determination for their people, a perfectly legitima te cause which also carries the unequivocal sanction of the UN. Not long ago, th e Indian National Congress supported by rabid organizations such as RSS and Isra eli terrorist groups, such as Lehi and Heganah indulged in acts of terrorism aga inst the Muslim inhabitants and the British colonial power and openly admitted a nd preached for the same but today the same people oppose and condemn similar ac ts of protest and resistance directed against their illegal occupation and bruta lities in Kashmir and Palestine. Awhile ago, to be called an aggressor or a terr orist in Brazil was considered an honour for any citizen, because it meant that he was fighting with a gun, against the monstrosity of the dictatorship and the suffering it was causing to the people. [12] Despite such positive characterization, terrorism has earned disrepu te. It is regarded abhorrent and a security threat to the civil society and the state. Walter Laqueur in one of his essays concluded that, terrorism constitutes the illegitimate use of force , [13] while another writer, James M. Poland defined , terrorism as the premeditated, deliberate, systematic murder, mayhem and threat ening of the innocent, to create fear and intimidation in order to gain a politi cal or tactical advantage, usually to influence an audience . [14] The shifting fo cus from the accepted national objectives, which provided some political legitim acy to terrorism and the increasing lethality of violence, at times being irrati onally excessive, have become the cause of serious public concern worldwide. Rec kless and indiscriminate targeting of the innocent civilians are exploited by th e vested media and presented as a critical moral issue, creating doubts and host ility against legitimate political resistance or freedom movements. These alread y suffer under the changing political environment and are further weakened by th e infusion of ideological or religious passion. Its fallout has been highly favo urable to state terrorism, which thrives on the weakened opposition and operates even more boldly and brutally, as is being demonstrated by Israel and India fol lowing 11th September incident. In summary therefore, terrorism may not be easily defined, but it can be qualifi ed by its distinct features. [15] It is political in aims and motives and conduc ted by an organization with an identifiable chain of command or secret cell stru cture, based in sub-national groups or non-state entities. It is violent and res orts to threat of violence to create far reaching psychological repercussions beyo nd the immediate victim or target. It cannot be equated with guerrilla warfare t hough terrorism had remained its covert component for a longtime. It is mainly b ecause terrorism does not operate openly and avoids direct engagement with enemy s military forces. Terrorism when a part or extension of a political movement ret ains its old revolutionary character and operates within the framework of its po licy and objectives. Nonetheless, terrorism is badly stigmatized and carries the scars of wanton violence against innocent civilians and of religious and ethnic extremism. Hostility towards and opposition to commonly believed terrorist viol ence have increased world wide and the media plays a highly provocative and at t imes biased role in its projection. The aggressors exploit this changed percepti on and they are supported according to their strategic value to the world powers . This is the new dilemma, which confronts the oppressed people today, whose abi

lity to fight back has been systematically restrained and limited. Causes and Motivations In today s highly competitive and polarized world, there is far greater awareness of political and social injustices amongst the people. Inequities in the existin g order which affect their lives, lead to bitterness and alienation, to increase d sense of deprivation and ultimately to outrage. This is the beginning of the p rotestations gradually becoming violent. All terrorists are not zealots or ruthl ess killers. At best they are reluctant warriors. Most of them are driven by des peration, that is, not finding viable alternative to violence against a repressi ve state, a rival ethnic or nationalist group or an unresponsive world order. Th ey all have a cause, albeit a political cause, in whose rightness they have fait h at least in their own minds. Some times, the inspirations come from the radica l thinkers and philosophers such as Frantz Fanon (the Wretched of the Earth) who preach and promote violence as the only road to salvation . [16] But the most powerful impulses are generated from the ground realiti es; of recurring injustices, indignities, denials and deprivations from intolera nt societies where the majority is often even more intolerant, provoking the vic tims to a response, which gradually transforms into violent resistance. Violence breeds violence, which sets into motion a vicious cycle of terrorist actions an d state repression a militant struggle for freedom and justice against denials a nd retribution. In most cases, terrorist violence is a reaction against persisti ng injustices and denials and its growth is a result of refusal to recognize and resolve the problems. SEQUENCE OF VIOLENCE AND TERRORISM

Rounded Rectangle: Emergence of Terrorists and Militants The historical perspective of international legislation on the one hand, and the increasing incidents of terrorism both in their intensity and frequency, on the other, clearly point towards the ineffective and unjust handling of this issue. Repressive terrorism had been the oldest practice in human society, following d ifferent forms in different ages, from pure savagery to slavery and bondage , to ialism and colonialism . Today, the international financial institutions, GATT, WT O and various World Orders continue perpetuation of old colonialism in new and s ophisticated form. The economic exploitation of people and communities throughout history has been a constant political factor which continues unabated and denies even today the poor humanity at least $ 500 billions of economic opportunities in the global market every year because of trade restrictions, immigration contr ols and uneven capital flows. This unjust denial and exploitation have assumed a highly oppressive dimension, causing frustration, despair, hostility and anger amongst the oppressed and the dispossessed. When George Bush at the end of the G ulf War of 1991 declared that it was fought for the preservation of American val ues, perhaps, he meant the affluent American life style for which free flow of t he Gulf oil was an absolute necessity. State managed terrorism is undertaken by the state misusing its mili tary, paramilitary and civil apparatus against the targeted components/minoritie s, denying them their political rights that may eventually result in loss of con trol, territories or vested interests. It provokes the oppressed and deprived pe ople, being weak and frustrated but convinced of their cause, also to adopt terr orist methodology against the state, in reaction or perhaps as the only course a


vailable to seek recognition of their rights. It is ironical that state terroris m survives unnoticed with impunity but the reaction from the oppressed is highli ghted, frequently with distorted facts. In a suppressed environment, deprivation and unjust political and so cio-economic dispensation give boost to frustrations. The consequent perception of helplessness is sufficient to motivate individuals, groups and communities to adopt violence and terrorism as an expression of their anger. The terrorists wh ile placing their lives at stake buildup sufficient conviction that it was worth the sacrifice to inflict death and damages upon their oppressors. In this state of mind, parameters for their violent activities become unlimited. The Palestinians have been dispossessed, deprived and cruelly discri minated against since 1948. They lost their homeland to Israel and now their lan ds are forcibly taken to build Jewish settlements. A large number of them live i n a Diaspora all over the Middle East as unwelcomed refugees by their own Arab bro thers. They have no permanent home nor employment and whatever little they have in the Gaza strip and the West Bank, they have no control over them. There are s cores of UN Resolutions for their settlement, but none implemented due to Israel i intransigence. Their early guerrilla movements combined with terrorist strikes failed to yield worthwhile results for one reason alone the unlimited and blata nt US support to Israel, which over the period appears highly biased and unjust. Without this support, Israelis could not be so arrogant and uncompromising, tha t even a stone slinging Palestinian boy is condemned as a terrorists and is shot down by Israeli tanks in self defence! Thousands of Palestinians have been kill ed, their houses demolished and villages razed to ground. None of these causes a stir or moves the West. The magnitude of this tragedy is like a smouldering vol cano which could erupt in a desperate reaction which could also target the US as the main supporter of Israel. As the recent events have unfolded, it is no long er a hypothesis. People do not opt for certain death, without a cause and strong motivation. For over forty years, the people of Jammu and Kashmir have been chea ted and oppressed by the traditional Indian deceit and her repressive policies. The Indians continue to renege on their solemn commitments for the plebiscite, r efuse to honour the UN Resolutions and maintain a highly threatening size of mil itary forces. It was logical that when peaceful protests and agitations failed t o yield result and the oppressive conditions became more oppressive, these turne d violent and eventually led to organized militant movement with some infusion o f terrorist activities, which generally have remained selective and restrained. India s failure to resolve the issue peacefully and according to agreed principl es is the main cause of militancy in Kashmir. Their continued intransigence and application of worst form of repression and atrocities against innocent and unar med Kashmiris provide the cause and strong motivation for the Kashmiri freedom s truggle. As expected the Indians have declared the Kashmiri fighters as terroris ts and consistently blamed Pakistan for support and what they call cross-border t errorism . Their failure to overcome the Kashmiri militancy despite maintaining th e strongest military presence and application of draconian counter measures conf irms the indigenous character of the movement. During the last twelve years they have killed over sixty thousand Kashmiris and subjected them to massive state t errorism. But the movement has sustained itself and the morale of the Kashmiri f ighters has not degraded. A while ago, people s uprising and resistance against state repression and injustices took the form of insurgency or guerrilla war which was considere d the most appropriate militant response to state s brute and largely superior for ce. Most freedom struggles or separatist movement followed this pattern but now, these do not fit into the emerging new environment. The preference has thus fal len on to terrorism for its obvious shock effects and being economical. Signific antly however, the freedom movement in Kashmir, most convincingly remains and fa

lls into the category of armed insurgency or low intensity guerrilla war and thus enjoys legitimacy under the UN convention. In both these examples, the important factor that has led to militan cy, violence and terrorism is prolonged continuation of existing conflicts, and the delay in their resolution, clearly attributable to lack of political will, d emands of political expediency, vested strategic interests and compulsions of re alpolitik. Despite the inherent risks of escalation and its assuming a global di mension, these volatile conflicts have been deliberately prolonged through willf ul neglect, unscrupulous propaganda and distorted historical exposition from suc h writers as Samuel P. Huntington. The concept of Confidence Building Measures ( CBMs) as conflict resolving mechanism has a poor track record for its faulty app lication and uncertain results which seem more oriented to further prolonging th e conflicts. Instead of applying these on the main issues for creating positive conditions for the conflict resolution, their intended effects are often diluted , even lost through circumspections. The ineffectiveness of the UN to implement its own resolutions, has all but eroded its credibility and left the world at th e mercy of the aggressor s brute force. In such circumstances the escalation of vi olence and terrorism becomes inevitable. Terrorists only hope lies in their despair [17] a paradoxical expressio n that reveals the terrorist s state of mind and the emotional character of his mo tivation which has brought forth the desperate nature of his terrorist act suici dal mission, a tragic drama in which knowingly and willingly, he offers the supr eme sacrifice of his own life for the cause in the hope that others may live wit h dignity and freedom. This explains the state of a terrorist s motivation a stron g conviction that the value of the outcome is worth the effort, that the task as a result of his performance is achievable and that there is a reward for him in the hereafter. Perhaps an understanding of this motivation package by the polic y makers may help in determining the root causes and removing them. Terrorism grows from the precipitated causes, frequently created and deliberately left unresolved, for vested interests and strategic advantages or purely for self aggrandizement or political expediency. The political and moral value of the contested issues provide the requisite motivation for a terrorist r esponse. The Western world s reluctance to resolve the issues that have kept the M iddle-East and South Asia destabilized for half a century and their tacit acquie scence to state terrorism by Israel and India have been instrumental in the prom otion of violence in these regions. Jerusalem carries strong religious sentiment s for the Muslims and their sympathy and support to the Palestinian cause, world wide, therefore is natural. The infusion of religious passion as a driving force in terrorist undertaking was inevitable but more so after the successful conclu sion of Afghan Jihad against the Soviets. This however is not exclusive to the M uslims as the Jewish dominated Western media keeps harping. Most terrorist group s contain quasi religious elements; some of them are more fanatical than others. They could not be any different than the IRA, Aum Shinrikyo or the American Mili tia. The religious beliefs provide self justification while conducting terror ca mpaign which is bound to result in human casualties and sufferings. To associate terrorism with Islam by some, therefore is a deliberate mischief and dishonest propaganda. Many Faces of Terrorism For a long time, terrorism had remained categorized into two main variations the traditional, which is now identified as state terrorism and the revolutionary, wh ich grew as a protest against political and social injustices, as an auxiliary t o insurgency and rebellion to win freedom and bring about political and social c hanges and as a response to state terrorism. The revolutionary concept by its ve ry nature being dynamic, expanded to absorb new challenges and opportunities thr own up by the changing political and social conditions during the Twentieth cent

ury. Today, we have a wide range of variations within its fold, each distinct by its socio political character, objectives and the nature of terror and violence f rom propaganda campaign, assassination and gun running to mass killings and dest ruction such as the recent attacks on World Trade Centre in New York and from th e use of piano wire and knife to bio chemical weapons. The range has acquired a ho rrific dimension and needs to be restrained. The terrorists are known to have political cause, which is sustained with strong motivation. The use of terror and violence is usually resorted to, only under compelling and desperate circumstances. The terrorists believe in the righteousness of their cause, which in some cases, tends to assume fanatical pr oportion, as in the case of religious extremism or religiously motivated cause. Consistent with the expanding scope of terrorism, along with the original motiva tions, a broad spectrum of new ones ethnic sub-national separatism, ideological and/or revolutionary upsurge, religious extremism, struggle against political in justices, state sponsored terror, drug mafia and crime syndicates and numerous o ther interest groups etc. is now added and driving the terrorist organizations t o a new level of violence domestically as well as worldwide. [18] Their causal l inkages to violence, however, may not be easily demarcated due to their distinct division and territorial limits, though in some cases these overlap and reinfor ce each other particularly when under threat. For example, ethnic sub-national r ebel groups have a tendency to establish a nexus or take advantage of situation, with drug mafia and religious extremists. It is generally believed that an ethn ic religious combine can potentially prove to be the most destructive. [19] Political Terrorism Political terrorism is a distinctive disorder of the modern world. It originated as a term and, arguably, as a practice, less than two centuries ago and has com e into the spotlight of global conflict in our lifetime. As a political strategy , it began its course as a part of guerrilla warfare and insurgency and has been used to overthrow governments, gain independence from colonial rule, to assert ethnic identity and recognition, to force constitutional guarantees or to draw g lobal attention etc. It is regarded as the weapon of the weak and uses terror an d violence to intimidate and cause fear to pressurize and compel the target stat e or the government to accept its demands. Precisely, political terrorism aims a t bringing about political change. The UN Research Institute for Social Developm ent, has identified three main root causes of political terrorism i.e. (1) cultu ral identity or distinction in which conflict is rooted as a usual fashion of reso lving the disputes; (2) psychological factors arising out of the sense of relative deprivation and increasing marginalization in every field of life; and (3) rati onal calculations the use of violence as per requirements and only when needed. [2 0] Conflicts based on ethnic or religious identities are often associated with po litical violence, even though most of the social movements that are concerned wi th social identity do not advocate violence as a medium of change . [21] But polit ical violence in the modern world, is predominantly characterized by religious a nd ethnic identities, and has assumed precise version of conflict. The conflicts resulting out of these causes, acquire their own dynamics and seem unending, no matter how stringent measures are taken against them. Political terrorism can be further categorized into various forms. C ertainly one of the most sensational forms of political terrorism is revolutiona ry in character. Often called agitational terrorism or terror from below, its pr imary objective is to destabilize and topple the incumbent regime, replacing it with a political apparatus more acceptable to the revolutionaries. [22] Revoluti onary groups seek violence to fulfill their objectives through guerrilla warfare tactics. It is directed to either overthrow domestic regime, gain independence or self rule as sub-national group or attain liberation from foreign rule. Mao Z se-Dong viewed this form of terrorism as the initial stage of revolutionary proc ess, potentially ending in conventional confrontation. Tamil Tigers struggle for

an independent Tamil state in northern Sri Lanka, Moros in the Philippines and S indso Luminoso (the Shining Path) in Peru can be quoted as some of the examples of revolutionary form for overthrowing the yoke of majority national regimes. Si milarly, the militant activities of IRA in Ireland, PLO in Palestine, the Afghan Mujahideens against the Soviets and the insurgents or freedom fighters in Kashm ir are examples of revolutionary violence against the foreign occupation. And fi nally while it is generally believed that both the nature and scope of terrorism is political, [23] its objectives, methodology and organizational structure of the groups, point to gaining political power, or at least promoting their politi cal ideas. [24] Although these militant activities are protected under the UN conventions, they have consistently been condemned and brutalized by the state. Politically motivated terrorist groups, the separatists in particula r, obsessed with the establishment of independent states of their own have limit ed aims and do not usually escalate the situation beyond the frontiers. [25] The terrorist activities of Kurdish Workers Party, the IRA, The Basque ETA, the Tam il Tigers and the Kashmiri Hizb ul Mujahideen, are known to be directed against their respective aggressor s assets to force them to make desired political conces sions, because they realistically assess their inability to destroy the state po wer. It is only likely that such groups when under threat of elimination may res ort to desperate means. It is ironical that despite such relative amicability, n either the state nor the world are moved to resolve the cause of the conflict. Ethnic Terrorism Political terrorism based on ethnicity has assumed dangerously significant role in domestic as well as international politics. The countries with multi-ethnic c omposition face this problem as the ethnic groups use ethnic identity for politi cal purposes. Harold A. Gould writes: the political milieus that have sponsored t errorism are ethnically structured communities, whose collective identities are based upon socio-religious, socio-cultural and social class variables. The ideol ogies that drive such groups, stress the injustice and oppression being inflicte d on them by the elites who control the state, or by some other favoured groups within the corpus of the state. [26] The psychological concept of relative deprivation vis--vis other favo ured groups breeds frustration among the marginalized groups, who nourish and tr ansfer their grievances to their fellows and succeeding generations in order to consolidate their intra-group ties as a deterrence to the encroachment of their rights. Therefore, they resort to all possible means to ensure that their rights are preserved and safeguarded. Besides all other efforts, terrorism also become s one of the extreme measures to redress their group s grievances. [27] Socio-cu ltural ethnicity has thus become the basis for resistance to state authority, pe rceived to be in the hands of the rival hostile ethnic communities. The politica l developments through the century show that very little has really changed. In fact, the demise of colonialism and the emergence of Third World states have sha rpened the distinction between nation and multi-ethnic, multi-cultured social fo rmation within states and the latter having enormous potential of maladjustment. In such heterogeneous social formation, lack of common bondage worsens the situ ation, and thus tend to fuel imponderables over a period into cut-throat inter-e thnic/cultural/religious competition, ending into violence, while each perceivin g others as homogenous and with intentions of submerging the threatened. In Sri Lanka, Tamil Tigers have resorted to continued violence against the Sinha lese, who constitute the bulk of the population. The Tamils have applied all typ es of methods including suicidal operations in order to establish their own inde pendent homeland but have made no appreciable progress. India also presents a pa norama of conflict initiated and mobilized by ethnically motivated insurgents in NEFA, Assam, and the Punjab. In Pakistan also, MQM and Jiye Sindh, attempted to initiate ethnic terrorism but could not gain the requisite momentum. As noted e

arlier, definitional dilemma of terrorism and sub-national self-determination st ill persists and evades the real answer to existing realities. The movements of sub national self-determination will therefore continue to grow in vigour if tre ated and countered as terrorism, for both have different objectives. Fundamentalism or Religious Extremism/Terrorism Religion as a potent driving force behind the increasing lethality of domestic and international terrorism has shaken most of the established assumptions about terrorists, such as political idealism, recognition or calculated restraint etc . But the compelling new motivations of religious extremists have created a sens e of chaotic bewilderment. Indeed, the religious factor has assumed an all impor tant defining line for the terrorist activity today. The religiously motivated terrorism is not a new experience. The ter m zealots goes back to millenarian Jewish sect that indulged in meaningless and of ten terrifying fratricidal civil war in Judea between 66-73 A.D. The art of terr or practiced by the Assasins , the Spanish Courts of Inquisition and the Christian Cru saders are far more factual than is made to believe. Nearer home the Hindu Thugs of Central India, making human sacrifice to the terror goddess Kali, the Sikhs bru talities during the Partition and lately the resurgence of Hindu fundamentalism in form of Hindutva are all bound to the same chain of religious terrorism. In the recent past most of the ethno-nationalist and ideologically motivated terrorist groups, suppressed their religious character in their anti-colonial nationalist movements and some succeeded in keeping the political/nationalist motivation as the dominant factor. [28] In 1968, no terrorist group could be classified as re ligious; in 1995, 26 out of 65 nearly half, were identified as predominantly of religious character. [29] The increase was alarming, possibly also attributable to the end of the Cold War, which brought down many prevalent socialist ideologi es. This highly dangerous change in the basic motivation for terrorism is now be ing apprehended as potentially a pivotal watershed for more intense and indiscri minate violence and bloodshed. [30] The objectives of religious terror can be many but one primary conce rn of most religious radical movements is to protect their own culture or ways of life from the dangers of heretic deviations within the community and the extern al influences from alien religions or cultures regarded as corrupt or undesirabl e. The religious extremists believe in their recognition and identity as a role model, its spread and enforcement through a distorted interpretation of revivali st movement or upsurge. Some fanatical groups amongst them even preach and work for the conversion of the whole world. The desire to seize power to overthrow th e existing order or force fundamental changes in policy and attitude give religi ous extremism a political character. By using a religious justification for viol ence, religious terrorists become overtly political; they break the state s monopo ly on morally justifiable killings and therefore make a claim of political indep endence. [31] Violence to a religious terrorist is a sacred act or divine duty car ried out in response to religious obligation. This gives the terrorist act a tra nscendental dimension and the terrorist is thus freed from any political or mora l restraints, usually exercised by non-religious groups, which prevent indiscrim inate violence as counter-productive, if not unethical to their objectives. Reli gion does not recognize constituency and its political and moral obligations, wh ich virtually can lead to almost limitless violence. Religiously tainted percept ions are usually inflexible and inherently hostile which could and often do make the terrorist acts, highly destructive and ruthless. In their zealous approach for the establishment of a theocratic order, religious terrorist often mixes up transcendental and divinely inspired imperatives with anti-government populism a nd imaginary external conspiracy notions. In this respect examples of Japanese A um Shinrikyo sect, the American Christian Militia, Christian Patriot movement, f

anatical Jewish Eyal and some radical Muslim organizations are considered highly extremist and their aims and motivation almost incomprehensible. [32] Religion, undoubtedly, has manifested the capacity to draw unflinching loyalty a nd allegiance, which other causes fail to elicit from their followers. The sacri fice of life in the service of religion motivated by the rewards in the life her eafter, complicate and reduce the capacity of the policy makers and security org anizations to counter it. In this context, Islam has come to be projected as a t hreat to the West and their interests all around the world. The West and Islam, are portrayed to maintain mutually conflicting views of each other s actions. The West by its own perception considers Islam in the world as aggressive and intole rant of other s views and believes in force rather than dialogue and discussion. W hereas Islam by its own experience depicts West as imperialist that has virtuall y enslaved rest of mankind for selfish purposes. It was therefore, a religious d uty to confront such evil forces for the betterment of humanity. This definition al dilemma, helped formulate their respective policies corresponding to their ow n perceptions of each other, in mutual contradiction. [33] The US hounds the a llegedly Muslim terrorists all around the world alone and also in collaboration with other states but rarely faces any commendable success. [34] In fact the Jew ish dominated US academia and policy think tanks have played a highly negative r ole in developing Islam as a future threat as evident from Samuel P. Huntington s seminal article Clash of Civilizations and projection of numerous doomsday scenari os. It seems more than coincidence that most of the destabilized crisis areas in the world are inhabited by the Muslims and who for decades have been subjected to political injustices and oppressed by non-Muslim governments. It is also well known that the Western world is highly prone to racist tendencie s and has been involved in terrorist activities to either avenge their grievance s or augment their fellowship. Christian religious groups in North America have gathered considerable strength. Jewish Defence League, while maintaining its pre ssures on North America, actively operates in Israel and its occupied territorie s, and develops a combination with Jewish nationalism to perpetrate atrocities a gainst the Muslims in the Palestine. [35] The rise of Hindu fundamentalists wi th their fanatical groups and their acquisition of state power in India should h ave sent a shock wave through the world. Instead, the West found this constituti onal coup a triumph of democracy, completely ignoring the lessons from history t he rise of the Nazis in Germany through the ballot box! Religious terrorism has also emerged with a more parochial version, divided along sects within the same belief system and has triggered widespread i nstability within the states. Sometimes it transcends borders but such tendency is quite thin. These divisions within the same belief system have led to the eme rgence of sectarian strife and terrorism. Sectarianism is a phenomenon not exclu sive to Pakistan though excessively prevalent here. Northern Ireland is an older example. The case of Shia-Sunni divergence in Pakistan and its assumption of mi litancy have introduced potentially serious problems for the policy makers. It i s further complicated by its external dimension in the form of aid from abroad. [36] Gun firing and throwing of grenades in mosques, assassination of prominent personalities and officials associated with either of the sects illustrate, how focused targets are being taken. The global threat from religious terrorism emanates from the hostile sentiments against the West, but more particularly against the US, for obvious unfriendly and unfair treatment given to the Muslims and their states. This prob lem is more acute in the Middle-East. The bombings of American embassies in Keny a and Tanzania brought into sharp focus the intense feelings of hostility agains t the US. The rise of Osama bin Laden and his world-wide Islamic movement, Al Qa eda, conforms to the widely believed perception that the US only cares about Isr ael and free flow of Gulf oil and not about national rights to self-determinatio n or democratic institutions in the Arab world. The American retaliation thus ap

pears symptomatic of a heavy handed policy. The American War against Terror in Afgha nistan would stay and haunt the memory, possibly becoming a catalyst for greater extremism and hatred, unless the real causes of religious upsurge and violence are fairly addressed and resolved. State Terrorism State terrorism is the oldest form of terrorism and has been applied and practic ed throughout history. For a long time, it was no more than a dreaded instrument of brutality and terror, whose legitimacy was drawn from the law of the jungle . G radually however, state terrorism acquired political recognition and an institut ional status as an important component of state security. It has since been empl oyed by the governments with varying justifications and lethality to silence pol itical opposition and dissent, to crush separatist militancy or freedom movement s and in many cases to brutalize or outrightly eliminate ethnic or religious min orities (now termed as ethnic cleansing). The worst examples in contemporary his tory of state sponsored terrorism are those of Nazis pogrom for the Permanent Jewish Settlement , communist purges and persecutions in the Soviet Union between the tw o Great Wars and the recent Serb atrocities in the Balkans. Despite UN guarantee s, states have continuously indulged in terror and violence against their people s and neigbours for self defined interests of national security. It still goes o n undeterred, in the Occupied Palestinian Territories and the Indian Held Kashmi r.The exponents of state terrorism, usually fascist regimes, military dictatorsh ips and radical or reactionary hardline governments, argue in favour of employin g state power (actually terror) to preserve state security and state s political i deology or values and regard those who oppose or threaten them, irrespective of their legitimate grounds, as enemies of the state and their political (or milita nt) activities as criminal acts (of terrorism). Their elimination therefore is c onsidered justified for which the state monopoly of power should be applied with full vigour. These arguments seek a political basis and defacto legitimacy for an institutionalized application of terror and violence through the state appara tus to suppress dissent and opposition within the population. [37] . Even the be st of liberal democracies, generally if not openly, seem to accept this distaste ful concept for maintaining stability and order and apply their disapproval sele ctively only to suit their strategic interest, with the result that the terroriz ing states get away with their crimes of political oppression, brutalities and v iolations of basic human rights. The glaring examples are those of Israel, South American states, particularly Chile, India and South Africa (under the racist r egime). This is a tragic dilemma, which breeds all forms of terrorism.State terr orism by definition and practice is least complicated. As a concept, it involves systematic application of lethal state power to crush or restrain political oppos ition within the population to preserve state security. It is a vertical war again st the local or domestic dissidents who are perceived to be threatening the poli tical order , values or structure of the state through their peaceful or violent protes ts against social injustices, deprivation and denial of political rights. State terrorism is by nature heavy handed and repressive and acquires an extra-legal cha racter by: (1) Violating and/or suppressing the guaranteed basic h uman rights. (2) Delimiting or bypassing the established judicial process. (3) Distorting, modifying or corrupting the constitutiona lly proclaimed judicial order through arbitrary legislations or superimposing th e order with clandestine state sanctions.The ruthless application of extra-legal means, frequently violent or excessive in nature, deprive the targeted people o f liberty, property, or life, in many cases disregarding the innocence of the vi ctims, which generally negate the effects of terror and become counter-productiv e. State terrorism is applied in two dimensions: the internal and the external. [38] The internal dimension is repression by the state against its own targeted people, while the external is sponsored by the state outside its borders, usuall y a targeted neighbour or hostile country.Repressive terrorism within the state is usually directed against revolutionary or rebellious activities or to strengt hen the government or dictatorship. Since the state monopolizes the coercive par

aphernalia, formulates policies and seeks their execution through collaboration of different organs of the state, it enjoys initiative and advantage and is bett er poised to manoeuvre in any direction to realize its objectives. The methods i nclude intimidation, forced conversion even genocide through progressive displac ement, dispersion and extermination of targeted people that may be an ideologica l, ethnic or religious group. [39] For this purpose the state employs selectivel y any or all of the terror means, such as arrests, deportation, torture, murder, extra judicial or custodial killings, rapes, demolition or burning of houses or shops etc, all forcused on suppressing the dissent and hostile violence or brea king the will of the targeted people. [40] The case of Indian Held Kashmir perfe ctly fits into the above repressive methods, being applied by the Indian securit y forces under the patronage of the Union government. It is also generally known that a majority of the states coerce their targeted citizens, including racial discrimination rampant in the white skinned countries.The external dimension of state terrorism is based on the belief that terrorism can be used as an instrume nt of foreign policy, against a rival state(s) to destabilize and weaken it. Wit h this objective, the sponsor state either involves itself directly through its deployed agents to inflict destruction and chaos or indirectly stimulates subver sive and insurgent or violent activities through the dissidents with serious or unaddressed grievances towards their own state. The indirect covert support may involve political or psychological support through propaganda, funding, intellig ence, training and supply of weapons. [41] India is the prime example for her pe rsistent indirect involvement in and of sponsoring terrorism against her targete d neighbours to intimidate and exert and maintain psychological pressures. India , subverted, trained and supported the Tamil minority to dismember Sri Lanka or at least develop and maintain coercive leverage, as later she did in former East Pakistan to create Bangladesh, using all the means to sponsor terrorism externa lly and succeeded. Today, the Indians still continue to indulge in regular subve rsive and terror activities against Pakistan, exploiting sectarian and ethnic un rest particularly in Sindh where for decades she had been involved in inciting s ub-national separatism through sabotage and terrorist activities. However, organ izations that are sponsored externally by foreign governments tend to have momen tum of their own and slip out of the control of the foreign sponsors, [42] as it happened in the case of separatist Tamil Tigers of Sri Lanka, being an Indian c reation, forcing a full-fledged costly military operation and later resulting in Rajiv Gandhi s assassination by a Tamil suicide bomber.There had been a general o utcry against state sponsored terrorism and some of the countries like North Kor ea, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya and Sudan and more recently Afghanistan came under s evere UN and/or US sanctions, but the actions taken left much to be desired. Sta tes like Israel and India known for perpetrating state terrorism, directly and/o r indirectly were left out, with a lingering hostile perception against the US a nd the West for being biased and compromising for their strategic interests. Indian State Terrorism in Indian Held Kashmir Indian Held Kashmir is a classic case study of state terrorism where India has a nd continues to apply every known method and technique to achieve her objectives : suppression of the militant struggle and the political movement seeking self-d etermination, the right acknowledged by the UN. In order to suppress the freedom movement, the Indian security forces are killing Kashmiri youth, raping women, burning shops, destroying houses and terrorizing people, through custodial murde rs, fake encounters and summary executions. [43] Many cases of rape and sexual m olestation occur during the house to house searches when the men are forced to g o out and the women are left at the mercy of soldiers, who rape them at gun poin t. According to a report: in Jammu and Kashmir rape is practiced as a part of sys tematic attempt to humiliate and intimidate the local population during counterinsurgency operations . [44] Kashmiris are being consistently denied their basic r ights granted to them by the UN s Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). A joint report issued by the Asia Watch and Physician for Human Rights notes: [45]

In their efforts to crush the insurgencies, Indian forces in Kashmir have engage d in massive human rights violations including extra-judicial executions, rape, torture, and deliberate assault on health care workers Indian government forces ha ve systematically violated international human rights and humanitarian laws. Amo ng the worst of these violations have been the summary executions of hundreds of detainees in the custody of security forces in Kashmir. Such killings are carri ed out as a matter of policy. More than any other phenomenon, these deliberate k illings reveal the magnitude of human rights crisis in Kashmir. In 1996, according to a report, Indian security forces committed an estimated 100-200 extra-judicial killings of suspected militants in Kashmir. The report maintains that: [46] Impunity has been and remains a serious problem in Kashmir. Security forces have committed thousands of human rights violations over the course of conflict incl uding extra-judicial killings, disappearance and torture. Yet during period Janu ary 1, 1990 to June 30, 1997 only 10 members of security forces were tried and s entenced to ten or more years imprisonment Besides extra-judicial killings, torture by the Indian security forc es has become very common in Kashmir. The forces have been given wide-ranging po wers to perpetrate torture in conducting operations, whose gruesome details have few equals in the annals of human atrocities. [47] The use of terror by the Indian military and para military forces in Indian Held Kashmir reveals the brutal face of state terrorism in all its manif estation. Indian government has maintained an unrelenting war of distorted propa ganda against, what she calls cross-border terrorism by Pakistan, ignoring altoget her the fact that the wholly indigenous Kashmiri freedom struggle cannot be desc ribed as terrorist activity by UN definition which clearly differentiates betwee n terrorism and freedom struggle. Besides, the state of Jammu and Kashmir is a d isputed territory, a portion of which is illegally occupied by the Indians and w hose future is yet to be decided. International Terrorism While working closely with and as a part of anti-colonial freedom or guerrilla m ovements during the mid-Twentieth Century, terrorism had acquired valuable profe ssional expertise to operate wholly by itself. Indeed it evolved its own micro-s ystem, which proved far more effective and secure in the changing operational en vironment. Its main assets were, its small size, freedom and ability to move, sp eed in communication, minimum organizational vulnerability and logistical depend ence and less reliance on sponsor(s) or operating base. With these assets, terro rist operations could not be restrained by traditional frontiers or state bounda ries. Modern technology, especially information technology, transportation and s cientific discoveries and their knowledge, diffusion and assimilation across the borders and the ethnic or national divides, has added internationally operation al dimension with which terrorists can integrate their plans, coordinate their s trategies, share important information about their potential targets, escape the vigilance of intelligence agencies, learn latest techniques and skills of makin g dangerous weapons and their application, learn and use latest technologies to accomplish their missions. With secular objectives freedom from foreign occupation, overthrow of corrupt go vernment or dictatorship or social revolution terrorist organizations could find adherents and supporters, almost anywhere in the world and win them over, thus acquiring an international character and commitment. Cuban revolution, IRA and t he Palestinian movement and a flurry of socialist upsurge under such charismatic names as Che Guevara, Carlos, and Mandela and organizations such as IRA, Al Fat ah, Red Brigade, ANC and Red Army etc, gave an international dimension to terror

ism. International terrorism came under the full glare of world stage when PLO s truck in 1972 in Munich resulting in the massacre of Israeli athletes participat ing in the Olympic Games. Ever since, international terrorism has dominated the scene with inc reasing vigour and lethality. There had been a reduction in the number of terror ist groups and the frequency of their activities since the collapse of the Sovie t Union and its satellite states which patronized and supported them for sociali st cause. But meanwhile, the new ones have grown with new missions, some far mor e rabid and sinster in outlook and action. Definition International terrorism is regarded as the premeditated, politically motivated vi olence perpetrated against the non-combat targets in or from a second state by s ub-national or independent groups or individuals. [48] Simply stated, terrorism i s international when it involves people or objects of more than one state. More specifically however, it is identified with the peculiarities in the characteris tics of the act itself, its goals and their effects. Broadly these are: (1) (2) (3) em. The place of action being a third party s territory; The effects sought are international; and, The act of terrorism is abetted by third states or waged by th

The Lectric Law Library s Lexicon has adapted a comprehensive definition of intern ational terrorism, possibly also taking into account a number of varied explanat ions already in circulation: Activities that involve violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that are a v iolation of the criminal laws of any state, or that would be a criminal violatio n if committed within the jurisdiction of any state; appear to be intended to in timidate or coerce a civilian population; to influence the policy of a governmen t by intimidation or coercion; or to affect the conduct of a government by assas sination or kidnapping; and occur primarily outside the territorial jurisdiction of any state, or transcend national boundaries in terms of the means by which t hey are accomplished, the persons they appear intended to intimidate or coerce, or the locale in which their perpetrators operate or seek asylum. [49] The above definition is an extension of the world s concern for the safety and pro tection of the innocent civilians, who come under terrorists attack by deliberat e design and the security of the state. It obviously ignores the terrorist s cause , if not outrightly rejecting its political legitimacy. But like all other forms , international terrorism too stands condemned on moral grounds, more so due to its expanded capacity for violence, and the increasing range of its operational application. This is the most serious dilemma, that confronts both the state(s) and the terrorists and calls for the resolution of the root causes which breed t errorism. International terrorism has become less dependent on state sponsorship and inste ad prefers to form loose, transnational affiliations based on political, ideolog ical or religious affinity for a common cause. It is from this cooperation betwe en different groups of terrorists that, international terrorism takes form and s hape and hits the target anywhere in the world. Today a worldwide network of con nections and commitments exists among the terrorist organizations, some of which may not even be sharing similar goals or ideology. To forge such a network, the prime motivations are the commonality of cause and the operational benefits of mutual support and assistance. The areas and forms of this cooperation are vast

and varied and may cover from training, joint action to financial support. Main Features of International Terrorism In the early stages of its growth, a major area of transnational violence had be en its use by nationalist or sub-nationalist or separatist movements for domesti c struggles. These groups operated from beyond the borders of their country for security reasons and to escape state retaliation. This restraint has undergone a radical change. The concept of international terrorism has broken the barrier a nd the operations could now be launched from anywhere and in support beyond the domestic limitation. Indeed the free environment of Western democracies appeared sympathetic to the cause as well as convenient to operate. [50] This feature ho wever has eroded considerably and is changing rapidly due to the growing concern against any form of terrorism. Due to the increasing hostility against terrorism, the concept itsel f has become more dangerous and lethal. Previously, most terrorist organizations operated within the framework of their political objectives and tried to calibr ate their activities to cause just enough terror and violence to get the requisi te attention and not so much as to alienate public support or to draw world s crit icism. Now, such considerations seem outdated and the emphasis is on dramatic ef fects, irrespective of the horrifying extent of losses in material and human liv es. The responsibility is invariably never claimed for fear of state reprisals a nd public alienation. For this changing operational feature, increasing frustrat ion against indifference and inactivity by the concerned state(s) and the world in general over the terrorist s grievances or demands, are held responsible. This is also causing a qualitative change in the terrorist s motivation, which is acqui ring religious passion and/or ethnic prejudices to justify irrational acts or mo ral violations. This shift is now affecting the nature of political objectives, operational methods and the very hierarchical structure of the terrorist organiz ation. Two new factors have entered the international terrorism extensive u se of modern technology and an increase in the suicidal missions both peculiarly threatening in effects. These have considerably enhanced the innovation in desi gn and unpredictability of the plans and the counter-measures by the state s secur ity system. Whatever the moral imperatives, the voluntary offer of supreme sacri fice, often by young suicide bombers, does evoke sympathy for their cause. Consistent with this new direction, concept of cyber terrorism, base d on expertise of decoding by experts through Internet, has caused serious conce rns, especially in the wired societies of the West. From disabling a country s mil itary defences to shutting off the power in large areas, the terrorist can affec t more people at less risk than through other means; and threatening a large ban k is a common and popular threat. In Great Britain, the hackers gained at least upto 400 million pounds from 1993 to 1995 by threatening institutions. [51] The ease of communications enable very small rogue organizations to function on the world stage. Today Osama s Al Qaeda has made headlines and assumed such dangerous dimensions that the US with a world coalition has initiated a war against it. Today s international terrorist network is quite extensive by its spread throughou t the world, generally well-organized in self contained cells with efficient com mand and communication system and sophistication in expertise and planning. It o perates on the lines of modern intelligence organizations with highly committed operatives and agents. It is generally funded through donations and charities an d reportedly by indulging in business, drug trafficking and petty extortions. It maintains strict security discipline, which makes detection and blow up a diffi cult task. Amongst the known networks, Osama bin Ladin s Al Qaeda with numerous af filiated groups is the largest and the most powerful. After this group, other kn

own networks are Al Gama at al Islamiyya and Al Jihad of Egypt, GIA of Algeria, Ha mas of Palestine, Hezb Ullah of Lebanon, besides smaller groups in Chechnya, Uzb ekistan and Philippines. Every one of these networks has strong religious charac ter and agenda. Terrorist Attacks in America On the morning of 11th September 2001, the New Yorkers were jolted out of their wits when the first tower of World Trade Centre (WTC) was hit by a civilian airl iner. Eighteen minutes later, as the people around the world watched in total sh ock and disbelief, another civil airliner veered sharply in a perfect turn and s liced through the second tower of the WTC, exploding the upper floors into flame and fragmentation. The details of the carnage, death and destruction were horri fying; their psychological impact far more stunning. Another act of terror had s truck, perhaps the most audacious and devastating of its kind, for the world to pause and ponder on its varied and deeper implications. As the United States has tens to declare and initiate a war against terrorism, more to rally the shattere d American confidence in the national and public security, than to resolve the r eal cause of this terrifying experience, amidst outcries of retribution, the wor ld awaits apprehensively the unfolding of its outcome. Whatever may be the outco me, it is certain, that the world, particularly the United States would never be the same. The terrorist attacks in New York and Washington may become a unique example of international terrorism the extent and reach of its threat, the auda city in its planning and execution, desperate sense of conviction and sacrifice and the quality of inflicted terror. This one event, as the details are being co llected and pieced together, explains the concept of international terrorism, th e nature and scope of its threat and its far reaching affects. As is being alleg ed, it is amazing to note, how Al Qaeda and its leadership from the barren and d evastated Afghanistan, selected the educated young agents with Saudi background, placed them in Europe and the US, for technical training, financed them from th e UAE and provided them logistic support from dispersed trusts and charities in Europe and the US, without neglecting their religious indoctrination and in the final moments of the strike, coordinated the plans, calibrating it to perfectio n for simultaneous hi-jacking of at least four civil airliners from different ai rports in the US, through the simplest means of swiss knives, converting the hug e aircrafts into the most dreadful flying fuel bombs and striking the three inte nded targets successfully. There could not be a more horrifying demonstration of the full capacity and potential of international terrorism. While the American New War Against Terror continues with attendant pai n and destruction, the true and total impact of terror caused by the terrorist a ttacks have become known. On the strategic level, the vulnerability of the US ha s been starkly exposed, the attack on the WTC in the hub of American business, n ot only paralyzed one of the biggest American cities but sent the government spi ralling into chaos and its financial sector brought to near collapse. The econom ic cost of the inflicted disaster is estimated to exceed 1.5 trillion US dollars . The American public has not yet recovered from the psychological effects of sh ock and terror. It is possible that they may never recover fully and the terribl e event may continue to haunt them for a long time. It has given rise to racist tendencies and hate psychosis, seriously contaminating the open, frank and trust ing American attitude. New legislations are in the offing, which would strengthe n the Presidency with new and additional powers at the cost of public freedom wh ich in the long run may affect the very complexion of American political system. Such far reaching effects accruing out of one terrorist act, whose full dimensi on is still not completely revealed are terrifying. The panic in the Western qua rters is therefore real and justifiable. This horrific event has also demonstrated a new concept of terrorist

operation, which could be loosely termed as asymmetric, i.e, unequal or unbalan ced. The main characteristic of such an approach would make it highly unpredicta ble and without any pattern, providing it with the most powerful resource the id ea, to contest the hostile powers. Already the only super power fights a war wit h overwhelming advantages of resources against an intangible adversary. It is po ssible that in due course the US would be able to find an answer with an equally powerful idea which will decisively strike at the very root cause of all forms of terrorism. Till then, new Osamas will continue to be reborn and Al Qaeda will get replaced by another rogue organization, and perhaps with self assumed missi ons and increased fanatical convictions. Emerging New Trends Terrorism in its varied forms, is one of the deadliest and most persistent threa ts posed by the oppressed and the deprived. As long as injustice prevails and th e weaker people are denied their human and political rights, self dignity and me ans to survive; disappointment, anger and desperation would continue to cause vi olence and death. In their war against terrorism, the West apathetically ignores two basic features of modern terrorism its reactionary nature and its dynamic c haracter. Terrorism is a result of provocative conditions and its ability to ope rate under increasing restriction and strict counter-measures is highly innovati ve. It remains in a state of evolution and its every new strike seems to shock a nd surprise the world. The carnage caused by the terrorist s acts are deplorable, particularly when the innocent civilians get targeted, but the state s reaction is equally disappointing, wherein it does not go beyond punishing the perpetrators , deliberately ignoring to determine and resolve the cause(s) of terrorist viole nce. Indeed, the often unjustified scale of retribution by the state(s) such as Israel and India only perpetuates the cycle of violence without end. For a long time, terrorism had remained stuck to the old pattern ass assinations, kidnappings, armed assaults, barricade hostage incidents and hijackin gs and used the traditional weapons the gun, bomb and the explosives. Terrorist events of the last decade and the most recent attacks in the US, indicate the ch anging dimensions in the operative complexion of international terrorism. Indeed a whole range of new changes is affecting its concept, organization and tactics , weapon system, intelligence and communication network, logistics and financial support. The emerging new trends, despite the infusion of sophistication seem t o portend increase in lethality and ruthlessness in death and destruction. Fewer Incidents Greater Casualties Traditionally, terrorist groups belonged to identifiable militant organizations or political movements with proper command apparatus and well defined objectives and usually took credit for the terrorist act, and explained the determinants o f their action. The violence was restrained, enough for recognition and coercive intimidation. The new trends are (1) not to accept responsibility, thus avoid t argeted retribution and leave behind a mystifying terror through silence, [52] a nd (2) increasing readiness of the terrorists to indulge in indiscriminate targe ting without any ethical consideration. It seems that the later change has been caused by the continued apathy of the concerned/responsible states in resolving the conflict and further radicalization of the terrorists character and motivatio n. The statistics of recent terrorist attacks indicate that these have been causing greater causalities and infrastructural damages. Figures collected by the US Of fice of Technology Assessment (OTA) show that during the 1970s there were a tota l of 8,114 terrorist incidents worldwide, which resulted in 4,978 deaths and 6,9 02 injured. During the 1980s there were 31,426 incidents, resulting in 70,859 de aths and 47,849 injured. The RAND-St Andrews, joint-university, database of inte rnational terrorist incidents, records 2,536 incidents in the 1970s, resulting i

n 1975 deaths, and records 3,658 incidents in the 1980s, resulting in 4,077 deat hs. During the 1980s the number of international terrorist incidents was about 5 0 per cent more than in the 1970s, and twice as many people were killed. [53] Du ring the 1990s, however, the number of international terrorist incidents actuall y began to fall. A record 484 incidents occurred in 1991, which fell to 343 in 1 992, then to 360 in 1993, to 353 in 1994 and finally to 278 in 1995. Yet as thes e figures fell, a greater percentage of incidents were resulting in fatalities o r deaths and injuries continued to increase. [54] On August 7, 1998 a huge car bomb was detonated in the car park of A merican embassy in the heart of Nairobi, Kenya. As hundreds of office workers we re drawn to their windows by the sound, they were hit by a second bomb. Almost s imultaneously, another bomb had exploded in Dar-es-Salaam, capital of neighborin g Tanzania. It was reported that the bombing in Kenya killed 201 and injured 5,5 00 people whilst the bomb in Tanzania killed 11. [55] More recently, over 6,000 (latest revised figure is 3000!) people were reportedly lost in the collapsed tw in towers of the World Trade Center, on the September 11, 2001. [56] These figur es relate only to international terrorism. The evidence in respect of domestic t errorism is more problematic, but there are strong indications that the trend is no different in the domestic field, particularly in Algeria and Sri Lanka. Thes e facts indicate that casualty levels are increasing at a faster rate than the n umber of incidents, and the individual incidents are becoming more lethal. A number of reasons has been advanced by the western analyst for ter rorism s increased lethality but none account for the root cause(s). According to Bruce Hoffman analysis: (1) The terrorists desire to obtain more and serious attention. Th erefore, they consider bloody action as a viable strategy to attract the media a nd the decision makers. (2) The terrorists have profited from past experience and have bec ome more skilled at killing. The alliance between terrorist organizations and th e sponsor states have added greater efficiency to the act through logistical sup port and provision of more sophisticated, and deadlier weapons. [57] (3) The active role played by states in sponsoring and supporting terrorism. This support has enhanced the striking power and capabilities of ordi nary terrorist organizations, transforming some groups into entities more akin t o elite commando units than the stereotypical Molotov-cocktail wielding or crude pipe-bomb manufacturing anarchist or radical leftist. (4) The overall increase during the past 15 years of terrorism mot ivated by religious imperatives encapsulates the confluence of new adversaries, motivations, and tactics affecting terrorist patterns today. (5) The means of terrorism has become easily accessible to anyone who carries a grievance, an agenda, or a purpose. Even the amateur terrorist can be just as deadly and destructive and even more difficult to track and counter than his professional counterpart. (6) While on the one hand terrorism is attracting amateurs, on the other, the sophistication and operational competence of the professional terror ists are increasing. These professionals are becoming demonstrably more adept in their tradecraft of death and destruction; more formidable in their capacity fo r tactical modification and innovation in their methods of attack; and better ab le to operate for sustained periods while avoiding detection, interception, or c apture. It is evident that the Western analyst invariably always evades the crucial fact or, the cause of agitation, turmoil and violence. It is ridiculous to assume tha t terrorists would indulge in such killings and carnage merely for self recognit ion. The deeper motivations of the terrorist groups and organizations are well k nown to the state(s), responsible for the conflict resolution. Their continued o ppression and brutalities as a response and indifference to a just resolution of the issue lead to further escalation in the lethality of terrorist s attacks.

The Growth and Infusion of Religious Extremism The religion has become the prime motivation for terrorist acts. [58] The late T wentieth century saw a resurgence of holy terror involving almost all the religi ons, from Christian right-wing white supremacists, fanatical Jewish sects, cast Hindus, militant Sikhs to Muslim fundamentalist, throughout the world; Europe, N orth America, the South Asian sub-continent, Middle and Near East and North Afri ca. While all are responsible for this trend in their respective areas of influe nce, Muslim fundamentalists are considered to be the most active internationally . [59] The causes and the reasons are obvious. Islamic orthodoxy is far more fix ed and obedient to divine call and to theological demands. [60] It is however interesting to note that use (or misuse!) of religion in support of insurgency w as for the first time stretched to its maximum capacity during the Afghan Jihad against the Soviet invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and under the US patro nage. The trend thus set, got the boost from the success of the Jihad and the Is lamists, around the world took to religion as the decisive factor in their strug gle against oppression and political injustices. There is a long list of significant terrorist attacks in the recent years strongly motivated by religious passion. All terrorist organizations with strong infusion of religious extremism have peculiar agendas, such as (1) bringi ng fundamental changes in the domestic scene according to the Sharia as the only way to salvation; i.e, Islamic movements in Algeria and Egypt and Talibans in A fghanistan, (2) waging a holy war against powers who are perceived to be the sou rce of all kinds of injustices and exploitation in global terms, the self-assume d messianic mission being howsoever anarchic, notwithstanding, i.e, Bin Laden s Al Qaeda being the most prominent, and (3) legitimate militant struggle for politi cal identity and freedom from oppression and illegal occupation; i.e, PLO, Kashm iri fighters and Moros etc. The Christian, Jewish and the apocalyptic Japanese c ult extremists are equally infused with religious motivations and carry hateful racist and anarchic cultish agendas. The religious factor has given rise to fanaticism and uncanny growt h of suicide attacks. The unusual increase in the number and frequency of suicid e bomber attacks, is highly perplexing, their blind devotion to the call of duty , knowingly and willingly making the supreme sacrifice, is incomprehensible to t he Western material loving society. What is really hard is their inability to de tect or prevent such attacks. Although the suicidal trend in terrorism is not ne w and the Tamil Tigers had been using it in their struggle, its spread is alarmi ng and reflective of the state of desperation, the terrorists have been or being driven to by the Western apathy to their legitimate causes and their capacity t o fight back even with such high cost. The growth and infusion of religious passion has given a new dimensi on to terrorism, making it far more dogmatic and threatening to the established political order everywhere. Its emergence is mainly due to the failure of the Wo rld Order to resolve the root causes of conflict and violence. As the US wages a war against terror in Afghanistan, she must ponder over her earlier blunders, p articularly her betrayal of Afghan trust and compare the cost in human and mater ial terms for her neglect, before accepting the final Afghan settlement. Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Nuclear, Biological and Chemical weapons are inherently terrifying. They evoke m oral dread and visceral revulsion out of proportion to their lethality. In rece nt years terrorists have been acquiring crude chemical and biological agents, an d some have plotted or threatened to use them. According to intelligence reports , the indications are that the possibility of using bio-chemical weapons is much higher due to technological problems associated with the nuclear weapons manufa cturing. As an argument it was pointed out that, many terrorists movements are di

rectly encouraged, sponsored and aided by regime in order to weaken or subvert r ival states, [61] and from the intimacy of these connections the possibility of p ro-terrorists states assisting the terrorists organizations in obtaining at least nuclear radioactive material, always existed. As the basic motivations are changing, a new breed of terrorists- including ad h oc groups deeply influenced by religious conviction or revenge, violent right-wi ng extremists, and apocalyptic and millenarian cults, seem to be growing on the wings who may be highly prone to commit acts of extreme violence. The overriding religious belief in Armageddon establishes a strong motive for some cults to us e the WMD. [62] These weapons are intrinsically indiscriminate, and suit terrorists strategy to i nflict large numbers of indiscriminate casualties. The usages of these weapons n ot only increase the lethality of the terrorists acts, but the government of the country under attack would have difficulty in controlling panic, since bio-chemi cal weapons are silent killers, and the attack could occur at any time without w arning. This would create an ideal scenario of terror. There are number of organizations, which had revealed interests in these deadly agents. For example, Christian Patriots had shown interests in biological weapon s. Biological weapons have the potential to be as deadly as nuclear bombs. For i nstance, 100 kilograms of anthrax could kill up to 3 million people if dispersed under optimal conditions. [63] Survivalists and white Supremacists were implica ted in three separate cases involving biological agents in 1995. In March two me mbers of the Minnesota Patriots Council were arrested for producing ricin with w hich to assassinate a deputy US marshal who had served papers on one of them for tax violations. In May, just six weeks after the Aum Shinrikiyo incident, Larry Wayne Harris, former member of neo-Nazi organizations, bought three vials of Ye rsinia pestis, the bacterium that causes bubonic plague, which killed nearly a q uarter of Europe s population in the mid-fourteen century. In December a Survivali st was arrested for trying to carry 130 grams of ricin across the border into Ca nada. [64] However, from known conspiracies it appears that no terrorist group h as even attempted to develop a nuclear explosive device, and there have been onl y a few cases of groups attempting to purchase a nuclear device. Instead, the us e of radioactive materials of contamination, either through a contamination bomb or otherwise, has been the preferred option for nuclear terrorism. Bio-Chemical weapons however are no more speculative possibility, but have already been intr oduced in the world of terrorism when in March 1995, Japanese religious cult Aum Shinrikyo attacked the Tokyo subway with the sarin nerve-gas and now following the September 11, terrorist attack in New York, the US seem to be inundated with Anthrax, both symbolizing a threshold crossing by non Muslim terrorist organiza tions. The September 2001, terrorists attacks were a powerful indicator that at least so me groups are willing to perpetrate acts of unrestrained violence and indiscrimi nate mass killing. In 1990s, a growing number of incidents broaden the perceptio ns of the potential threat that radical religious cults can pose to society as a whole. In addition, a major trend has been the terrorists acquisition of increas ingly sophisticated and lethal weapons, like the nuclear and bio-chemical weapon s. These emerging trends mainly the products of the technological advancements a re likely to complicate the terrorists threat in future. Epilogue The contemporary experiences indicate that the prospects of terrorism have conti nued to grow by its increasing destructive potential. The persisting instability and turmoil in the affected regions, caused by political and socio economic injus tices and denials have given birth to new and aggressive movements espousing a v ariety of ideologies sub national or ethnic nationalism, religious fundamentalis

m, fascism and apocalyptic millenarianism. These cover a wide area and people, f rom Hindu fundamentalists in India, Muslim religious extremists in Afghanistan, the Middle East and North Africa, racists and neofascists in Europe and the US to nationalists in Kashmir, NE India and the Philippines. The emerging trend tow ards more indiscriminate killings, seem no longer bound to ethical restraints no r to objective oriented specific targets, which make terrorism highly unpredicta ble and its tactics less distinct. Terrorist s willingness to undertake suicidal m ission is a radical departure and highly dangerous being almost impossible to pr event and the availability of silent weapons of mass destruction the bio-chemica l agents provide terrorism with new potential and destructive capacity. Behind t hese developments, the infusion of religious and ideological passion act as a po tent driving force without restraints. During the last decades, the political motives of terrorism have con tinuously been undermined and contemptuously dismissed. It was generally believe d and so projected that terrorism more often than not has little political impact and that when it has an affect it is often the opposite of the one desired . [65] This perception could not be more fallacious. A single shot of a Serb assassi n in Serajevo plunged the entire Europe into a terrible Great War (1914-18), whi ch disintegrated the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Seventy years later a similar terr orist act in Tel Aviv, scuttled the Middle East Peace Process almost beyond reco very. Today, as a result of terrorists attacks in New York and Washington D.C., t he US with a world coalition, is waging a War against Terrorism in Afghanistan. Th e political and economic impact of these attacks is deep and enduring and would inhibit the American public attitude and state policies for a long time. Certain ly the US with the immense military power and economic resources would win the w ar, crushing the Talibans and the Al Qaeda movement, but it is highly improbable that, the US would succeed in destroying terrorism, as an idea and a concept wi thout addressing the very root causes of its emergence. What happened in Afghanistan was the direct result of the American failure to t ake the Afghan struggle against the Soviet invasion to its logical conclusion re storation of internal order, rehabilitation of millions of displaced Afghans and reconstruction of a ravaged Afghanistan. What happened thereafter was inevitabl e. There is a perception that the Americans abandoned the Afghans deliberately l eaving a highly destabilized country between Iran, Pakistan and the Central Asia n republics to exert its own internal pressures to the detriment of their mutual relationship. After a decade the US have been drawn back into Afghanistan to fu lfil the unfinished commitment. But at what cost? Winning a war against the Talibans and Al Qaeda in Afghanistan coul d hardly be rated as a military victory for the US, the sole super power. Nor ca n this triumph assure peace, which would require amongst other measures, correct ing the historical mistakes with a true sense of justice and balancing the exces sive American emphasis on short-term strategic interests. Benjamin Barber in his recently published book, Jihad vs. McWorld observed that, in the long run, war can not defeat terror alone because violence cannot defeat fear . If the US wishes to rid the world of the violence of terrorism and establish enduring peace, they sh ould rather wage a war against the root causes which breed radicalism, desperati on and terrorism, be it the Israeli s intransigence in settling the Palestinian qu estion or Indian state sponsored terrorism in Indian Held Kashmir to suppress Ka shmiri s legitimate freedom struggle or the highly inert Arab monarchies and dicta torships, so generously patronized by the US. There is an urgent need of defining terrorism as a prerequisite for its universal application and formulation of consistent policy by the UN and oth er states. Definition involves clarity of perception, a binding moral commitment and adherance to established norms of consistency. This would obviously restric t its expedient exploitation by the world powers and other states who indulge in brutal suppression of political dissent and separatist struggle through terror

and violence. Perhaps, it is for this very reason that the Western powers do not make a serious attempt to define terrorism in precise term and have preferred i ts explanation in highly subjective and rhetorical expression, only to arouse em otion, rather than sober and intelligent reflections. It was best demonstrated a fter the terrorists attack on WTO towers and Pantagon and the hurriedly passed re solution by the UNSC. In the absence of precise definition as a criterion to make clear d ifferentiation between terrorism and other militant movements with legitimate po litical objectives within the UN charter and conventions, people have and contin ue to suffer under repressive states, who freely indulge in brutal acts of terro rism. Indeed from the prevailing state of ambiguity these states have benefited and flourished. In this high drama of shifting morality, expedient explanation o f terrorism ensures the strategic interests of the Western powers. Thus Israel a nd India are permitted to perpetuate their atrocities, against the Palestinians and Kashmiris. This selective application of terrorism is the biggest injustice and one of the main causes of terrorist upsurge. Religion is amongst the potent new factors that dominate terrorism. Apparently its infusion is directly related to the growing plight of the Muslim world against excesses and denial of political rights, factually it is the resu lt of persisting persecutions of the Muslims in the Middle East, the Balkans, Ca ucasian, India and the Philippines by the non-Muslim governments. Obviously the West is blamed for its failure to resolve long persisting problems, particularly the Palestinian problem. During the Afghan Jihad against the Soviets, the use o f Islam appeared pragmatic but its long term effects against democratic developm ent and progressive modernism were either not fully comprehended or simply ignor ed. The result was an anarchic growth of militant Islamic orthodoxy which now th reatens the nationalist sentiments and internal order of the affected states wit h stagnant conservatism and intellectual backwardness. This is the dangerous dev elopment caused by the unscrupulous exploitation of Islam as a political weapon. If any progress is to be made towards eradicating terrorism, religious passion would need to be restrained and orthodoxy reformed to make it compatible with th e democratic norms.