THE LOTUS GARLAND

Commentary to the Dewachen wishing prayer
by [ arma! Chagme [Rinpoche!1
["nsertion# The $ong Dewachen prayer itse$% is ca$$e&# The wishing prayer of Dewachen, the pure realm of great bliss, composed by the learned and ac­ complished Raga Asye2]
["nsertion# The prayer starts with the %o$$owing intro&'ction( which is not mentione& in the commentary#

OM AM D!"A #R $ This is the treasury of the heart practice of [%arma] &hagme [Rinpoche]' &onsidering how great the bene­ fit would be for many beings, ma(e the effort to write, although my hand is sic(' n the case that someone wishes to copy )study and practise* this te+t and does not ha,e it himself, please lend it to him' -othing has greater benefit' There is no dharma teaching more profound than this' t is the root of all dharma.' Do not fall into indifference, but ta(e up its practice diligently' /ince this te+t belongs to the sutra tradition you may recite it without recei,ing a ritual reading transmission )$'ng*']

THE FOUR CAUSES FOR REBIRTH IN DEWACHEN
This wishing prayer o% the Lan& o% Great )$iss* has been written by the $earne& an& accomp$ishe& arma Chagme in or&er that imme&iate$y a%ter this $i%e a$$ sentient beings which are e+'a$ to space, wi$$ be born in the p're wor$& in the -est which is Dewachen an& %ina$$y obtain the state o% )'&&hahoo&. /o' are now in0ite& to $isten to the commentary name& 1The Lot's Gar$an&1 together with s'pp$ementary gra&'a$ e2p$anations that gi0e the e2act meaning o% the wor&s one a%ter the other. 3o$$owing the Amitabha s'tra the points which nee& to be e2p$aine& are the %o'r ca'ses %or rebirth in Dewachen# to remember the Th's4gone4One [Tathagata Amitabha!( to &e0e$op roots o% 0irt'e( to &e0e$op bo&hicitta( an& to ma5e a comp$ete &e&ication. The %irst ca'se is to 5eep in min& the o'ter aspect o% the p're $an&( the secon& is( to gather a great acc'm'$ation o% who$esome acts( the thir& is to &e0e$op the min& o% en$ightenment( an& the %o'rth ca'se is to ma5e &e&ications an& wishing prayers to be born in the rea$m o% Great )$iss.

THE FIRST CAUSE: KEEPING IN MIND THE OUTER ASPECT OF THE PURE LAND
The passage to be e2p$aine& %irst starts with 1E 6A HO...1 an& goes &own to 1...bright ye$$ow co$o'r1 7...ser4tem4 me8#

! MA #O means 1How won&er%'$91 an& re%ers to the mar0e$$o's bea'ty o% the three4tho'san&%o$& wor$& system:(
which is ca$$e& 1The Uni0erse which cannot be &isting'ishe&1#

0rom here, in the direction of the setting sun, beyond a multitude of innumerable worlds, slightly ele,­ ated, as i% a $itt$e higher( is the land of the noble beings'1
The )'&&ha 6eas're$ess Light; was born in a pre0io's time as the ing -ho has the -hee$ with the Spo5es<. At that time( in %ront o% the =ictorio's One( )'&&ha >ewe$ Essence?@( he &e0e$ope& %or the %irst time the min& o% s'A preme en$ightenment. 3rom then on( he gathere& the acc'm'$ations which ma&e it possib$e to mani%est the p're $an& o% Dewachen. [He promise&#! 1" wi$$ on$y become a b'&&ha( i% a$$ those who ma5e the prayer to be born in Dewachen wi$$ rea$$y be ab$e to ta5e birth there. "% howe0er they &o not ha0e the capacity to be born there( " wi$$ not become a comp$ete$y per%ecte& one 7a b'&&ha8.1 Saying this he ma&e co'nt$ess prayers.
Dewachen commentary, page 2

3ina$$y he per%ect$y accomp$ishe& the prayers an& acc'm'$ations( an& at that time the %ormer ing -ho has the -hee$ with the Spo5es became a b'&&ha ca$$e& )'&&ha Amitabha 76eas're$ess Light8. Since the wishes o% the 0icA torio's ones are accomp$ishe& %or a$$ those who ma5e p're aspiration prayers to be born in Dewachen it is act'A a$$y possib$e to be reborn there. This is &'e to the %orce o% the prayers o% 0ictorio's ones. One might as5# 1-hat is this wor$& $i5eB1 "n genera$ 7there are %o'r 5in&s o% wor$&s#8 3 "% the o'ter wor$& is p're( ma&e o% 0ario's Cewe$s( an& is inhabite& by imp're beings with emotions( then it is $i5e the rea$m o% the go&s o% &esire. 3 "% the o'ter wor$& appears as imp're with earth( stones( mo'ntains( roc5s( an& so on( an& is inhabite& by a gathering o% wis&om ho$&ers( then it is $i5e [the $an&! Shambha$a in the north. 3 "% the o'ter wor$& is o% b'rning iron an& so on( an& its inhabitants s'%%er %rom heat( co$&( h'nger( an& thirst( then both( the container an& the contents( are imp're( C'st as in the $ower rea$ms. 3 "% howe0er the wor$& which is the o'ter 0esse$ is p're( a $an& o% Cewe$s( with p're beings as its inhabitants who are nob$e ones??( then 0esse$ an& contents are [C'st $i5e! the perfectly pure realm of Dewachen'

Although Dewachen is not ,isible to our h'man water bubble li(e eyes, base& on hearing an& contemp$ation it can clearly appear to our mind so that one is +'ite amaDe&. "% yo' won&er who $i0es there# There resides the /ubduer and "ictorious One24 Measureless 5ight who is of ruby red colour and bla6ing radiance' #e is adorned with the top (not on his head, the wheels on his feet and so on, a$$ parts o% his bo&y are comp$ete$y a&orne& with the .4 signs of perfection, and he is a$so a&orne& an& &resse& with a$$ the secon&ary attrib'tes( the 78 minor mar(s' #e has a single face, two arms, his han&s in the mudra of e9uanimity, holding an alms bowl %i$$e& with nectar. #e wears the three dharma robes# be$ow
a shamtab?E( abo0e an 'pper garment an& a ge$ong Den?*. -ith his $egs in crossed 0aCra posture, on a Cewe$ throne in its o'ter aspect &ecorate& with eight peacoc5s which are in essence the eight great &iscip$es?, who o%%er a seat with their bo&ies whi$e $istening with their ears to the nectar o% the Dharma he is seated on an lotus of a thousand petals with a moon disc on which a bodhi tree bearing %r'its an& ma&e o% 0ario's Cewe$s ser,es as a bac( rest'

0rom far away, %rom Dewachen which is at a $ong &istance in the western &irection( he loo(s at me with his eyes of compassion' On his right is the :odhisatt,a ;!yes of &ompassionate <isdom; )A,alo(itesh,ara*, of white colour, holding in his left hand a white lotus= and on his left is the :odhisatt,a ;>reat ?ower; )"a@rapani*2A, of blue bo&y colour, holding in his left hand a lotus mar(ed with a ,a@ra' :oth of them e+­ tend their right hands towards us in the refuge bestowing mudra' "n this way( these three main deities ap­ pear li(e Mount Meru, the (ing of mountains'21 Radiant in sp$en&o'r( their bo&y en&owe& with the mar5s an& signs o% a b'&&ha, their speech pouring forth the splendour o% the p$easant me$o&ies o% )rahmaFs speech( and their min& illuminating 7the wor$&8 with the primorA &ia$ awareness o% 5now$e&ge an& $o0e' They dwell accompanied by their retinue, s'rro'n&ing them( of a trillion gelong bodhisatt,as27, all of them also of golden colour, adorned with the mar(s and signs, main &i0inities as we$$ as retin'e dressed in the three dharma robes, of great resplendence'
As i% they were act'a$$y 0isib$e an& tangib$e( with intense &e0otion an& %er0o'r( concentrate yo'r min& on Dewachen as i% e2periencing it. "magine that yo' ha0e a$rea&y been born there an& that yo'r prayers are a$rea&y %'$%i$$e& the 0ery moment yo' recite them. De0e$op an e2'$te& min& that 0ery instant. "% yo' ma5e the Dewachen prayers with an inattenti0e min& $i5e a shepher& who con%'ses sheep an& chi$&ren( then obstac$es wi$$ arise. "n that case( at the time o% &eath( instea& o% ta5ing the path to Dewachen( con%'se& appearA ances o% s'ch a 5in& wi$$ arise that again yo' wi$$ %a$$ bac5 [into Samsara!. 3or this reason( to say it brie%$y( yo' sho'$& whi$e &oing the Dewachen prayer ha0e this %ee$ing to rea$$y see an& to'ch?< Dewachen( as i% yo' were a$rea&y born there. /o' sho'$& bring %orth great enth'siasm an& remain non4&istracte&. This was the e2p$anation o% the %irst ca'se# to 5eep in min& the o'ter aspect o% the p're rea$m.

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THE SECOND CAUSE: GATHERING THE ACCUMULATIONS

THROUGH THE

SEVEN BRANCH PRAYER

First bra !": Pr#strati# s "n or&er to ma5e a tr'e &e&ication( prostrate with respect%'$ &e0otion in %ront o% Lama 6eas're$ess Light together with his retin'e resi&ing in Dewachen.

<ith a de,otion that does not ma(e any difference between near and far48, emanate as many other bo&ies o% mine as there are &'st partic$es in the 'ni0erse an& prostrate full of respect with my three doors'
The e2p$anation o% the &harma5aya( the aspect which is basis o% emanation#

The Dharma(aya 5imitless Radiance42, which is the basis o% emanation( 5ord of the buddha family, eman­ ates from his right hand light rays that become &henre6i, an& %rom him one billion secondary emanations of the mighty &henre6i that %i$$ the who$e 1Three tho'san&%o$& Uni0erse which cannot be &isting'ishe&1' 0rom his left hand he emanates light rays that become Tara with one billion secondary emanations of Tara simA i$ar to herse$%' 0rom his heart light rays go out manifesting ?admasambha,a together with one billion sec­ ondary emanations of Orgyen44 that %i$$ the three tho'san&%o$& 'ni0erse' prostrate to a$$ these emanations o% Dharma(aya Measureless 5ight' <ith the eyes of a buddha, during all si+ periods of the day and night, he constantly regards with lo,e all sentient beings' #is enlightened mind is constantly aware of whate,er thoughts or ideas arise in the mind of all sentient beings' #is enlightened ear constantly hears distinctly, without confusion, whate,er words are spo(en by all sentient beings' Remembering the +'a$ities o% the Dharma5aya which is o% bene%it %or onese$% prostrate to the all3(nowing Measureless 5ight'
Remembering the +'a$ities o% the %orm 5ayas which are %or the bene%it o% others# a8 Nirmana5aya# Concerning Dewachen G e+cept for those who ha,e the two 5in&s o% obstac$es %or rebirth there beca'se they ha0e re@ected the nob$e dharma, saying that teaching an& practise are o% no 'se( or who ha0e ac­ complished the e2treme$y negati0e deeds of immediate retribution which wi$$ be e2p$aine& be$ow G all others who ha,e faith in Bou 7Amitabha8 and ma(e their wishing prayers will be born in Dewachen and their prayers will be fulfilled' )eca'se it is $i5e this( it is said that at the time when we ha0e &ie& an& wan&er in the bardo, he 7Amitabha8 wi$$ sen& an emanation together with a retin'e which will come towar&s 's( and will guide us in one instant into this land' Remembering his +'a$ities prostrate to the guide Nirmana5aya Meas­

ureless 5ight'
b8 Sambhoga5aya# Bour life span lasting for countless (alpas you stay here and do not go beyond suffer­ ing' f we pray to you with one pointed respect, it is said that C e+cept for the complete ripening of pre0iA o's (arma C the coming together o% the con&itions %or the end of our life force will happen only after one hundred years and the ,arious (inds of untimely death will be a,erted' )eing aware o% +'a$ities as these( prostrate to the sambhoga5aya protector Amitayus )DAmitabha*' 3'rther +'a$ities o% his &ee&s an& en$ightene& acti0ity#

t is said that it is of comparati0e$y greater merit simp$y to @oin the palms o% oneFs han&s out of faith on hear­ ing the name of Amitabha and about Dewachen than to fill the wor$&s o% countless three thousandfold uni­ ,erses of ,ast e+tent with a$$ 5in&s o% @ewels $i5e go$&( si$0er( an& so on and to offer them as gifts' 0or this re­ ason respectfully prostrate to Measureless 5ight' <hosoe,er( whate0er person or s'itab$e sentient being( hears the name of Amitabha and de,elops @ust once a faith, which comes from the depth of his heart and bones and is not empty tal(, then this %aith%'$ one will ne,er lose the path to enlightenment an& the e2tremes o% samsaraHE wi$$ be trans%orme&. 3or this reason pros­ trate to the protector Measureless 5ight' 0rom the time of hearing the name of :uddha Measureless 5ight until obtaining buddhahood will not be born in unfa,ourable conditions $i5e %or e2amp$e as a woman which 7&'e to c'$t'ra$ $imitations8 was to be conA si&ere& as an in%erior s'pport %or practice( but ta(e birth in a good family and ha,e a pure conduct in all li,es to come' prostrate to Measureless 5ight gone to bliss4E' This conc$'&es the branch o% prostration.
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S$!# % bra !": Ma&i ' #(($ri 's

My body and all my possessions, together with my roots of ,irtue, whate,er offerings that are actually present $i5e ab$'tion water( %$owers( incense( $amps( per%'mes( %oo&( at $east a h'n&re& o% a$$ these( or o%%erings emanated by mind including the eight auspicious substances which are# mirror( sin&h'ra( 5'sha grassH,( conch she$$( white m'star&( &'rwa grass(H: an& yogh'rt( a$$ in $imit$ess 5in&s, the eight auspicious signs which are the 7in%inite8 5not( white conch( banner o% 0ictory( 'mbre$$a( 0ase( $ot's( whee$( an& s'nHI, the se,en precious items 7signi%ying roya$ty8 which are the whee$ 7o% a 'ni0ersa$ monarch8( Cewe$( 7the earrings o% the8 +'een( 7the
earrings o% the8 minister( the 7t's5s o% the8 e$ephant( s'preme mo'nt 7symbo$ise& by the horn o% a 'nicorn8( 7the signs o% the8 genera$ G whate,er offerings e+ist since all times( since the %irst appearance o% the wor$&s( s'ch as

billions of three thousandfold uni,erses with their four continents, the central mountain, the sun and the moon together with all the wealth of gods, nagas47 and humans C ta(e them up in my mind which means to 0is'a$ise them 0ery c$ear$y and offer them to Amitabha' :y the force of your compassion, accept this for my own benefit'
This conc$'&es the branch o% o%%ering. T"ir% bra !": C# ($ssi#

lay open and confess all the non3,irtuous deeds which ha,e been committed from beginningless time until now by myself and by all sentient beings headed by my father and mother' lay open and confess the three unwholesome acts of the bodyF (illing, ta(ing what is not gi,en, and im­ pure conduct' lay open and confess the four unwholesome acts of the speechF lying, slandering, rough speech, and gos­ sip' lay open and confess the three unwholesome acts of mind( a$$ that has been acc'm'$ate& since beginningA $ess time in samsaraF co,etousness &'e to &esire, malice &'e to anger, and 7ho$&ing on to8 wrong ,iews $i5e &enying the $aw o% ca'se an& e%%ect or the Three >ewe$s 7which stan& %or the possibi$ity o% en$ightenment8' lay open and confess a$$ the fi,e deeds of immediate retribution which we accumulated in beginning$ess samsaraF (illing our father, our mother, an& G in %o$$owing the way this e2p$anation is gi0en in the a&ampa traA &ition o% >owo Atisha G our teacher4G, or an arhat.8, and intending to cause harm to the body of a "ictorious One which means act'a$$y &oing the act witho't regret o% c'tting open his bo&y so that b$oo& comes %orth. These
%i0e are the ca'ses which wi$$ res'$t 7a%ter &eath8 in imme&iate rebirth in the He$$ o% Unspea5ab$e Torment 7A0ici8 witho't any possibi$ity %or other %actors to hin&er this rebirth.

lay open and confess the e,il deeds similar to the deeds of immediate retributionF (illing a fully ordained monastic or a no,ice, ma(ing a nun or mon( fall into $ay stat's 7thro'gh rape or se&'ction8, destroying a statue, stupa or temple G e2cept i% wanting to repair it G or to 'nnecessari$y &estroy ho$y te2ts and so on' lay open and confess a$$ the e,il acts of abandoning the dharma together with e0erything re$ate& to this 5in& o% act li(e abandoning the three supports etc' in %ront o% which " ha0e committe& myse$% at the time o% ta5ing the 0ows# the Three Hewels, the temple, and the supreme te+ts 7e.g. the &harma te2ts8 present in %ront o% 's.
To 1$ay open1 means not to 5eep oneFs %a'$ts secret b't to c$ear$y say them. To 1con%ess1 means to &estroy or sweep them away $i5e &'st.

lay open and confess all these accumulated ,ery negati,e, useless actions G which are so 'se$ess that one cannot e0en 1%i$$ a g$ass o% water1 with them G li(e abusing bodhisatt,as which is of greater e,il than to (ill the sentient beings of the three realms.2' "n genera$ one sho'$&( whene0er ta$5ing abo't $amas an& or&aine& ones( be aware that there are probab$y bo&hisatt0as among them' &ompared to the fi,e crimes of immediate retribution it is more negati,e not to belie,e in the benefits of ,irtuous deeds and the difficulties resulting from non3,irtue abo't which we ha0e hear& and to thin( that these as we$$ as simi$ar teachings are simply a pedagogical de,ice, and this although we recei,ed e+plana­ tions by a $ama on the duration and e+tent of suffering in the hell realms, and so on' lay open and confess this negati,e (arma that ma(es liberation impossible'
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This was the genera$ con%ession o% %a'$ts. Now comes the more speci%ic con%ession concerning transgressions o% the 0ows o% in&i0i&'a$ $iberation( the bo&A hisatt0a 0ows an& the tantric 0ows. Among these three( [transgressions o%! the o'terEH 0ows o% in&i0i&'a$ $iberation abo't what is to be gi0en 'p are consi&ere& the roots o% a$$ %a'$ts an& transgressions. They inc$'&e# to ta5e $i%e( to stea$( to ha0e imp're re$ationships with a woman 7or man8( to te$$ $ies $i5e preten&ing to ha0e c$air0oyance.

lay open and confess all brea(age and damages of the discipline of indi,idual liberation including the fi,e categories of faults..F the four root downfalls, in short# 5i$$ing( stea$ing( imp're con&'ct( an& $ying( these
are what one sho'$& 5eep in min& an& protect onese$% %rom( since they are the principa$ transgressions G i% they ocA c'r( one is not a %o$$ower o% the )'&&haFs teaching any more. 3'rthermore there are the thirteen [transgressions o% 0ows! with a remainder, the thirty transgressions which are $i5e &own%a$$s, the ninety downfalls, the %o'r in­ di,idually confessed damages, and the h'n&re& an& twe$0e faults'

lay open and confess the acts which we sho'$& gi0e 'p once ha0ing re+'este& the bo&hisatt0a 0ows# the four negati,e actions.E which &amage 7these 0ows8, as we$$ as the root &own%a$$s which act'a$$y brea5 the 0owsF the fi,e which concern 15ings1 G re%erring to bo&hisatt0as who ha0e obtaine& a power an& in%$'ence simi$ar to a great r'$er, an& the fi,e simi$ar ones o% 1ministers1 who are e2ec'ting the or&ers o% a 5ing an& acting on his beha$%( and to these are a&&e& the eight transgressions o% or&inary beings in the bo&hisatt0a %ami$y which 7a$so8 constit'te a maCor brea5age. Together they are co'nte& as eighteen root downfalls. "% they occ'r( they constit'te a spoiling of our training in bo&hicitta# yo' sho'$& protect yo'rse$% %rom them( i% any o% those present themse$0es.
The %o'r negati0e actions [in re$ation to the bo&hisatt0a 0ows! which sho'$& be gi0en 'p are# 3 to cheat the $ama 3 to emp$oy means to ma5e someone regret the &harma 7or any &harmic acti0ity8( 3 to s$an&er the s'perior onesE,( 3 to ha0e a tric5y min& which cheats the in%erior ones [the ones who &epen& on 's!. The eighteen root &own%a$$s o% a bo&hisatt0a are# 3 The %i0e concerning a 5ing 7or power%'$ person8 are# 7?8 to stea$ the wea$th o% the [Three! >ewe$sE:( 7H8 to [ca'se someone to! aban&on the &harma( 7E8 to stri5e an& p'nish a mon5 or n'n who ha0e become a $ay perA son [&'e to ha0ing $ost their &iscip$ine!( 7*8 to commit one o% the %i0e crimes with imme&iate retrib'tion( 7,8 to ha0e erroneo's 0iews an& to &eny [the $aw o%! ca'se an& e%%ect. 3 O% the %i0e &own%a$$s %or a minister the %irst %o'r are the same as abo0e 7co'nte& as :G<8( b't instea& o% wrong 0iews we %in& 7?@8 &estroying a town 7or co'ntry8 with an army. 3 The eight principa$ transgressions o% or&inary peop$e 7practising the bo&hisatt0a path8 are# 7??8 to teach emptiness to those whose min& is not prepare&( 7?H8 to create obstac$es %or the &harma [practice! o% the great 0ehic$e( 7?E8 to 7ma5e someone8 engage in the 6ahayana whi$e gi0ing 'p the se$% $iberation 0ows( 7?*8 to inA stigate others to aban&on the &harma o% the sma$$er 0ehic$eEI( 7?,8 to &enigrate others in or&er to obtain praise an& %ame( 7?:8 to $ie saying that one has rea$ise& emptiness when one has not( 7?I8 to pass on the &onations gi0en to the [Three! >ewe$s to someone who is not worthy to recei0e them( 7?;8 to ta5e away the pro0isions o% a me&itator who then has to aban&on [his practice o%! me&itati0e absorption an& to gi0e them to someone who is C'st &oing recitations witho't %aith. These are the eighteen root &own%a$$s concerning the [bo&hisatt0a! 0ows. "% s'ch a transgression has occ'rre&( one wi$$ %a$$ into A0ici( the he$$ o% 'nspea5ab$e torment. 7"n or&er to p'ri%y these acts8 con%ess these &own%a$$s again an& again in %ront o% the bo&hisatt0a A5ashagarbha 7Nam5ai NyingpoE;8 an& promise to 5eep the 0ows. "n brie%( yo' sho'$& ne0er e0en aban&on someone whom yo' consi&er as an enemy( 7b't remain open %or when8 the time wi$$ come that he nee&s yo'r he$p. -ith this attit'&e lay open and confess all the transgressions as e2A p$aine& concerning the bodhisatt,a training' The con%ession o% transgressions concerning the 0ows o% the tantrayanaE<# These 0ows sho'$& not be e2p$aine& in p'b$ic or to 'nprepare&( %eeb$e min&e& peop$e. /o' sho'$& 5eep them secret in yo'r min&. The ?* root &own%a$$s o% the mantrayana are# 7?8 to &isrespect the $ama( 7H8 to transgress the )'&&haFs wor&( 7E8 to be angry at oneFs [0aCra! brothers an& sisA ters( 7*8 to gi0e 'p $o0e an& 7,8 to gi0e 'p bo&hicitta( 7:8 to &isrespect 7non4b'&&hist8 spirit'a$ teachings( 7I8 to &isc$ose secrets 7o% the 0aCrayana transmission8( 7;8 to &espise the , aggregates*@( 7<8 to &isbe$ie0e p're &harmas*?(

5

7?@8 to ha0e $o0e %or ma$icio's ones*H( 7??8 to app$y &isc'rsi0e concepts to what is %ree*E( 7?H8 to create regret in those who ha0e %aith( 7?E8 not to re$y on samaya s'bstances**( 7?*8 to &isrespect women 7or men8. "% yo' 5eep the tantric 0ows( they wi$$ be the root o% a$$ accomp$ishments. "% yo' &amage them( they are the root o% a$$ %a'$ts an& &own%a$$s. J$e&ging to them( they are the root o% a$$ samayas. That is why they are [ca$$e&! the ?* root &own%a$$s o% the mantrayana. The [transgressions o% the! eight secon&ary 0ows are# 7?8 to re$y on a wis&om $a&y 7or partner8 who is not mat're( 7H8 to +'arre$ at the time o% the tsog gathering( 7E8 to accept nectar with improper characteristics*,( 7*8 not to teach the secret mantra to those who are %itting 0esse$s( 7,8 not to teach the nob$e &harma to those who ha0e %aith*:( 7:8 to stay se0en &ays together with a shra0a5a who is stri0ing towar&s persona$ bene%it*I( 7I8 to boast abo't being a 1tantri5a1 whi$e not ha0ing the primor&ia$ awareA ness o% the yoga*;( 7;8 to e2p$ain the &harma to 'n%it 0esse$s. These are the secon&ary tantric 0ows. 3or this reason lay open and confess the samaya damages of the secret mantraF the 2E root downfalls o% the mantrayana( and the transgressions of the eight secondary ,ows'

lay open and confess all harmful deeds which did not understand to be harmfulF the non3,irtuous deeds that ha,e committed due to not re9uesting ,ows and all e,il deeds of which was not aware of as actu­ ally being harmful, li(e impure conduct )se+ual acti,ity*, drin(ing alcohol and so on &'e to &esire' lay open and confess the serious transgressions and downfalls due to recei,ing the refuge o% a genyen*<, ,ows, initiations and so on, but not (nowing to (eep the respecti,e ,ows and commitments' /ince a confession will not purify if there is no regret, confess with great remorse, with shame, and with despair at my pre,ious harmful deeds, as if poison had attained the depth of my being' This is app$ying the
1%orce o% repentance1 in re$ation to o'r pre0io's acts.

/ince there will be no purification if am not (eeping to my ,ows from now on, promise in my mind, from today onwards, ne,er to commit non3,irtuous acti,ity e,en at the cost of my life' This is app$ying the
1%orce o% ren'nciation1 by 5eeping the 0ows present in o'r min& %rom now on. 3or a tr'e con%ession these two [%orces! are 0ery important.

?lease, /ugata Measureless 5ight and your heirs, grant your blessing so that my stream of being may be completely purified'
This conc$'&es the branch o% con%ession. F#)rt" bra !": R$*#i!i '

<hen hear about others who ha,e accomplished wholesome acts, $i5e sprea&ing the teaching o% the 0ictoriA o's ones an& erecting s'pports o% en$ightene& bo&y( speech an& min& etc.( abandon all unwholesome thoughts of @ealousy and re@oice in their deeds with heartfelt @oy, which is said to ma(e us progressi0e$y obtain a merit e9ual to theirs'
A pre0io's )'&&ha together with his retin'e was in0ite& by a 5ing %or a mea$. At that occasion( when he was reA +'este& to &e&icate the roots o% 0irt'e( the )'&&ha sai&# 1Great ing( since yo'r aspiration to per%orm 0irt'o's &ee&s is sma$$( the roots o% 0irt'e [o% this %east! wi$$ be obtaine& by this o$& mother ne2t to yo' who rea$$y reCoices.1

0or this reason, since it is $i5e this( re@oice in whate,er ,irtuous deeds are accomplished by realised and ordinary beings' also re@oice in the ,ast acti,ity accomplished for the benefit of beings due to de,eloping the mind of su­ preme unsurpassable enlightenment' re@oice in gi,ing up the ten unwholesome and performing the ten wholesome actsF the three 0irt'o's acts with the bo&y which are to protect the life of others, to gi,e offerings, and to (eep oneIs ,ows= the %o'r 0irt'A o's acts with speech which are to spea( the truth, to reconcile ad,ersaries, to spea( peacefully, gently and sincerely, and to engage in con,ersations which are meaningful= an& the %o'r 0irt'o's acts with the min& which are to ha,e little desire, to culti,ate lo,e and compassion and to gi0e 'p erroneo's 0iews 7$i5e %or e2A amp$e8 abo't acts an& their conse+'ences 75arma8 which ma5e &harma practice impossib$e an& to practise the Dharma C in all these ,irtuous acts re@oice'
6

Fi(t" bra !": R$+)$sti ' t# t)r t"$ W"$$, #( D"ar-a

e+hort all those perfect buddhas who dwell in all the myriad worlds of the ten directions to 9uic(ly and e+tensi,ely turn the wheel of dharma without waiting any longer' Jraying $i5e this# ?lease be aware of this re9uest with your clair,oyant mind'
Si.t" bra !": Pra/i ' t"at t"$ b)%%"as -a/ #t 0ass b$/# % s)(($ri '

supplicate all the buddhas, bodhisatt,as, holders of the teaching, and spiritual friends who intend to go beyond suffering to remain and not pass into nir,ana'
S$1$ t" bra !": D$%i!ati#

On the basis of this ,ery act, dedicate all ,irtuous acts of the three times for the benefit of all sentient be­ ings' De&icating the roots o% 0irt'e in this way wi$$ m'$tip$y the 0irt'e a h'n&re& tho'san& times.

THE THIRD CAUSE: DEVELOPING THE MIND OF SUPREME ENLIGHTENMENT
May all of us( myse$% an& other sentient beings( be $iberate& %rom samsara an& 9uic(ly obtain unsurpassable enlightenment, thus stirring the three realms of samsara from their depth' May these ,irtuous deeds 9uic(ly ripen for me and pacify the eighteen causes of untimely death in this life s'ch as being 5i$$e& thro'gh %ire( water( poison( arms( e0i$4&oers( wi$& anima$s an& so on' May be endowed with the physical strength of a healthy adolescent in full bloom' May the wealth that is in accor&ance with the &harma ne,er decline, but increase as the ri,er >anges in the monsoon' May practise the noble dharma without danger through demons or enemies' May all my wishes be fulfilled in accordance with the dharma' May be of great benefit for the teaching and for beings' May accomplish the true meaning of this human e+istence'
This conc$'&es the 7teaching on the8 thir& ca'se.

THE FOURTH CAUSE: MAKING DEDICATIONS AND WISHES TO BE BORN IN DEWACHEN
a2 Wis"$s t# '# t# D$3a!"$

At the ,ery moment when and all those who ha,e a connection with me pass beyond this life, may the emanation of :uddha Amitabha surrounded by his retinue of a sangha of practitioners of ,irtue actually come to meet us witho't any 7o% the common8 bar&o appearances' On seeing him, may our mind be happy and @oyful, and may there be no more suffering of death' May at the time o% o'r &eath by the force of their miraculous powers the eight bodhisatt,a brothers appear in the s(y in %ront( and guide us indicating the path to Dewachen'
To be attache& to wea$th an& re$ati0es at that time wo'$& ma5e me %a$$ bac5 into samsara. To a0oi& this re%$ect on non4attachment# The suffering in the lower realms is unbearable, and the @oy and well3being of gods and humans is impermanent C understanding this, may de,elop a fearful mind and right now de,elop disgust

with samsara that had to be endured from beginningless time until now' !,en those who go from one supreme human life to another e+perience countless times 7the s'%%erings o%8 birth, old age, illness and death' n these difficult, degenerate times when there are many obstacles and the well3being and happiness of humans and gods are similar to food mi+ed with poison, may ha,e not e,en a hair tip of attachment' May be free of e,en the slightest attachment to the relati,es, food, wealth and companions o% this $i%e, which are impermanent and illusory li(e a dream' May understand the countries, places and lodgings o% this $i%e to ha,e no real e+istence @ust li(e the places and houses in my dreams'
7

5i(e a criminal liberated from prison, may C without e,er loo(ing bac( C at the time o% &eath escape from this ocean of samsara that (nows no freedom to the pure realm of Dewachen' #a,ing cut all lin(s of attachment and desire, may fly off in space @ust li(e a ,ulture freed from a net and instantly reach Dewachen tra,elling beyond the countless uni,erses in the <estern direction'
b2 Wis"$s (#r #)r 0ra!ti!$ i D$3a!"$ Ha0ing manage& to reach Dewachen witho't obstac$es# May see the face of :uddha Measureless 5ight who

is actually dwelling there and purify all my ,eils' May ta(e the superior of the four (inds of birth which are# birth %rom an egg( %rom a womb( %rom warmth an& moist're( an& mirac'$o's 7instantaneo's8 birth, and be miraculously born from the heart of a lotus flower' Obtaining in one instant the completely perfect body, may recei,e a body endowed with all the mar(s and the signs 7o% a )'&&ha8. f now doubt and hesitate won&ering( i% " am to be born there in Dewachen, the blossom of the flower will not open for up to J88 years, but inside of it will be happy and content with all en@oyments' !,en though will hear the word of the :uddha, may this disad,antage of delayed meeting with the :uddhaKs face not happen to me'
Since we might not yet be a 7rea$ise&8 bo&hisatt0a the 0ery moment we are born insi&e the %$ower( re$ying on the teachings o% the )'&&ha 7Amitabha8( we ma5e the %o$$owing prayer to obtain the pristine awareness o% a Nob$e One,@# May the flower open as soon as am born so that may see the face of Amitabha'

:y the force of my merit and magical powers, may inconcei,able clouds of offerings emanate from the palms of my hands as offerings to the :uddha and his retinue' May at that moment the tathagata stretch out his right hand, place it on my head, and may obtain his prophecy of enlightenment# 1"n the %'t're yo' wi$$ obtain comp$ete en$ightenment.1 #a,ing listened to the Dharma, which is profound in 0iew and ,ast in con&'ct, may my mind ripen and be liberated' &henre6i and "a@rapani being the principal bodhisatt,as 7o% AmitabhaFs retin'e8, may be blessed and guided by these two' !,ery day countless buddhas and bodhisatt,as %rom the rea$ms of the ten directions come to ma(e offer­ ings and see Amitabha in this land' At that time, when they arri0e( may myse$% pay homage to all of them and obtain the nectar of the dharma'
!2 Wis"$s !# !$r i ' "#3 #)r +)a,iti$s -a i($st i D$3a!"$

Through my limitless magical powers, which are present( i% one s'ccee&s in being born in Dewachen( may go in the morning G when the bir&s start singing an& a great rain o% %$owers is showere& &own by the win& G towards the realm of True #appiness in the Eastern &irection, to the >lorious 5and in the So'th, to [the lands] /u­ preme Acti,ity in the North( and Dense Array in the Centre' May re9uest initiations, blessings and ,ows of the buddhas A(shobya, Ratnasambha,a, Amoghasiddhi, "airocana etc' who &we$$ in those rea$ms, ma(e many offerings, and in the e,ening G when the bir&s stop singing an& the %$ower rain has become o$& G without any effort return bac5 to Dewachen itself' There are a billion realms of pure emanations C such as the lands of ?otala in the So'th, Ala(a,ati in the North, %ura,a in the So'thwest, and the land of Lrgyen in the -est C with a billion 7emanations o%8 &henre6i, Tara, "a@rapani, and ?admasambha,a who resi&e in those $an&s' May encounter them and ma(e oceans of offerings, re9uest initiations and profound pith instructions, and then again 9uic(ly return without any obstacle to my place in Dewachen' -hen we ha0e s'ccee&e& to ta5e birth in Dewachen# May clearly see with my di,ine eye all the close friends, mon(s and students and so on whom " ha0e C'st $e%t behin& in the h'man rea$m, and may be able to guard and protect a$$ o% them, bestow blessings and at the time of their death guide them to this land'

8

This ;0ortunate Aeon; right now that lasts for one great aeon e9uals only a single day in Dewachen C may li,e countless Dewachen aeons without e,er dying and continuously remain in this land' 0rom Maitreya 7the ne2t b'&&ha8 to MMpa 7Thaye8, the final one o% a$$ the b'&&has who wi$$ come one a%ter the other one into the %ort'nate 5a$pa o% this present wor$&, may see all the buddhas of the 0ortunate Aeon when they appear in this world' <ith my magical powers, may go %rom Dewachen to meet these buddhas, ma(e offerings to them and listen to the noble dharma, and then again, without any obstacles, return to the pure land of Dewachen' To be born in Dewachen is simi$ar to the capacity to be born in a$$ other p're rea$ms( since Dewachen unites the totality of all 9ualities of the buddha realms of eighty one billion trillion buddhas' May be reborn in this land of Dewachen, outstandingly supreme among all pure lands'
This conc$'&es the e2p$anation on how we obtain the +'a$ities a%ter ha0ing manage& to be born in this p're $an&. %2 Wis"$s i r$,ati# t# t"$ #)t$r +)a,iti$s #( t"is r$a,-

The ground which is made of 0ario's @ewels is as smooth as the palm of a hand and ,ast, spacious and ra­ diant C bla6ing with light rays' <hen it is pressed down 7on wa$5ing8, it gi,es way %o'r %ingers &eep each time, and on lifting up 7oneFs %oot8, it is as i% the gro'n& rebounds' May be reborn in this @oyful, pleasant land of happiness' There are wish fulfilling trees made of many @ewels with lea,es of fine sil( and fruits ornamented with @ewels' On them gather floc(s of emanation birds, which are 0ery bea'ti%'$ in their co$o'rs o% 0ario's 5in&s o% Cewe$s an& chant in ,ery agreeable an& p$easant ways( proclaiming the sounds of the profound and ,ast dharma C may be reborn in this land of great wonders' The many ri,ers( a$$ water c'rrents( are of perfumed water with the eight 9ualitiesJ2 and the water in the bathing ponds is of nectar t'rning in circ'$ar mo0ement' They are surrounded by stairs and cornices made of the se,en (inds of @ewels and display insi&e fragrant lotus flowers bearing fruit and emanating countless rays of lotus light' The tips of the light rays are adorned with emanated buddhas C may be reborn in this land of greatest mar,el'
$2 Wis"$s (#r #)r 0ra!ti!$ #( t"$ %"ar-a

May be born in this 5and of >reat Hoy, where e,en the words ;eight unfitting conditions; %or &harma practice( $i5e being reborn in the he$$ rea$ms an& so on( or ;hell; are unheard of G e0en on searching we wo'$& not %in& them G and where ne,er any suffering is (nown, neither are the fi,e or three emotions that are li(e poisons G &esire, anger an& ignorance ma5ing three( p$'s pri&e an& Cea$o'sy G nor the *@* 5in&s o% sic(ness, mental illness, enemies, po,erty, 9uarrels, and so on' May be born in this land of limitless 9ualities where there are no or&inary beings( no men or women, no beings born from a womb, since all are noble beings born from within lotus flowers' #ere in this $an& all bodies o% myse$% an& others are without any difference, of golden colour, endowed with the mar(s and signs 7o% a b'&&ha8, li(e the top(not on their head and so on, possessing all fi,e special powers G the capaA
cities o% c$air0oyance( c$aira'&ience( per%orming mirac$es( remembering pre0io's e2istences( an& 5nowing the min& o% others G and the fi,e eyes G the physica$ eye( the &i0ine eye( the eye o% the &harma( the wis&om eye( an& the eye o% pristine awareness'

<hate,er desire and thin( of, palaces( a$$ ho'ses an& &we$$ing p$aces in this $an&( made of a ,ariety of @ew­ els and all en@oyments arise by themsel,es= no effort is necessary, all needs are spontaneously fulfilled' There is no distinction between you and me, no clinging to a self' All my wishes manifest as offering clouds arising from the palm of my hand, and e,eryone practises the dharma of the unsurpassable >reat "ehicle C may be born in this realm, source of all bliss and happiness' A fragrant bree6e again an& again brings great showers of flowers, and time a%ter time from the trees, ri,ers and lotus flowers arise heaps of clouds with all sorts of en@oymentsF agreeable shapes, sounds, smells, tastes and touches' There are no women, but an abundance of emanated goddesses' These many offering goddesses continuously present offerings to me an& others'
9

At the time when wish to stay somewhere, @ewel palaces appear, and when wish to sleep, beautiful thrones arise, co,ered with many pillows and cushions of fine sil( to p$ace my hea&, together with birds, wish fulfilling trees, ri,ers, music, and so on' <hen wish to listen to them, they emanate the pleasant sound of dharma, and when do not want to hear them( beca'se " wish to s$eep or to me&itate in sama&hi, no sound( not e0en the s$ightest( is heard' Also the ponds and ri,ers are e+actly as wish, cold or warm, @ust as it is pleasing to me C may be born in this land where all wishes are fulfilled'
(2 Wis"$s !# !$r i ' t"$ a!ti1it/ #( t"$ b)%%"as i D$3a!"$ /o' might won&er( %or how $ong Amitabha wi$$ remain in this $an&B The perfect buddha Measureless 5ight will remain in this land for countless aeons, without going into -ir,ana C may act as his ser,ant an& he$per

for all this time' Lntil his %ina$ passing into peace when his en$ightene& bo&y enters nir0ana( after two times the number of ae­ ons as there are sand particles in the >anges, his teaching will not &ec$ine b't remain. At that time may myse$% not be separated from his 7AmitabhaFs8 regent &henre6i and uphold the noble dharma' <hen at dus( the sun of the dharma is setting, which means that the teaching perio& o% Amitabha reaches its en& as i% it became e0ening %or beings( the ,ery ne+t morning G as i% it was the brea5 o% the ne2t &ay,H G wi$$ arise the time o% ChenreDiFs teaching an& &henre6i will be a perfect buddha an& act as s'ch. #e will be name& the ;%ing whose light rays manifest the accumulated /plendour of all -oble Ones;J.' <hen this happens, may see his face an& worship him, ma(e offerings and listen to the noble dharma' During the si+ty3si+ trillion million aeons that he( the )'&&ha 1 ing o% acc'm'$ate& Sp$en&o'r1( will li,e, may continuously be his ser,ant, o%%ering my ser0ices in e0ery way( worship him and uphold the noble dharma without e,er forgetting to remember his words' After he( the en$ightene& bo&y o% )'&&ha Acc'm'$ate& Sp$en&o'r( has passed into nir,ana, his teaching will remain for three times si+ hundred billion million aeons C may uphold the nob$e dharma during all this time and ne,er be separated from his regent the bo&hisatt0a "a@rapani' <hen the bo&hisatt0a "a@rapani becomes the buddha ca$$e& ;&ompletely reliable Tathagata %ing of abund­ ant @ewel3li(e 9ualities; with a life span and teaching @ust as those of &henre6i, may we 798 continuously be the ser,ants of this buddha as well, present our offerings and uphold all the noble dharma' <hen( at the en& o% this perio&( that form of my presence is o,er, may instantly obtain unsurpassable per­ fect buddhahood in this or one of the other pure realms' #a,ing obtained perfect buddhahood, may all beings C @ust as with Amitayus C be ripened and liberated by simply hearing my name, and may there arise, through countless emanations that guide sentient beings and through other means, spontaneously and without effort a limitless benefit for beings'
Again( [an e2p$anation o% the bene%its o%! paying respect to Lama Amitabha an& his retin'e whi$e remembering their 5in&ness# The buddhaKs life span is beyon& meas're, his merit is beyon& meas're, his 9ualities are beyA on& meas're, and his pristine awareness as well as his splendour are beyond measure, and it is said that someone whosoe0er remembers his name C be it Dharma(aya 5imitless Radiance, Measureless 5ight

)Amitabha* or :haga,an of mmeasurable 5ife and ?rimordial <isdom )Amitayus* C will be protected against all dangers through fire, water, poisons, weapons, e,il doers, demons, and so on, with the only e+­ ception of the full 7'na0oi&ab$e8 ripening of pre,ious (arma' :y remembering Bour name and prostrating, please protect us from all dangers and sufferings and grant your blessing of e+cellent auspiciousness'
'2 C# !,)%i ' 3is"$s Jroc$aiming the wor&s o% tr'th as part o% &oing wishing prayers# Through the blessing of the :uddha who has

mastered the three bodies, through the blessing of the unchanging truth of the nature of all things )dharmata*, and through the blessing of the undi,ided aspiration of the sangha, may all prayers be accom­ plished @ust as wished' prostrate to the Three Hewels' T!BAT#A ?!-T/A- DR BA A<A :#OD#A-AB! /O#A'
This conc$'&es the practice o% the wishing prayer.
10

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS AND COLOPHON prostrate to the three @ewels' -e recite these wor&s %rom F" prostrate...F ti$$ F...shriye sohaF. -hen reciting -AMO MA-HL/#R B! we Coin o'r han&s an& c$ear$y imagine that we prostrate with the bo&y so that this bo&y becomes the gro'n& which is the basis o% 6anC'shri. -hen saying -AMO /L/#R B! we prostrate so that o'r speech becomes the gro'n& %or the sp$en&o'r o% b$iss. Saying -AMO LTAMA /#R B! /O#A we prostrate so that o'r min& become the
sp$en&o'r o% the g'r'Fs min&. As we proc$aim this meaning%'$ mantra( ma5ing three prostrations( it is sai& that they are m'$tip$ie& a mi$$ion times. At best one &oes h'n&re&s o% prostrations( with an a0erage moti0ation one &oes as m'ch as one can( b't at $east one sho'$& o%%er se0en prostrations. The best wo'$& be to recite this Dewachen prayer witho't interr'ption as a &ai$y practice( a mi&&$ing 0ersion wo'$& be to recite it %or one year or one month witho't interr'ption( an& the $east wo'$& be to recite it occasiona$$y. "% one t'rns towar&s the -est an& remembers the p're $an& o% Dewachen whi$e Coining oneFs han&s towar&s Amitabha an& reciting the prayer with one4pointe& %aith( then there is no &o'bt that obstac$es to oneFs present $i%e wi$$ be &ispe$$e& an& that in the %'t're one wi$$ be reborn in Dewachen. This is what is e2presse& in the Amitabha S'tra( the J're Lan& S'tra( the -hite Lot's S'tra( the [s'tra!1So'n& o% the &r'm o% immorta$ity1( an& so on. This was compose& by the mon5 Raga Asye [ arma Chagme!. 6ay it ser0e as a ca'se %or the rebirth in Dewachen o% many sentient beings9 This per%ect$y conc$'&es the e2p$anaA tion. At the en& 7o% the prayer8 one sho'$& &we$$ witho't any re%erence point( an& then ma5e &e&ications( wishing prayA ers an& prayers o% a'spicio'sness as the %ina$ ornament o% oneFs practice. "t is 0ery important to contin'o's$y p'riA %y the rea$m,*( to connect with it an& in this way train onese$% in the p're 0ision o% remembering this p're $an&. A s'pp$ementary wish# 6ay a$$ beings be $iberate& into the $ot's %ami$y by c$ear$y reCoicing in the name o% the $oA t's( the aspiration path to the $an& o% the $ot's arrangement( where the regents o% the $ot's proc$aim a$$ 5in&s o% e2A ce$$ent &harma. Lama Je4tse an& the no0ice LobDang Knchog ha0e enco'rage& an& incite& me together with DroDa Tashi Tse5yi( th's creating a %a0o'rab$e occasion where the con&itions came together to compose the secon& te2t to accomp$ish this p're $an&( the prayer te2t o% the practice itse$%. Then( a$tho'gh he was a$rea&y engage& in other acti0ities $i5e e2p$aining an& $istening to the &harma( Jema Namgya$ who is ho$&ing the 0ows bro'ght %orth the s'perior moti0aA tion an& wrote &own this te2t. 6ay a$$ 0irt'e increase9

N#t$s:

11

1

Square brackets '[...]' indicate missing words added for the understanding of the text; normal brackets '(...)' indicate additional explanations given by Lama Lhundrup. Everything written in italics belongs to the commentary (small Tibetan script in the original) and everything in normal script is part of the prayer itself (larger Tibetan script). 4 Raga Asye is another name for Karma Chagme Rinpoche . All dharma or all my dharma teaching, since in one Tibetan version the texts reads: nga-yi chös. E Dewachen in Tibetan is alternatively spelled bde-ba-can or bde-ba-chen and is thus translated either as the Land of Bliss or the Land of Great Bliss. J Equal to space means that sentient beings are countless and that all space of the universe is inhabited by sentient beings. A A three-thousandfold world system, a trichiliocosm, is a universe of 1.000.000.000 planetary systems (one thousand multiplied by one thousand multiplied by one thousand). 1 In this auto-commentary Karma Chagme Rinpoche gives each word of the whole prayer text (normal script) and interposes his explanations of varying length (italics) while uniting prayer and commentary into one grammatical structure. This is a the traditional Tibetan way of giving a word by word commentary. 7 The activity of Buddha Measureless Light (Tibetan: Öpame, Sanskrit: Amitabha) is the source and central inspiration of the pure realm called Dewachen. G The King who has the Wheel with the Spokes, Tibetan: Gyalpo Tsib-kyi Mu-khyü-chen. 28 Buddha Jewel Essence, Tibetan: Rinchen Nyingpo. 22 Noble ones (Sanskrit: Aryas) refers to realised beings that understand the nature of mind. 24 Subduer (Sanskrit: Bhagavan), Victorious One (Sanskrit: Jina). 2. Shamtab: a robe covering the lower part of the body. 2E Upper garment refers to large saffron yellow cotton cloth wound around the shoulders (a getsul zen, Tibetan: bla-gos), sign of the novice ordination. A gelong zen is an almost identical yellow cloth which is the sign of the full ordination as a buddhist monk (Tibetan: snam-sbyar). 2J The eight great disciples of Buddha Shakyamuni (Tibetan: nye-bai-sräs-chän-bgyäd) are his most eminent bodhisattva disciples: Manjushri, Vajrapani (Thu-thob-chen), Avalokiteshvara (Chenrezi), Kshitigarbha, Sarvanirvana Viskambhin, Akashagarbha, Maitreya, and Samantabhadra, 2A Both bodhisattvas are standing next to Amitabha's throne. 21 To describe them as being like the king of mountains means that they are towering, unshakeable, and indestructible. 27 Gelong bodhisattvas have taken the full monk or nun vows as an expression of their bodhisattva commitment. 2G There are two spellings in different Tibetan texts: "reg" meaning to touch, and "rig" meaning to know. 48 This means without considering Amitabha to be far away and wishing that he would be nearer by. 42 Limitless Radiance (Tibetan: Nangwa Thayä) is another name of Amitabha. 44 Padmasambhava and Orgyen Rinpoche are further names of Guru Rinpoche who was the central figure in bringing the dharma to Tibet. 4. The extremes of samsara are all forms of clinging to existence, non-existence and so on. 4E Someone gone to bliss (Sanskrit: sugata) is a fully accomplished buddha. 4J In the usual list we find the bilwa fruit instead of kusha grass. 4A The list usually includes at this place a medicine made from elephant brain. 41 The Tibetan text has nyi-ma which means sun, but usually there would be nya-ma, fish, which stands for two golden fishes. 47 Nagas are beings of the animal realm, some of which have half human, half fish or serpent form. 4G In the usual list of the 5 extreme crimes of immediate retribution one includes creating a schism in the sangha instead of killing the teacher. .8 Arhat stands here for any realised being including bodhisattvas. .2 Three realms refers to the desire, form and formless realms which together make up the whole universe. .4 The self liberation vows are called outer vows because they concern the outer level of our existence, our visible behaviour. .. The following five categories are a summarised list of transgressions of the vows of buddhist monks. .E The four negative actions are called the four "black dharmas" in Tibetan. They are explained in the next paragraph. .J The superior ones are bodhisattvas and all the people who have taught us : our parents, teachers, etc. .A To steal the wealth of the jewels is for example misusing donations given to a community of practitioners or to destroy and rob the precious items found in a temple or monastery etc. .1 For example by claiming that the smaller vehicle does not lead to liberation from emotions. .7 Akashagarbha is one of the eight bodhisattvas belonging to the sangha of the Buddha. Here he represents this sangha. .G Tantrayana, mantrayana and vajrayana are synonyms. The explanations given here belong more specifically to the anuttara yoga tantra, the highest form of tantra. E8 To despise the five aggregates means to despise one's body and mind.

E2

To disbelieve pure dharmas : the Tibetan word chö also means phenomena, so this can also mean to regard phenomena as impure when, in the tantra, they are considered as being pure by nature. 42 To have love for malicious ones means to engage in close friendship with people whose views are against the dharma and who intend to harm. 43 One should not apply discursive concepts on what is free of them by nature, on ultimate truth for example. EE Not to rely on samaya substances means not to accept even a tiny bit of a tsog substance because of for example a personal dietary choice against meat or alcohol. EJ To accept dütsi with improper characteristics means dütsi which is received from an improper consort. EA Not to teach the dharma also means not to answer to sincere questions on the dharma, but to turn them into derision. E1 To stay seven days together with a shravaka who is striving towards a personal benefit is a transgression because one might be influenced to rely on a lower vehicle; also the shravaka might be disturbed in his practice. E7 Yoga refers hear to the union of wisdom and means. EG Genyen means friend of virtue and refers to the first level of vows of a lay practitioner. J8 A noble One is here a bodhisattva on the first level of enlightenment (bhumi) which is equivalent to the full entry into Dewachen. J2 The eight qualities of pure water are: sweet, refreshing, mild, light, clear, pure, agreeable to the throat and to the stomach. J4 This image of the dusk of Amitabha's teaching immediately followed by the dawn of Chenrezi's teaching means that there will be no night, no extinction of the teaching. J. n TibetanF Öser Kün-nas Pagpayi Paltsek Gyalpo JE To continuously purify the realm means to make more and more pure aspirations.

Translation by Lama Sönam Lhundrup and others, Karmapa Translation Committee, Dhagpo Kündröl Ling, Octobre 2001

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