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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

HOMEWORI$HOP

GP UIDE WORKSHO
A ND S H A P I NS GA F E TT YI P S R()UTIN G . Wear glasses a, d u s tm a s k , safety p r o t e c t i ofn orall shaper a n dh e a r i n g r perations. a n dr o u t eo r Keep ru t r o u t eb r i t sa n ds h a p ec any ; iscard a n ds h a r p d t e r sc l e a n ordamaged. t h a t a r ec h i p p e d . Keep a p u s hs t r c ko r p u s hb l o c k cuts. nearbv to complete . A v o i da w k w a r d h a n dp o s i t i o n s keep s t o w h e nf e e d i n g c k ;a l w a y s y o u rh a n d s o f t h e c u t t ers clear . Before installin cg u t t e ro sr making u n p l u g the a d j u s t m e n ta s l,w a y s s h a p eo r r router. . Alwayf se e dw o r ka g a t n stth e r o t a t i o no f t h e c u t t e r s . . W h e nr o u t i n g freehand c,l a m p stock t o a w o r ks u r f a c e . . Do notshape o r r o u tw o r kt h a t loose iswarped o r t h a tc o n t a i n s oblects s u c ha s k n o t so r f o r e i g n 0r nalls. screws . P e r i o d i c a lc in heck forrunout ly r ollets. s h a p ea r n dr o u t e c

FEATHERBOARDS SH()P-MADE

PUSH STICKS SHOP-MADE

Pueh otick '/' " x 14"


Notch

Pueh stick " / . i 'x 5 ' / . t " x 1 2 "


Ftnqereand slot e Featherboardo are ueetl Lo keep eLock preeeed aqainet I,he fence or Lable of a t.ool ltke a ehaper or a router Lable. They aleo serve as anLi-kickbackdeviceg,aince Lhey allow Lhe workptece to move in only one direction. A baetc feaLherboard deeiqn te ehown above: t,he lenqLh can be varted t.o euiL the taek af hand. Lonq featherboarde are clamped Lo Lhe Lable Lo hold narrow workpteceeaqatneL Lhe fence; small' er models, Lyptcally 3 / by 7 tnchea, can be clamped Lo the fence above the biL Lo hold wtder eLock aqatnet the Lable.To ehape wtde workpiecee on the ehaper, a epectal featherboard/cutter 4uard ie worLh coneLrucLinq(eee paqe 138). To make a eLan' dard featherboard, cut a 30" to 45" mtl;er '/,-inch-Lhtck board. Mark at one end of a p a r a l l e l l i n e a b o u t 5 t n c h e ef r o m L h e a miLered end. Then cut / -tnch-wideelot'e Lo Lhe marked ltne,creaLtnqa row of eLurdy but pliable ftn7ere. Finally,cul; a noLch for a aupporL board Lhat can be clamped at a 90" anqle Lo Lhe featherboard.

Thereare a number of commercial pueh eticke and pueh blocke or ehaper on the markeL for feedinq atock tnto rouLer Lable brte '/,'tnch eLock. cuttere, buL you can eaetly make your own ueinq l'lo one ehape ie tdeal;a qood pueh ettck deetgn ehould be comfortable Lo uee and auiLablefor Lhe machtne and l;aek aL hand. A 45o an4le between the handle and baee (tog) te beeL for feedtnq narrow eLock between a feaLherboard and the fence of a router Lable or ehaper, while a recLan4ular pueh oftck wtLh a lonqer nol;ch (middle) permiLeyou La apply downward pree' aure on wider aLock. For ehaptnq wtde workpteceauetn4 a larEe om) enableeyou Lo apply preeeure a1aineL btt, a pueh block (.boLt the fence and l;he table. Whatever Lhe ehape, make Lhe noLch in Lhe baee lar4e enouEh Lo hold l;he eLock,and yeL ehallow enou4hto avotd Louchtn4the Lable.Kound f'he handlee Lo prevenL epltnLereehould kickback occur.

THEART OFWOODWORKING

ROUTING AND SHAPTNG

THE ART OF WOODVV'ORKING

ROUTING AI.{DSHAPING

TIME-LIFE BOOKS ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA PRESS ST.REMY MONTREAL. NEWYORK

THEART OF WOODWORKINGwasproducedby

ST.REMYPRESS
PUBLISHER PRESIDENT Editor Series Art Director Series SeniorEditors KennethWinchester PierreL6veill6

THECONSUUTAN'TS
Bob fardinico manages woodworking sales for Colonial SawCo., a machinerysales and service companybasedin Kingston, Massachusetts. He alsorestores antiouefurniture in his home workshopin Plymouth,Mass. Giles Miller-Mead taught advancedcabinetmaking at Montreal technicalschools for more than ten years. A nativeofNew Zealand, he has worked asa restorerof antiquefurniture. JosephTruini is Senior Editor of Horne Mechanixmagazine. A former Shop and Tools Editor of PopularMechanics, he has worked as a cabinetmaker, home improvementcontractor and carpenter.

PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini(Text) HeatherMills (Research) Art Directors Normand Boudreault,Luc Germain, Solange Laberge Designers Jean-Guy Doiron, Michel Gigudre Research Eilitor Iim McRae PictureEditor Christopherfackson Writers Andrew Iones,Rob Lutes Contributinglllustrators GillesBeauchemin,RollandBergera, Bourgeois, Michel Blais, |ean-Pierre Nicole Chartier, Ronald Durepos, Philippe Gauweau,GrardMariscalchi, facquesPerrault, Robert Paquet, Thdrien James Administrator Natalie Watanabe ProductionManager Michelle Turbide Coordinator Jean-Luc Roy System Photographer RobertChartier Proofteader JudithYelon Indexer ChristineM. Jacobs Time-Life Booksis a division of Time-Life Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY

Routing and Shaping p. cm.-(The Art of Woodworking) Includesindex. (trade) ISBN0-8094-9937-l (lib) rsBN 0-8094-9938-X l. Routers(Tools) 2. Woodwork 3. Shapers I. Time-Life Books. II. Series TT203.s.R691993 684'.083-dc20 93-18854 CIP For information about any Time-Life book, please call l-800-621-7026, or write: ReaderInformation Time-Life CustomerService P.O.Box C-32068 Richmond,Virginia 2326r-2068 @ 1993 Time-LifeBooksInc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproducedin any form or by any electronicor mechanical means,including information storage and retrieval devicesor systems, without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,except that briefpassages may be quoted for reviews. First printing. Printed in U.S.A. Publishedsimultaneously in Canada. TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time Warner Inc. U.S.A.

TIME-LIFEBOOKS
President Vice-President Editor-in-Chief Directorof Editorial Resources MarketingDirector EditorialDirector ConsuhingEditor ProductionManager lohn D. Hall NancyK, fones ThomasH. Flaherty EliseD. Ritter-Clough ReginaHall LeeHassig John R. Sullivan MarleneZack

CONTENTS

6 INTRODUCTION

t2 I4 T6 20 22 25 29 34 36 38 47 52 58

ROUTERBASICS Anatomy of a router Bits Accessories Settingup Basiccuts Routertables The router assurfacer EDGEFORMING Basicedgeshaping Raising panels Making moldings Pin routing

88 90 9L 92 98 100 L07 108 110 ILz LI4 115 116 118 L20 L23 128 I34

ROTITERIOTNERY joints Router-made Routerjoinery jigs Mortise-and-tenon ioints Cope-and-stickjoints Dovetailioints Gluejoints Boxjoints joints Miter-and-spline Butterfly keyjoints joints Tongue-and-groove Rulejoints SHAPER Anatomyof a shaper Cuttersand accessories Setupand safety Basiccuts Frame-and-panel doors

64 GROOVING 66 A galleryof grooves and accessories 68 Dado cuts 75 Groovingon a router table 77 Rabbets 79 Circulargrooves 8 1 Patterngrooving 84 Groovingwith a pin router 86 Inlaying

I4O GLOSSARY I42 INDEX I44 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

INTRODUCTION

PatrickSpielman on

MAKING ROUTERIIGS
jigsandfixtures andinventing router esigning issomewhat of apassion of mine. I'vemade numerous Overtheyears devices-many verycrude-to simplify, jigshave impossible speed up,or facilitate seemingly routingtasks. These made my relief cabinetnaking, carving, sign work,andjustabout every otherarea of woodcutting mucheasier andmoreeconomical. If youtookaway myrouterandmy special jigsandfixtures, I wouldbealmost helpless in theworlshop. canbeeasy or complex, simple or refined. Theneed dictates whatyou fig-making buildandhowyoubuildit. A fewyears ago I made asimple butveryeffective router with acouple of dollars' worthof material. ableandfence recently, I invested $33 Just constructing a newroutertable capable of duplicating thecuttingactionandoperproduction routing ations offered onlyby a $1500 machine. Many features routers, ofnew such asspeed choices andeasy depth-of-cut controls, jig-making. canbeexploited for better andsafer Plunging isgreat capability for some jigs,but for many I stillprefer to use themotorunit withoutthebase. Bothtypes can bebuilt into routertables. I'vealso mounted routermotors horizontally on movable sleds withatemplate follower to make duplicate You turnings. canalso mountarouter atvarious angles to theworktable. Thisqrstem youto create allows avariety of profiles fromjustonebit. Forexample, panels a roundnose canbeused to raise andcut European-style fingerpull stock for doors anddrawers. jigsgets jig will youdoit. An idea Desrgning easier themore often thatinspires one invariably resurface in some formto helpsolve problem. a different Before building ajig, I visualize thebit making thedesired cut.ThenI figureout howto attach the jigs, routerto thejig andmove oneor theotherto make thecut.With morecomplex I need to put together oneor moremock-ups before constructing thefirstworking good model. I make use of large hose clamps andbandsawn cradles, or V clamping blocks, to holdrouters. jobslikespacing I'vemade ofjigsto simplify tairlyroutine scores woodworking jointq I've mortises making dadoes, cutting andtenons, various miters, andscarfing routerto cutdowel even used theplunge holes. Still,there arealot of ideas I haven't yettested, andalot of jobsthatcan bemade better andeasier withjusttherightjig.

PatrickSpielman, a consultant and authorof morethan professionally 40 woodwo*ingbool<s, hastaught for 27 years. Helives in FishCreek, Wsconsin.

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INTRODUCTION

JoeTruini talksabout

ROUTERS
toolsat averyearly I learned to respect andappreciate I sthesonof acarpenter, Many if cared for properly. toolswill lastalifetime, I also learned thatmost A age. There's alowhanded downto meby my father. were of thetoolsin mywoodshop radial project, DeWalt arm every anda dassic onvirtually blockplane thatI use angle istheStanley acquisition byfar,however, me.My favorite outlive saw thatwill surely about boughtit backin 1959, in thephoto.My father routershown l-horsepower lineto Bosch. Stanley soldits power-tool 20years before it, andalthough morethan10years oldwhenI fustused already Thisrouterwas for Lord I instinctively reach routers in the shop, morepowerfrrl therearenewer, joint. It feature sophisticated or mill a doesrt't I have to shape an edge Stanleywhen at times, but I'vegrownaccusstubborn andthecolletcanberather electronics, itsthirty-something throaty hum of feels in my hands and to the the way it tomed to newer routers, but perform better than the doesdt any Admittedly, old Stanley arbor. is a survivor generations of crafumen and past It represents two link to the it serves asa toolline. of a once-proud however, that I truly hobby became a vocation, It wasn't until mywoodworking power tool. As a cabinetis: most versatile router for what it the shop's a appreciated from router for everything Miami, I relied on the shop in maker for acustom-desigrr joints. precise For the building dovetail to milling rabbets anddadoes cuttingsimple used to nim andseam thelamrouters were cabinets andcounters, of plastic-laminate paneling rrghtat period fabricate custom moldings and I was to replicate inate. able job router porable router table. To enhance the shop-built the sitewith thehelpof a jigs perform These specific tasls. simple fixtures to andbuilt and further, I designed make theyalso the therouter's capabilities; not onlyexpand accessories shop-made andmoreaccurate. tool safer trends and I oftenreportonthelatest tools, alivingwritingabout NowthatI earn routers more I m glad to see that are in theworldofwoodworking. PopI'm not abit surprised. before. Somehow, ularnowthanever

Editoro/Home Medranix loeTruinL Senior and magazine, writesaboutwoodworking He homeremodeling for do-it-yourselfers. Connecticut. livesin historicWashington,

INTRODUCTION

Bill Bivonaexplains why he owns

A SHAPER
y firstexperience withwoodworking was serving asaboatbuilder's apprentice asa teenager. I enjoyed working with woodsomuchthatI laterenrolled in a furniture program building atBoston university. At bothplaces I foundthateach of myinstructors or mentors hadhisownfavorite toolthatcould bemade to perform manytasls besides theobvious ones. Oneteacher mightuse atable sawwith anangled fence to cutcove moldings; someone else wouldfit aradial armsaw with adisksander or attach cutters to mill profiles. At theschool andin theboatshop, thespindle shaper was moreoften used asa sawhorse or aworkbench thanasatool.I was leftwithihe impression thattheshaper cutsprofiles in theedges of boards andthatwas about all. It was not until I opened my ownshop thatI realized howmuchmore versatile thetoolreally is.I'vehadmy 3-horsepower tiltingarborshaper for almost 10years nowandI would belostwithout it. Woodworkers personal have sryles, andI tend to beverymachine-oriented. Moreandmore, I findthatthehandtools thatI once used daily nowsitidlein mytoolcabinet. Forme,endresults andspeed matter most and I findthattheshaper outperforms myoldhandtools hands down. Combined wittradecent powerfeed unit,ashaper cancutdadoes better thanatable jointer. saw andclean up anedge aswellasa small If youhave a collet thataccepts router bits,you'llquickly findthattheshaper outclasses even thelargest ofrouters, with a range of cutters thatisunmatched. I recently bought a crown molding cutter for myshaper. Itt astacking system soI caneither use thecomplete assembly tb make a cutor install theindividual parts to carve profiles. separate That's onlythebeginning. Addrubcollars andlarge-diameter bearings andI expand therange of theshaper even more. with these inexpensive accessoriis I canmake a template out of scrap stock andaffixit to mygood stock. Theshaper thenacts like a bigflushtrimmerandI cangetperfectly uniformfinished pieces every time.

Bill Bivonaisco-owner of Hardwood Design Inc.Bqsed in Slocum, Rhode Island,thecompany specializes in buildingcustom-designed stairways.

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ROUTERBASICS
duringthe Shaping theedge of aworkpiece Q in.. its invention profileis probwith a decorative \,1 FirstWorldWat theportable its presablythe taskthe routeris mostcomelectric routerhasmade monly calledupon to perform. ence felt in every aspect of woodTherearetwo ways working.It is easy to see why:The of makingthe routercancut rabbets, trim lamicut,depending on thetypeof bit molding, used. A piloted bit features a pilot nate, bevel edges, shape joints. It canwen bearing that ridesalongthe edge andmake dovetail pieces penetration of thework,keeping of surface small of stock andfolthe cutterconstant. With a nonlow a pre-cut template to cutintripiloted patterns. widthis concate Thesheer number of bit, cutting therouteralong it performs easily ranksthe trolledby guiding , tasks guide routerwith anyotherportable or anedge clamped to thework. Themanner in whichyou cut stationarywoodworking tool.It is a dadoor groove depends on the asclose to a universal toolaswoodKeeping a routerfrom wobblingasit isfed along type of router.A standard tool workinghas.Thechapter that folprinciples you mustbeheldabove thesurface of lowscovers thebasic theedge of a wo*pieceto cut a profileinto the A supportboard themotoris need to knowto use thetool. operation. theworkpiece before facecanbea triclcy Routermotorsarecommonly dampedto thestockcanhelpfuepthetoolsteady. switched on.Theentire toolisthen plunging in the11to 3-horsepower lowered, thebit into the available platecanremain range. Thetool is a directdescendant Wth a plunge router, thebase flat on ofthe hand-powered wood. moldingplane, whichfeatured interchangeable cutters used thesurface astherouteris turnedon andthebit is lowered forming,andjoinery. Therouterfeatures for grooving, edge a into thework. motorthatspins 20,000 to Anyroutercanbemounted in a specially designed table abit atveryhighspeed-typically plane (page your perminute(rpm).Just 29)thattransforms it into astationary 26,000 revolutions as ttremolding tool,freeing andexotic cutters, theroutercan hands to feedstockinto thebit. Youcanalsoinstallbitsin a drewon a range ofstandard bitsto create dozens table-mounted router thatcannot beused if thetoolishandusea myriadnumber of interchangeable profiles, from chamfering cutters held.Ifyou have thetimeyoucanbuildyourowncustomized of distinctive everything (page 16). accessories areasworthwhile. to beading bits (page table 32);few other

A non-piloted bit carves a rabbet in theedge of platealongan a board. Ridingtherouterbase guideproduces edge a uniform width of cut.

13

ANTATOMY OFA ROUTER


STANDARD ROUTER
Onloff awitah

Base plate alamp sorew Loogenedto set cuttina depth or to removebaab plate from motor body; tiqhtened to look plate into oosition Depth adjuatment ring )eto cuttin4 depth tsaaeplate 9u pporta moton adjuatable for aettin4 cuttinq defih. Can be removedfor chanqinq bita or mountin7 the tool in a router table, or replaced with plunqe baoe on 6ome modela

Collet Accepta ahank of router bit: nut directly abovecollet ia turned to tiqhten or looaencollet

9ub-baee earewed to baae plato; can be removed to attach routerto table

Wrenched eupplied with router for chanqinq bita. One wrench turns collet nut; other holda ahaft otationary

T4

ROUTER BASICS

Attached to a standard router, a removableplunge baseenables this model to servedouble-duty as a plunge-tyPe tool.

PTUNGE ROUTER Sr,:"i,r,i1:';l$.:,!R,llK#fi#t:.


Plunge lock lever Unlockedto plunqe bit; lockedin place whencuttinq depth io reached

Depth acale lndicatea cuttinq depth

Depth at'op bar )ete cuttin7 depth; 1ap betweenbar and atop 6crew equala depth of cut

Handle

Depth atop bar clamp Looaenedto releaae depth etop bar; ti4htened to aet cutting depth

Stop ecrew Hei7ht ia adjuatable to vary cuttinq depth of aucceagive paegeo Onloff ewitch

Turrfr atop Kotateato poeition


appropriate etop ecrew under depth otop bar 9ub-baae Eaae plate

Collet

Edge guide Keepebit oquare to ed4e of workpiece for 1rooving.Koda attach to router baae plate; fence ridee alon6 board edge

BITS
f routingtask, hereis a bit for every I from simplegrooves to intricate moldings. In fact, therearehundreds of in a varietyofprofiles cutters available Thepages thai follbwfeaandwidths. with turea selection of routerbitsalong thecutstheymake. A tvoicalrouterbit consists ofa steel body with one or more cutting edges and a shankthat fits into the router's collet.Most bits aremadefrom either (HSS) high-speed steel or high-speed Although carbide cutting edges. steelwith for cuttingsoftHSSbits areadequate wood,theywill not stand up to repeated hardwood. Carbide-tipped usein dense andproneto bits,whilemoreexpensive longer chipping, stay sharp andcut more easily throughharderwood. into three Router bitscanbe divided groups according to their size andfunc17)rour tion. Edge-forming bits (page profilesin the edges decorative of a workoiece or cut one or both halves of anlnterlockngjoint. Edge-forming pilot havea ball-bearing bits generally located belowthecutterthat ridesalong Many decorativemoldingbits are too big to be usedsafelyin a to guidethe hand-heldrouter.But with the tool mountedin a router table, the edge of the workpiece these largebits can transformal/z-inch router into a mini-shaper. bit and precisely controlthe width of groovthe cut. As their nameimplies, ing bits (page18)aredesigned to cut grooves and dadoes, and work bestin a plungerouter. Thebitsshownon page 19 are largerthan standard bits and should be used with the routermounted in a routertable. Freeingstuak router bite Many router bits are expensive, so ?ryin7 a etuckbit out ot cloth store themcarefi.rlly andusea clean Lhecolletwilh a melal t ool to wipe off pitch,dust,and dirt after is a surewaylo dama7e i eachuse.Keepthe cuttingedges sharp LhecuiLin7ed7eo. AbeI- |, Ler methodio lo lap the andavoidusing bitsthataredirty,rustI body of the bit,with a wood i' ed,or damaged. ocraV. A eharVNapor Nwo I willfree moeN eNuck shanks. i Avoid sLriking carbide cu|tinq edgee ae f,hiemay

Illillll tll} Illl ilfl r]lt illt lllllll llll llll llll IlI1 ffiiltt iltilll lllt
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duet ouI of r,hecollel.

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ROUTER BASICS

EDGE.FORMING BITS

T7

ROUTER BASICS

GR00V[{G B|TS
Three-wing alotti ng c utter Core box bit

Dovetail bit

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Chip-limitation bits Forwidacute, chiplimilation bitrs ara a safer alhernaiivetoNhe eNandard deoiqn.The cutlere on theee bite proNrudefrom the bit body by only1/rc inoh -compared to thel/s-inch typical of etandard biie. Dy takinq a shallower bihe, Lhe bits plaoeless strain on lhe router molor.'ln addiNion, Lhebodies of chip-limilalionbits are virLually oolid, with only a1/s-inch cut1apbeWeenlhe tinq edqeand the bit bodyto allowfor (near ri6ht); Nhisreducee eharpeninq lhe riek of kickbaok, ofLencausedby Nhe larqer6ap of slandard bile (far right).

t8

ROUTERBASICS

ROUTER TABTE BITS

Tradit'ional molding bit

Vertical panel-raieing bit

a a

t9

ACCESSORIES
illustrated at right are 1t h. accessories jigs I a sample of somecommercial and devices that makethe routeroneof themostversatile toolsin theworkshoo. products, like the foot Someof these switch,makethe tool moreconvenient, especially for modelswith an On/off switch that cannot be reached while holdingthe handles. If you usesucha however, device, be sureto disconnect it from the tool whenyou arechanging a bit or performing anyothermaintenance. Otheraccessories, such asthevacuum attachment. makethe routera cleaner and safer tool. This attachment whisks away the sawdust and chipsexpelled by the routerbit and directs themto your dustcollection system. Otheraccessories refinetherouter's cuttingcapabilities. The circleguide simplifies cuttingcircles, whiletemplate guides allowyou to duplicate the profile of a temolate. A few of the devices on the marlietare designed to transform the routerinto another tool altogether. The platejoiner conversion kit gives you the ease andprecision ofbiscuit joinerywithout theexpense of buying a newtool, whiletheturningjig sets uD a routerfor lathework. But unlike an actuallathe,which spinsthe work for handcrafting, this accessory featuresa manualcrankfor rotatingthe workpiece while the spinningrouter bit shapes thewood, A RANGE OFROUTER ACCESSORIES
Vaauumattachment' Drawaaway aawduatand woodchips.)ne end attachee to tool Daaeplate; other end can be hookedup to duet colIection aystem, Compatible with only certain models

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Plate joiner aonveraion kit Allowsrouter to cut.elota for plate or biocuitjointa. tsodyofji6 attachea to router baae plate; kit includeacompreaaed woodbiacuitaand threewinqolottinT cutter

Moldin7jig For cuttin7 moldinqa; router ia fastened upri7ht inji7 that ie moved alonq aurfaceof workpiece

Universal baae For attachin4 acceeeoriee to router or mountinqtool in router table; alote make baae compatible with any router model

20

ROUTERBASICS

Offset router baae Helpe keeprouter flat on workpiecewhilerout' in7 edqea

-----'\ 5paaer fence )ecured Lo router table to cut finaer or box jointa: bit extendathrouqh hole;ridge eerveo ae a key,enaurinqall notcheaare equal diatanoe aparL

Routerpad mat A clampsubstitute; rubberized holdastock in placeon workaurface

Ciralejig For routing circles, Kouter ia attached to wideend whilenarrow end ia acrewedto workpiece; jiq pivote around aenter of circle

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Template guidea Uaed for pattern routing: ride allowin4 bit to alon4 templaLe, replicate pattern, Sized for differ' ent-diamher bita, threaded part ta eecuredto router base plate with ring Foot Ewitah For turnin7 router on and off without uainqtool'a awitch; allowaoperator to koepboth hands on router handlea

Depth gauge Ueedto set cuttina depth of bit; features a serieoof otepo in1/+-inch inch to 1 inch incrementafrom 7a

Allowa variablecontrol of router motor apeed;uadul whenueinqlar7er bita that call for reducedrpm

Turnlng lg router into lathe-like tool for Transforma


turnin7, Router ia faatened to plate that alideaalonq raila; bit.contacte workpiecewhichia held in plaoe betweenheadatock and tailatock and rotated by hand

2l

SETTING UP
cut with precision I routercannot A unless it is properly setup and maintained. Changing a bit, for example,should bedone with care-bothto avoiddamaging thecuttingedges and to ensure thatthebit is not sent flying whenthetoolisturnedon.fu shown in thephotoat right,usethewrenches supplied with thetoolto remove and installbits. If a bit becomes stuckin thecollet, gently strike thebodyof thebit with a woodscrap(page 16)or tapthecollet withawrench. Do nottryto extract the bit fromthecollet with pliers; thiswill damage thecutting edge. Before installing a newbit, clean anysawdust fromthe collet. Insert thereplacement alltheway intothecollet, raise it about inch,and Xu tighten it in place. Thecolletis oneroutercomponent thatmayeventually need to bereplaced. Periodically yourcollet check for bit slip(page23) page andrunout (page 24), andchange it ifnecessary.

Installing a bit on mostrouters is a two-wrench operation.With the base plate removed, onewrenchholds the shaftsteady whiletheotherloosens the collet.Positionthe wrenches so they can besqueezed together to provide extra leverage.

SETTING THE CUTTING DEPTH


Adjusting a standard router Setthe router on theworkpiece. For t h e m o d es l h o w nl,o o s etn h ec l a m p screw andturnthedepth adjustment knobto raise or lower the motor and t h e b i t .A l i g n t h et i p o f t h e b i t w i t h thedepth line, thentighten theclamp (right). screw Alternatively, set the router upside down on a work surface, loosen theclamp screw androtate the depth adjustment knob untilthebit protrudes bythe proper amount.

22

ROUTERBASICS

llllllllllllllllllll llllfill lllllllllllllllt lll1 llllillt fiI] llit tlll lm


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Cheaking a colletfor elippage your rouNer biLe are olipTodeLermine whether pinqin Nhe and marka line collel,installa biN and colleL with a felLpenalonqLhebit ehank Thenmake afew cuts on a ecraz lhe line. The boardand examine m a r k so n N h eb i La n d c o l l e t aliqned. shouldbe perfectly It NheyhaveshifLedaparX, in the Lhebil has eliooed Remove'the bit and colleL. cleanany pitchor sawdust wiLha ouN of the aolleN f ine- bristledbraesbruoh. makinq Reinstall NhebiN, oureiNie welltiqhtened, Reolace bhecol' and rebeel. ehilNaaatn. le| if the mark]s

router Adjusting a plunge on theworkpiece and Setthe router stoo ontherouter base rotate theturret stop screw directto position theshortest the ly under thedepth stop bar.Loosen te he depth s t o pb a rc l a m p to releas Then barandseat it onthestop screw. loosen theplunge locklever andpush themotor down untilthe bit contacts workpiece. Tighten the Iever and the gap raise stop bar until the between the screw equals thedepth it andthestop (above, /eff). Tighten the depth of cul plunge loosen the stopbarclamp and motor locklever, allowing the andbit y o u tospring back u p .W h e n p l u n g e thebit intothestock, it willpenetrate stopbarcontacts the untilthedepth screw. For deep cuts,it is best to stop your in stages. reach finaldepth Set of theother twostop screws theheight passes at intermediate depths to make and byloosening thenutwitha wrench w i t ha r a i s i no gr l o w e r i n tg h es c r e w (above, right). screwdriver

23

ROUTER BASICS

CHECKING THE C(ILLET


Using a dialindicator and magnetic base pinin therouter Install a centering as you would a bitand setthetoolupside down on a metal surface, such asa table saw. Connect a dialindicator to a magnetic base andplace thebase next to therouter. Turn onthemagnet andposition therouter sothecentering p i nc o n t a c tts h ep l u n g e orf t h ed i a l indicato r. C a l i b r atth eed i a li n d i c a t o r tozero followin g em a n u f a c t u r e r ' s th instruction Ts h. e n t u r nt h es h a f o tf the router byhand to rotate thecenteri n gp i n( l e f ) . f h e d i a li n d i c a t w or ill register collet runout-the amount of wobble that thecollet isgiving thebit. lf therunout exceeds 0.005inch. reolace thecollet.

gauge Using a feeler lf youdonothave youcan a dialindicator, gauge testforcollet runout witha feeler and a straight wood block. With thecentering pininthecollet and therouter upside down ona work surface, clamp theblock lightly to thetool's sub-base sotheoiece of wood touches thepin. Turn therouter shaft by hand; anyrunout willcause thecentering pinto move theblock. Then use a feeler gauge gapbetween to measure any thepin (right). andtheblock lf thegapexceeds 0.005inch, replace thecollet.

24

BASIC CUTS
are tlvopotenandtearout l/ ickback operation, but N tialhazards ofrouter eliminattheriskof bothcanbenearly With technique. ed by usingcorrect youwill develop theconfiexperience, consistentdence andskillthatproduce results. ly superior to thework Alwavs secure vourstock it woodpads to protect surface,'using jaws. Thiswill leave both fromtheclamp free therouter. hands to guide Grip the routerfirmly,pullingit thanpushing theworkrather through when ismost likely to occur it. Kickback youfirstcontact sobecertain thestock, at thattime.Beespeof yourcontrol of kickback ciallyalertto the danger piloted bitswith whenyou areusing large cutter blades. piloted bits,becertain Whenusing firmly thatyouholdthepilotbearing at alltimes. theworkpiece edge against thatyouuse Non-piloted bitsdemand guide. Fora commercial edgeanedge guideaccessory, hold theguidefirmly youfeed it forward; against theworkas edge if you areusinga clamped-on pressed guide, against keep therouter of thecut. for thelength theguide in isimportant Thedirection of feed maintaining control of thetool.Asan:le, bemoved against the therouter should or from direction of thebit'srotation, facing theworksedge leftto rightwhen (see illustration at right).Applysteady pressure to thetool sothebit is always tooslowIf youmove iuttingnewwood. onthe will cause burnmarks ly,friction andyouwill experience work;too fast, damaging tearout. sevBepatient asyouwork,making eralsmallcutsratherthanoneor two caused healypasses. Thisway, tearout by thenext. by onecutwill berepaired pages are Here andon thefollowing sure use of therouter. some tipsonsafe,

DIRECTI()N ROUTER FEED

+-

Feeding therouter guide of bit rotation; against thedirection thebit intoa workpiece For most operations, in a counteredge, move therouter Onanoutside thiswillpullthebit into thewood. (above), withcuts Start edge, feed thetoolclockwise direction; onan inside clockwise withthecuts along thegrain any tearout thegrain soyoucaneliminate thatareagainst you, yourself thetool. toward rather thanpushing Position to pulltherouter thatfollow.

"fl}" fil'll|I lltl fil$r' fll"flI"Illl ltf1tt-1ll$Pilf1tr1tf-"ffilr


1HO?TI?
fruing a roul,eraub-baee that is A rouler oub-base with lhe nol concenl,ric collet can result in imprecioe cuto, Tocorrec,lthe problem, uoea ji6 plywoodiruinq as shown.lnstall a cenlerinqpin in ::.

router,pooi- .ffi Nhe '" tionthe sub-base -...' . f r u e h w i t h o n e e d q e , - -)i{.--n' 4$, I a.of the ji4, and drill

holeuiioldlhepin.lner,ald'VatoanderirlAlommervialeNand,
then clampthis device andthe jiq to a workou*ace, ueinq with the sandshimoto ooeilionNherouter sub'baeelevel roLalethe sub-baoe in6 belL. Turnon the sanderand olowly eutraceie true, a1ainotNhebelL,untilthe plaoNic

25

ROUTERBASICS

STRAIGHT ROUTING

Using a piloted bit Clamp thestock to a work surface with youwish theedge to shape extending offthetable bya fewinches. Gripping therouter withbothhands, restits base plate ontheworkpiece at one endwith thebitclear of thewood. Turn onthe toolandease the bit intotheworkoiece until thepilot contacts theedge, keepplate ingthebase flatonthestock and (above). thepilotflushagainst thestock passes Fordeep cuts,make twoor more your to reach final depth.

Routing with a non-piloted bit guide Install a commercial edge ontherouter, inserting theguide rods into thepredrilled plate. holes in thetool's base Adjust theguide sothegapbetween thebitandtheguide fence equals thewidth of cut.Tomake thecut,clamp thestock to your work surface. Then, keeping theguide fence flush against theedge to beshaped, start thecutat one (above). endof theworkpiece anddraw therouter along the edge

lll llllfill illltlll llllfill tlll illt lltllllillilllt lllllllt lllllllt lllr
gHo? Tt? -+i
T-equarerouter guide Tomodify a draftinqTequare into an edqequide for groovinq cuto,clampit, lo a scrao boardwilh iLs crosspiecebuNted the boardedqe. aqain6t, Then,wilh lhe rout,er b a e ep l a L e r i d i n qa l o n q lhe arm of the eoLuare, rout a dado acroeelhe boardand lrim the croboueethe jiq, clampiINo Viece.To Ihe workViece with the cut edge of Ihe croeepiece aliqned wiLh Nhecuttinq markon Nhestock.

e9

i,

26

ROUTERBASICS

SUB-BASE A SHOP-MADE edge andlarge Withitsstraight sub-base surface, theshop-made thatyour at right ensures shown to anedge router willremain square guide clamped to theworkpiece yourouta series of equally while soaced dadoes. plywood, cutthe Using %-inch wide and sub-base about 10 inches thesides so 13 inches long. Taper along theedge theendthatrides guide is wider. Draw a linedown Starting thecenter of thesub-base. a near thewide endof thejig,mark for bit clearance holes; rowof points 2 inches apart. Bore thepoints space make sure it is at each mark; a hole foryourlargest straight large enough thestandard sub-base bit. Unscrew router andalign itscenter fromyour holes witheach of thebit clearance holes in thesubto mark thescrew holes. base. Then bore these

Dtt clearance hole

it to the To use thejrg,screw plate sothe bit passes router base near thewide through thefirsthole thebit withthecutting end.Align ontheworkmark forthefirstdado guide piece, against thenbuttanedge it in place. andclamp thesub-base

keeping thesubRout thedado, base flatonthestock andflush guide. the theedge Unscrew against fromtherouter andreatsub-base fromthe tachit sothe bit orotrudes hole andrepeat to cut appropriate the nextdadobelow).

27

ROUTER BASICS

A HINGED EDGE GUIDE


theguide 1 Making I Although thedistance fromthecenterof therouter bitto thebase-plate edge is constant, remember thatthedistance fromthe bit'scutting edge to the baseplate edge willchange withthediameter your of each bit,andposition cutting lines accordingly. 0r, youmay want to guides, make hinged several each to be used witha specific bit. BuiltfromVzinch{hick stock, theguide canbealigned witha cutting mark ona workpiece and simply clamped in place. Cutthefixed partasyouwould guide, a standard but bevel thetop of oneedge to allow the piece hinged to pivot, Cutthe hinged section so itswidth equals thedistance between the bit'scutting edge andthe plate. edge of therouter base Withtheir ends aligned andedges butted together, fasten thetwopieces of theguide using (/eft), butt hinges

r) Using theguide 1 fo make a dado cut,setthe edge guide onyour workpiece andlineupthe edge of thehinged withthecutting section mark. Clamp thef ixed section in place. Then flip upthehinged section androut plate thechannel, keeping therouter base (right). flushagainst thefixedpiece

28

ROUTERTABLES
yourrouter isa remarkably I lthough A versatile tool.its usefulness canbe evenfurther by mountingit extended in a table. routingfrees your Stationary hands to feedstockinto thebit, allowing you to exertgreater controloverthecuttingoperation. Since a tlpical routerbit spinsat 20,000 rpm or faster, thisextra marginof safety is a welcome benefit. In addition, some bitsshould onlybeused router.These on a table-mounted bits have large cuttingheads that exert high forces against theworkpiece, requiring an extrameasure of control. A routertableallows the routerto emulate its larger cousin, theshaper, by makingmoldings andraising panelstasks that few woodworkerswould attempt with a hand-held tool.In fact, a routertableis an excellent substitute for a light-dutyshaper, and commercial models areavailable in manysizes and configurations. Mosttables have a guard Mounted upsidedown in a speciallydesignedtable, a router to cover thebit andan adjustable fence cutsa dado.Anaching a backup board to the miter gauge for guidingstockinto the cut. If you helpskeepthe work squareto the bit and reduces tearout. you can wouldlike a customized table, easily build your own followingthe l l l l l l l l l i l i t l l l l l l l i l i l r r i li i l r r i l rr r i i l l i l r l l t l l r i r i l l t l l l l i i i l i r | t i designs beginning on page 31. lli itl lll l$ Ul itl itl tll Ul l$ {L ru ur ru lr r..r,r tir rii Cutting depth on a router table depends on how far the bit protrudes above thework surface, whilethewidth of cut is determined by how muchof A router table on the table eaw the bit extends beyondthe fence. On Tomake the most of the eVace in a emallehop, build a rouLer Lable is usually commercialtables, the fence table.KouLa1/+-inch-dee? into yourtable saw'eexNeneion receo; split.The two halves arenormallyleft inNo the LoVof lhe extrension tableand cut,a Viece of 1/+-inch-Lhick in alignment for partialcuts. Whenyou acrylicVlaolicto fit into Lhedepreeeion. Drilla holein the cenNer areroutingthefull edge of a workpiece, of the Vlaoliclarqer Lhanyour biqgeeN rouf,er bit,WiLh a sabersaw, however, startwith the fences aligned, cuLa holein the recese Io accommodaLe but thenstoD the cut a fewinches into your roufer'o baoeplate.Then remove the baseVlalelrom Nhe it. Advance theoutfeed fence soit touchNool and 6crew ilto lhe plaeesthe cut portion,then complete the tic Viece, NexN screwthe This will prevent makinga operation. into Lhe,r""uu, 1l Vlaeuic concave cut-or((5nips)'-21theendof counlereink all the fasLenthepiece. ere.Reallachthe router Lo Nhebaeeplate.Afence for the roulerlable can beculfrom plywood and atNached NoNheeawfence when neceeeary.

1HO?Tt?

29

ROUTERBASICS

SETTING UPA COMMERCIAL ROUTER TABLE


thefence 1 Adjusting I Mount therouter in thetable. 0n the youneed model shown, to remove thebase plate from thetooland fasten theplate underneath thetable. Thebit is theninstalled in therouter andthetoolis reattached to plate. thebase Tosetupthefence fora cut, (/eft) loosen the fouradjustment screws andmove thetwohalves of thefence as close aspossible to thebitwithout touchingthecutting edges. Tighten thescrews, thensetthewidth of cut.Move thefence back fromthebit fora widepass; fora shallower cut,shiftthefence closer to thebit. lf youareusing a piloted bit andwant to make a cutequal to thefull diameter of the bit,use a straightedge to lineupthefence withtheoutside edge of thepilotbearing, thentighten theadjustment screws.

/) Making a cut propeny L to support a workpiece andavoid kickback asyoufeedstock into the bit,clamp onefeatherboard to the fence above the cutter, anda second featherboard to thetablein linewith the bit.Always feedstock intothecutter against thedirection of bit rotation. With theworkpiece clear of thebit,turnonthe router andslowly feed thestock intothe cutting edge while holding it flush against yourfingers the fence(right). To keep safely away fromthe bit,finish thepass witha push stick. Position theguard over thebit whenever oossible.

30

ROUTER BASICS

ROUTER TABLES SHOP.MADE


Anextension router table Attached to a workbench, thecompact router table shown at leftcanbeeasily removed when it is notneeded. Size the parts according to yourneeds. Startby plywood, cutting the topfrom7a-inch andthe railsandbraces from2-by-4 stock. Saw the rails a fewinches longer thanthewidth of thetopsothey canbe fastened to the underside of theworkbench using wingnutsandhanger bolts (left,above). Thehinged braces should be long enough fromthe underto reach sideof the rails to a legstretcher on the bench. Cuta bevel at thetop end of the braces anda right-angled notch at the bottom end.Therouter is attached to thetopwitha square sub-base of 12inchclear acrylic. Several steps arenecessary to fit thesub-base to thetopand thento therouter. First, clamp thesubbase to thecenter of thetopandoutline itsedges witha pencil. Mark thecenter o f t h es u b - b a s ae n dd r i l la p i l o th o l e through theacrylic andthetop.Remove thesub-base androutouta 7a-inch-deeo recess within the outline. Then, using the pilotholeasa center, cut a round hole through thetopto accommodate yourrouter's plate. base To prepare the sub-base, drilla hole through its center that is slightly larger thanyourlargest router bit,thenfasten thesub-base to the router using machine screws. Setthe sub-base in thetablerecess andattach it withwood screws; countersink all the fasteners. Fora fence, cut twopieces of 3/c-inch plywood andscrew themtogether in an L shape; addtriangular supports as shown on page 33. Sawa notchout of the fence's bottom edge large enough for yourlargest bit.Attach a clear semiplastic guard circular witha hinge to allow it to beflipped outof theway. To use the router table, clamp thefence in position andfeed theworkpiece intothebit,holdingit flushagainst thefence(left,below).

3I

ROUTERBASICS

ROUTER A SHOP.MADE TABLVCABINET plywood, from3/a-inch Builtentirely youto thetable shown below allows moldrouter asa stationary useyour andgrooving tool.lt feaing,shaprng, witha slot tures a spacious tableiop gauge, fence, fora miter anadjustable

shelf, andcupboards. Start a storage wiihthe basic structure of thetable, sides, back, shelf sizing thebottom, , Fix anddoors to suityourneeds. parts using the jointhese together, Thetable erymethod of yourchoice. joints. is assembled withbiscuit shown panel theback to Bore a hole through

accommodate therouter's oower cord. sf p l y F o rt h et o p ,c u t t w op i e c e o glueandscrews wood anduse to fastogether; thepieces should tenthem thesides be large enough to overhang by2 or 3 inches. Cutthedividers to f i t b e t w e etn h et o pa n dt h es h e l f , thenf ix themin place.

32

BASICS ROUTER

33

THE ROUTERAS SURFACER


A PLUG.TRIMMING JIG

plugs Cufting flush Equipped withthejig shown above, a router witha straight or mortising bit quick procanmake work of trimming plugs truding wood or dowels f lush withthe surface of a workoiece. To fashion thejig,unscrew thesub-base fromyourrouter anduseit asa template to cut a slightly larger replacementfromr/q-inch hardboard. Bore holes through the new sub-base for thebitandmounting screws. Cuttwo runners from7a-inch hardwood and fasten them to thesub-base using glue andnails, thenscrew thejig to plate. the router Touse base thejig, hold it over theworkoiece andlower the bit untilthetip contacts thesurface. Then switch therouter on and slidetherunners over theworkpiece to trimtheplugs flush withthesurface.

1HO?TI?
5 urf aaing em all wo rkpieaes A routrer can be usedto surf ace emallworkpieces when iNie equipped wiih the jiq shown here. Thedevice coneiste of hardwood blocke fixedto meLal rodelhat fit onuqly inthe ed6e-4uide mountsnq holee of the rouler baoeplate.)etyour etockon a worksurfaceand nailor 6crewcleats to the Nable aqainotlhe workpiece to keepil in place.lneNall a 3/+-inchdiameteretrai,qhtbit in the routnr and, holdinq lhe t ool over poinl on the eurNheeIock,lower the bit until iNcontacbsNhelowesN face.)Narlinqal oneendof the workpiece,Nurn on lhe routerand moveil overlhe surfaae, elidin6 bheblocke alon6the f,able. Makeae manyoverlaVping ae neceaoary paeeee until you reachlhe other end.

34

BASICS ROUTER

JIG A SURFACING your above, withthejig shown Used toolfor a surfacing router becomes pieces stock. Built of rough large plywood, thejig confrom7+-inch that sistsof a trackfor the router fixedto a tworunners along slides 3 inches work table. Cuttherunners

the enough to span wideandlong to thetable table. Fasten therunners make thespace angle brackets; using forthe sufficient therunners between youwill surface. The widest stock of sixpieces. trackconsists sliding the thatsupport Thefourpieces wide and be3 inches router should

to overhang therunners long enough Screw oneach side. bya fewinches pieces in an L shape, these together about 4 inches Cuttheshoulders long andscrew and12 inches wide sothe supports themto the router slide against theoutside shoulders make thesliding of therunners; inchwider thantherouter track3/q base olate. To usethejig, settheworkpiece onthetablebetween to besurfaced with it in place andsecure therunners nailed to taoeor cleats double-sided Install a %-inch-diameter thetable. the andseat straight bit in therouter track. Lower thebit toolin thesliding point on the lowest untilit contacts Starting at oneendof thesurface. firmly hold therouter theworkpiece, thetoolalong andturnit on.Slide and supports oneof the vertical a oneto make back along theother pass, 1%-inch-wide thenadvance therunners track along the sliding (left).Make passes asnecesasmany along the depths sary at successive untilit is length of theworkpiece evenly surfaced.

35

EDGEFORMNG
jig (page 41)canround rounding ofaworkpiece heshaped edge to yourspecior shelves tabletops thefinal,finoftenprovides guide A flush-trimming fications. ishingtouch:a crownmolding wood you trim solid a3)helps top,a crisp an armoire adorning Qage core stock. applied to banding edge panel, anogee cut ona raised bevel 44)proves A veneer trimmer(page These ofa tabletop. theedge around preparing veneer for handyfor crewere once flourishes decorative book-matching. painstakingly by hand,using ated Mounting therouterin a table todaythey planes andspokeshaves; enables or pin routingattachment with an array made areinvariably more complex edge youto create chief tools, woodworking of electric It profiles curves. also andelaborate of aPlaner solidity Combiningthe router. themtheportable among for needed provides the stability of a shaperthemolding with theversatility both basic Thischapter outlines (page an edgepanels 47), raising type planeris capable of assembly-line techedge-forming andadvanced be thatcanalso technique forming of molding production of manytypes niques,from patternrouting to radisaw, onthetable accomplished molding. making from straightto curved. anddrill press. al armsaw, power toolssuchas Stationary toolfor comshop theultimate is perhaps Thepin router andthetablesaw cancut rabbets, thejointerandtablesaw (page router Essentially aninverted 58). gtu;ls edges, but therouteristhemostver- plexedge-formin decorative shape canalso directfromthetabletop apin projecting thetoolfeatures of inter- table, tool for thejob.Utilizingawiderange efficient satile, thetool making isguided, which thestock thebit along cutsthatareimpossible ly under make it canalso cutters, changeable pin routingattachment work A shop-made for template forminga ideal to performwith anyotherpowertool; imagine tables router to mostcommercial andadaptable picture frame iseasilybuilt of a circular around theinside bead deCorative mustbe forming (page too,thatnot all edge 63). Remember, withouta router. saw head onthetable jigsexpand amolding Byinstalling wittrarouter. the done andshop-made accessories Commercial (page 53). moldings canroutdetailed armsawyou corner- or radial A simple edges still further. routert abilityto shape

pilotsthat Edge-formingbi*oftenhaveball-bearing to maintainuniformcutterdepth. ride alongthestock a decorative carves Here,a double-flutedbeadingbit of a tabletop. profilearoundthecircumference

37

BASICEDGESHAPING
multiple aking copies of thesame contoured shape with therouter requires theuse of a straightedge, ajig, or atemplate to guide thetoolalong the edge ofa workpiece. your routercan With a template, quickwork make of repeating a curved cutin a series Theexact of workpieces. procedure you followdepends on the typeof bityou areusing. Withthepilotedbit shown below, thecutting edge is belowthe pilot and the template is clamped atoptheworkpiece. Thepilot will followthecurved edge of thetemplatewhilethe cutters reproduce the same curve on theworkpiece. Whenyou usea non-piloted bit, guideto the router attacha template plate. Theguideis a metalcollar base thatsurrounds thebit shank andprotrudes slightly fromthebottomof the router's sub-base. With thetemplate secured atopthestock, theguide rides along theedge of thepattern, enabling thebit to shape theworkpiece. Whichever typeof bit youuse, make thetemplate from durable wood,such asplywood or particleboard. Cut the pattern usinga bandsawor a saber sawthencarefully sand the edges that will be guidingthe router,sinceany imperfections in thetemplate will be duplicated ontheworkpiece. Fora non-piloted bit,make thetemplateslightlythickerthantheheightof thetemplate guide. With a piloted bit, thetemplate should bethickenough to provide anadequate bearing surface for thepilot. Toroundthecorners ofa tabletop or jig like youcanusea shop-made shelf, theoneshown 41. on page

A supportboardsecured alongside a workpiece during an edge-forming operation keeps theroutersteady. For piecethat contourcuts,usethewaste remainsafter sawingthe curve.

PATTERN ROUTING WITH A PITOTED BIT


Making thecut Make a template thatis precisely thesame pieces youwish size asthef inished to cut, Usethetemplate to outline the patternonyourworkpiece, thencut outmost of thewaste witha band sawor saber saw, leaving about %oinchof stock beyond the cutting line.Use double-sided tape to fastentheworkpiece to thetemplate, ensuringthatthestraight edges of the boards arealigned, Clamp thetwopieces to a work surface. Holding therouter withboth plate hands, restits base onthetemplate at oneendwiththebit clear of thewood andturnonthetool.Ease thebit intothe stock untilthe pilotcontacts the edge, thenpullthe router toward theother end plate of thecut,keeping thebase flaton thetemplate andthe pilotflushagainst its edge(right).

38

EDGEFORMING

GUIDE A TEMPLATE USING


guide a template 1 Installing screw ontherouter I Loosen theclamo plate Insert the plate. andremove base guide partof thetemplate thethreaded ofthe i n t h em i d d l e h eh o l e t h r o u gth (right), on the lockthenscrew sub-base Thediamthetwotogether. to hold ingring guide be as should eter of thetemplate withclose to thatof thebit aspossible Reassemble edges. thecutting outtouching therouter.

r) Making thecut that is slightly a template L Prepare tocomdi e c e tr h a nt h ef i n i s h ep smalle the pensate between forthedifference temof the and the diameter diameter bit plate guide. atop the Fasten thetemplate tape, then withdcuble-sided workpiece surface. to a work thetwopieces clamp pattern you with a pilotas would Cutthe stock cutter into the feeding the ed bit, guide the temcontacts template untilthe that plate. making sure the cut, Complete guide pressed the edge of against is the (/eft). pattern the operation throughout the

39

EDGEFORMING

ROUNDING CORNERS
theexcess waste 1 Sawing I Youcanusea commercial cornerjig to curve rounding the corners of a workpiece. Setyour stock ona work surface andplace thejig atop thecorner to berounded. Settheflip-up stops onthe jig in thevertical position to align the edges of thejig withthose of theworkpiece, Clamp thetwopieces to thework surface. To make the router cut easier, (/eff). sawaway the bulkof thewaste

r') Rounding thecotner L t-lsinga top-piloted flush-cutting bit, start clear of thecorner, making thecut pattern asyouwould when routing witha piloted bit (page 38). Keep the bit pilot pressed against theedge of thejigthrough(right). outthe operation

40

EDGEFORMING

VIEW UNDERSIDE

A C0R]{ER-R0UtrlDll{G JIG andinexpensive to build, the Easy jig at leftworks as corner-rounding version shown wellasthecommercial page. Thejig consists ontheprevious base andtwolipsthat of a plywood keep theedges of thejig andtheworkpiece aligned. from a pieceof 3/+Cutthe base inchplywood. Formostjobs,a base 10 inches wide and16 inches about Draw thecurve long willbeadequate. youwishto routonthe base near one thenmake thecutwitha band corner, saw; sand the edge sawor a saber Youcanalso cutthecorner smooth. to a circleusing a router attached 79). cuttingguide(page Cutthe lipsfromstock % inch thickand1% inches wide, thennail leavor screw the pieces to the base, ingabout 3 to 4 inches between each lip andtherounded corner. Thetop beflushwith edge of thelipsshould thetopsurface of the base. Touse thejig,setyour stock ona worksurface withthe corner to be rounded extending off thetableby inches. Place thejig on top several of theworkpiece sothelipsarebutted Use against the edges of thestock. thetwopieces to clamps to secure Make thecut as thework surface. jig,pres+ youwould witha commercial of ingthebit'spilotagainst theedge (\eft,bottom). the jig throughoul

41

EDGEFORMING

CUTTING AND TRIMMING PLASTIC LAMINATES


Cutting strips of edging I Use a laminate trimmer witha comguide mercial edge to cutstrips of edgguide ingfrom a sheet of laminate. The ensures thatthewidth of each striois uniform. Attach theguide to thetrimmer (on themodel shown, thetrimmer's subguide base is removed andtheedge is plate); fastened to thetool's base then adlust thewidth of cutfollowing themanufacturer's instructions. Install a straight b i ti n t h et r i m m e arn d clamp t h es h e e t to a work surface, using a board to keep thesheet f lat.With thebitclear of the sheet. start thecutat one end.Holding thetrimmer with one hand, feed thetool your toward theopposite end;use other hand to press theguide flush against the
odsp nf ihp shcpt //pff)

'l

and trimming thelaminate O Installing L Clue thebanding onto theedges of theworkpiece and clamp thepanel edgeguide u p .R e m o vt e h ee d g e from the trimmer andinstall thesub-base anda flush-cutting bit.Use thetool to trimany banding thatprolects beyond theedges oftheworkpiece. Repeat to glue and trim edging ontheends of thepanel. Glue the toplaminate in olace next. Totrimit flush wrth theedges, hold thetrimmer f irmly w i t ho n eh a n d a n dg u i d e t h et o o a l long (right).To theworkpiece make an interior cutto match a cutout in thepanel, clamp t h e p a n etlo t h ew o r k surface ln . stall plunge a pilotpanel bitinthetrimmer and thebit's sharpened tip intothesheet to pierce it,then feed thetrimmer until the p i l o tc o n t a c tts h ee d g e o f t h ec u t o u t . Making sure that thepilot remains flush (inset), agains th t ee d g e o f t h ec u t o u t
cnmnlpip fhp errt

,1

-)

EDGEFORMING

JIG A FLUSH-TRIMMINC youto at rightallows Thejig shown straight bitto trim use a non-piloted withthetop f lush edge banding solid of a panel. surfaces andbottom to thetool's to bescrewed Designed twoguide thejig features sub-base, pinsthatridealong face theoutside while theendof the of thebanding bittrims thebanding. from Tomake thejig,cutthebase \/z-inch plywood from andthe body 3/q-inch plywood. Make thewidthof of equal to thediameter bothpieces plate; your cutthebody router base 12 inches long andthebase about . se t h et o o l ' s u b 8 i n c h e lso n g U to cut thecurve base asa template Also cut at oneendof thejig body. hole through the a 3-inch-diameter a body to clear the bit, but leave the to house section within thecircle guide pins. Cutoneendof thejig

Jig baee
O

thebase thenscrew base to a point, thefascountersink to thejig body; Bore two7a-inch-diameter teners. in thebody thewedge holes through

len$hs of dowels andglue twoshort position theholes sothe in theholes; theedge bitwill lineupdirectly over pins withtheguide of thebanding Tocomplete flush against thestock. fora thejig,cuta lenghof dowel it to thebody. handle andscrew therouter's To use thejig,attach withscrews. sub-base to the body Install a straight bit in thetooland depth sothetip adjust thecutting of withthe bottom of the bit is level yourstock to Clamp thejig base. protecting it witha a worksurface, thebitclear of the wood oad, With and workpiece, turnon the router on thetop of the setthejig base pins against stock. Butting theguide surface of thebanding, theoutside guide along thetopedge, therouter (left).Apply trimming the banding on the handle downward Dressure to keep the throughout theoperation router fromtipping.

+J

EDGEFORMING

A VENEER.TRIMMIl{G GUIDE Trimsheets of veneer quickto width ly andaccurately on a router table withthejig shown at right. The veneer ls sandwiched between thebase and topof thejig; the base rides along thepilot of a flush-cutting bit,which cutstheveneer flushwiththeedge of the jig (right,middle). Cutthebase from1%-inch-thick stock andthetoofrom%-inch-thick stock. Make thepieces about 6 incheswide; the base should be a few inches longer thanyour router table, andthetop long enough to cover the veneer. Choose a board witha slight bow forthetop,if possible; withthe bow facing down, applying clamping pressure near the ends of the board w i l lf l a t t e n it, producin ug niform pressure against the base. Screw toggle clamps to the base sothetop willfit between them. yourrouter To prepare tableforthe operation, install thebit ontherouter andmount thetoolin thetable. Cut a guard froma piece of stock, sawinga notch fromoneedge to forma lip thatwillcover thecutter. Clamp theguard to thetable, To use thejig, place theveneer to betrimmed between the base and thetopsothegrain of theveneer is parallel to thatof the boards. The edges protrude of thesheets should fromthejig byabout % inch, Press thetoggle clamps down on thetop to secure theveneer sheets to the jig.Turn ontherouter andslide the jig across thetableto cut theveneer (left),keepingthe jig pressed against thepilot throughout theoperation.

44

EDGEFORMING

EDGES CURVED UNDERCUTTING

lllliltlllllllllllllllllllliljlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll lllt lllt


Tt? 1HO?
A ff ueh-trimming devioe Nrimlo buya laminat'e Youdo nol have m e r I o t r i m l a m i n a l ee d a eb a n d i n a com- / z coreetock.TheoimVle applied,lo heredoeeNhe / mercial device ehown 'u ., of emallbladee iobwtlh a couple in a oprinq-mounLed 1 conlained two halvee ; Nhe houoinq. Squeeze loqelher untilNhey i of LheNool workpiece I Nhe fiL enuqly a1ainot, from i-and lhen drawthe device one end of trheboardto the ,/ tl o r h e r .T h e b l a d e ew i l lL r i m / / f bandina. ,/ awayany exceee / youwiih perfectly / leavinq / fluehedqee,

guide template a shop-made Using you to undercut enables This technique efra c i r c u l a w ro r k p i e c e t h ep e r i m e to theguide, bit.Tomake using a straight across thefaceof a wood cut a bevel equal oftheguide Make thewidth block. thebit andthe between to thedistance Saw twotrisub-base. edge of therouter points in 1 inch apart angular contact (inset): also outside edge theguide's to c u ta n o t c h o u to f t h ei n s i d e d g e a straight thebit.Install accommodate andscrew thejtgto the bit in therouter the a template atop router's base. Clamp between sothatthedistance workpiece edge and theworkpiece's thetemplate thebitand asthatbetween isthesame points Make the of theguide. thecontact points keeping thecontact cut (above), thetemplate throughout f lush against Reposition thetemplate theoperation. thecut. to finish asnecessary

45

EDGEFORMING

(lNA ROUTER JOINTING TABTE


Fencethumbacrew

Jointing anedge Install a straight bit in therouter witha cutting longer edge thanthethickness of your workpiece, andmount thetool in a router table. Toremove %oinchof wood fromyour stock-a typical amount jointing-adjust when theposition of the fence fora cutof thatamount. Make a testcut in a scrap board, thenunplug therouter andhold theboard in place against thefence. Loosen theoutfeed fence thumbscrews andadvance the outfeed halfuntilit butts against the (above, cut partof theboard left).Tightenthethumbscrews. Butttheworkoiece against thefence a fewinches back from thebit andthenslowly feed theboard your intothecutter, keeping hand clear of thebit andpressing theworkpiece f irmlyagainst the fence(above, right). justto theoutfeed Apply sidepressure side of thebit.Fornarrow stock, finish thecutwitha oush stick.

llllllllll|ll"illl lltl tIJ lllt l{lllll|l| lltl llll tl|l l]lt llll llll tlll
1HO?TI?
Joinling wide boarde lf you haveboarde tha| are Loocumbergome lo moveacross lhe jointer,you can undertake lhe Iask with a router and a pefiecLlv 6quare edLeLutae. lnslall a 1/z-inch loopiloledflueh-trimminq bit in a router wiLha 1 /z-inch c oll eN,7o siti on the edqeguideaIoV lhe boardLo be jointed and clamp the piecee Io a workbenah withthe eAgeof the board)rotrudinq trom the quide'e edqeby abouLlloinch.Feed the router from oneendof trhe boardloihe oLhecthepilo|will quide ridealonqthe aethe cutter Lrimelhe boardflush.

46

RAISINGPANELS
is a I rame-and-panelconstruction I clever wayof getting around thefact that wood shrinks and swellswith in humidity.The principleis changes "floats" simple:The panel within the frame,sittingin grooves cut aroundits insideedges. Cuttinga bevel aroundthe edgeof the panelallowsthe pieceto fit into the grooves in the frameand gives "raised" a decorative effectto the main part ofthe panel. Traditionally, panels wereraised with planes special that featured angledand profiledcutters andsoles. Thatjobcould require hoursof arduous work, especiallyif thewoodwasdense, suchasoak, maple, or cherry. Today you canraise panels on the tablesaw, radialarm saw drill press, andshaper. Panel raisingis oftendoneon the routertablewith oneof several specially designed routerbits (page 4\).These cutters canhandlestockup to % inch thick,but thebits'large diameter-ti?ically3t/zinches-can makethe workpiece difficultto control.If you planto do a lot of panelraising, consider building a jig for the task(page50). panels Since raising involves removal ofa gooddealofstock,it is bestnot to attempt to makethe cut in onepass. Instead, makea series of partialpasses, increasing the depth of cut gradually each time,until thepanelis %inchthick at theedges or fits snuglyin the grooves cut in the frame.

Panels canberaised on a numberof stationary woodworking tools; a tablesawwith a tilting arborworks well.An auxiliary wood thejob safer fencemakes and more accurate.

POPUTAR RAISED PANET DESIGNS

Eeveledpanel raiaed from frame

Ogee beveledpanel

Beveledpanel fluah with frame

Reaesaedpanel with rabbete

Bead

47

EDGEFORMING

TABLE RAISING PANELS ONTHEROUTER


panel-raising bit Using a piloted panel-raising bit in your Install a piloted table. router andmount thetoolin a router With turned off,loosen thefour therouter thetwo fence adjustment screws andmove asclose as possible halves of thefence tt o u c h i ntg h ec u t t i n g t o t h eb i t w i t h o u Toensure that edges. Tighten thescrews. position the of cut is uniform, thewidth fence in line withtheedge of thebitpilot: Loosen thethumbscrews behind thefence, a straightedge against thefence thenhold bothhalves together untilthe andmove contacts thepilot. Thepilot straightedge touches iI (right, should turnastheedge position, if necabove); adjust thefence's Set essary, then tighten thethumbscrews. fora %-inch depth of cut,Iowtherouter over thebitandturnonthe ertheguard youcanclamp For stability, router. added halfof thefence to a featherboard to each (lnthe press thetable. thepanel against illustrations onthispage, thefeatherboards Tominihave been removed forclarrty.) of the mize tearout, cut intotheendgrain panel the first, beveling theends before With theoutside face of thepanel sides. intothe feed thestock down onthetable, it forward withyour right hand bit,pushing with andkeeping it flush against thefence yourleft (right, Test-fit the panel below). grooves in theframe andmake subsequent passes, bya increasing thecutting depth maximum of % inch each time.

48

EDGEFORMING

Using a non-piloted nig v e r t i c ap l a n e l - r a i s ib t l i l l b ef e d I n t h i so p e r a t i o n th , e p a n ew acrost sh e b i t i n a n u p r i g h p t osition s,o y o u m u s ta t t a c h a h i g ha u x i l i a rw y ood f e n c e( r i g h t ) .M a k et h e f e n c ea b o u t8 inches h i g ha n dc u t a n o t c h i n t h em i d d l e F o rt h i s c u t ,t h e t o a c c o m m o d at h ee b i t . cutting d e p t hd e p e n d o sntheamounb ty w h i c ht h e b i t p r o t r u d efs r o mt h e f e n c e .
Tn hosin s.pfihp fpn.p fnr a /o-innh dpnth
d

^l^-^ n f c r r i T o c . p c r r r pfL h 2r n l. U r rp u n lolllP pu ' t^ r1

^ {^^+L

ltrdLll-

erboard to ihe tahle'restthe featherboard ona shrm to keep t h e p a n efl r o mt i l t i n g y o u p a s t r u ni t as h e b i t .F e e d t h ep a n e l y o u r p r e s s i nig with r i g h th a n dw h i l e t flat your against the fencewith lefl (below). lirst, C u tt h e t o p a n d b o t t o m o f t h e p a n ef t h e nt h e s i d e s B . ack t h ef e n c e f r o mt h e bit no morethanr/ainchat a time for furs n t i lt h e p a n e f lits t h e r .d e e p e p r a s s eu groove. intothe

49

EDGEFORMING

JIG A PAI{EI.RAISII{G jig at rightallows Theshop-made panels youto raise without mounting yourrouter Featuring a in a table. which the anda fence to tilting table thejig is secured router is attached, Thisprotail vise. to a workbench way to milla vides a safe, accurate profiles. of widerange of thejig from Cutall the pieces 3h-inch plywood; the dimensions willwork in theillustration suggested workbench. wellwiththe typical assembling thejig byscrewing Start of to the underside the brackets the tableat oneend.Cutadjustthearms, then through mentslots to the boltthetopendsof the arms endsto andthe bottom brackets washhanger bolts, the fenceusing nuts. Attach thetable ers, and wing posihinge witha piano to thefence below thetop tioned about 6 inches To prepare the fence of thefence. for yourroLrter, borea holejust thatwillaccomabove thetablelevel

3/+"x22"x24'l

panelyourlargest vertical modate guard the to the bit. Screw raising Finally, cut above the hole. fence end of the a notchintothe bottom the visescrew. fence to clear

it in thevise To use thejig,secure worksothetableis at a comfortable Install a Vz-inch vertical ingheight. panel-raising then bit in therouter, screw the baseolateto the fence fromthe hole. sothebit protrudes thebit fora shallow cut, Adjusting andmake a test turnonthe router piece. To adjust the cut in a scrap the tool, loosen angle, turn off bevel thearms to the wingnutssecuring up or fence and tilt the table the As on the router table,cut down. on the ends of the panel the bevels on the sides. Feed the before those (left), panel tace-up across the table yourfingers clear of the keeping panel increase the and bit. Test-fit depthby % inchfor the cutting pass. a second

50

EDGEFORMING

()NTHEDRILT RAISING PANELS PRESS


TITTING TABTE JIG

Setting uptheiig j i g ,a d r i l l read I Fitted w i t ha p l a n eh a n da t i l t i n g table er bolt. Screw thearms to thetopandthensecure them to the p r e sc s a nr a i s e p a n e lq su i c k la y n ds a f e l y I. n s t at ll withhanger washers, h ep l a n e r base bolts, and wing nuts. Clamp thebase to head i n t h ec h u c ka 's ,djustin th g em a c h i n ed r i l l i ns gp e e d thedrillpress table, loosen thewing nuts andsetthetopto the you m a n u f a c t u r e r . bevel t o t h es e t t i n g s p e c i f i eb dy i h e a c c e s s o r y 's angle wish to cut.Tighten thewing nuts, thenadjust the join table plywood, Forthejig,cutthebase and topfrom %-inch and height to position thetopabout 1 inchbelow theplaner (above, thepieces withbutt hinges left).CUI the arms f rom head. Cuta fence fromsolid stock, saw a notch outof oneedge to 1-by-2 s i o c kt,h e nr o u ta s l o tt h r o u ge ha c h o n ef o ra h a n g - clear theplaner head, andclamp it to thetop(above, right). t') Raising thepanel L tttaXe a testcut on a scrap board. T o c h a n gte h e b e v ea l n g l ea , d j u stth e arms to tilt thetopof the1ig. Thedepth of cutonyour firstpass should notexceed % i n c h .L o w etrh ed r i l lo r e s t sa b l e to decreas th e ec u t t i n g d e p t hr ;a i s e the table to increase it. Run theoanel face r e a dk u p p a s t h ep l a n eh , e e p i ntg he workpiece f lushagainst thefence with y o u rl e f th a n d a n dp u s h i n ig t forward withyour righl(left). Tominimize tearout, start b yb e v e l i n tg h ee n d s b e f o rt e he sn ,crease s i d e sF . or a d d i t i o np aa l ssei t h ec u t t i n g depth % inch ata time.

'l

51

MAKINGMOLDINGS
andshapers aremost often T) outers 11 chosen to cutmbldings, andtheuse forthispurrouter of thetable-mounted pose isshown 57. onpage yourtable saw or radial arm However, is alsoan excellent choice for cutsaw By replacing the saw ting moldings. head andinterblade with a molding youcanreproduce changeable cutters, an impressive arruy of designs. Some profiles for these available ofthe cutter with illustrated below, together saws are Thetechniques thecutstheyproduce. on pages for using themareexplained 53and54. Page a jig youcanmake 55presents molding in a remarkfor cuttingcove ablysimple fashion-ona table saw. Molding operations can be hazThecutters strikewith great ardous. force, andarecapable ofcausing severe wounds. kickback andinflicting serious principal rules applyto Two safety No should be saws androuters. single cut passmany deeper than%inch; shallow superior results and eswill produce Toensure reduce theriskofkickback. yourwork,never control over adequate moldstockthat isshorter than12inchIfnarrow than4 inches. esor narrower molding is required, it canbe ripped from wider stockwhenthe shaping operation is complete. A finalsafety tip pertains to routers: generally Because molding are largbits heavier than molderand ordinarybits, ingoperations are often best conducted mounted in a table. This with thetool your frees hands to control work. both

Installed in a table-mounted router, this traditional molding bit can transform a plain board into an elaboratemolding.

M(ITDING CUTTER PROFITES FOR THE TABTE SAW AND RADIAT ARM SAW

FIutea

r e G ffi
Eead and cove

Oluejoint

LS G
, 7

VG

G ffi G t_3
L--}F
52

re{k

mk

Eeads

rek

EDGEFORMING

()NTHE TABLE SAW MOLDING CUTTING


head onthesaw themolding 1 Mounting in the I Fitthecutters intotheir slots head, a hex wrench to molding thenuse (inset). Mount the tighten thesetscrews head withthef lat molding onthesaw facing of side of thecutters thedirection witha rag to blade rotation. Grip thehead protect your hand asyoutighten thearbor (/eff,). nutcounterclockwise Then install insert onthesaw a molding-head table head byhand table. Rotate themolding areproperto make sure thatthecutters not l y a l i g n ea dn dt h a tt h eu n i td o e s contact the insert.

53

EDGEFORMING

r) Making t h ef i r s tp a s s w o o df e n c ea n d L lnstall an auxiliary p o s i t i o in t over head. Keepthemolding i n gt h e m e t a lf e n c ec l e a ro f t h e c u t t e r s , ya i s c u t a c l e a r a n cn e o t c hb y g r a d u a l l r i n gt h e c u t t e r h e aid n t ot h e f e n c e . Turn off the sawand position the fence for the proi f l e y o uw a n t .S e c u r e t h ew o r k p i e c e w i t ht w o f e a t h e r b o a r d os n,ec l a m p e d to t h ef e n c e above t h e b l a d ea , n da s e c o n d f i x e dt o t h e s a wt a b l e .C l a m p a support board at a 90" angle to the second featherboard. Place a shimbehind the featheron the fence,if necessary, to prevent board w o r k p i e c f e r o m t i l t i n g d u r i n g t h ec u t . the 1 / z Raise c u t t e r s o n l y i n c h a b ove the the f table; d o n o t m a k ea u l l - d e p t h cut in p a s s . feed one T o m a k et h e c u t , s l o w l y your the workpiece intothe cutters with p r e s s i n ig r i g h th a n d , t a g a i n stth e f e n c e w i t hy o u rl e f th a n d( / e f f ) . Finish the cut w i t h a p u s hs t i c k .R e v e r s te h eb o a r d and r e p e atth e c u t o n t h e o t h e re d g e .

pass Making thefinal passes Make asmany as necessary,


r a i s i nt g h em o l d i n g head X i n c ha t a t i m e , u n t i ly o uh a v e r e a c h et d h ed e s i r e d e p t h o f c u t . F o rt h e f i n a l p a s s .r a i s et h e molding h e a dv e r ys l r g h t l y andpass the workpieca ecross the cutters very s l o w l yf , e e d i n gr t w i t h a p u s h stick as t h e b o a r d 't sr a i l i n g e n da p p r o a c h e th se cutters(right). Thiswill produce a smooth finish t h a tw i l lr e q u i r e little sanding. profile 0 n c et h e p r o p e r h a s b e e nc u t , remove the molding c u t t e rh e a df r o m t h es a wa n di n s t a la l ripor combination f r o mb o t h blade to cutthe molding sides of theworkpiece.

54

EDGEFORMING

A COVE CUTTING GUIDE Cutting coves ona table sawis essenis Theconcave shape tially simple: formed by moving the work easily a partially raised blade at an across

angle. However, accurately setting up to achieve theproper angle, thesaw width, anddepth of cutcanbetricky. Thetaskis simplif iedby using guide cutting shown below, thecove

Lower theblade andsettheworkpiece onthesaw table, aligning both of guidelines. lt willrequire some sets sure thatthe board care to make to theguidelines. edges areparallel boards When theyare,buttguide against thestock andclamp them in place. Check thealignment of the your cut. boards andbegin pass Each should be no more thanVeinchdeeo.Feed the board push throughslowly, using blocks (below). Fora outthe operation s m o o tf h i n i s hm , ake a f i n a lp a s s at halfthedepth andspeed asthe previous passes.

strips consisting of four2-inch-wide of 3/q-inch hardwood or plywood, assembled to forma parallelogram roughly 18 inches long by9 inches wide. Thepieces arefastened with machine screws and countersunk wingnutsfor easy adjustment. Here is howto useit: Setthe distance between thejig'slong sides to thewidthof thecove andtightthe saw en the wingnuts.Raise desired depth of cut, blade to the jig lay the over the blade. then Position thejig sothatitsedges lightly This will contact theblade. your which work betheangle at mustcross the blade to oroduce the cove. Use a pencil or china desired guidelines marker to trace onthe (/eff). Remove the jig, sawtable place it onyour workpiece, andmark guidelines ontheleading end. similar

55

EDGEFORMING

ANAUXITIARY TABLE FOR THE RADIAT ARM SAW lf youwant to cutmolding ontheradial armsawwiththe molding head position, in thehorizontal tryanauxiliary tableliketheoneshown below, With thesaw arbor in thevertical oosition, themolding head cannot belowered to thelevel of thestandard table.

protrude at leastYqinchabove the table when thejig is installed. The lip willsupport theworkpiece as it rides along thefence during a cut. Toinstall theauxiliary table, screw thefence to thebase, slipthefence between thefrontandrear saw tables, t h e nt i g h t e n t h et a b l e clampt so secure thejig in place.

Fita molding head to thesaw arbor asyouwould witha tablesaw(page guard 53/; install a plastic on the your molding head to protect hands during thecuts. Tosecure theworkpiece, clamp twofeatherboards to thefence on either side of themoldinghead anda thirdfeatherboard to thetable, it witha support bracing board. Seta 7a-inch cutting depth andturnonthesaw. Feed thestock slowly intothe molding head with yourrighthand(below); useyour lefthand to press the workpiece against thefence. Finish thepass witha pushstick.Make asmany passes asnecessary, advancing the molding head onlyr/einch farther intotheworkoiece at a time.0nce youhave profile, cut the desired pass, make a f inal,veryshallow feeding moreslowly to helpproduce a smooth finish.

Theauxiliary base raises the workpiece to thecutters, andthefence providing supports thework while a clearance cutout forthecutters and guard. molding head forthejig base Cutthetwopieces plywood; from3Z-inch make them thesame size asthefront saw table. Screw the pieces together, offsetting thetopslightly to create a gapalong thefence thatwill prevent sawdust f r o ma c c u m u l a t i n bg e t w e etn he base of theauxiliary table andthe fence when t h ej i g i s i n p o s i t i o n . plywood, Cutthefence from3h-inch making it about wide. When 5 inches sawing thecutout for the molding g u a r d l,e a v e head a l i p t h a tw i l l

56

EDGEFORMING

TABLE M()LDING ON THE ROUTER

illl llll llll lllr rlll ll|l llll llll IIlllll rll] fill rxl tllt lltllll lllt llll
jHO? TI?
lf your rouNer .* table does not -- ; havea miler qauqeelot,,you c a n b u i l da o i m p l e devicetoquideetock acroaolhe table it equare whilekeeVinq Thejig to Ihe fence. coneisNs of an L-ohaped ouppoftpiece and a quide NhaN rideealonathe front, Ihe end of the edqeof the table.To usethe jiq, buNL fencewhileholdinq ito edqe workpiece aqainot,Ihe Thenpuehlhe workpiece aqainotlhe oupVorlpiece. IoqebherinNo lhe bit. and Ihe qauqe

A mitergaugefor 1--rff the routertable --ffi '

Routing a molding rn d I n s t aa l l m o l d i nb gi t i n y o u r o u t ea m o u ntth et o o li n a t a b l e l . f y o ua r e using a large bit,adjust thefence for ; on o t a s h a l l oc wu t - a b o u % t i n c hd ile in one attempt to routthef ull prof pass. To holdtheworkpiece in place, clamo a featherboa to rd t h et a b l ei n line withthebit;raise thefeatherboard witha wood shimsothat it supports your of theworkpiece. With themiddle stock clear of thebit,turnontherouter feed intothe andslowly theworkpiece while holding it flush against cutting edge /eff).(Caution: thefence(above, Guard removed for clarity.) in thisillustration yourhands from To keep safely away thebit,finish thepass witha push stick (above, passes right). l,Aake asmany as profile, necessary to routthe desired increasing depth by 7einch thecutting ata time.

57

PINROUTING
its namefrom the p in routingtakes I steelpin or pins that guidethe workpiece across a cuttingtool that is mountedabove the work table.Nonpilotedbits canbe usedfor somecuts, is particularly useful andthetechnique for following a template(page61). Pilotedbits canalsobe used, ascanan auxiliary fence(page59). The assembly shownat right comof a shaper, a drill binesthe features press, and a routertable.iike a drill press, thebusiness endof theassembly (in thiscase, electric router) a portable above thetable. is mountedin a carriage is above thework-a The cuttingedge The pin commonsetupon the shaper. features routing attachment a depth adjustment leverthat,muchlike a drill press feedlever,raises and lowersthe bit to the desired depthof cut. Theassembly enables you to produce Suspended abovea sturdy work tablein this profiles from chamfers ranging to commercialpin routing attachment,the edge portablerouter becomes it alsoworkswell cuta stationaryshaping crownmoldings; tenons, andrabbets. toolfor intricateedge-forming operations. ting mortises,

ASSEMBTY SETTING UPA PINROUTING


in theattachment Mounting therouter With t h ea p p r o p r i ab t ie t i n t h er o u t e r , install thetoolin thepinrouting attachment f o l l o w i ntg h em a n u f a c t u r e r ' s instructions. Secure the router in the h e l o c kn u t c a r r i a gb ey t i g h t e n i ntg (right). Next of cut.This setthedepth between thebit deoends onthedistance 2 to 3 inches, andthetable-typically workdepending onthethickness of your piece. Pulldown on thedepth control handle to lower thecarriage andthebit asfarasthey willgo;movement of the carriage willstop when thedepth stop rodcontacts theassembly housing. To thedepth of thecut,loosen the adjust w i n gn u to nt h ed e p t h stop rod, then to increase the turntherodclockwise cutting d e p t hc ; o u n t e r c l o c k wtio se it n h ew i n gn u t . decreas e. T i g h t e t

58

EDGEFORMING

R()UTING ANDCURVED STRAIGHT


edge Shaping a straight attachcutson the pin routing Make straight b d i t a n da f e n c e . m e n tu s i n g a non-pilote fence a s l o n ga s t h e C u ta n a u x i l i a rw yood the bit, and table,notchit to accommodate f e n c e .I n s t a ltl w o screw it to thetable's featherboart do s h o l dt h e w o r ks e c u r e l y ; s l i d e si n t h e m i t e rs l o t . t h e t y p es h o w n fo struction sr Follow t h e m a n u f a c t u r eirn 's positionin ge w o r k p i e c a n ds e t t i n g the th e h,e w i d t ho f c u t .O nt h et a b l ei l l u s t r a t etd to adjust the widthof entire top is moved the guard so that it is no more cut. Lower thenturn the workpiece, than%inchabove the Feed the stockagainst on the router. pressing it against direction of bit rotation, the fence (right).Finishthe passwith a o u s hs t i c k .

Folming a curved edge it easy to follow the A piloted bit makes After mounting contour of a workpiece. p t h et a b l e insert ,l a c e t h es t a r t ep ri n i n its hole on the infeed side of the bit.As youfeed intothecutting theworkpiece edges, brace thestock against thestarter pin (left). youkeep Make sure theworkpiece your flush against thebitpilot and hands clear of thecutter

59

EDGEFORMING

C()NT()URED CUTS WITH NON-PIT()TED BITS


pin Installing theguide pin I and starter Toshape a curved edge using a nonpiloted pininto bit,screw a guide the c e n t eh r ole o f t h et a b l e insert ,he T attachment shown comes withguide rZ, pins of three different diameters: 3/e, r/z pinwillproand inch; a smaller duce a w i d ec r u t ,T h e n instat l lh e pinin thetable starter ontheinfeed side of thebit (/eff,). 'l

r) Shaping thecontour L Once thepins areinstalled, adjust thetabletop asyouwould fora straight pin is directly cuI (page 59) sotheguide under thebit.Asyoustart thecut,brace pin.Once theworkpiece against thestarter pin thebitcutsinto thestock andtheguide contacts thewood, move theworkpiece off pinto continue thestarter thecuI (right). Keep thestock butted against theguide pinthroughout theoperation.

60

EDGEFORMING

WITHA TEMPLATE SHAPING CURVES


Making and using a template A template anda non-piloted straight bit allow youto accurately f inish witha a curved edge pinrouting setup. Start by installing a bitand guide p i no f t h es a m e d i a m e t eA rd . j u stth e pindirectly tabletop to position theguide under thebit.Check thatthepinis perfectly aligned with t h eb i tu s i n g t h eh a n d lo ef a c o m b i n a t i o n (left). pinonthe infeed square Install thestarter you side of thebit.After have made a plywood template, rough-cut theworkpiece to size asyou (page pattern-routing would fora operation 38). your Use d o u b l e - s i dte ad pe tofasten stock atop thetemplate. In making thecut,brace the t e m p l a ta eg a i n s th t es t a r t ep r i n ,t h e np r e s s it pin.0ncethetemplate toward theguide touchp i na n dt h eb i t s t a r t c e st h eg u i d e sutting, pivot pin.Continue thestock offthestarter the c u t ,k e e p i ntg h et e m p l a tfe lush agains th te guide pin (below).

6l

EDGE FORMING

INSIDE EDGES ROUTING


up 1 Setting pincanalso I A template andguide witha be used to shape an inside edge non-piloted straight bit.Theillustrations onthispage show how to cut a rabbet picture theinside edge of anoval along pinthatissmaller frame. Mount a guide will thanthe bit;thewidthof therabbet between the eoual one-half thedifference for example, a 3/q-inch twodiameters; guide pinwill bit paired witha %-inch (/eff). yield Adjust a 7+-inch-wide rabbet pin to position theguide thetabletop d i r e c t lu yn d e trh e b i t a n di n s t a ltlh e sideof the starter oin on the infeed forrouting edge, table-which, aninside pin. isontheright-hand side of theguide workpiece to Make a template, cut your p a t t e rn, s a m e d i m e n s i o n a s s t h e the fasten the stock atop the template, and

Routing therabbet depth Besure to adjust thecutting (page 58)for the depthof the rabbet. and Turn ontherouter withthetemplate make clear of the bit.Then theworkpiece andworkthecut,guiding thetemplate drrection from oiece in a counterclockwise pinto theguide pin.Continue thestarter (right),keepingthe rotati ngthe workpiece pin. theguide butted firmly against template

62

EDGEFORMING

PINROUTING ON A ROUTER TABI.E above thesurface of thetable. Drive Youcanperform mostof the pin intoonesideof thearmto a screw routing operations featured on pages secure thedowel in position, 58 to 62 using a conventional router To usethe jig, install the approjig shown priate table andtheshop-built bit in the router andmount above. Thesetuo stands convention- thetoolin thetable. Clamp the base a l p i nr o u t i n o g n i t s h e a dR . a t h e r of thejig to thetablesotheguide than suspending therouter over a guide pin,thetoolis mounted upside down pinis in a router table andtheguide positioned over the bit. Thejig affords twoadvantages over commercial arrangements. First, a router is safer when it is fixed under p i ni s ; econd a t a b l es th , eg u i d e more visible when it is heldabove thework surface. Cutthebase of thejig fromhardwood; make it aslong asyour router table. TheL-shaped arm,also of hardwood, should be long enough sothatit extends over thebit when its back edge is flush withtheback of therouter table andthejig base, Screw thearmto thebase. For the guide pin,bore a r,/z-inch-diameder hole t h r o u gth h ea r ma n dg l u e a prece ; u tt h e o f d o w eiln p l a c ec dowel so it willsit at least 1 inch

pin is directly above the bit. Shape in conventionanedge asyouwould (page al pinrouting 61),except the template should sit atoptheworkpiece(below). Make sureyoubutt pin thetemplate against theguide throughout theoperation,

63

GROOVING
Ithough basic router tedr86),since itallowsyouto align niques remain essentially thebit overthecutandplunge unchanged no matter whatthe it into thestodc operation, cuttinggrooves inForsafety andprecision, it vohes special skills, whether the is oftenbestto mount your cutsareintended to be ornarouterin a table(page 75).A mentalor functional. router table affordsa high This chapter demonstrates degree of controlthatmakes it thetoolsandtechniques used a relatively simple taskto rout to rout a wideassortment of grooves stopped andrabbets. grooves, fitom thesimple dadoes On page 8l weshow techused to assemble carcases and A coreboxbitcarva a circuhrgrooye nearthe niquesfor followinga predecabinets to recesses for inlavs edge of a walnut tabletop. Tbensure that this pattern, termined andonpage andthe graceful patterns that decorative cutfollows the arc of the workpiece, 84youwill find a discussion of canform thedecorative focus a curvedetctension isfastenedto a commercial pin routingforcutting grooves. of a piece of furniture. guideto ride alongtheedge edge ofthe stock Whetheryour router has Many techniques will be plungingcapabilities or not, frequently, used asthecutsareessential to mostprojects; oth- andwhether or not it ismounted in atable, youwill beusing perhaps ers,although less commonly used, will allowyouto a widevarietyof accessories-jigs, bits,cutters, guides, and extend thescope of yourwork andimprove thelevelof your templateFthatease thecompletion of cerAin taslsandmake craftsmanship. possible. others A selection of commercial accessories isshown Thebest router to use depends onthetask athand" Altlrough on page 66.Throughout youwill find illustrated thischapter job adequateh instructions a standard routerwill performvirtuallyevery for buildingyourownaccessories. a plunge routeris preferred for interiorcuts,suchasrouting Withthese-andalittleknowledge andimagination-you (page yourrouteroneof yourmostvaluable grooves stopped 69)or cuttingrecesses for nlay (page canmake tools.

Fittedwith a straightbit,arouter cutsa dadofor a shelfin a carcase sidepanelwith the helpof a commercial edge guide.

65

AND ACCESSORIES A GALLERY OF GROOVES


DADOES AI{D GROOVES
Dado A rectanqularchannel cut acroas the workpiece 1rain; typically forma parb of a ioinL but can aleo be uoedfor decoration Dovetail groove A wed1e-ehaped channel, typically interlocka with a matinq board, forminq part of a alidinq dovetailjoint

Groove A cut alon6 t"heqrain formin7 of a workpiece, a rectanqular channel; may be decorative but uoually functional

tslindgroove
A cut alon7 the qrain that otopo shorL of both ends; rounded enda left by router can be oquared with a chiael. Uaed in both joinery and

ornamental applicationo
Rabbet A cut in the edqe or end of with or acrooa a workpiece, the qrain. Ueuallyfunctionat

GROOVING ACCESSORIES
Strai7htedge guide Model shown is aelf' clampin4;available

Edge guide Keeporouter bit aquare to board edqeafor qroovin4cuto. Rods attach to router baae plate and fence ridea alonq workpiece ed4e.Fencecan be fitted with aontoured ehopmade extenaionto helpfolbw ed4eaof circular work

Edge and aircle guide Edqe6uide holds router a aet diatancefrom edqe for atraight cute; ecrew or pin inserL' of workpiece ed throuqh baee of quide allowojiq to pivot around a centerpointfor cuttinq airclea,Adjuetable guide roda attach to router baee plate

GROOVING

ADJUSTABTE CIRCTE-GUTTING JIG jig shown Theshop-made below allows therouter to cut circles of any diameter. Size thepieces of thejig to suitthejobat hand. Thecenter block canbecutfrom%-inchthick stock; make it about 3 inches wide and6 inches long. Thediameter of thehardwood dowels depends onthe size of thepredrilled holes in thebase plate of yourrouter; cut the dowels longer thantheradius of the largest circleyouexpect to rout. Toassemble thejig,slipthedowelsintotheholes in therouter base

plate, thensetthetoolflat on a work surface. Buttoneedge of thecenter block against theends of thedowels andmark thetwopoints where the rodscontact the edge. Bore a hole halfway through the block at each point, thenspread a littlegluein the holes andinsert thedowels. Fixthem in place withbrads. Next, mark the center of the block andbore a hole through it for a screw. your Tosetupthecut,place stock onthework surface. Buttwood scraps against theedges of theworkpiece to actascleats. thenscrew themin

place, Mark the radius of the circle andits centerpoint. Install a straight bit in therouter andsetthe cutting depth. For a deep cut,make several shal lowoasses. To usethejig, attach the block to thecenter of thecircle andslide the dowels along the router base plate untiltheedge of thebit closest to thecircle's center is aligned with theendof the marked radius. plate Tighten thescrews in the base to hold thedowels in place. Then rout thecircle, feeding the router in a (below). clockwise direction

67

DADOCUTS
dadoes cleanly ,\ t onetime,cutting wasa painstaking r.l. and accurately hand designed taskinvolvinga specially Today, planeor a sawanda woodchisel. bit can a routerfittedwith a straight makequickwork of anydadocut. Whetheryou areroutinga dadoor a groove, the maximumdepthof a single pass will depend on thehardness of the In genofyour router. stockandthesize in hardwood require channels eral,deep width passes. For cutswhose several of thebitsyouhave exceeds thediameter Three of passes. on hand,makea series passes with a Z-inchbit, for adjacent will carve a dadoor groove up example, it wide. (Usually, however, to l% inches wouldbebetterto makefour slightlynarrowercuts.) display several The followingpages jigs.Forcutsclose to the useful dadoing guidesuptheedge edge ofa workpiece, tool,as pliedwith therouteris a helpful photograph left. For cuts in the at shown fartherin from the edge, usea comguide. mercial straightedge or shop-built page grooves 69, stopped As shownon and areeasy to cut usinga straightedge t\,vo stoD blocks. Whiie any router will get the job done,a plungerouteris bestfor makA stanandgrooves. ing stopped dadoes that you begina dard router requires plateand stopped cutby tiltingthebase pivotingthe bit into the work; with a plungerouter, you canhold the tool flat whileplungingthe bit on the surface into thewood. straight

A straight bit carvesa groove in a board. Riding an edgeguide along the board producesa cut parallel to the edge.

A GR()()VE CUTTING
guide Using anedge proyour to a work surface, Clamp stock pads, withwood tecting theworkprece of thegroove thenmark the beginning Clamp anedge ontheface of thestock. guide es , ing a tape t o t h ew o r k p i e cu theguide isthe measure to make certain mark as from thecutting same distance theedge of therouter thegapbetween partof the plate andtheoutermost base p a r a lle l the g u r d e must be to b i t .T h e grip Witha f irm on the workpiece edge. thestock at one router, feed the bit into thetool's base endof theboard, butting guide plate against theedge ?ight).

68

GROOVING

R()UTING A ST()PPED GR()()VE

lllllll lllltlll fiIj llllll|J llllrlll llrillJ l.ll ilj lllllllliltI ltll lll1
1HO? TI?
?reventing tearout, CuLIing a dado in can result Vlywood in Lorn woodfibers alonqNheedqeeof tne cut. To reducetearoul, scoref,heouLline of Nhedado wilh a utility knife.The incisionwilleever the woodfibere, keepin4lhe dgee of Ihe dado clean.

guide Using anedge and stop blocks Setthestock on a work surface, then c e n t etrh eb i t o v e t rh ec u t t i n g lines. guide Clamp anedge to theworkpiece plate; flush against therouter base check l t h ee d g e t h a t h eg u i d e isparalle to o f t h ew o r k p i e cN e. e xa t lign t h eb i t withoneendof themarked lines and clamp a stop block t o t h ew o r k p i e c e plate. f lushwiththerouter base Repeat theprocess at theother endof thegroove. Tostart thecut,rest the plate base ontheworkpiece withthebit clear of thestock andtheolate butted guide against theedge andone of the plunge stop blocks. Then thebit into thestock. Guide therouter toward the plate other stop block, keeping thebase (abovd. guide flushagainst theedge

69

GROOVING

ROUTING DADOES IN CARCASE SIDES


guide Making and using anedge Made fromtwopieces of plywood, the jig shown you shop-built at leftenables quick work cut.Since to make of a dado thedistance between theguide andthe is thesame asthegap edge of thebase between the edge of the router base plate and t h eb i t ,t h ej i gc a nb eq u i c k l y lined u ow i t ht h ed a d o outline C .u t h e plywood fromr/a-inch base andthe guide plywood; from%-inch ripthepieces to router widths to suityour setup.Screw thetwopieces together, making sure Torout to couniersink thefasteners. the dado, setthestock ona work surface and guide clamp theedge atop theworkpiece, of thejig base withthe aligning theedge marks. Settherouter's cutting cutting remembering forthe depth, to account thickness of thebase. Rout thechannel (left), flushagainst keeping thebase the guide and flatonthebase.

Gutting twodadoes in onepass For a fixed shelf to sit level in a bookcase or cabinet, it mustrestin dadoes at the panels. same height in both side 0neway to make certain thecutslineup isto rout time. Clamo the both dadoes at thesame that stock to a worksurface, ensuring protect theends of thepanels arealigned; pads. theworkpieces withwood Then guide posiclamp an edge to thestock, j i g tionint gh e s ot h er o u t eb r i t w i l ll i n e (page up directly over thedado outline guide 68).Make certain thattheedge l dges i s s q u a rte R . o ut h e o t h ep a n ee dado(right).

/tl

GROOVING

FOR T-SOUARE JIG GROOVING To routdadoes andgrooves that are square to the straight andperfectly edge of yourstock, construct a Tjig like square theoneshown at right, plywood. made from%-inch Sizethejig to accommodate the youwillbeusing stock andthediamplate.Make eterof yourrouter base guide 4 inches wide theedge about andat least as longasthewidthof theworkpiece; thefence, also about 4 inches w i d e ,s h o u l d extend on sideof the guideby about either plate. thewidthof the router base To assemble the the jig, screw guide withcounfence to theedge tersunk screws. Usea try square to make certain thetwopieces areperpendicular to each other. Then clamp thejig to a work surface and routa short dado on each sideof your thefence, using twomost commonly used bits--often Vz-and 3/+-inch. These dadoes in thefence willminimize when tearout thejig is used, aswellasserving to align t h ej i g . To usethejig,clamp it to the workpiece, aligning theapproprratedado in thefence withtheoutlineon thestock. making When plate thecut, keep the router base (left). guide firmlyagainst theedge Continue thecut a short distance intothefence before stopping the router.

7l

GROOVING

ffi{
GROOVING JIG OUICK-SETUP Consisting of fourstripsof 3/q-inch plywood assembled to formtwoLs, thejig shown at rightmakes it easy to routdadoes andgrooves withminimal tearout. Make alltheoieces of thejig about 4 inches wide. Cutthe guides edge a fewinches longer than thecut youintend to make. The cleats should be long enough to guide overlap theadjacent edge by several inches when thejig is set up. Attach the cleats to the edge guides, making sure thatthepieces areperpendicular to each other; usefourcountersunk screws for each connection. Setupthejig byclamping the stock to a worksurface andbutting thecleats against theworkpiece at thebeginning andendof thecut. Thensetyourrouter between the guides, edge aligning thebit over thedado outline. Slide theguides together untiltheybuttagainst each plate. sideof therouter base Secure thejig byclamping it at opposing corners andto theworkpiece. Then turnontherouter and,withthetool guides, between theedge the start cut in thecleat, creating an entry dado. Guide the router across the workpiece extending hight,below), thecutcompletely through thestock andintothesecond cleat. Thiswill minimize tearout asthebit exits the workpiece. lf youneed to routseveraldadoes of thesame size, leave thejig clamped together andalign theentry withthecutting dado lines marked onthestock.

..-

72

GROOVING

IN THINSTOCK GROOVES CUTTING

fill l]ll lllllllJ llllllII lllt lllllllllll] lllJ lll] lltIIJ illt iltllllrlll
1HO?TI?
Eliminating tearout particularly ae Xhey Lo caueetrearoul,, Koulerehavea t endency eplinlerinq, al Ihe end of a dado cul. To minimize exit a workpiece a wood cut'sand eecure alwayeueean edqequidelor eNraiqhl from alonqt'he edqe blocklhesamethicknee;ae yourworkpiece preooure of Ihe blockaqainotthe which NhebiI willemerqe.The willheloNoeliminaNe tearoul, workoiece

a narrow edge Grooving groove rout a along a surface thatis To narrow to accommodate an edge too guide, guide block to the attach a short . Install a straight bit and router itself down on a work settherouter uoside if necessurface. Remove thesub-base guide to the the block sary andscrew predrilled holes one of the toolthrough in thebase Mark thewidth of the olate. groove and ononeendof theworkpiece pivot withthebit.Then align themarks it isflush agarnst the theguide block until theguide to the face of thestock. Clamp plate. endof the base Hold themarked to check workpiece against thebitagain properly is positioned thattheguide (above, Iefil.fo cut thegroove, secure edge up in a vise. Setthe theworkpiece of theboard with router flatontheedge at one endand thebitclear of thestock theguide block flush against theface Asyoufeed thebit of theworkpiece. plate thecut,keep the base through guide edge andthe f latontheboard's pressed against theworkpiece block (above, nghf).Reposition the board, hitting thevise if necessary, to avoid with t h ec l a m o .

73

GROOVING

AD'USTABTE DADO JIG Thejig shown at rightis idealif you domuch routing of dadoes in carcase panels. guides Thejig features edge to keep thecut perpendicular to the edges of theworkpiece anda sliding clamping block to holdthe panel securely. Size the pieces sothedisguides tancebetween the edge your equals thediameter of router's plate. base Theguides should be youto clamp long enough to allow panel youplanto cut. thewidest guide pieces, Cutthe four the twoends, andshims from%-inch plyr"ood; make allthepieces 4 inches wide. Assemble theendandguide pieces sothe router baseplateis guides flushagainst the along their entire length. Then screw thepieces together, sandwiching theendpieces between the guides. At oneendof the frame, attach shims to thetop andbottom of the endpiece. Countersink all your fasteners. Cut

theclamping block from %-inch{hick stock; make it about 3 inches wide and longenough to slidebetween guides. theedge To install the press screw, borea holefor the threads through theshimmed endpiece.

Remove the swivel head fromthe press screw andfastenit to the middle of theclamping block. Attach the threaded section to the swivel head andscrew thecollar to theend piece. Usethe router to cut short reference dadoes in the otherend piece andtheclamping block. Touse thejig,slide theworkpiece guides, between theedge aligning thecutting lines withthe reference dadoes. Secure the panel in positionwiththe press screw. Clamp the jigto a work surface. With thebitclear of thework, turnonthe router and startthe cut at the reference dado in theendpiece, making certain the guides. router is between the edge Feed the bit intothe workpiece, plate keeping the base flat on the (/eft), stock Tominimize tearout, only raise the router clearof the work once the bit exits theworkpiece and reaches the reference dadoin the clamping block.

74

TABLE GROOVINGON A ROUTER


ountedupsidedown in a table, the routerworksvery much like a In additionto carvingdecorashaper. and maktivecontourson boardedges joinery cuts,a table-mounted ing precise routeroffersa safeand quick method The setup and grooves. to cut dadoes controlover allowsyou to exertgreater routingoperations. Virtually anydadoingoperationcan be performedwith a table-mounted is particrouter,but the arrangement for cutting grooves ularly convenient in narrow stock (below). Stopped grooves canbe cut with eithera straight slottingcutter.As bit or a three-wing is 76,yow bestchoice shownon page the slotting cutter sinceit allowsthe to be pivotedinto the cutter workpiece with the faceof the board flat on the table.With a straightbit, the stockis loweredonto the bit edgedown, with the board face resting against the fence-a trickieroperation. light cutsare that several Remember thanoneheavy safer andmoreaccurate wider pass. Ifyou needto cut a groove straight bit, maketwo thanyour largest after advancing the fence or morepasses, pass. Fordeep grooves, alsomakea each the cutting seriesof cuts,increasing pass. for each depth

router A table-mounted fitted with a pilotedthree-wing slotting cutterrouts groove inside of a drawer a alongthe panel. Keeping thepilot for a bonom the againstthe stockkeeps groove kickback. depthuniformand controls

EDGE INA BOARD CUTTING A GR(l(lVE


Making thecut set Witha straight bit in the router, a n da l i g n t h ec u t t h ec u t t i n g depth tingmarks withthe bit. Fortheshopfence builtrouter table andclamp-on position the in theillustration, shown faceand fence flush against the board it to thetabletop; make certain secure to theedge of the the fenceis parallel Tosecure theworkpiece, clamp a table. the featherboard to thetableopposite at a 90" bit; clamp a support board presfor extra to thefeatherboard angle intothe bit, Feed theworkpiece sure. pressing f irmlyagainst the the stock (left). lf youareworking with narfence yourfingers from rowstock,protect stick. thebit using a push

75

GROOVING

CUTTING A ST()PPED GR()()VE


upand starting thecut 1 Setting I M o u nv t o u r o u t eir na t a b l e w i t ha three-wing itotting cutter in thetool.Mark twosets of cutting lines ontheworkpiece: one on itsleading endforthewidth and position of thegroove andtheother on i t sf a c e f o rt h e l e n g t h o f t h eg r o o v e . Buttthe marks ontheendof the board against thecutter andadjust thecutter height I. n s t a ltlh ef e n c e o n t h et a b l e , lining i t u pw i t ht h ep i l o t o nt h ec u t t e r . youdetermine Tohelp thelocation of the cutter when it is hidden bytheworkpiece s nt h e durint gh i sc u t ,m a r k t h ep o i n t o fence where thebit starts andstoos cutting (inset). Attach theguard to thefence. Tostart thecut,turnontherouter with theworkpiece clear of thebit.Hold the board face down on thetable andalign thefrontcutting lineontheworkpiece w i t ht h eb i tc u t t i n m g ark o n t h ef e n c e farthes ft r o my o u .B r a c i n t g heboard yto u r ttinto agains thigh, s l o w lp y i v or the cutter//eff.).

r) Finishing thecut I Wnen theworkpiece is flush against thefence, feed pressing it forward while it down andagainst thefence. Continue thecutuntil theback cutting line onthe workpiece aligns withthebitcutting mark closest to you. Pivot thetrailing endofthe workpiece away fromthecutter withyour righthand(right), steadying the board against thetable andfence by hooking your lefthand around theedge of thetable. Avoid lifting theboard untilthestock is clear of thecutter. Use a chisel to souare theends of thegroove, if necessary.

76

RABBETS
do not have A rabbet is oneof themostbasic of So that woodworkers possible f\ cuts. in a corner to own a different bit for each commonlv used joint or to accommodate rabbet, manyrouterbit manuficturers the backof a cabinet. Fewtoolsdo the job betteror now sellrabbeting sets, consisting ofa more cuicklvthan a router.As shown single cutteranda selection of differentrabbetcanbe routedwith a sized bearings. below,-a gdde (page pilotedrabbeting bit, although a straight A straightbit andan edge guide 78) canbe usedto cut rabbets with an edge ofany bit in conjunction will work equallywell. width: The cuttercanbe oositioned at from theedgiofthe stock. Wth a pilotedbit, the pilot bearing anydistance ridesalongthe edge of the workpiece whilethe cuttingedges above thebearrabing rout thestock. Thewidth of therabA rabbeting bit carves a stopped The betinto theunderside of a shelf. bet is ecualto one-halfthe difference rabbet will fit into a wooden shelf between thediameter of thebit andthe A lX-inchsupport attached to thesideof a cardiameterof the bearine. for case. Thistechnique conceals both diamerer bit with a ,z-inih bearing, and theshelf support. example, willcut a rabbet %inchwide. therabbet To rout extra-wide rabbets that exceed thecapacity of yourlargest bit, maketwo or morepasses, adjusting the location guide each time. of theedge

A RABBET CUTTING
Using a piloted bit your for Clamp stock to a work surface; t h ed o o r frame shown a , b o uo t ne-half of theworkpiece should extend beyond thetable's edge. Gripping therouter f irmly plate withbothhands, buttits base on theworkpiece andguide thebit into the stock; make sure thecutting edge isclear o f t h et a b l e K . e e p i ntg h ep i l o tb e a r i n g pressed against theedge of theworkpiece, feed thebit around theperimeter of the frame ina counterclockw di s rection (lefD. Once thebit nears thetable onthe other side of theworkpiece, stop thecut Loosen and turnofftherouter. theclamps, rotate it again. theworkpiece, andclamp procedures Follow thesame routing tocomnlptp ihp nnprafinn

77

GROOVING

RABBETII{C JIG Make it easy to cutwideor non-standard-width rabbets witha straight bit jig shown andthesimple at right. Made from twostrips of wood, thejig is simple to assemble andsetup. Cutthe base fromplywood or solid stock the same thickness asyour guide workpiece. Make theedge from 3/+-inch plywood. Bothpieces should piece beat least aslong asthelargest youplan to cut. Tosetupthejig, secure thestock to a worksurface andoutline the rabbet on it. Buttthejig base against theedge of thestock. Align the bit over thecutting mark, thenposition guide t h ee d g e f l u s ha g a i n stth e plate.Fasten router base the edge guide to thebase ofthejigwithcountersunk screws, ensuring that both boards areparallel to theedge of the

workpiece. Clamp plate thejig in position. thetool's pressed base firmly ln making thecut,feed thebitagainst against guide theedge throughout thedirection of bit rotation andkeeo theooeration.

lllt l|ll fill filt llll lllj lltllll llrl fit] fifl ilil flu ltit tllt lll] illi tirJ
5HO7Tt?
1 \ 'r.. {

\r--

Cutting rabbets \) of different widths lnoteadof elockinq \ : { severalbils of di{terenLdiameNera,you canbuya rabbeLin7 kit., consistinq of a oin"**tq-.4 qlecutNerand a oel of ! ,. of various. Vilotbearinqe eizee, A typical kii"allowe /a\ \::l you lo cut rabbels ranqinq in widNh from 1/+ to 7/ta inch.Ueea hexwrenchto ineLall lhe appropriate bearinry for Lherabbelyouwiehlocut.lfyou already owna rabbeLinq pilohed bit, you can sLillbenefitfrom Lhis convenience by buyinq Nhebearinge oeparaNely.

78

CIRCULARGROOVES
.|a h. routerisoneof thefewtools that I excel at making bothcurved and straight cuts with equal ease. Assisted by thedistance a guide orjig thatmaintains between thebit andthecenter of thecircle,theroutercancutdecorative curves precision. with unerring andcircles One guides of themanystyles of commercial isshown in thephotoat right, available guidesupplied but thecircleandedge with the route5like that illustrated on page for thetask. 66,isusually adequate Ratherthan pivotingarounda fixed pointat a circletcenter, folthisguide lowsthe edge of the workpiece and is useful onlywhenthecircular cut is concentric with the circumference of theworkpiece. jigscanbeadjustWhilecommercial edto cut circles of varyingdiameters, guides some aretoo shortio cutlarger jig likethatdescribed A shop-made arcs. on page 80will solve thisproblem. As with cuttingdadoes, a plunge routeris moreconvenient thana standard toolfor routing cirdes. Andremember, forsafety's andto reduce tearout, sake passes, grooves with several cut deep ratherthanin onecut.
groove A routercutsa decorative in a tabletop with thehelpof a commercial circleguide. Fixed to the stockwith a screwthejig pivotsaroundthe center of the circle.Thescrewholecan beconcealed later with a woodplug.

ROUTING A CIRCTE
Using a plunge router Buttwood scraps ascleats against the edges of the workpiece andscrew them . n s t a la i n p l a c eI l s t r a i g hb tit in the router, thenmarkthe location of the groove andthe center of the circle.Use pinprovided a screw orthefulcrum with guide a commercial circle-cutting to fix point thepivot of thejig to thecenter of thecircle; theguide should besecure, butable to pivot. Install therouter onthe guide sothebit is aligned withthegroove mark. Withthecutter clear of theworkpiece, griptherouter f irmly andplunge the bit intothe stock.Feed the tool (left) steadily in a clockwise direction until is completed. thecircle

79

GROOVING

tr
COMPASS IIG Tocut larger circles thanmost comguides mercial circle-cutting allow, jig shown usethe compass below. Make from7+-inch hardthedevice router board, sizing thejig to suityour andthe radius of the largest circle youplanto cut.Cuttherouter-end of thejig in theshape of a circle about plate, thesizeof yourtool'sbase Thearmof thejig should beat least 2 inches wideandlonger thanthe youwill becutting. radius of thecircle Cutoutthejig witha band saw or a saber saw, thenbore a holein the center of the rounded endto accommodate the router bit.To mount the jig on yourrouter, remove the subbase andsetthetoolon thecircular partof thejig. Withthe bit centered over thehole, mark thelocations of the predrilled holes in the base plate. Bore the holes andscrew the jig to therouter. Finally, draw a line down thecenter of thejig arm. To usethejig, determine the radius youwishto cut and of thecircle transfer thislength to thejig, measuring fromtheedge of the bit closestto thecenter of thecircle along the center line.Bore a holeat the center mark, thejig to thenscrew theworkpiece. Secure thestock to a work surface withcleats. Rout the circle asyouwould witha commercialguide(page 79),guiding the router in a clockwise direction.

1ll'-lll-flnlnffiffillt[rtff"llf1ll"1ll"lll" 1Il flll[Illll llll


1HO?TI?
Quiokcompase jig ^ uee a svrt? of ?erroraLed hardboardcutr eliqhtlywiderNhan the router baee plate to fabricate a eimple ehop-made jiq circle-cuttin7 for your tool. CUN the strio so that one row of holesrune jiq ae downthe center of vhejiq. lJoeNhe describedabove, but attaah iNlo your router and the workoiece lhrouahlhe hardboard'e q ?erroral,ta eYaTtn no.

80

PATTERNGROOVING
p atterngrooving is used not only I for cuttingdecorative grooves, recesses for inlay, andproducing multiple copies of thesame design, but also for such workaday, but demanding, tasks as cutting hinge-and-lock mortises. The procedure involves fixinga template to theworkpiece andusingit to guide the routerbit. jobs, Youcanbuytemplates for some oryoucaneasilymakeyour own. There aretwomainmethods of pattern grooving:onewith thehand-held routerand anotherwith thetoolmounted in a pin routingattachment. Mounted in a pin routing attachment, a router cuts a groove in a wo*piece with thedesired front.A template patternisfud totheunderside of theworlEiece pin in the anda guide table ensures thatthepattern is accurately repro duced. Theexact procedure youfollowfor hand-held patternroutingdepends on thetype ofbityouuse. Wth atop-pilot edbit, all you need is a carefully prepared template. Non-piloted bitsrequire a template along with atemplate guide. A plunge or pin routeris yourbest choice for grooving the interior of a workpiece, since thebit can beeasily and accurately lowered into thestock. Pin routingisexamined in detail beginning on page 84.

PATTERN GR(IOVING WITH A TEMPTATE GUIDE


Using a plunge routel guide Install a template onyour router and prepare youwish a template of the pattern (page to reproduce 38).Setthestockona work surface andclamp thetemplate on position. topof it in thedesired To make the interior cut shown, settherouter flat on thetemplate withtheguide butted against the inside edge of thetemplate. Plunge the bit intothestock, thenfeed (/eff). the toolin a clockwise direction Complete thecut,keeping theguide in contact withthe edge of thetemplate throughout theoperation.

81

GROOVING

Using a standard router Setupyour stock androuter asyouwould (page for working wiih a plunge router 8 l ) . W i t ht h et o o lo nt h et e m p l a t e t i,l t i t s ot h e b i t i s c l e a o r f t h es t o c kb , ut aligned over themarked outline. Gripping therouter firmly, turnit on andlower the cutter intotheworkoiece untilthe base plate is f laton thesurface andthetemplate guide is butted against the edge (left).Feed of the templale the bit in a clockwis de i r e c t i ou nn t i t l h ec u t i s f i n ished; ridetheguide along thetemplate throughout theoperation.

A HINGE MORTISE CUTTING

Using a template Pattern routing isanexcellent method forcutting morfor hinges. Install tises a straight bit anda template guide in your router, Then make thetemplate from a piece plywood of%-inch thatiswide enough to support t h er o u t e r O . u t l i nte h eh i n g e l e a fo n t h et e m p l a t e , guide being sure to compensate forthetemplate and thethickness of thefence, which is alsomade from%inchplywood. Cutoutthetemplate, then attach the (above). fence withcountersunk To usethejig, screws secure the door edge up, mark the hinge outline on t h ew o r k p i e ca en , dc l a m p t h et e m p l a tie n position, aligning thecut-out withtheoutline onthedoor edge andbutting thefence against thefaceof the door. Make the cut(right), moving therouter in small clockwisecircles untilthebottom of therecess is smooth, thensouarethe corners witha wood chisel.

82

GROOVING

ADJUSTABLE ROUTING GUIDE Thejig shown at rightis ideal forroutgrooves ingrectangular andit can for curved befittedwithtemplates cuts.Thejig canbe adjusted to a widerange of sizes andproportions. Cutthefourguides from1-by-2 stock, making themlong enough to workpiece accommodate the largest youplan Theguides to handle. are using a combination assembled of grooves, mortises, tenons, and hanggrooveer bolts. Rout a continuous andwide-along the % inchdeep guide. inside edge of each Then cut a two-shouldered tenon at oneend guide; of each size thetenon to f it in the groove. Borea pilothole intothe middle of each tenon for a %-inch-diameter hanger bolt.Screw the boltsin place, leaving enough protruding thread to feedihe bolt guide through theadjacent edge andslipon a washer andwingnut. Finally, rout%-inch-wide mortises

through theguides; starting about 3% inches fromeach end,make thecuts 4 inches long,separated by about wood. Assemble %inchof solid the jig byslipping thetenons andhanger boltsthrough thegrooves andmorguide tisesof the adjacent and installing thewashers andnuts. To

produce pattern, youwill a curved need also to make temolates likethe in the illustration ones to guide the router along the contours; usedouble-sided tape to secure thetemplates to theworkoiece. To usethejig, setyourstock on a work surface andoutline the pattern onthesurface. Loosen thewingnuts of thejig,thenposition it onthestock guides sotheedge frame theoutline. Place therouter flatontheworkpiece andalign thebitwithone edge of the guides outline. Buttoneof theedge plate. flushagainst the router base Repeat ontheother edges untilall fourguides andanytemplates for curved cutsarein position. Tighten thewingnuts,reposition thejig on theworkpiece, it in place, andclamp Plunge the bit intothestock and make thecut in a clockwise direcplate tion,keeping the base flush guide against anedge ortemplate at all times. Forrepeat cuts, simply clamp thejig to thenew workpiece (/eff,). androutthe pattern

83

WITH A PIN ROUTER GROOVING


in a pin routing ounting a router is anespecially attachment efficient way of making interior cuts.All you needto carveout a recess or rout a curveis a template with the desired patterncut into it. The template is fastenedto the bottom of the workoiece with double-sided tapeor, if the und..sideof the stockwill not be visible, With the router in the attachscrews.

Suspended in a pin routingattachment,a router fitted with a corebox groove bit carves a decorative into the stilesof a cabinet door.Feeding the with itsedge workpiece against flush thefenceensures a straight cut.

ment,thebit is aligned directly above pin installed a guide on thesurface of theworktable. Movement of theworkpieceand template on the tableis determined by the pin, allowing the pattern bit to reproduce thetemplate in thetop face of thestock. Resist the temptation with thepin to cutgrooves routingattachment freehand-withpin in place-oryoumay outtheguide experience kickback. Take thetime to builda template anduse thepin. Tocutstraight grooves with thepin routingattachment, remove theguide pin andinstalla fence on thetable, as in thephoto shown atleft.Refer to page 58 for details on setting up yourpin routing attachment.

A RECESS CUTTING

Workpiece Tempfato

DepthLonirot' nagU o ,a

Making thecut your Mount router in the pinrouting attachment andinstalla guide pininthetable directly below thebit.Make a template with youwishto produce the pattern andfasten it to the underside of thestock. Setthetemplate andworkpiece on thetable so (above, the guidepin will bewithinthe cut-out /eff), andset the depthof cut. Withthebitclear ofthestock, turn onthe pulldown router. Holding theworkpiece steady withonehand, on

thedepth control handle to lower therouter andplunge the bit intothestock. Feed theworkpiece against thedirection of bit rotation, keeping thetemplate flatonthetable andtheguide pinflushagainst theedges of thepattern. Once thebit hascut proa groove around the rim of the recess, remove the waste (above, gressively right),continuing untilthe bottom of the (Caution: guard depression is smooth. Blade raised for clarity.)

84

GROOVING

INTERIOR WITH A SHOP.MADE PINROUTER CUTTING GR(I(IVES


upandstarting thecut 1 Setting provides I Pinrouting anaccurate parallel wayto routa groove to a curved edge of a workpiece. Build a pinrouting jig (page yourrouter in 63)andmount a router table. Settheworkpiece onthe table andalign themarks forthewidth of thegroove withthebit.Clamp thejig p i ni s i n l i n e s ot h eg u i d e t o t h et a b l e withthe bit andbutts against theedge Tostart of theworkpiece. thecut,turnon the router withthestock clear of the bit. Holding theendof theboard square to thecutter, advance theworkpiece until pinandthe theedge contacts theguide bit bitesintothe stock(right).

Completing thecut Feed theworkpiece intothe bit, pressure applying lateral to keep the pin. edge of thestock against theguide groove parallel Toensure thatthe is to pivot theworkpiece's curved edge, the stock to keep theportion of theedge being parallel cut to the endof thejig armat yourhands all times(left), making sure areclear of the cutter when the bit exits theworkpiece.

85

INLAYING
process of I nlayingis the decorative I settinga thin strip of wood into a recess cut in the surface ofa workoiece. A wide rangeof inlaysis avaiiable, from simplebandsof exoticwood to marquetry motifsconsisting elaborate veneers of several assembled into an attractive design. An example of the latteris shownbelow.Before the development of the router, recesses for inlays usedto be cut with a woodchisel or a routerplane-a laborious, timeconsumingtask.A router fitted with a straightbit cancomplete this chore quicklyandprecisely. Still,it is an exacting taskbecause the depression must match the inlay precisely. Following presented the steps belowand oppositewill helpyou achieve goodresults. guides With edge to confine the routert you can be assured movements, of a perfectmatchbetween the sizeof the recess andthe dimensions of the inlay. Recesses for marcuetrvinlav should be asdeepor slightiydeeper ihan the thicknessof the inlay, typically r/zo inch. If the inlay is slightlyrecessed afterthe gluehasdried,carefully sand the wood surrounding the inlay until the two surfaces are flush. If you are usingsolidwood inlay-thicker than marquetry-make the recess slightly shallower than the inlay'sthickness, and sandthe two surfaces evenafter glue-up. Spread a verythin layerofglue to secure the inlay in place.Onefinal plowingthe recess, tip: Before scoreits outlinewith a chisel or knife to avoid tearoutalongthe edges.

A marquetry inlay,formed from a pattern of dyed wood set in a veneer, gracesa mahoganyboard. The inlay wasglued into a routed recess.

SETTING A MAROUETRY INTAY INPTACE

guides uptheedge 1 Setting I Afteryousetyourstock on a work surface, buttwood scraps against theedges ascleats andscrew themin place. Position theinlay andoutline itsedges onthesurface. Then cut a strip plywood of %-inch so its widthequals thedistance between plate theedge of your router's base anditsbit.Saw thestripinto fourpieces andbuttthemagainst theedges of theinlay to serve plywood pieces asguide blocks. Then restfourmore against

guides. theguide blocks asedge Tokeep theguides frommoving,screw them to thecleats; in cases where thiswould involve screwing directly intotheworkpiece, such asat theends of the workpiece shown, fasten support boards to theguides, then screw (above). the boards to theguides thatarealready fixedin place your Remove plate theinlay andguide blocks. Riding router base guides against theedge ensures therecess willfit theinlay exactly.

86

GROOVING

l') Routing therecess Make router's cutting depth. L Setthe board andtest-fit a testcut in a scrap depth, if nectheinlay; adjust thecutting To make the cut, restthe router essary. of the withthebit clear ontheworkoiece Then turnon stock andabove theoutline. andplunge thebit into theworktherouter thetoolin a clockwise direcoiece. Guide edges of therecess, tionto cuttheoutside plate flush against an keeping thebase guide To comat all times(right). edge plete therecess, routouttheremaining waste, feeding thetoolagainst thedirecasmuch asoossible. tionof bit rotation to square thecorners. Use a chisel

uptheinlay Q Gluing is completed, cut r.,l Once therecess pad therecess a wood slightly smaller than a thin to hold theinlay in place. Spread layer of gluein the recess andposition paper-side-up. Laya in place, the inlay piece over the inlay to preof waxpaper padfrombonding to it. ventthewood Use asmany Then setthepadin place. the C clamps asnecessary to distribute pressure clamping evenly, Starting about pad, 1 inchfromtheends of thewood at 3- to 4-inch intervals; space theclamps onthetophalfof the focus thepressure justenough pad. to Tighten theclamps hold thepadin place, thenturntheworkpiece over sothatthefirstrowof clamps Install the is resting onthework surface. edge row of clamps along theother second Finish tightening all of of thepad(/eff). f irmly. theclamps

87

n:

. i:.:.

,|e

-&

ROUTERIOINERY
joint-the cope-and-stick he router'sability to plunge (page98)-offers strength into woodand cut precise, clean, straightanda decorative flourish. grooves edged makes it an Dovetail iointsare best cut excellent toolfor thedemandwith theheipof a variety of jigs. ingtaskof joinery. Equipped commercial Whether you with a batteryof specially cut the half-blindvarietv (page designed bits,jigs,andother 100),a common draw accessories, the routercan er joint, or the traditional (page cutdozens ofjoints,ranging throughdovetail 101), jigswill helpyouprofromtheutilitarianrabbet to these themostelaborate of doveduce. thejoint with unerring joints tails. A dozen of these prec$ron. is presented on page90. canbeeither funcJoints pages Theremaining of the tionalor decorative<rboth. provide chapter step-by-step The sliding dovetail(page instructions for fashioning Paired with a multi-jointjig a routermakes quick 103) and glue joint (page joint. thecuts. workof carvingthepins of a dovetail 107),for example, arestrong Themortise-and-tenon is invisible iointsthatremain (page themostpopular method of assembling theframe in frame- once theyareassembled. Thedovetail spline 105), on jigsareavailable the otherhand,is primarilya visualdetail.Thebutterfly and-panel construction. Manycommercial to helpyoucut thisjoint with a router. Some areessentially keyjoint (page 112) fulfillsbothroles, reinforcing edge-tojigsfor centering positioning therouterbit on theedge of a edge buttjointswhileembellishing thesurface with its dou(page workpiece 93). Othermodels areused to cutthejoints ble-wing motif. jigsfor (page joints, for therailsandstiles of a frame 94). Shop-built perhaps Some because theyrequire longor repetitive (page (page routingmortises 96)andtenons 97)canalso produced be cuts, are best ontherouter table. Theboxjoint (page (page madeinexpensively. Anothercommon frame-and-panel 108) and,tongue-and-groove 114) aregood examples.

joint like For a seamless fit, a long,interlocking precision thetongue-and-groove calls cutting. for Here,thegroow half of thejoint isplowedon a routertableby a three-wing slottingcutter.

89

ROUTER-MADE IOINTS

M M
M
Half-blind dovetail Mortise-and-t'enon Dovetail spline

q/ Cope-and-atiak Through dovetail Miter-and-apline

5liding dovetail

Butterfly key

Rulejoint

ROUTER IOINERY IIGS


Size and buib-inprecision jointmakea stationary maker ideal cuttingvarifor joints at production-line ous speed. Themodelshown features an adjustable tablethat movesbackandforth and sideto side,enhancing the machine's versatilitv.

Moftise-and-tenon jig Ueedwith router to cut matchin4 mortiaee and tenone;jiq is eecuredin viae and workpiece ia then clampedto ji4

Momieing jig Attaohea to router baae plate to rout morbiaea:4uide aqainat pineare pbeitioned board facea or edqee, centerin4 mortiae in edae or face

lnterahangeabletemplate jig Dependin7 on t.emplate uaed,allowa router to cut dovetail and boxjointo with a ainqle aetup; come6 with 4uide buehin4and router bits

Adjuatable dovetail jig Features adjuatable template for routing half-blind and throuqh dovetailjointa; width of matchin7 pine and taila aan be aet with the 6ame adjuetment. guidebuehing Includee and router bita

Dovetail templatea

f""@Sa
Kouter aub-baee
=\ Dovetailtemplatea A aet of two fixed templatea faatened to backup boards to rout through dovetailjointa; one template ia for pina and the other for tails, Various modeleare availablefor routinq different-aize pina. Comeewith two piloted router bita Tenontemplate Multi-joint' jig Ueed with router to cut dovetail, box,finger, and mortiee-andtenon jointe. L-ahapedbracket ie faatened to backupboard and aecuredin viee;appropriatetemplate ia attached to bracket. Comeawith 4uide buehinq,router aub-baae,and bits

9l

-TENONIOTNTS MORTTSE-AND
With originsin woodworkingthat date backmore thon is a strongand 3,000years,the mortise-and-tenon joint. Thereare ntany variations,but versatile

ttl: t' jl&'qo,

principleis constant: a projecting thebasic The tenon intoa mortise. fits snugly typeshown here is theblind joint. mort ise-andtenon

R()UTING OUT M()RTISES

guide Using anedge y o uc a nc u tw i t ha s a wt,o o u t l i nte Use t h et e n o nw , hich he mortise of theworkpiece. Then secure thestock on theedge in a vise witha support board to keep therouter edge-up along certain thetopsurfaces of thetwo steady during thecut;make pad your Install boards arelevel, anduse a wood to protect stock. a mortising bitof thesame diameter asthewidth of themortise, thensetthedepth of cut.For a deep mortise, make one or more intermediate Dasses. Attach a wooden extension to thefence of

guide, a commercial edge thenfasten theguide to therouter plate. base Center thebitover theoutline andadjust theextension soit rests flush against theworkpiece. Holding therouter plunge firmly, thebit into thestock at one endof themortise (above, left), then feed thecutter to theother end. Once thecut i s c o m p l e t ec d l, amp t h es t o c k toa work s u r f a ca en ds q u a r e (above, thecorners of the mortise witha chisel right), keeping theblade square to theworkpiece and thebevel facing thewaste.

92

ROUTER IOINERY

Working witha mortising sub-base Another wayto routmortises is to attach a commercial mortising sub-base to your plate. router's base Thejig features two guide pins designed to buttagainst oppo(inset), sitefaces of a workpiece ensuring thatthe mortise is centered ontheedge. Secure thestock edge-up in a vise and mark thebeginnrng andendof themortise.Rout themortise asyouwould with an edgeguide(page 92), making surethe guide pins both ride along theworkpiece throughout Ihe cut (right).

Routing deep through mortises y o u r o u t ec With t h ea i do f a n e l e c t r id cr i l l , r a nm a k e mortises thatexceed itsmaximum depth of cut.Theillustration above shows t h et h r e e steps n e c e s s atro yc u t a m o r t i s e t h r o u ga h t h i c kw o r k p i e cS et .a r t b yi n s t a l l i n gm o r t i s i n g a p a s s ea ssy o uc a n b i t i n t h e r o u t ea r n dm a k i n g asmany u n t i ly o uc a ng o n od e e p e(rA ) .T h e n use t h ed r i l l w i t h a

b i t b i g g etrh a ny o u rr o u t e b r i tt o b o r e a hole througt hh e ( B ) .I n s t a la remainin dl u s h - t r i m m ib wg aste l p i l o t ef nig t i n t h er o u t ea r n dt u r nt h ew o r k p i e c oe v e rI.n s e r t i n g t h eb i t through (C); the holemade bythedrill,routoutthewaste keep dg a i n stth e w a l l so f t h e t h ep i l o t b e a r i np g r e s s ea cavrty t o c o m p l e tte hemortise.

93

ROUTERTOINERY

A MORTISE-AND.TENON R()UTING
uptheiig 1 Setting mortise-andI Assemble a commercial j i gf o l l o w i n tg h em a n u f a c t u r e r ' s tenon you allows shown Themodel instructions. Secure and tenon. themortise to rout both t h ew o r k t h ej i g i n a v i s et,h e nc l a m p piece theendof theboard to it, butting to bemorandtheedge thestop against pads Use wood template. the tised against (left). protect lnstall the the stock to t ny o u r p i l o t eb d i ts u p p l i ew di t ht h e1 i g r n r r t elr l s et h ei i p ' s denth-of-c nu ott c h bit's cutrouter setting the asan aidto t i n gd e p t h .

r) Routing themortise hold router, a plunge areusing L lt you jig with template f laton the the router o n ee n do f t h e dv e r t h e b i t c e n t e r eo onthetoolandplunge slot. Turn mortise WiIha stanthe bit intothestock(rieht). y o u the toangle r o u t e r , w i l ln e e d dard i n t o t he l o w etrh e b i t t o o la n ds l o w l y feed the tool In either case, workpiece. endof to theother thetemplate along p r e s sin ge th t h ec u t , t h es l o tt o f i n i s h o f t h e th agains t ei n s i d e d g e bitpilot cutthe thecut. Keep slotthroughout at thetemplate from touching tingedge from thejig Unclamp thestock any time. jig thevise. the from andremove

94

ROUTERIOINERY

thejig forthetenon Q Adjusting r.,l Remove thejig stopfromthefence a n df i t i t i n t h ef e n c e s l o ta t t h eo o o o siteendof thejig.Unscrew thetemplate f r o mt h ej i g b o d y a n ds hi ft t h et e m plate toward thetenon-end slots sothat pins one of thealignment onthejig body is exposed. Refasten thetemplate. Secure thejigand thetenon workpiece in thevise, positioning thestock sothatitsedge butts against thestop anditsendisflush against
lhp lpmnlzlc /riohf )

Routing thetenon Cutthetenon in twosteos. One end of thetenon is cut thesame wayyou routed themortise in step 2, guiding the bitpilot along t h ei n s i d e d g eo sfthe tenon slots without moving 0bf0.men, t h ew o r k p i e cu en , s c r etw h et e m p l a t e from thejig body andturnit endJor-end, pinexposed keeping thesame alignment . inish a sf o rt h ef i r s tp a s sF routing thetenon.

95

ROUTERIOINERY

ia

A MORTISING JIG youto routa allows Thejig at right lts of anythickness. mortise in stock jaws thatthemoradjustable ensure properly, nortisewillbepositioned intheedge oftheboard. mally centered plyCutthejig topfrom%-inch about 15 inchwood; make thepiece to accept eslong andwideenough youexpect to morthethickest stock from2-by-4tise.Cutthetwojaws to the inch stock, sawing thepieces length asthetop.To prepare same itscenter, a linedown thetop,mark along the lineat thencut a notch Thenotch oneendusing a router. should beaswide asthetemplate guide youwill usewithyour router bit, a top-piloted bit.(lf youareusing bit rather thana non-piloted straight guide, thenotch witha template size The the bearing.) to accommodate to should be long enough notch you moriise thelongest accommodate routtwoadjustexpect to cut.Next, perpendicular to thecenment slots a viewing hole Finally, bore terline. To assemble the two slots. between intothe hanger bolts ihe jig,screw jaws, then fasten thetopto thejaws nuts. withwashers andwing Touse thejig,outline themortise workpiece and mark a line on the Loosen the wing down its center. stock between nutsandsecure the isaligned thejaws sothecenterline jig withthelineonthe top;make of theworkpiece sure thetopedge upagainst ihetop.Tighien is butted Align thebitwithone thewing nuts. referthenmark endof theoutline, jig the ence lines onthe topalong plate. base Repeat edge of therouter

endof the to mark lines at theother (below), Rout the mortise outline. plate thecut withthe base starting

aligned withthefirstsetof reference it when theplate lines andstopping reaches thesecond set.

96

ROUTER IOINERY

A TENOI{ING JIG Made of solid wood andplywood, the jig shown your router at rightallows to cut square, two-shouldered tenons. Thestock sitsface-down under the jig while therouter rides along a fence ontop,removing waste in twopasses. jig The consists of twoparallel pieces, base anendstop, anda fence -all made of wood thesame thickness astheworkpiece, in thiscase 1-by-3 stock-and a topandsupport plywood. made of Vz-inch Thebase should oieces beabout 16 inches long; cuttheplywood top about 8 by 10 inches it andscrew to the base strips asshown at right. Screw theendstopin place underneath thesupport, andattach the ends of thesupport to thebase strips, Fixthefence about 1 inchfromthe endof thetop. Countersink heads all screw and besure to make all angles square. Bore a viewing hole through thetop to helpyouposition theworkpiece against the base. Youwillalso need to construct an acrylic foryourrouter. lt sub-base should be at least aswideasyour router's base and longenough to fromthe fencebeyond extend the endstop; a 10-or 12-inch-square oiece willserve well. Install a %-inch bit in therouter, thenremove thestandard sub-base fromthetoolanduseit asa temolate to mark thescrew holes andbit clearanceholein theacrylic sub-base. Thenewsub-base mustbeattached to the routerso thattheedge of the bit lines upwiththeinner edge of the support andendstopwhenit rides

along thefence. Bore the holes and attach the sub-base to therouter. Touse thejig,butttheendof your workpiece against theendstopand theedge flush against thebase. Clamp theassembly in place. Settherouter's cutting depth androutoutthewaste

forhalf thetenon, riding thesubbase along thefence throughout thecut. (You will routreference pieces intothebase dadoes at the same time.) Turntheworkpiece over andrepeat thecutto complete thetenon(below, bottom).

97

COPE-AND-STICK IOINTS
Used in frame-and-panel construction, joint provides thecope-and-stick strength whileadding comparable to themortise-and-tenon a decorative touch.Therouterbit that cutsthe grooves ako carves for thepaneland tongtes
a decorative molding along the inside edgesof the frame.

TABTE ROUTING A COPE.AND.STICK JOINT ON THE ROUTER


in therails thetongues 1 Cutting joint byfirst I Make a cope-and-stick in theends cutting tongues of bothrails. Thenroutgrooves forthe panel along the pieces; inside edges of all fourframe the grooves in thestiles willaccommodate the railtongues at thesame time.Tocut the install a piloted coping bit-or tongues, router railcutter-inyour andmount the toolin a table. Setthe cutting depthby butting theendof a railagainst the bit andadjusting the router's depth setting so that the top of the uppermost cutter is slightly above theworkpiece. Position parallel gauge thefence to the miter slot andin linewiththeedge of thebit pilot. gauge Fitthemiter withan extension and faceof the stock flat oress the outside on thetable;keep theends of theworkpiece andextension butted against the fencethroughout eachcu| (right).

98

ROUTER TOINERY

r) Adjusting thesticking bit L Replace the coping bit witha piloted sticking bit-alsoknown asa stile Tosetthecutting cutter. depth, b u t tt h ee n do f a c o m p l e t erd ail agains t eb i t ,a n dr a i s e th orlower the bit untiloneof thegroove-cuttingteeth is level withtherailtongue (left). Align thefence withtheedge of thebit oilot.

thegrooves Q Cutting r.J Use three featherboards to secure the workpied ce urint gh ec u t .C l a m p one to therouter table opposite thebit,securinga support board at a 90" angle to the jig.Clamp theother twofeatherboards to (ln thefence oneither side of thecutter. thisillustration, thefeatherboard onthe outfeed side of thefence hasbeen removed forclarity.) Make each cutwiththestock pressing outside-face down, theworkpiece (right). against thefence Use a push stick to complete the pass. Repeat thisgroove cutonalltherails andstiles.

99

DOVETAILIOINTS

jointsproduced Fourdovetail with a router:(clockwise from bottom left) dovetailspline,slidingdovetail, Although throughdovetail, and half-blinddovetail. joint wasfashioned with theaid of a commercial each jig, all possess thestrength and appearance of hand-crafi ed j oinery.

R(lUTING HALF.BLIND DOVETAILS


jig Using aninterchangeable-template jig doveSetupa commercialforhalf-blind instrucfollowing themanufacturer's tails shown, thisinvolves tions. Onthemodel in position clamping thepinandtailboards against thebody of thejig,andsecuring theappropriate template atop theworkpieces. Install theproper bitandtemplate guide on yourrouter, thenroutthe pins andtailsin twooasses: Start fromthe right-han e d dge a n dm a k e a l i g h tc u t of thetail board. This will along theedge reduce andensure thatall the tearout waste around thetailswill be removed. f ull pass starting Thenmake a second folat the left-hand endof theworkpieces, lowing thecontours of therouter's template in andoutof theslots andmoving (righil; guide keep the template f lush ofthefingers atalltimes. against theedges This w i l lc u tt h ep i n s he a n dc o m p l e t e tails simultaneously.

100

ROUTER IOINERY

TW(]JIGS F()R ROUTING THROUGH DOVETAILS

jig Using anadjustable dovetail Thejig shown onthispage features an you adjustable finger assembly thatallows to setthesize of the pins andtailsyou rout aswellasthespace between them, Adjusting theassembly forthetails autoivey s o ut h ep r o p e m a t i c a lg ly sri z e and spacing of thepins, Install a dovetail bit in your router, thensetupthejig followingthemanufacturer's instructions: Clamp plywood a spacer board of %-inch to the t o po f t h ej i g b o d ya , n ds e c u rte h et a i l board outside-face out.Once thefingers arelaidoutover thetailboard according youwant(inseil, to thesize andspacing use thethickness of theoin board asa guide to mark a cutting depth lineacross Flip thetailboard. over thef inger assemblyand setthedepth of cutontherouter to cut thetails(left,fop). Rout fromright plate to left,keeping thebase flatonthe fingers. Tocutthepins, remove thetail board a n dt u r no v e r t h ef i n g e r assemb l y .I n s t a la l s t r a i g hb t i t i n t h er o u t e r andclamp thepinboard to thejig.Mark l i n eo n t h e b o a r ds a cutting depth ,e t therouter's depth adjustment, androut the pins(left,bottom).

101

ROUTER IOINERY

Using dovetail templates Toroutthrough dovetails withthedovetail templates shown onthispage, attach the pinandtailtemplates to backup boards following themanufacturer's instructions. Secure thetailboard in a vise end-up and clamp t h eb a c k u p board to it, making willbehalf-tails sure there at bothedges; t h et e m p l a ta en db a c k u b po a rs dh o u l d beflushagainst theworkpiece. Protect pad.lf youarecutthestock witha wood tingseveral workpieces, butta stopblock against thefirstworkpiece andclamp the block tothebackup board. Install thedoveguide tail bit andtemplate supplied with jig the andcutthetails, feeding thetool in andout of the template slots(right). Unclamo from thetailboard theviseand it to outline use thepins onthepinboard. Secure thepinboard in the vise and clamp pin the template to thestock, aligning t h ej i g f i n g e rw s i t ht h em a r k e o du t l i n e . Remove thedovetail bit fromtherouter, install thestraight bitsupplied withthe jig, androutoutthewaste between the pins (below).

Tail board

r02

ROUTER ]OINERY

MAKING A STIDING DOVETAIT IOII{T


groove thedovetail 1 Cutting groove I Cutthe dovetail in twopasses on a router table:Startwitha straight bit to remove mostof the waste; complete witha dovetail bit. Forthefirst thegroove pass, installa straight bit. Adjust the thefence so depthof cut, andposition that the workis centered overthe bit. Clamp a featherboard to the tableto secure the workpiece during the cut; pressure, to apply extra clampa support at a 90oangle to thefeatherboard. board Feed intothe bit withboth theworkpiece hands(right),pressing the stockflat the cut. against the fence throughout Finish thecutwitha push stick. For the pass, second install a dovetail biI (inset) andcomplete thegroove byfeeding the workpiece intothe bit whilepressing tightly against thefence. thestock

r) Gutting thedovetail slide L Witnthedovetail bit still in therouter. shiftthe fence toward the bit sothat half thediameter of thecutterprojects beyond the fence,Reoosition the featherboard. Reduce thecutting depth slightly sothat the slideis notas deep as the groove; thiswill improvt eh e f i t o f t h e j o i n t . removing Cut the slidein twopasses, fromonesideat atime (left). the waste Test-fit thejointandreadjust theposition of the fenceif it is necessarv to trim the slide.

103

ROUTERIOINERY

A JIG FOR STIDIilG DOVETAITS youto Thejig shown below allows rout without sliding dovetails a router Thedevice features table. a fence thatholds therouter anda pivoting adjustable table foraligning theworkpiece withthe bit. Cutthefence, piece andsupport from3/a-inch table, plywood. Make all the boards 16 inches long; thefence andtable beabout 10 inches wide should and piece thesupport about 3 inches

wide. Screw thetable to thesuoportpiece sotheyforman L shape. Position fromthe thetable 4 inches topof thefence andbore twoholes through thefence intothetable support. Witha straight bit in a router, lengthen the hole on the outfeed intoa curved sideof thefence slot. Fasten theadjustable endof the witha table support to thefence carriage bolt,washer, anda wing n u t . B o l tt h e i n f e e d s i d ei u s t

Fence

loose enough forthetable to be able to oivot when theother endis raised or lowered. To prepare the fencefor your router, remove thesub-base anduse it asa template to mark the screw holes andbit clearance hole on the fence. Thebottom edge of theclearhole ance should l i n eu o w i t ht h e topof thejigtable when thetable is level; in theillustration at left,the tableis in the lowest oosition. To usethejig,secure thefence groove in a vise androut thedovetail first, thenthematching slide, For thegroove, install a bit in therouter, attach thetoolto thejig fence, and adjust the cutting depth. Setthe workpiece face-down on thetable, butting itsedge a g a i n stth e b i t , Loosen thewing nutandadjust the table to center the bit on the edge of thestock, thentighten the nut. Secure the workpiece withthree featherboards: Clamp one to thetable i n l i n ew i t ht h e b i t a n dt h e o t h e r twoto the fenceon bothsidesof (ln the illustration, thecutter. the featherboard ontheoutfeed sideof the fencehasbeen removed for clarity.)Rout thegroove asyouwould on a router table, using firsta straight bit, thena dovetail bit (page 103).Tocut theslide, setyour workpiece onthetable andlower thetable to oroduce a 7ainch-wide cut.Make a pass on each s i d ef , i n i s h i ntg h ec u tw i t ha p u s h stick(/eff,bottom). Tesffit thejoint; if necessary, raise thetableslightly pass andmake another on each side of thestock,

104

ROUTER IOINERY

ROUTING A DOVETAIL JOINT SPLINE


thejig 1 Making I T h ej i g s h o w n at rightb , u i l tf r o m 3/+inch plywood, youcutgrooves willhelp joints in thecorners of fordovetail spline Refer to theillustration forsuga carcase. gested Before the dimensions. assembling jig,cuttheoval slotin themiddle of the yourbit. Cut45" base to accommodate bevels at thetooends of thearms and ends of thesupport brackets. the bottom Attach andthebrackthearms to thebase andarms, making thearms etsto thebase other andcenteroeroendicular to each ingthemunder Install a dovetail theslot. ,e c u rt b i t i n y o u rr o u t e rs eh ej i g i n a position viseand, withthebit in theslot, guide theedge against thetool's base plate andscrew it down. Then, withthe plate pressed base against theguide, rout a channel across thetopends of thearms.

: 8"x15" \ g t o t'1" x 5"

r') Routing thegrooves Z Vtari,cutting lines forthegrooves on thecorners of theworkpiece. Secure the carcase in a vise diagonally andsetthejig ontop,aligning theedges of thechannel yourouted in step1 withoneof thecuttingmarks. Clamp thejig to thecarcase, protecting pads. thestock withwood Rout you thegrooves by repeating the cut made t o r o u t h ec h a n n efle , e d i ntg he bit through thecorner of the carcase. Besure to keep therouter flatonthejig guide f l u s h base and agains th t ee d g e well until thebit is clear of thecarcase. Reposition thejig andrepeat to rout (left). the othergrooves

105

ROUTER IOINERY

Inserting thesplines grooves, To make enough splines for several rout just a dovetail slide ontheedge of a board, asyouwould joinl(page for a sliding dovetail J03).Riptheslide fromthe board o na t a b l e s a wt,h e nc u t i n d i v i d u a l s p l ifn ro em si t . For a snug fit,use thesame dovetail bit thatcutthegrooves g l u ei n i n s t e p2 . I n s t a l t lh es p l i n eb s ys p r e a d i n sg ome grooves the andonthesplines andsliding themin place (right). glue Once the hasdried, trim off excess wood with a handsaw andsand thesurface flush withthecarcase.

tr
A ROUTER-TABIE JIG youto Thejig shown below allows grooves routa series of evenly spaced for straight or dovetail splines. Cut a V-shaped notchintothefaceof a board, theninstall a V+-inch straight bit in yourrouter andmount thetool in a table. Screw thejig to a miter gauge andfeedit intothebitto make a notch. Fitandgluea woodkeyin the notch, thenreposition thejig onthegauge sothedistance between the keyandthe bit equals thespac-

ffi
ingyouwantbetween the spline grooves, Feed thejig intothe bit to routa second Install notch. aVz-inch dovetail bit andsetthedepthof cut sothefull dovetail shape is visible above the bottom of the notch. To usethejig, seat theworkpiece in theV withanedge butted against the keyandroutthefirstgroove. Tocut grooves, subsequent fit the groove over thekeyandslide theworkpiece intothe biI (below).

106

GLUEIOINTS

glued-uppanels, Usedto reinforce thegluejoint consists of two boards with identicalcutsin their edges. Both cutsareproducedon a router tablewith thesamebit; oneof the boards isflipped to matewith theother.

CUTTING A GLUE IOINT ON A ROUTER TABLE


Making thecub Install a gluejointcutterin yourrouter, mount thetoolin a tableandsetthe cutting depth. Secure theworkpiece with twofeatherboards clamped to the fence on either sideof the bit. (ln the illustration,thefeatherboardTqn theoutfeed side of the fencehasbedr/ removed for clariyoucut thejoint,make ty.) Before test cutsin twoscrap Fliponeboard boards. over, test-fit thejointand, if necessary, adjust the depthof cut untilthe mated surfaces of the twoboards areflush,To makea pass, feedthestockintothe bit withyour righthand whilekeeping it pressed firmlyagainst thefence with yourleft hand(left).

107

BOXIOTNTS
joint, alsoknownasafinger Thebox joint, is ideal or for makingdrawers Thejoint derives itsstrength cabinets. from the largegluing areaof the interpins and notches. locking

ROUTING A B(lX JOINT


uptheiig 1 Setting youto at right allows I Thejig shown fora boxjointoneat a cut the notches table. Thejig is simply timeon a router board screwed to the miter an extension gauge andfittedwitha keyto determine lnstall a the spacing of the notches. diameter as straight bit with the same mount width ofthenotches; the desired the router in a table,Setthe depthof thethickness of your stock cut to equal intothe bit to andfeedtheextension Thenunscrew the extenrouta notch. gauge andreposition sionfromthemiter the notch and it so that the gapbetween thebitequals thewidthof the bit, Feed intothebit again, cutting the extension Fashion a wood a second notch(right). key to fit in thefirstnotch andglueit in place about1 inchfrom so it projects board. theextension

108

ROUTER IOINERY

r) Gutting thenotches in thefirstboard L noningthe faceof the workpiece gauge against the miter extension, butt o n ee d g e agarns th t ek e y T , urn o nt h e your router and,hooking thumbs around t h eg a u g e s,l i d e t h eb o a r d i n t ot h e b i t , cutting the first notch(right). Fit the notch over t h e k e ya n dm a k e a second c u t .C o n t i n u ce utting n o t c h et s h i sw a y u n t i ly o ur e a c h t h e o p p o s i te ed g e of t h ew o r k p i e c e .

thenotches inthemating board Q Cutting \,, Fit the lastnotch of the f irstboard over the key. Buttoneedge of the mating board against thef irstboard, andmove t h ee n t i r e a s s e m bfl o y r w a r td o c u tt h e f irstnotch in themating board; holdboth p i e c ef sl u s ha g a i n s gauge tt h em i t e r (left). extension CUI theremaining notchesin themating board byfollowing the procedure same used forthef irstboard.

109

MITER-AND. SPLINE JOINTS


is essentially a simple Themiter-and-spline gluedintogrooves cut miterjoint with a spline in frame-andin mitered ends; it is oftenused panelconstruction. Thesplineis either plywood,or solidwoodwith grain that runsperpendicular to themiter cuts.

(lFROUTING A MITER.AND.SPLINE JOINT TWO WAYS


Using a straight bit workpiece. Make 45' miter cutsin each and Install a straight bit in yourrouter mount thetoolin a table. Setthecutting youcutwillaccommosothegroove depth To thewidth of your spline. date one-half clamp a feathersecure theworkpiece, in line withthebit.Rest board to thetable thefeatherboard on a shimsothestock flatagainst thefence; clamp willbeheld to thefeatha support board at a 90' angle pressure. Rout the erboard to apply extra grooves byfeeding theworkpiece spline itsface flush onendintothebit,keeping (right).0nce all the against thefence grooves have made, cuta spline for been joint;make it twice aswideasthe each groove less depth, %zinchforclearance. or solFormaximum stren$h, useplywood running the id wood withthegrain across width of thespline, rather thanlengthwise.

110

ROUTERIOINERY

lllt lll1 IlIl illt IIIJ illt tlll lllt llllillt lllt illt lllitlll illlillt llllfilt
5HO?TI?
jig A miter-and-spline Io roul Lhe qroovefor joinL a .miNer-,andopli1e _ alonga boardedqe,uee the ji4 shownhere. CuI a 4-W-4lonqer your trhan :;]\,

i l
" i '; i

Using a three-wing slofting cufter You canalso rout thegrooves for miterjo and-splin ei n t s b yu s i n g a threewing slotting cutter andfeeding the stock face-down intothebit. Position thefence in line with thebitpilot, makingthecutting width equal to one-half thebit diameter. Tosetthedepth of c u t ,p l a c e t h ew o r k p i e c f le a to nt h e table a n dc e n t etrh e b i t ' st o o t h on the edge of thestock. Feed theworkpiece gauge, into thecutter witha miter h o l d i nt g h ee d g e o f t h eb o a r d flush against thegauge andonemitered end (above). flatalong thefence

guide,To ueelhe jiq, cuN a 41"bevel alonqlheedgeof the workp i e c et,r h e n c l a m pL h e s t o c k a n d L h ej i q t o a N a b l e withthe edqeof t.heworkpiece olightly overhanqin7 the jiq. Ueethe router filNei wiih a otraiqhLbit,to trim Ihe beveled edge, then install a Lhree-wing oloNlinq cutter and repeatlo rouNLhe qroove, keeVingNhe bit pilotaqaine|thesLock.

111

KEYIOINTS BUTTERFLY

The butterfly key is a multi-purpose joint. Ordinarily cutfrom a contrasting to strengthenedgehardwood, the key serves in to-edgebutt joints or splitsand checks boards,while providing a decorativemotif.

,i:ii

.:ll;SS$'

A BUTTERFLY KEY JOINT MAKING

$#ffi

Routing therecess guided Mark intersecting imperfections fromthetemplate to therecess. keyusing a router by fora butterfly I Rout therecess key Iines forthelocation of each ontheworkpiece and thepattern of thekey on reference Tomake thetemplate, draw a template. your panel. Then clamp thetemplate atop thestock, aligning the Use a saber template. thatis smallerthan a piece of plywood lines(above, right). lnslall a straight bit andtemplate block to thetemplate reference Clamp a guide saw to cutoutthepattern: intherouter; setthedepth of cutto nomore thanone-half within theoutline while guide into thestock thesaw blade andplunge (above, plate of theworkpiece. Rout outtherecess, rrding the left). thethickness butted against theblock keeping thetool's base guide along theedges of thepattern throughout the Careful- template theblock andcutoutthewaste. Turn offthesaw, remove witha chisel. willtransfer any operation. Square thecorners of therecess since therouter of thepattern lysand theedges

'l

rt2

ROUTER IOINERY

r) Gutting thekey yourtemplate L Clamp atopa hardwood board; thestock should beat least Vqinch you thicker thanthe depth of the recess routed in step1. Setthecutting depth on for a %e-inch-deep cut,then the router make a lightscoring cut around thetemplate. Cutoutthe keyon the band saw, withtheoutside edge of aligning theblade (right). yourhands recess Keep the scored clear of theblade asyoumake thecuts.

Gluing thekeyin thepanel Test-fit the keyin the recess. lf necessary, usea chisel to trim itsedges. Once youaresatisfied glue withthefit, spread in the recess andinsert the key. Tofocus pressure, pad theclamping laya wood across theworkoiece andclamo bothends (/eft). Tighten each clamp a littleat a time untila thingluebead squeezes outfrom under thekey. Once thegluehasdried, gently sand the surface to trim the key flush withthesunounding wood.

113

-GRO TONGUE-AND OVEIOTNTS

With itslonggluingsurlace, joint is thetongue-and-groove commonly used to strengthen carcase joinery and to assemble glued-up panels and solidcabinet doors.

CUTTING A TONGUE.AND.GROOVE JOINT

Routing thegroove andtongue (page Fityourrouter witha straight bit.Startbycutting thegroove passes, 75),thencut thetongue in several removing thewaste a littleat alime (inseil. Thetongue's depth should beslightly less thanthegroove. Tosupport theworkpiece during thecut, clamp a featherboard to thetable andrestit ona shimsothat it presses against the workpiece above the bit; clamp a sup-

portboard presat a 90o angleto the featherboard forextra sure. Slowly feed thestock intothecutter. Turnthe workpiece pass end-for-end andrepeat the procedure. Finish each witha push stick(abovd. Move thefence back fromthe bit to remove passes, more waste andmake twomore test-fitting the joint andcontinuing untilthetongue fits snugly in thegroove.

tt4

RULE IOINTS
MAKING A RUTE JOINT

A common featureof drop-leaf tables, therule joint consists of two matching


hingedpieces.The leafhas a covecut alongits edgethat mateswith the tabletop's rounded-overedge.When the leaf is down, the decorativeedgeis visible.

thecutin thetabletop 1 Making I Clamp t h et a b l e t otp oa work s u r f a cw e i t ht h ee d g e to be shaped extending offthesurface. Install a piloted round-over bit youto reach andadjust thecutting depth to allow thefinaldepth in at least Asyoumake twopasses. thecut, press the bit pilot (above). against thestock throughout the pass Fora smooth finyour ish,make f inalpass a slow andshallow one.

r) Shaping theleaf and Z installing thehinge Install a piloted cove bitwhose diameter andprofile match the oneused in step 1, then mount therouter in a table. Align t h ef e n c e w i t ht h eb i t p i l o t s ot h a tt h e width of cutwillequal one-half thecutterdiameter. Setthedeoth of cutto reach your passes. finaldepth in several Feed t h e l e a fi n t ot h e b i t ,b r a c i n ig tsedge pass, against thefence(left).AfIer each test-fit thepieces; continue cutting until thetabletop andleafmesh witha slight gapbetween thetwo.Finish thejointby installing a rule-joint hinge ontheunder: ositio sides o f t h ep i e c e s P on n eh i n g e leaf agains th t et a b l e t oa pn dt h e o t h e r pinisaligned against theleaf sothehinge withthestart of theround-over cutonthe (rnsef). tabletop Outline andthenroutmortises forthehinge leaves in thetabletop andtheleaf. Screw thehinge in place.

115

SHAPER
protheir ownknives to whatever heshaper andtherouter share filetheydesire. In the heritage. a common With its largecutterexposed in aninventor mid-l9thCentury requires for a above thetable, theshaper Ohioproduced a prototype prospecial attention to safety; thetool spindle machine with avertical jectingout of a horizontal is oftenconsidered to bethemost table. dangerous machine in the shop. knownasa spindle Thismachine, Keyconcerns are therotalion ofthe to the routeq was virtuallyidentical spindle, thedirection of feed, and present-day Another modshaper. the locationof the cutterwith an era, employing elfromthesame panels regardto the workpiece. Most and to raise overhead spindle shaper spindles and cutters are andrecesses, evolved cut grooves designed to rotate either clockwise router. intotoday's or counterclockwise; each direcnotrvithstanding, Similar origins itsownadvantages folTheshaper isa common sightin produaion tion offers and have since therouter andshaper paths. it is unequaled constructing disadvantages. Most cutters are Therouteris shops, where lowed different for jig shown doors. Thepanel-raising above designed to cutfromabove aworkoftenconsidered themostuseful cabinet panels piece power top railsand arched raised whilespinning counterclockallowsarched andversatile woodworking quickly, safely, and accuratef. wise(asseen from above). This hand, to beshaped tool;theshaper, ontheother offers a better viewofthe cutand. isfrequentlyttre lastmachine added its usefulness because ofthedirection ofthethreads onthespindle, ensures shop,a factthat belies to thewoodworking place nut in remains that the securing the cutter tight throughto thecraftsman. Byreversing rotation moldings in theedges of outtheoperation. spindlp andinverting If youfrequently cut decorative you so that it lies mostlybelow tdble level, if you many doors and drawers, the the cutter canshape workpieces, or build curved workpiece. This is foryour Basically, the machine is the underside of the often a safer setup for is ideal tool shop. shaper an for version of a table-mountfreehand shaping or working with extra-wide or very long and more stable a bigger, stronger, liftsup,thecutterwill not gouge If theworkpiece it and with amuchwiderrange of available cutters. Shaper stock. edrouter, (pagu profile to kick the board back. 120) vary from simple, single cutters cutters your owner's Read manual carefully andfollowthe setup thatproduce thecontours of a complex combination systems guidelines with, and cutting discussed here, starting 123. Relatively safe and easy to work on page hostof individual blades. preferred guards pages Take the time to build the and fence shown 126 are the choice, though on solidcutters with carbide teeth your grinding andl27;theywill make machine much for the versatility of safer to use. many woodworkers still opt

with toggle clamps, a With a workpiece secured on a template precision. and The resultstraightcuttercutsa curvewith ease on a bandsmu; than couldbeproduced ing edge is smoother perfect ensures coPies of theoriginalpattern. usinga template

T17

ANATOMYOFA SHAPER
worksvery muchlike he shaper router,but it a table-mounted more heavier, andgenerally is larger, powerful. Theheartof the machine to lYn-inchYris its spindle, a threaded turns thattypically assembly diameter rpm.The to 10,000 from7,000 a cutter by a belt-or in turn, is driven spindle, to mechanism connected direct-drive motor.Some a k- to 5-horsepower speeds. models offervariable diameby spindle aresized Shapers spinwithlarger-diameter ter.Machines but motors, require morepowerfirl dles produce less, cleaner vibrate these tools withawiderassortbeused cuts andcan feature Manyshapers mentof cutters. spindles. interchangeable are andaccessories Shaper cutters with a nut and secured to thespindle The spindlenormally lock washer. On many turns counterclockwise. rotationcan be machines, spindle located on a switch reversed byflicking box.Thisis avaluthemotorjunction allowingstockto be fed ablefeature, side of thetable. fromeither
5witah arm Canbe ewun4 below table and out of the way to accommodate Iar4e workpiecea

Fenceaoaembly Guidea work acrosa table for atrai4ht cute; aplit into two halveethat can be individuallyadjuated and lockedin poaition

Rin6 6uard Mounted on apindleto protect o?erato i' o fi ngera' fro m c utte r; rema ine etatio na ry as cutter spina. Made of clear plaetic to keepcuttinq operationa vioible

Spindle aaaembly with a 3/u Kevereible, inch apindle at one end and a %-inch apindleat the other; mounted to a bracket under the table

Table inseft ring One of a aet of concentric ringe aet in table to accept different diameter cutterg, maximizinqtable bearinq aurface

Onloff awitah To44lebracket acce@ padlock to prevent accF dental atart-up

Spindle height adjustmenthandwheel Raiaeeand lowera to epindleaaaembly eet cutter heiqht

5tarting pin A ateel rod that oupporta work until it contacte rub bearin7 for freehand cuta; fita into hole in table on infeed side of cutter Front aaaeeapanel Coveramotor and drive mech' aniam; removed to acceeeepin' dle opeed adjuatment

Height adjustment'lock knob Fixee hei4ht of apindleaeeembly: muat be tiqhtened before ehaper io operated

118

SHAPER

Depending on the model,the height from of the spindlecan be adjusted 2 to 6 inches. are made Few cuts on the shaper or a jig. Most without an accessory slot. feature a miter gauge shaper tables Straightcutsshouldbe guidedby the While some fenceor a miter gauge. of two solidarms fences arecomprised

to the cutters, that canbe movedclose thetypeof fence shown belowhassegmentsthat slidelaterallyto conform promore closely to the cuttershape, of safety. viding an extra measure with ajig, or work canbeshaped Curved a template or startingpin usedin conjunctionwith a rub bearing, whichmust be mountedon the spindle.

Fenaeadjuatment knob Turnedto advanceor retract fence

Fence loaking handle Attached to fencelocking rod: tiqhtened to aecure fencein poeitionon table Lo width of cut

Fenaeeegment locking handle Lockafencegeqmenta at deeiredeettin4

Duat chute For duaL collection eyjtem

bench top Thisportable %-horsepower shaper canperformmostof thefunctionsof a largertool.It is equipped with a'6-inch spindle andan accessory and router chuck, andcanturn cutters rpm. router bitsat 9,000

twosets of ballbearings thatprevent assembly shells contain Spindle shown below fromdeflecting during a cut.Both assemblies thespindle (below, toil canaccomThestandard assembly aredouble-ended. on which endis shaper cutters, depending modate different-sized (below, router bottom) accepts the router/stub adapter assembly used; cutters at theother. bitsat oneendand%-inch-bore Spindle aaeembly

%-inch-diameter opindle Fencesegmenta Indtvidual wood en ftngere adjuot to frame cutter and fence rinq quard, increaotnq bearinq aurface and protecting operaf,o r'o fin4ere 9oindleehell Routerlatub adapter spindle aaaembly

)tub opindle

119

CUTTERS AND ACCESSORIES


arvingdecorative molding with a f V shaper used to involve grinding steel knives to thedesired profilein theshop. Theknives weretheninserted into slottedcutterheads andheldin olace bv friction-an arrangement notorious for releasing the cutters, oftenwith disastrousresults. Today, the knivesaregroundcommercially and normallysecured to the cutterhead with hexbolts.(ln fact,you shouldavoidusingan assembled cutterhead on a shaper unless it features a methodof fixing the knivesin place.) Mostknives aremadefrom high-speed (HSS)and areavailable steel in a variety ofprofiles.Ifyou havea profilein mind that you cannotfind in a catalog and areunableto grind in your own shop, check with a manufacturer of cutters.Some companies will grindknives to yourspecifications, although thecost canproveprohibitive for the occasional woodworker. Moreoften,two- andthree-wing solid shaper cuttersare usedby woodworkers. These areusually HSScutters. tippedwith tungsten carbide to provide

providea precise Cuttersets method join* for of making snug-fining -and-p anelco nstr uctio n. The frame cutproduced by thissticking cutter will matewith theprofilecarved by itscoping counterpart.

SHAPER CUTTER PR(]FITES


Aaeembled-cutter deoorative moldin4 knivea )trai7ht

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120

SHAPER

Most sola moredurable cuttingedge. boresizes id cutters aresoldin standard As shownbelow, fromt/zto l% inches. from theycomein a variety of profiles, detailcutters usedfor moldstandard ing to cuttersets like cope-and-stick assemblies, designed to cut both parts joint. Othertypes, of a frame-and-panel like gluejoint and drawerlock cutters, profiles interlocking for solidjoincreate consist of a set ery.Combination cutters of individualblades that producedifferentprofiles depending on how they arestacked on the spindle.

Any shaper a differcutterwill create to thethickness of ent profileaccording theworkpiece andtheheightof thecutMakeseveral testcuts ter on thesoindle. Forcombibefore shaping a workpiece. follow nation systems and cuttersets, instructions. themanufacturer's Youshouldalsoreferto the manufacturer's specifications for the required spindle sizeand maximumrpm rating for a cutter.And althoughyou canuse on bushings to fit large-bore cutters small-diameter soindles. theadded stress maycause thespindle to deflect.

work The quality of your shaper depends to a greatextent on the cutters. Neverusea damaged or rustedcutter. Keep cuttingedges sharpandwipethem cleanaftereachuse.Carbidecutters easily, sotakecarewhen canbe chipped storinsthem.

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Cope-and-etick

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SHAPER

SHAPER ACCESSORIES
Hold-down rods Mounted to fenceon infeedand outfeed aideaof cutter to pre6a workfirmly aqainat fenceaitd tabte: adjuetableto accommodatevarioua aizeaof atock

Tenoner Holdaatock on end for ahapin1: featuree bar that alidie in table miter alot

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lneerted in hole of cutter to allow larqe-borecuttera to fit on amall-diameter apindlea; uaed in paira, with one on each aide of outter

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Rub bearing Mounted on epindleaboveor below cutterto providea bearin7 aurface for edqe of workpiece or template; availablein different aizeato accommodate varioua cutter diametere and achievepreciaedeptha of cut

Push block and push atick For feedinq etock alon4 ahaper fence.Fueh block(top) haa rubber baae to 7rip workpiece; pueh etick (bottom) 7uideonarrowatock

Miter 6au6e Guidea workpiece acroao table; used principallyfor ahapin7end 7rain. Features hold downato clamp atock face down:additional hold- , down acrewg can be inatalled onji7

thim lnatalled on apindle to makeamall hei4ht adjuetmente to cutter

@ Spacera Mounted on epindle to oeparate cuttero @ from quard or rub


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bearinq

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5paaer aollar Placed on epindle to 6et cutter at deaired location

thaper jig )lidee in table miter olot to quide ahort or narrow workpieceo acroaa table; hold-downacrewz eecure atock face down

Power feeder Motorized aafety device7uideo atock throuqh atraiqht and somecurvedahaper cuta: electric motor drives feed rollera or belt whichpueheo work throuqh the cut. Feeder is secured over the work to grip workpiece,and ofbenat a alight angleto eecureworka4ainet fence;feed opeedadjuatable on most modele

r22

AND SAFETY SETUP


require machines [' ewwoodworking asthe { asmuchattention to safety Its reputation asa dangerous shaper. highthe shaper's tool is well-earned: speed cutters aredifficultto guardfully and theyareproneto kickback. anyshaping operBefore beginning is fastened ation.makesurethespindle and its height to the machine securely is locked. Turn the spindle by handto thecutterturnswith thespinmakesure vibration or vertic;l or dle.Anvsoindle lateralmbtion during a cut canspell bearings or trouble. Replace thespindle if you noticeany the entireassembly performthetest problems. Periodically to ensure thespindle shaft shown below turnstrue. gear,suchassafety Personal safety for shop-made cutter Two designs protecWhen glasses, dustmask, andhearing guards areshownon page126. tion,should bewornfor all shaping guidingstockalongthe fence, usea In addition, theextra-wide the temDta- operations. hold-down device. Resist clamped to thefence freehand uiing tion to shape curves featherboard for prevent kickback by thiscut helps the time to only the startingpin. Take keeping theworkpiece build a template. flat on thetable.
SHAPER SAFETY TIPS . Make sure theheight of the s l o c k eb d e f o rte urning s p i n d lie ontheshaper. . Adjust speed androtaspindle youareusing. tionforthecutter . Donotshape warped stock, knots or faswork thatcontains 4 smaller than teners, or a piece i n c h eb s y6 i n c h e s . . Use featherboards anda push stick or a jig withhold downs to feed less t h a n1 2 i n c h e s stock long or 6 inches wide across the shaper table. . Always feed a workpiece against of cutter rotation. thedirection . Never the runstock between andthefence. cutter . Feed workintothecutter with a smooth c,o n s t a n m t o t i o ni;f d o w nr ,educe t h ec u t t e r slows f e e ds p e e d .

THE SPINDLE CHECKING


forrunout Testing dialindicator face Seta magnetic-base of upontheshaper table sotheplunger thedevice contacts thespindle. Calibrate thegauge to zero according to the manufacturer's instructions. Then turn thespin(lefil, f he dial indidleslowly by hand willregister spindle runout-the cator would amount of wobble thatthespindle Perform thetestat transmit to a cutter. intervals along thelengh of thespindle, lf adjusting itsheight byr/zinch each time. exceeds 0.005inchfor anyof therunout replace thespindle, thetests,

r23

SHAPER

CHANGING A CUTTER
thecutter onthespindle 1 Tightening I Insert theappropriate insert ringin thetable to support theworkpiece. Slide a spacer collar onthespindle sothecutterassembly willsit near thebottom of the shaft, while allowing fora sufficrent range of height adjustment. For a freehand cut, mount a rubbearing next. Then slide on guard. thecutter andring Youmayneed to place a spacer collar on both sides of thecutter to ensure therubbearing and guard spin freely onthespindle; thecuttershould beasclose to thebearing as possible without it.Slip touching onanotherspacer collar, thenaddthelock washer andnut.Tighten thenutusing thetwo wrenches supplied withtheshaper. Hold thespindle steady withone wrench and tighten withtheother. For extra leverage, position thewrenches sothatyoucan ( squeeze themtogelherright).

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?pindleheiqht adjuatment handwheel

r) Setting thecutter height L Once t h ec u t t e h r a sb e e n installed b, u t tt h ew o r k p i e c e inate anyplay from thehandwheel, turnit counterclockwise against thecutter. Turn thespindle height adjustment hand- slightly, then clockwise to thecorrect setting. Fix thespindle (above):height wheel to setthecutting edges to theappropriate height withtheheight adlustment lock knob. Make a testcut raises Clockwise thespindle; counterclockwise lowers it. Toelim- in a scrap board andreadjust thecutter height, if necessary.

r24

SHAPER

FENCE SETTING UPTHE


OuLfeedhalf ,-<-'-'-, Cutter

of fence

/ffitr-h

fu'/ (top view)

Adjusting thefence 1 J- For loosen themodel shown, thefour fence segment locking handles andmove thewooden segments onboth halves of the fence asclose aspossible to thespindle without touching thecuttingedges orguard. Lock thehandles, then setthewidth of cut, pass moving thefence back from thecutter fora wide and advancingit fora shallow cut.For a partial cut,where only a portion of theedge oftheworkpiece willberemoved, loosen thefence lock-

inghandles. Then hold a straightedge against thefence andmove halves both asa unituntil thestraightedge contacts therubbearing(above), Tighten thehandles. lf youaremaking a fullcut,in which thecutter willshape theentire edge of theworkpiece, turn offtheshaper a fewinches into thecut.Holding theboard in place against thefence, advance theoutfeed halfuntilit butts (insef), against thecutpart of thestock then finish thepass. lnstalling hold downs onthefence The shape fr ence shoulb d eu s e d withhold downs or featherboards whenpossible ever to keep theworkpiece flat agains t et a b l e th a n df e n c eI.n s t aa ll hold-down device onyour shaper fence following themanufacturer's instructions. For thespring-type model shown, attach theassembly brackets of thedevice to the fence brackets, then mount theangled rods ontheassembly brackets. Position the metal arms of each rodsothatone presses down ontheworkpiece and the pressure other applies lateral on thestock toward thefence. Lock thearms in olace bytightening thehold-down brackets (/eff,. using a hexwrench

125

SHAPER

AND A FENCE TWO SHAPER GUARDS shown on this page Thetwoguards from3Z-inch entirely areconstructed plywood. andsetup, Easy to assemble your finis designed to protect each gers fromthecutter. at rightis ideal forfenceTheversion guided in Cutthe guard operations. to enough theshape of an arclarge andshield the fromthefence extend Thesupport board completely. cutter to beclamped should bewideenough asclose withtheguard to thefence without as oossible to the cutter flush it. Screw theguard touching of thesupport with the bottom edge Next thefasteners. countersink board; andmark a clamp thejig in position pointon theguard thecutter. above a 17a-inchRemove thejig andbore at the hole through theguard diameter youto view willallow mark; thehole shaping operations. thecutter during make a guard For freehand shaping, below to cover the liketheoneshown andsides. fromthetop,back, cutter long and 16 inches Cutthetopabout fromthe back to extend wideenough

in 1% inches of thetable to about Miter thefrontends front of thecutter. canbepositioned sothey of thesides Rip to thecutter. aspossible asclose the sothetopwillsit above thesides clearance for withjustenough cutter youto see thecutter. Position thetop andmark a point on it onthetable Cutanovalover thespindle. directly

hole through thetop at your shaped point; thehole should belarge marked thespindle andallow enough to clear youto move theguard across thetable different cutslightly to accommodate with ters.Fasten thetopto thesides screws. countersunk position it on the To use theguard, projecting withthespindle through table as asclose thetop,andwiththesides possible edges. Clamp to thecutting theguard in place. fence shown on page Theshop-made plywood and I27 , made from7e-inch is an inexpenof lumber, a fewscraps fence. to a commercial sive alternative since the cutting It is alsovery safe, through a narrow edges onlyproject by slot in the fenceandarecovered and Start bycutting thebase a guard. fromplywood. Make bothpieces upright asthetable; the base should as long 12 inches w i d ea n dt h e b ea b o u t 3 inches wide. Before upright about cut a notch assembling the pieces,

r26

SHAPER

(BACK FENCE VIEW)

into theback edge of thebase in line withthe soindle andcarve a recess across thewidth of theupright's back face; align therecess withthenotch.

Next, cutthesupports from 2-by-2 stock. One endof thesupports should beflushwiththeends of the base; miter theother endto clear thecutter.

Attach the supports to thebase, then screw theupright to thesupports; your countersink fasteners. Tosetupthefence, use a saber saw to cuta precise slotforthecutter. 0r, place thefence ontheshaper table, clamping only one endin position. With youplan thecutter to useinstalled onthespindle, turnontheshaper pivot andcarefully thefreeendof the fence intothecutter untilthe cuttingedges routa slotthrough the upright andproject bytheproper amount, Then turnoffthemachine andclamp thefreeendof thefence to thetable. Finally, cuta plywood guard large enough to extend overthe cutter andscrew it to the rrnrrcht. flush withthetopedge. Tomake a cut,feed theworkpiece intothecutter withbothhands, using featherboards pressure to apply against theupright andthebase of thefence.

127

BASIC CUTS
the shaper's E.* toolscanmatch precision for carvI' andefficiency in wood and ing decorative contours joints. perfect handle Shapers cutting andcurved cuts. Straight bothstraight of mostworkpieces cutson the edges be guided by a fence. shouldalways A typicalsetupis illustrated below. Ifyou areshaping stock thatis shorter than12inches, or cuttinginto theend or faceof a board,you shouldusea jig like the tenoner specialty or miter rather gauge on page 129, than shown thefence. freecutscanbeperformed Curved handor using atemplate. Templates are custom-made simple to buildandcanbe Examples areshown for thejob athand. 130 A rubbearing on pages and131. for should bemounted on thespindle it isamustifyou are manystraight cuts; Therest using a template. of theproceTheworkpiece dureisstraightforward: Another is optionfor curve-cutting jig.A V-block jig for cira shop-made 132. clecutsis shown on page withFreehand shaping-cutting out a template or jig-can be perin which formed onlywithpartial cuts, the cutterbitesinto a portion of an edge whilethe restridesagainst the rub bearing. Even these cutsarenot quite"freehand"l pin must a starting the be installed on thetable to brace work before it contacts the rub bearing,preventing kickback. Asyouwouldwith a router,make a passes your final fewshallow to reach depth, ratherthantryingto remove all pass. waste in For best results, the asingle feed usea smooth, even speed andcut grain, rather it. with the thanagainst grain result in against can Shaping you tearout or kickback. When arecutplace ting endgrain, a backup board theworkpiece to prevent tearout. behind

joint cutter on Wth a drawer installed quick itsspindle, a shaper canmake parts ofa drawer workofcuttingboth j oint.Featuring tongues interlocking grooves gluing surand andtvvice the joint, ofa simple butt thedrawer face joint issimplebut strong. with doubleisfastened to thetemplate Thetemsided tapeor toggle clamps. plate whilethe ridesontherubbearing Thewidth cutter shapes theworkpiece. relative of cutisdeterminedbythe diamoftherubbearing andthecutter. eters

CUTS STRAIGHT
Shaping anedge 0ncethe cutter andfence aresetup, yourworkpiece feathersecure withthree twofeatherboards to the boards. Clamp fence, sideof theguard, oneon either i n l i n ew i t ht h e a n da t h i r dt o t h et a b l e board at a 90' cutter. Clamp a support presfor extra angle to thefeatherboard sure. Tomake thecut,feed theworkpiece intothecutter withbothhands, asshown I27 . Once thetrailing endof the on page reaches thetable's edge, finish the board pass a push stick(right), or by movusing ingto theoutfeed sideof thetableand past pulling thestock thecutter,

128

SHAPER

CUTTING A DRAWER JOINT


thedrawer sides 1 Cutting I Forthese cuts, is fitted theshaper jointbit. witha router spindle anddrawer joint The is cut in twostages. Thedrawer sides arecutfirst, held upright in a tenoningjig.Thedrawer front andback arethen gauge. cutface down in a miter Install a commercial tenoner onthetable followingthemanufacturer's instructions; the model shown slides in themrter slot. Clamo theworkpiece to thejig,protecting the pad.To prevent stock witha wood tearout, place a backup board behind thetrailing edge of theworkpiece. Follow the manufacturer's directions to adjust thejig for the depth andwidthof cut.Feed the worksmoothly intothe bi| (right).

r) Cutting thedrawer front andback I Remoue thetenoner fromthetable a n di n s t a a l l m i t eg r augequippe di t h w holddowns. Also clamp a guard to the yourhands table to protect fromthe bit; seepage 126for details on building the guard shown in this illustration. Protect padandclamp thestock witha wood the gauge; position workpiece to themiter the board laterally onthejig forthewidth of ed d i t i o ns c u t .T o p r o v i da au l ppor atn d reduce iearout, screw anextension board gauge. gauge to themiter Slide themiter (/eft). andthestock asa unitinto thecutter Test thefit of thejointandadjust the height ofthebit,if necessary. lf youwant thedrawer front to overhang thesides, as in thephoto on page 128,youwillneed to make a fewpasses, increasing thewidttr of cutslightly each time. Clamp a stop block to theextension board forrepeat cuts.

129

SHAPER

JIG PROFII.ING jig liketheoneshown A profiling for device at rightis a timesaving of thesame copies several shaping pattern. a Thejig features curved youwishto of theshape template your siockatoP Clamp reproduce. a w i l lf o l l o w w,h i c h t h et e m p l a t e enabling onthespindle, rubbearing the to reproduce the cuttingedge pattern on theworkpiece, of froma Piece thetemplate Make plywood than that is larger 7a-inch a bearing to provide theworkpiece thecut.Cut andafter surface before saw or a saber witha band the pattern sandthe edges thencarefully saw, the rubbearing. thatwillridealong since mustbesmooth Thetemolate will betransferred anyimperfections workpieces Next cutyour stock. to your theedge oversizing to size, roughly by about7ainch. to be shaped onthetemPosition theworkpiece on plate, mark thecutting aligning withthe to be shaped the edge Using edge of theiemplate. curved on outline theworkpiece a pencil, Fasten of thetemplate. thesurface blocks to thetemPlate twoguide withcountersunk fromunderneath of the up the edges lining screws, To outline. withthe marked blocks a toggle thejig, screw complete guide block. to each clamp anda straight a rubbearing Install the Adjust cutter on the shaper. so it willshape height of thecutter the thefull widthof theworkpiece; diamshould bethesame rubbearing theworkSecure eterasthecutter. to butt piece sure onthejig, making the guide flushagainst the stock and Setthejig onthetable blocks.

height sothecutthespindle adjust edge theentire willshape tingedges sure Alsomake of theworkpiece. andthe rub bearing thetemplate arealigned, To make thecut,turnon the withthejig andworkpiece shaper

thetogHolding of thecutter. clear gleclamps, into feedtheworkpiece (below). presApplyslight the cutter against thetemplate to press sure thetemplate Keep the rubbearing. throughwiththe bearing in contact outtheoperation.

130

SHAPER

SHAPING WITH A TEMPTATE


upandstarting thecut 1 Setting I Build a template asyouwould a profilingjig (page 130); rather thanedge blocks andtoggle clamps, thistemplate hasa 2-by-4 handle screwed to it from underneath. Bevel theupper edges of the block for comfort. Clamp a guard to the table to cover thecutter. Then cutthe workpiece roughly to size, making it several inches larger thanyouneed soit canbe screwed to thetemplate. Locate the screw youwillcut holes in thewaste section away after theshaping operation is completed. Start thecut asyouwould wrth jig,gripping theprofiling thetemplate handle withyour right hand to feed the pressure workpiece andapplying lateral withyourlefthand to keep thetemplate (right). flushagainst the rubbearing

r') Completing thecut Z- Continue feeding withyour right your hand while using lefthand to keep thetemplate in contact withtherubbearing; t h et e m p l a ts eh o u l r di d e along the bearing asthecutter shapes theworkpiece. Asthetrailing endof thestock gradually reaches your thecutter, slide lefthand toward the back of thework(left), piece pressure maintaining against therubbearing until thetemplate clears youhave thecutter. Once finished the cut,unscrew theworkpiece from thetemplate andtrimthewaste.

13l

SHAPER

rr-ffi:

AJIG FOR CIRCTE CUTS workfreehand circular Shaping job. canbe a risky on the shaper and wayto make thetasksafer One jig more is to usea V-block accurate at rightto help liketheoneshown guide from thedevice thecut;build a piece of %-inchplywood. cut thejig Formost shapers, long and14 inches about 24 inches Tocustomize thejig foryour wide. flush holdit above thetable shaper, the edge andmark withthe back on thesurlocation of thespindle wedge out face.Cuta right-angle theapex of the of thejig, locating point. Then angle at yourmarked outof thejig centered cut a circle be the holeshould on theapex; the to accommodate large enough largest cutteryouplanto usewith intothe back twoslots thejig. Rout sideof the edge of thejig on either longandVz hole-about5 inches inchwide-to lineupwiththeholes in theshaper tableforthefence locking rods.

thejig on the table, Position Seat centering the bit in the hole. in the jig, butting the workpiece it against bothsidesof the V, and until thejig andworkpiece adjust the widthof cut is set correctly. locking handles Tighten thefence Youmay thejig in place. to clamp wantto make a testcut on a scrap piece thatthedepth to be certain andwidthof cut arecorrect,

Touse thejig,turnontheshaper against the andbutttheworkpiece pivot outfeed sideof theV. Slowly untilit rests thestockintothecutter it against firmly in thejig'sV, moving to prethedirection of cutterrotation rotatventkickback belowI Continue ingtheworkpiece untiltheentire keep hasbeen shaped, circumference in contact withboth ingtheedge thecut. sides of thejig throughout

r32

SHAPER

FREEHAND SHAPING
upthecut 1 Setting I Reverse thedirection of cutter rotationto clockwise andplace thestarting pinin itshole ontheinfeed side of the table. This willnow betheleft-hand side. (For thiscut,therubbearing is mounted onthespindle above thecutter, since the portion bottom of theworkpiece's is edge to beshaped.) Turn ontheshaper andbutt theleading endof thestock against the pin (lef|. starting

r) Starting thecut L Bracingthe workpiece against the pin,pivot starting thestock intothecutter (right). Asthe cutterbitesintothestock, you; it tends to kick theworkpiece toward b es u r e to hold t h eb o a r d f i r m l yO . nce theworkpiece is in contact withboth the pinandtherubbearing, starting slowly swing it away from thepinwhile keeping it pressed against therubbearing.

Completing thecut Continu f e e d i n tg h ew o r k p i e c e , pressure mai ntain ingconstant against (left).Keep yourhands the rub bearing wellaway fromtheedge of theworkpiece being shaped 0.n c e t h ec u t i s f i n i s h e d , pullthestock slowly away fromtherub bearing andthecutter.

r33

DOORS FRAME-AND-PANEL
has construction I rame-and-panel popular with woodworkers for I been primarilybecause it close to 500years problem wood to the of offers a solution movement by allowingthe panelto and contractfreelyas everexpand in theair cause moisture levels changing wood to swelland shrink.Humidity levels in centrally heated houses can rangefrom l0 percent in winter to 85 in summer. Dercent frame-and-panel assembly comA members-railsorises two horizontal together ind two vertical stiles, all locked joints. The following pages with strong will showyou howto cut thecommonjoint. ly used cope-and-stick Theopening in theframeis filledby a "floating" panelthat sitsin grooves cut grooves in the railsand stiles. These are by a stickingcutter, cut on the shaper whichcarves a decorative moldingalong thegrooves andmoldingcus in thestiles. Therails areshaped by a coping cutter. Thepanel is said to floatbecause it is not gluedin place. Instead, it fits in its grooves with room for movement. Panels "raised"-that areoften is. thev have bevels cutaround This'makes theiredges. thepanels easier to fit into grooves while providingdecorative appeal. As shown 136, on page theshaper canalso becalled panels. uponto raise A plethora of cope-and-stick cutters is manufactured for framespecifically and-panel construction. Panel-raising bits areavailable in an ecuallvdiverse range. Followthemanufacturer's instructionsfor usingthese cutters. Whenconstructing a frame-and-panel doorwith theshaper, size all thecomponents of the framebefore beginning Thisallows youto usethesame to shape. flortheentireoperation. cuttersetup

This door a frame-and-panel features rails and sturdy of stiles encasing a frame panel. The decorative contrast Jloating between thewalnutpanelandash frame makes thisdoorall themore striking. theinsideedges of theframeat thesame pieces The of the framemeshtotime. gether means andgrooves by oftongues into the rails that fit into cut theendsof

FRAME A COPE.AND.STICK
upforthecope cuts 1 Setting I Startby making thecopecutsinto theends of therails. Install a coping cutguard ontheshaper, thenbuild terandring jig is made jig.Thesimple from a coping plywood fourpieces: a3/q-inch base sized thespindle andthefront to fit between a miter barscrewed to edge of thetable, of thebase thatrides in the ihe bottom support board fastened miter slot, a 2-by-4 flush withtheback edge, atop thebase screwed to anda plywood backup board To prevent tearout on thesupport board. theworkpiece, thebackup board should extend beyond thebase to thedesired ihejig,screw width of cut.Tocomplete twotoggle clamps to thesupport board (right). To Counlersink all yourfasteners. height, mark setthecutter to thecorrect twolines forthetongue location onthe rail; thetongue should becentered between of theboard. Position thejigon thefaces andsettheworkpiece onthe thetable Adjust thecutter height to align the base. (lnsef). the marks tongue cutterbetween

t34

SHAPER

r) Making the copecutsin the rails Z- Position the workpiece on the 1igbase f l u s hw i t ht h e e n do f t h e b a c k u p board so t h ec u t t e r w i l ls h a p e t h ee n t i r e board end, then usethe toggle clamps to secure the stockin place.Butt a stopblockagainst theopposite e n do f t h e w o r k p i e ca en d . u r no n t h es h a p ea clamp i t i n p l a c eT rnd i n t ot h e c u t t e rw i t h f e e dt h e w o r k p i e c e grippina g toggle o n eh a n d clamp a n dt h e otherbraced on the jig base. Remove the workpiece tu , rnit around in thejig and repeat the cut to shape the tongue at the olher end (right).

Spindle heiqht adjuetmant handwheel

Adjusting theheight of thesticking bit ? r - , f O n c ea l l t h e c o p ec u t sa r e m a d e , remove thecoping c u t t e ra n d i n s t a l a l stick c u t t e rs e t o n t h e s h a p e r B . esure the groove c u t t e ri s t h e s a m et h i c k n e s s a s t h et o n g u e l e f tb y t h e c o p ec u t s .T h i s s e t u pw r l ls h a p e theedges of thestiles w i t h a d e c o r a t i vp er o f i l e a n dc u t g r o o v e s f o r t h e r a i l sa n d t h e p a n e l s i n o n es t e p . T o s e tt h e c u t t i n g h e i g h tb , u t tt h e e n d o f o n eo f t h e c o m p l e t e d r a i l sa g a i n st th e s t i c kc u t t e r , t h e na d l u s t h e h e i g h t of the spindle s ot h a tt h eg r o o v e c u t t e ri s l e v e l with the tongueon the rail (left).

135

SHAPER

Making thestick cuts stiles, onestraightbelow, withstraight For thedoor shown for onthetable rail, install thefence rail, andone curved edged fora full cut-onethat width cuts.Setthecutting thestraight thestock, board. Tosecure edge of each willshape theentire andoneto thetable(above, to thefence clamp twofeatherboards usea push intothecutter, feeding theworkpiece /eff). When

edge Tomake thecutonthecurved thepass. stick to complete jig prof iling based andbuild a remove thefence of thetoprail, 130to guide thepiece. Install a on page onthemodel shown of thecutter andadjust theheight rubbearing onthespindle therailintothe of thejig.Feed thethickness to accommodate jig's firmly(above, right). toggle clamps holding the cutter,

A RAISED PANET MAKING


to size thepanel 1 Cutting dryandmeasure I Assemble theframe therails andstiles. theopening between to of thedimensions Add Vzinchto each along thepanel edges forthe% inch allow (righ). grooves thatwillfit intotheframe of the panel, Forthecurved topedge railon of thecurved outline the profile lineoffset thendraw a parallel thestock, (The dotted lines fromthef irstbyVainch. edges represent theactual in theillustration lines represent the thesolid of thepanel; cuts to Make thestraight frame opening.) ripping saw, size thepanel onthetable Cutthe curved first,thencrosscutting. on the band saw. too of the panel

136

SHAPER

r) Setting jig upa panel-raising jig L euna a to guide thepanel intothe cutter safely andaccurately. Thejig conplywood, sists of a template of 3/a-inch length cutto thesame asthepanel, but 12 inches wider about to accommodate reproduce edge blocks; thecurve of the panel's edge onthetemplate. Center the panel onthetemplate, thenbuttedge blocks against thepanel andscrew them to thetemplate; to reduce tearout, the b l o c ks h o u l d e x t e nt d o t h ee n do f t h e di d e t e m p l a to en t h eo u t f e es ofeach cut.Screw a toggle onto clamp each edge block andsecure thepanel to the jig,making itsends with sure areflush (right). (You thetemplate ends maywish piece, to make a testcut on a scrap test itsfit in thepanel andadjust thecutter height, if necessary.)

thepanel ends Q Raising r-l Install a rubbearing anda panel-raisi n gc u t t eo r nt h es h a p e srp i n d l e A.d j u s t thecutting height to make a partial cut. (Donotattempt to raise thepanel ends withonecut.You will need to make two passes, or more test-fitting after each cut until f itsproperly thepanel into therails.) your Clamp a guard to thetable to protect hands fromthecutter. Turn ontheshaoer. buttthetemplate against therubbearing, andfeed thecurved edge of thepanel into thecutter, holding thejigfirmly withboth hands T .urn t h ej i g a r o u n a d n dr e p e a t the procedure to raise theother endof passes, the panel. Make successive lowering thecutter until thepanel fitsin its (/eff). groove mating

t37

SHAPER

Making a featherboard forthestraight cuts Toraise thesides of thepanel safely, build featherboard. lt willnotonly anextra-wide press thepanel against thetable, butalso your fingers fromthecutter. shield Cuta 2-by-4to fence. the length of your Setthe board against thefence andusea pencil to outline thelocation of thecutter on it. Thenuse theband saw to cuta series of 7a-inch-wide slots at a 30" to 45'angle within theoutline, creating a row of sturfingers. Also dy butpliable curve thebottomedge of thefeatherboard sothatonly thefingers contact thepanel during the shaping operation. Screw twospacers to theback face of thefeatherboard to enable thejig to clear thecutter; countersink the (/eff). fasteners

forstraight uptheshaper cuts f, Setting r-,f Toavoid having to adjust thespindle height forshaping install thepanel sides, plywood an auxiliary table ontheshaper that is thesame thickness asthe orof ilyouused ingjig template to raise the ends(page 137). AItach a cleatto each piece endof the plywood to holdit snugly in place. Clamp thefeatherboard to the fence(right) so it will applypressure on the panel asyoumake the pass. Advance thefence andfeatherboard away fromthe rubbearing onthefirstpass soyouremove onlya portion of thewaste.

138

SHAPER

Raising thepanel sides your Turn ontheshaper anduse right hand to slowly feed your theworkpiece into thecutter; use lefthand to keep the panel against thefence. Turn thepanel around andrepeat the (above). cutto shape theother side of the panel Move thefence

closer to therubbearing andshape both sides of thepanel passes again. Make asmany asnecessary-two orthree are usually sufficient-until thefence andrubbearing arealigned; youthefullwidth thisfinalpass willgive anddepth of cut.

ASSEMBLING THED()OR
gluing Test assembling and upthepieces Join a rarl anda stile, then seat thepanel between them. Setthestile ona work surface andaddthesecond railandstile (left). f,Aark allthejoints witha pencil to youassemble you help thepieces when apply theglue in thef inal assembly. The panel should fit snugly buteasily. lf it is tootight,make another lightpass onthe shaper along theill-f itting edge or end. youare Assemble thedoor again. Once glue satisfied withthef it,apply to allthe contacting surfaces of theframe. Donot grooves; spread anyadhesive in thepanel thepanel mustbefree to move within the frame. Glue upthedoor, securing it with Dar ctamDS.

r39

GLOSSARY
A-B-C
Arbor: A motor-driven shaftthat turns rotating bladesor other cutting implements. Bead:A rounded, convexshapecut in wood, usually along an edge. Bevel cut: A cut at an angle from faceto facethrough the thicknessor along the length of a workpiece. Box joint Identical interlocking fingersthat meshto form a cornerjoint. Butterfly key joint: A joint featurhardwood ing a double-wing-shaped key glued into a recess to strengthen a board or glued-up panel. Carcase:The boxlike body of a piece of furniture. Centering pin: A machined aluminum pin insertedin a router collet and usedwith a dial indicator or feelergaugeto checkcollet runout. Chamfer: A bevelcut along the edge of a workpiece. Collet: The sleeve that grips the shankof a router bit. Cope-and-stickjoint A method of joining stilesand rails in frame-andpanel construction. Tonguesin the rails meshwith groovesin the stiles; a decorative molding is cut alongthe inside edgeof the frame. Copingbit: A router bit that cuts both a decorativemolding and tongue in a workpiece,allowing the stockto be joined to a board with a matching groove. Countersink: Drilling a hole that allows a screwhead to lie flush with or slightly below the surface of a workpiece. Cove:A rounded, concavedecorative profile cut in wood, usually alongan edge. D-E-F-G-H Dado: A rectangularchannelcut across the grain of a workpiece. Edge guide: A straightedgethat guidesa tool during a cut. Edgejointing: Cutting thin shavings from the edgeof a workpiece until it is flat and squareto the face. Featherboard:A pieceof wood "feathers" with thin fingers or along one end to hold a workpiecesecurely againstthe fenceor table of a power tool. Fence An adjustableguide to keep the edgeof a workpiecea setdistance from the cutting edgeof a tool. Glue joint An interlocking tongue and groovecommonly usedto join boardsedge-to-edge. Groove:A cut along the grain of a workpiece, forming a rectangular channel; frequently decorative,but may form part of joint. Half-blind dovetail: Similar to a through dovetailjoint, exceptthat the pins are not cut through the entire thicknessof the workpiece in order to concealthe end grain of the tail boards. Hanger bolt A bolt with no head; one end of the bolt haswood screw threadswhile the other end features machinethreadsto accepta nut.

r-l-K-r-M-N
Infeed: The direction from which a workpieceis fed into the bladeor bit of a power tool. fig: A devicefor guiding a tool or holding a workpiecein position. Kickback The tendencyof a workpieceto be thrown back toward the operator of a power tool. Laminatq A thin layer of material, such asveneeror plastic,usedto covercore stock. Marquetry: Decorativeinlays of veneers) metals,or other materials. Miter-and-spline joint: A joint featuring two mitered or beveled surfaces butted togetherand reinforcedwith a spline. Miter gauge:A devicethat slidesin a slot on a saw,shaper, or router table, providing support for the stock asit movespastthe bladeor biq can be adjustedto different angles.

140

GLOSSARY

Molding cutter head: A solid-metal wheel that accepts a set of three identical cutter knives, enabling a table sawor radial arm sawto cut molding. Mortise: A rectangularor oval hole cut into a pieceof wood to accepta mating tenon. Mortise-and-tenon joint: A joinery techniquein which a projecting tenon on one board fits into a mortise in another.

RaiL A board that runs along the undersideof a tabletopto which the legsofthe table are attached;also, the horizontal member of a frameand-panelassembly. RaisedpaneLA pieceof wood that forms the centerof a frame-and-p*el assembly. Bevelingthe edgesof the panel "raises"the middle portion. Rub bearing: A ball-bearing collar mounted on a shaperspindle either aboveor below the cutter to provide a bearing surfacefor a workpieceor template. Rule joint A joinery method commonly usedin drop-leaf tables;the tabletop has a convexprofile, the leaf has a matching concavecut; the two areheld togetherby a dropleaf hinge. Runout: The amount of wobble that a shaperspindle or router collet imparts to a cutter when the tool is operating;0.005inch or less is acceptable.

Sticking bit R router bit that cuts a decorativemolding and a groove at the end or edgeof a workpiece, allowing the stock to be joined to a board with a matching tongue. Stile: The vertical member of a frame-and-panel assembly. Stoppedgroove A groovethat does not run the full length or width of a workpiece. Tearout: The tendencyof a blade or cutter to tear wood fibers. Template: A pattern used with a templateguide and non-piloted router bit or a piloted bit to reproduce copiesof the pattern. Template guide: A metal collar screwedonto a router's baseplate to guide a non-piloted bit during a pattern routing operation. Tenon:A protrusion from the end of a workpiecethat fits into a mortise. Through dovetail joint A method of joining wood by meansof interlocking pins and tails; the name derives from the distinctive shapecut into the endsof the joining boards. Tongue-and-groove:A joinery method featuring a protrusion from the edgeor end ofone board that fits into the grooveof another.

o-P-Q-R
Ogee:A decorativemolding with an S-shaped profile. Outfeed: The side of a power tool blade or bit to which a workpiece exits after cutting. Pilot bearing: A cylindrical metal collar either above or below the router bit's cutting edgethat rides alongthe workpiece or a template, guiding the bit during a cut. Pin router: A table assembly that suspendsthe router abovethe workpiece; a fenceor guide pin on the table guidesthe workpiece into the bit. Plunge router: A router whose entire motor assemblyis mounted above the baseof the tool on spring-loaded columns; downward pressureon the handlesfeedsthe bit into the wood. Push block or push sticlc A device used to feed a workpieceinto the bladeor cutter ofa tool to protect the operatort fingers. Rabbet A step-like cut in the edge or end of a board; usuallyforms part of a ioint.

s-T
Slidingdovetail joint Similar to a joint, except tongue-and-groove the slide is shapedlike the pin of a dovetailjoint and the groovefeatures a tail-like profile. Spindle: The threadedarbor on a shaper.thatholds cutters and accessorles. Spline: A thin piece of wood that fits in mating groovescut in two workpieces,reinforcing the joint betweenthem.

U-V-W.X-Y-Z
Veneer:A thin layer of decorative wood laid into or over a more common wood.

r4l

INDEX
in itallcsindicate Page references an illustration of subiectmatter. in bdld indicate Pasereferences a B'uildIt Yourselfproject. Curved cuts: 78-80,80 Routers, circle-cuttingjigs, 67 adjustable edgeand circleguides,66 pin routing, 59-62 jigs (ShopTip), 80 quick compass rounding corners,44 4l 45 undercuttingcurvededges, 128,130,131,133 Shapers, circles.132 Cutters: 52-53 Radialarm saws, 121 ll7 , 120backendpaper, Shapers, changing,124 52-53 Tablesaws, SeealsoBits Dadoes; Grooves Dado cuts.See Dadoes, 64,66, 68,70,71,74 27 equallyspaced, Splintering eliminatingtearout (ShopTip), 73 preventingtearout (ShopTip),69 See alsoGrooves Decorative techniques: Butterfly key joints, 9O 112-113 Grooves,65 79-80,80 circular grooves, Inlayrng, S6-87 Moldings radial arm saws, 52-53,56 16,52,57 routers,backendpaper, backendp aper, 120 shapers, 52-54,55 tablesaws, See alsoEdge-formingtechniques Frame-and-panel Doors. See construction joints, 89,90,91,10G104 Dovetail Dovetailsplinejoints, 90, 105-106,106 Drawers: Routers,75 129 Shapers, Drill presses: panels,5l Raised l15 DropJeaftables, Gluejoints,90, 107 Grooves,65,66, 68-69,71, 72 Bits.18 75 Boardedges, Circular,78-80,80 jigs (ShopTip), 80 quick compass 82,83 Patterngrooving, 8176 Stoppedgrooves, Thin stock,73 See alsoDadoes

A-B

Platejoints Biscuitjoints. See Bits: Routers,13,lG 19,36,38 chip-limitation bits (ShopTip), 18 l7 edge-forming, grooving, 18 installation,22 52 molding bits, backendpaper, panel-raising,48-49 rabbetbits, 77, 78 router tablebits, 16,19,52 stickingrouter bits (ShopTip), 16 storage, backendpaper Shapers storage,backendpaper alsoCutters See Bivona,Bill, l0-11 Boxioints, 90,108-109 Build It Yourself: Radial arm saws auxiliary tables,56 Routers circle-cuttingjigs, 67 adjustable adjustable dado jigs, 74 adjustable routing guides,83 jigs, 80 compass corner-roundingjigs, 41 flush-trimming jigs, a3 jig for pin routing on a router table,63 mortising jigs, 96 jigs, 50 panel-raising quick setupgroovingjigs, 72 rabbetingjigs, 78 router table/cabinet, 32-33 router-tablejig for splines,106 27 sub-bases, shop-made sliding dovetailjigs, 104 surfacingjigs, 35 tenoningjigs, 97 T-squarejig for grooving,7l veneer-trimmingguides,44 Shapers circle-cuttingjigs, 132 fences,126-127 guards, 126 profilingjigs,130 Table saws cove-cuttingguides,55 Butterfly key joints, 94 112-113

H-r-J-K

E-F-G
Edge-formingtechniques: 42,43 Plasticlaminates, 36,37 Routers, , 43 bits, 17 rounding corners,4Q 4l 45 undercuttingcurvededges, Edgeguides: Routers,2&66 Shop-built edgeguides,70 127 Featherboards, front endpaper, 123,138 Extra-wide, 109 Fingerjoints, 90, 108construction: Frame-and-panel Drill presses, 5I Routers,47-49,50, 89, 98-99 joints, 94 miter-and-spline 110-111,ttl 134-139 Shapers,

C-D

joints: Cope-and-stick Routers, 89,90,98-99 134-136,139 Shapers,

Half-blind dovetailjoints, 90,100 Hinge mortises,82 Hold-down rods, 122,125 lnlayrng, S6-87 figs: Routers,7, 89 circle-cuttingjigs, 67 adjustable dadojigs, 74 adjustable adjustable dovetailjigs, 91, 101 routing guides,83 adjustable box joint jigs, .108 cicle jigs, 21 jigs,80 compass jigs,4l corner-rounding dovetailsplinejoints in a 705 carcase, dovetailtemplates,91,102 jigs,43 flush-trimming templatejigs, interchangeable 91,100 jig for pin routing on a router table,63 jigs (Shop miter-and-spline Tip),lIl for router tables(Shop miter gauges Tip),57 moldingjigs,20 jig, 91,94-95 mortise-and-tenon mortisingjigs, 91,96 mortising sub-bases, 93 multi-joint jigs, 89,91 jigs, 50 panel-raising plug-trimmingjigs, j4 quick setupgroovingjigs, 72 rabbetingjigs, 78 router-tablejig for splines,106 shop-built edgeguides,70 27 sub-bases, shop-made sliding dovetailjigs, 104 joint-maker, 9I stationary jigs, 35 surfacing tenoningjigs, 97 tilting tablejigs, 5I truing jigs, 25 T-squarejig for grooving,7l T-squarerouter guides(Shop Tip),26 turning jigs,20,2l veneer-trimmingguides,44

142

Shapers jigs, 132 circle-cutting copingjigs,34 jigs, 137 panel-raising profilingjigs,130 Table saws cove-cuttingguides,55 Joinery: Routers,88-91 boxjoints, 90,108-109 butterfly keyjoints, 94 112-I 13 gluejoints,90,107 mortise-and-tenon ioints, 89, 9O 91,92-97,96,97 platejoints, 20 rulejoints,90,115 joints, 88, tongue-and-groove 90, 114 Shapers, 128,129 joints, 134- 136,139 cope-and-stick joints; See alsoCope-and-stick joints;Miter-andDovetail splinejoints fointing: Routers,46 jointing wide boards(ShopTip), 46

Platejoints, 20 Plugs: Trimming,34 Plunge routers,13, 15,65, 79-80,80, 81 Adjustment,23 Plywood: Preventing tearout (ShopTip),69 Protectiveclothing, 123 Pushblocks,front endpaper, 122 Pushsticls,/ront endfaper,122

R-S
Rabbets, 12,66, 77,78 Cutting rabbetsof differentwidths (ShopTip), 28 Pin routing, 62 Radialarm saws, 52-53 Auxiliary tables,56 Routers, 9, 13,14,37, ll7 Accessories, 2G21 grooving,66 templateguides,38, 39 seealsoligs:Routers Collets,22,24 checkinga collet for slippage (Shop Tip),23 Cutting depth,22 Edgeguides,28,66 Feeddirection.25 ]oinery 88-115 fointing,46 jointing wideboards(ShopTip), 46 Moldings, backendpaper, 20, 52,57 Plugtrimming, 34 panels,47-49,50 Raised Recessed cuts,84 87-88 Splintering eliminatingtearout (ShopTip), 73 preventingtearout (ShopTip), 69 Straightclts,26 Sub-bases, 27,91,93 (Shop truing a router sub-base Tip),25 Surfacing techniques, 35 (Shop surfacingsmallworkpieces Tip),34 (ShopTip),26 T-square routerguides SeealsoEdge-formingtechniques; figs: Routers;Pin routing Router tables,13,29-30, 65,75 Bits,16,19 Extensions, 3l Miter gauges for router tables(Shop Tip),57 Pin-routing jigs, 63 Router table/cabinets, 32-33 Router tableon a tablesaw(Shop Tip),29 Rulejoints, 90, 115

L-M-N-O-P-Q
Laminates. See Plasticlaminates; Veneer Marquetry inlay, 8G87 Miter-and-splinejoints, 90,1 10111 jigs (Shop miter-and-spline Tip), 111 Miter gauges: Routers miter gauges for router tables (Shop Tip),57 Shapers, 122,128, 129 Molding planers,37 Moldings: Routers,backendpaper,20, 52,57 Shapers, backendpaper, 120 Tablesaws, 52-54,55 joints, 89, 90,91, Mortise-and-tenon 92-97,96,97 Mortises, 82,96 Panels: Frame-and-panel construction, 134-139 Raised panels, 47-49,50,51, 13G139 Pin routing,37,58,81 Curved ctts, 5962, 81,84-85 Interior cuts,62-63, 84 85 Recessed cuts,84 Router tables,53 Straightcuts,59 Planers: Molding planers,3T Plasticlaminates,42,43 (Shop Flush-trimming devices Tip),45

precautions: SafeW Rddia]arm saws. 52 Routers, 25, 52,65 fozf endpaper, chip-limitation bits (ShopTip), t8 Shapers, ll7, lt}, 123 front endpaper, guards, 126 power feeders,122 Tablesaws, 52 Shapers, 10, 116,117,118 Accessories, 10, ll9, 122 auxiliarytables,138 Bench-top, 119 Fences, 1 19,125,126-127,128 Spindleassemblies, l19 spindlerunout, 123 Shaping: Curvedcuts,128,l3O, 131, 133 circles, 132 Frame-and-panel construction, 134-139 Freehand, 128,133 Joinery, 128,129 joints, 13+ 136,139 cope-and-stick Routers,29 Straightcuts, 128 ShopTips: Plasticlaminates, 45 Routers, 25,26,29,34 45,46,57, 80,111 bits,16, 18,23,78 splintering, 69, 73 Slidingdovetailjoints, 100,103,lO4 Spielman, Patrick,6-7 Splintering: Routers eliminating tearout (ShopTip), 73 preventingtearout (ShopTip), 69

T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Tables: DropJeaf,I15 Radialarm saws, 56 See alsoRoutertables Tablesaws: Decorative moldings,52-54,55 Routertableon a tablesaw(Shop Tip),29 Tearout.See Splintering Templates: Routers, 38,39,91 pattern grooing, Sl-82 pin routing, 6I template guides, 21,38, 39,45 Shapers, 123,128,130, 131 Tenoners, 122,128,129 Through dovetailjoints, 90, 100,101102 joints, 88,90, 114 Tongue-and-groove Truini, Ioe, 8-9 Veneers: trimming,44

r43

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
wishto thank thefollowing Theeditors ROUTERBASICS AdiustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; Delta International Hitachi PowerTools Tools,Ltd.,Mississauga,Ont.; Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmore Cable, Machinery/Porter SwitchCorp.,Woodstock,CT; U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; Lei ValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Linemaster Inc., Montreal, Que.; Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; Shopsmith, NewmanTools Inc., Montreal, Que.;Sears, Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY EDGEFORMING AdiustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; Delta International Ont.; G & W Tool, Inc., Maihinery/Porter Cable,Guelfh, Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd., Mississauga, Tulsa,OK; GeneralTools Manuficturing Co., Inc., NewYork, NY; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Makita Larsongompany, Inc', Co., Ltd., Vancouver,B.C.;.Robert Canida, inc., Whitby, Ont.; RichardsEirgineering PA; Sears, Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; and Tools eo., Scranton, CA; SandvikSaws SanFrancisco, Shopsmith,Inc., Dayton, OH and Montreal, Que.;Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY GROOVING AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; Delta International Tools Michinery/Portir Cable,Guilph, Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd., Mississaugar_Qnt-;.G_eneral Manufaciuring Co., Inc., New York, NY; GrisetIndustries,Inc., SantaAna, CA; Hitachi PowerTools Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; U.S.A.Ltd., N6rcross,GA; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Sears, ShopsmithInc, Dayton, OH ROUTERIOINERY AdiustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; Delta International Tools Macliinery/Portereable, Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd., Missi.qsauga, Qnt.; Hitachi Po-wer OH; LeighIndustriesLtd., Port Coquitlam, B.C.; U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; LeichtungWorkshops,Cleveland, Inc., CA; Sho,Psmith SanJrancisco, Ltd., Whitby, Ont.; nobert tarson Company,-Inc., Makita Canada Montreal, Que.;Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY SHAPER Adiustable 'LagunaClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; LagunaTools, Beach, CA; LeeVilley Tools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; NewmanTools Inc., Montreal, Que.;Richards IL; Shopsmith,Inc., Montreal, Que' Roebuckand Co., Chicago, Co., Ltd., Vancouver,B.C.;Sears, Engine-ering of this book: in thepreparation also assisted Thefollowingpersons Garand,Graphor Consultation,Irene Huang, Cot6,LorraineDor, Rdjean Rdjean Monette,Tamiko Watanabe ClaudeMartel, Genevidve

PICTURECREDITS
Cover RobertChartier Studios 5,7 Glen Hartjes/Image 8,9 Ian Gittler 10,ll Ian Gittler Co. 37 CourtesyWilliams& HusseyMachine Enterprises 91 CourtesyJointmaker/Vega 117 CourtesyReliableCutting Tools Roebuckand Co. 119 CourtesySears,

t44

WORKSHO GP UIDE
MILLING ELAB()RATE MOTDINGS
You can uge f,wo or more common router brte or ehaper cuLLero in combtnation Lo form an impreooive array of deei4ne on a workpiecefor a fraction of the coet of a epe-

cialty bit or cuLter. A decoral;tve molding bit and core box btt, for example,can traneform a board into a baeeboardmoldin7 (below, lefl). Conaecutive paseee with a

bead cutter and an oqee curve cutf,er can produce crown moldi n 4 ( b e l o wr,i q h t ) ,

Decorative molding bit

Core box bit

STORING R()UTER ANDSHAPER BITS Your router or ehaper will work better tf it,e bita and cuttttereare clean and oharp. Ueea clean cloth to wipe off duat, pit ch, and drrL. Dull bit;.e ehould be eharpenedprofeeoionally: avoid uoin7 bite or cuttere I;haf are dirLy, ruel,ed,or damaqed. Cuttin7 edgea,partrcularly Lhoaemade of carbide, can be ntckedif t,heyare LhrownLo7eLherin et oraqe. Frotect
rouf,er biLo with a eimple ehop-made holder ltke t,he one ehown petow-a eertes of holee tto fit lthe bit ehanko drilled in a block of wood. Keep ehaper cufLer6 in Lhe conLatnera in which they are eold.

Traneparent35mm ftln caniel;ersoffer another method for etonn4 rout er bita. 9imply bore a hole throuqh the lid of the canieter oliahr'lv emalle,than Lhe bir ehank,fit Lhe ehafL in th; hofe.and enap the ltd back on, euependin4the btt oafely tnatdethe'caniaLer.