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English Grammar

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TENSES
Simple Present I You We - They = V.1 He She It - = V+ s
Present Continuous


I always go to work at seven clock. She usually cooks nice meals. Ahmed writes his homework everyday. I am studying English now. They are watching at the moment. Look ! the boy is playing with the knife . I haven't finished my homework yet. They have just gone to the market. Ali has not come yet. I have been working here since 2002.


always usually often sometimes never every/day /year/summer. now look listen at the moment at the present time already - just - yet recently - never - ever

I = am + V. + ing You We They = are + v + ing He She It = is + V+ ing Present Perfect I You We They = have + V.3 He She It = has + V.3
Present Perfect Cont.

I- You-We-They= have been+V+ing


He She It = has been +V+ ing

for since yesterday ago once in the past last This morning in 2012 While When as

He has been living in Kuwait for ten years. Ali bought a new car three days ago. We played tennis last Friday. When the bell rang , we were studying. While I was playing football , I fell down. He had booked a room before he traveled to London . After I had written my homework I went out. I will travel to London next year. We will go to the club tomorrow By the end of this month we will have finished all the exams.
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Simple Past V.2 = played went

Past Continuous You We They =were +V+ing I She He It = was + V+ing Past Perfect had + V.3 Future Simple

after before until as soon as - when tomorrow soon shortly in the future in 2020 this evening next by this by the end of

will + V.1 Future Perfect will have + V.3

If

will + V1 would+ V1

1- If you study hard , you will pass the exam . If she studies hard , she will pass the exam. 2- If you studied hard , you would pass the exam.

3- If you had studied hard , you would have passed the exam .would have + V3.

The driver would have avoided the accident if he had been more careful.

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Negation

: not -1 am -is are-was-ere-has-have- hadcancould-willwould-shall-should- mustmay- might Ex. - He can swim . He can not swim . (can't) ( Make negative ) They are playing. They are not playing . (aren't)
.)s ( ) doesn't ( ) s( -2

Ex.

Ali plays football . Ali doesn't play football .

.) don't ( ( s( -3

Ex. I go to the club . I don't go to the club. .) didn't( -4 Ex. She cooked lunch. She didn't cook lunch. I bought some books. I didnt buy any books. ) always usually sometimes ( -5 ) s ( never Ex. She always gets up late . She never gets up late . ________________________________________________
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) ( Ask a question


-1 :

am -is are-was-were-has-have- hadcancould-will-would-shall-should- mustmay- might.

Ex.

He can swim . ?Can he swim == They are playing tennis in the club. ? Where are they playing tennis

: .

Ex.

-2 ( )s ( )does ( )s . Ali travels to London every summer. ? When does Ali travel to London -3 ( ( s ( )do .

Ex.

== I go to the club twice a week. ? How often do you go to the club

: ) ) I ( (we (( you

-4 ( )did .

Ex.

== We went to London by plane . : ( ( my ( )our ) ) your ? How did you go to London

Where When What Why Who Which Whose

() () () ( ) (( ( ) ()

How much How many How long How often How far How old How

()

Do Does Did

) No or Yes ( .

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) Tag Questions) ) (
You are a student ,..arent you.? . -1 You are not Ali,are you.? . , -2 Ali is not here ,..is he..? . -3 Huda is clever ,..isn't..she..? . -4

(Tag Questions(
Huda can swim , can't she? You can't speak Spanish , can you? Ali will come soon , won't he ? He won't travel next summer , will he ? I am not a doctor , am I ? He has finished his homework, hasn't he ? He has a car, doesn't he ? She's gone to school, hasnt she ? She's playing tennis, isn't she ? Mary doesn't know Arabic , does she? Your father went to the mosque ,didn't he? We don't go to school on Fridays , do we ? Students go to school on Sunday , don't they? I I'd better sleep early , hadn't I ? I I'd rather go home, wouldn't I? ( I'd better = I had better) ) I'd rather = I would rather)


Let's go shopping ,shall we? Let us go shopping, will you? Open the door ,will you? )( Dont Open the door , will you ? I am a student , aren't I ? 6555 1170
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Comparison
( Comparative 2 ) as as as fast as as big as as heavy as as as as as as as modern common beautiful important as as as as

& ( Superlative 2 ( 2 est the fastest the biggest the heaviest the most

2 er faster than bigger than heavier than more than more more more more

modern than the most common common than the most modern beautiful than the most beautiful important than the most important Irregular Adjectives ( comparative & superlative )
Comparative
better better worse less more further farther elder older

Adjective
good well (healthy) bad a little much - many far far old (people in a family) old (general use)

Superlative
the best the best the worst the least the most the furthest the farthest the eldest the oldest

Example
Sara is the best girl at school. fruit is better than sweets. He is the worst driver Ive ever seen. Food is less important than water. Water is the most important thing in life. My house is the furthest one. My house is farther than yours. Bader is my elder brother. Ali is older than Hamad.

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Personal Pronouns
Personal Pronouns Subject form Object form


Reflexive Pronouns

I you he she it we you they

me you him her it us you them

Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns possessive possessive pronoun adjective

my your his her its our your their

mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs

myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves ourselves themselves


:

Examples: My house is on the corner. The house on the corner is mine. He wants to borrow my book. We liked that movie, it was really funny. I so appreciated his helping out. I made it for you and me. Their mocking of him was inappropriate. She gave me her book. It is not difficult. I can answer it by myself. Did you write your homework yourself? Write your homework yourselves. We can paint the kitchen ourselves. I made the cake myself. They painted their house themselves. Ali solved the problem himself. John made himself pancakes for breakfast. My mom made this dress herself. The teacher read all of the essays himself.

I saw her book on your table. His hair is longer than hers. My dog is better than their dog. The kids are yours, mine, and ours. Whose book is on our desk? They are my birds. I like them. The house is theirs and its paint is flaking. Is his car really that fast? The money was really theirs not yours. We shall finally have what is rightfully ours. Their mother gets along well with yours. Your cat is pretty. Its eyes are blue. What's mine is yours, my friend. Never underestimate one's value to his family. Their singing inspired us very much. It is your cat. The cat is yours. My house is smaller than his. I appreciate your understanding of the matter.

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The Verb ( To be )
The forms of the verb (to be)

be
Base form

am is - are
Pronouns I You He/She/It We They I You He/She/It We They I You He/She/It We They be am are is are are was

Was - were
It can be simple. I am here. You are here. She is here. We are here. They are here. I was here. You were here. She was here. We were here. They were here. I will be here. You will be here. She will be here. We will be here. They will be here.

been

Simple Present

Simple Past

were was were were will be will be will be will be will be being been

Simple Future

Progressive form Perfect from

He is being taken to school by bus. It has been done.

The verb ( to be ) in passive Voice:


. . ) are (

:
) is ( - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5

) were ( ) was ( ) have has had ( ) been ( )being(

(to - shall - should - must - may- might - will - would - can - could ( ) be ) ) were - was are - is - am (

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The Verb
( have has ) had

( To have )

I you- we - they he - she - it

have has

had had
have - has

had had

having having

Do you have a car? Do they have a car? Do we have a car? Do the boys have a car Does he have a car? Does she have a car? Does Ali have a car?

I have a car. They have a car. You have a car. The boys have a car. He has a car. She has a car. Ali has a car. have got - has got

I dont have a car. They dont have a car. You dont have a car. The boys dont have a car. He doesnt have a car. She doesnt have a car. Ali doesnt have a car.

Have you got a car? Have they got a car? Have we got a car? Have the boys got a car? Has he got a car? Has she got a car? Has Ali got a car?

I have got a car. They have got a car. You have got a car. The boys have got a car. He has got a car. She has got a car. Ali has got a car. Have to

I havent got a car. They havent got a car. You havent got a car. The boys havent got a car. He hasnt got a car. She hasnt got a car. Ali hasnt got a car.

Do you have to go? Does he have to go? Did she have to go?

I have to go. He has to go. She had to go.

I dont have to go. He doesnt have to go She didnt have to go.

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Passive Voice

.
) are ( ) is ( - 1 ) were ( ) was ( - 2 (to - shall - should - must -may- might - will - would - can - could ( ) be ) - 3 ) have has had ( ) been ( - 4 ) were - was are - is - am ( ) being( - 5 . .

Examples:
1- We keep falcons for hunting. Falcons are kept for hunting . 2- I write my homework everyday. My homework is written everyday. 3- Thieves stole a precious painting from the museum. A precious painting was stolen from the museum. 4- The governments prepared our schools very well. Our schools were prepared very well. 5- The man will build a big house next year. A big house will be built next year. 6- Students should respect teachers. Teachers should be respected. 7- Huda has finished the exams. The exams have been finished. 8- We have finished the English exam. The English exam has been finished. 9- We are studying English now . English is being studied now . 10-We are playing many sports in the club. Many sports are being played in the club.

) was were ( ) is are ( ( has have ( : . 6555 1170


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Reported Speech

. , . . : Direct Speech I you we my our am is are will can have has this here now tomorrow yesterday today open )( dont Reported he she I- me us they his - her their was were would could had that there then the day after the day before that day Examples
" I am reading English now. " Ali said (that) he was reading English then . " We have won a prize " They said (that) they had won a prize. " I will travel with my father to London." He said he would travel with his father to London. " I can do my homework alone." Mary said( that) she could do her homework alone. " I will give you this book tomorrow ." he would give me that book the following day. " Don't speak up here ." The teacher ordered us ,not to speak up there. " We visited the zoo yesterday " They had visited the zoo the day before . " You are having an exam today." We were having an exam that day. He ordered me to open the window.

to open (to " (Open the window." not to If

do- does -did

" Do you speak English?" He asked me if I spoke English. " Where do you live ?" He asked me where I lived.

had+ V3

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Language Functions
Advice Agreement
I agree with you You are right Ok. Good idea


Apology
I'm sorry I 'm so sorry I didn't mean it

I advise you to + v You should + v It's better If I were you ,I would

Suggestion

Disagreement
I don't agree I disagree I'm not with you Rubbish No.

Preference

Let's + v How about +v +ing What about + v +ing Why don't you I suggest we + v

I prefer to I like more than I'd rather. I'd better.

Obligation
You must + V I have to + v You have to + V It is not allowed

Approval
Fantastic! Well done ! Excellent ! Great ! Good !

Gratitude

Thank you I can't thank you enough. I'm grateful

Opinion
In my opinion I think As I see

Disapproval
How could you It is bad Not good I don't like it

Prohibition
You mustn't you can't It is not allowed It is prohibited It is forbidden

Guessing
Perhaps It can be It could be Maybe I think

Blame

Indifference
It makes no difference to me It doesn't matter So what? Who cares? It is all the same to me

It is your fault You are to blame What have you done I blame you You are wrong

Request

Release from blame Surprise


Never mind Don't worry It is not your fault No problem Oh ! Really! I am amazed I was surprised

Can you ... Please? Could you .please? Can I .please? Would you mind +V+ ing

Warning
Don't .. Never. Be careful ! Look out ! It is dangerous.

Disbelief

Sympathy

I don't believe that Nonsense ! Rubbish ! You are joking You must be dreaming

How sad /terrible/awful I was shocked to hear .. I was so sorry to hear Poor ( name )

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Abbreviations and spelling

Abbreviations Long form Short form aren't isn't weren't wasn't don't doesn't didn't I'm he's I've I'd we're you're they're can't Sept. Dr. Let's TV Mr. Wed. Thurs. won't shan't )( )( 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Spelling Combine the following. country + s = family + s = city + s = wife + s = wolf + s = thief + s = go + s = fax + s = watch + s = wish + s = glass + s = fez + s = lie + ing = tie + ing = die + ing = live + ing = make + ing = travel + ed = swim + ing = hot + est = use + full = beauty + full try + ed = study + ed = pay +ed = countries families cities wives wolves thieves goes faxes watches wishes glasses fezzes lying tying dying living making travelled swimming hottest useful beautiful tried studied paid ( (

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

are not is not were not was not do not does not did not I am he is - he has I have I had I would we are you are they are cannot September Doctor Let us television Mister Wednesday Thursday will not shall not

she is she has she's

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Regular Verb

Meaning


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Meaning

Infinitive

Simple past admired arrived begged booked chewed cleaned closed cooled cried delivered excited finished flooded folded giggled glittered heated hunted introduced kissed laughed

Past Participle admired arrived begged booked chewed cleaned closed cooled cried delivered excited finished flooded folded giggled glittered heated hunted introduced kissed laughed

Infinitive lock move open pack paint play pray promise pull push race replace rush scold sigh smile start travel unite visit work

Simple past

Past Participle locked moved opened packed painted played prayed promised pulled pushed raced replaced rushed scolded sighed smiled started travelled united visited worked

locked moved opened packed painted played prayed promised pulled pushed raced replaced rushed scolded sighed smiled started travelled united visited worked

admire arrive beg book chew clean close cool cry deliver excite finish flood fold giggle glitter heat hunt introduce kiss laugh

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

6 7 8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19 20 21

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Irregular Verbs

Meaning Infinitive Simple past


Meaning Infinitive Simple past Past Participle

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Past Participle

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

begin break build buy catch come do drive eat fall find fly get give go hear hit hurt keep know

began broke built bought caught came did drove ate fell found flew got gave went heard hit hurt kept knew

begun broken built bought caught come done driven eaten fallen found flown got given gone heard hit hurt kept known

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

leave lend lose make run say see sit sleep speak steal swim take tell wear win write am - is are will

left lent lost made ran said saw sat slept spoke stole swam took told wore won wrote was were would

left lent lost made run said seen sat slept spoken stolen swum taken told worn won written been been

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