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. Wear appropriate safety equipment: glasses, if safety a faceor dustmask y o ua r es a n d i n g a,n dh e a r i np gr o t e c t i o n if youareoperating for an extendtools dftime. edperioo . Clamp allworkpieces securely whenevfree to er possible to keep bothhands
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o Maintaia n n dc l e a n t o o l sr e g u l a r l y . Keep allblades a n d b i t ss h a r pc , lean, and undamaged. Checkregularly for partsand frayed loose cords. r Never carrya connected toolwith your fingeron the trigger. . T i e b a c kl o n gh a i ra n d a v o i d wearing r i n g sa n d o t h e r loose c l o t h i n gR . emove jewelry t h a t c a n c a t c ha c c i d e n t a l li y n parts. moving . Do not overreach. Keepproper footing a n db a l a n c a et a l lt i m e s .

. Make sure t h a tl i g h t i n g a n dv e n t i l a t i o n in the workareaareadequate. o Do not usetoolsif the flooris dampor wet. . K e e py o u rw o r ka r e ac l e a na n d t i d y ; c l u t t e rc a n l e a dt o a c c i d e n t sK . e e pp e t s , c h i l d r e na , n d o n l o o k e ra sw a y f r o mt h e workarea. r Concentrat oe n the job.Donotrush or take shortcuts. Never work if you are t i r e d ,s t r e s s e o d r h a v eb e e nd r i n k i n g a l c o h oo l r u s i n ga n y m e d i c a t i o tn hat induces drowsiness.

. Be aware of the power of the position cordat all times. . Makeall adjustments to a toolwith the
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(3-hp) Aircompressor (%-hp) Table saw Saber saw (7%") Circular saw (6%") Circular saw Belt sander (%-hp) grinder Bench Orbital sander Router Electric drill(%") Electric drill(%") plane Power Electric drill(%") Random-orbit sander HVLP spray system


I 500 2000 1800 I 500


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I 500

600 600
500 500 400

Thestart-up wattage of a power tool is generally30-40% higher thantherunning wattage. (volts = watts), you Using theformula x dmps canavoid overloading anelectrical circuit by determining whether themaximum load a toolwill draw exceeds theamperage of the circuit. 0n a 11O-volt forexample, circuit, a 7%-inch would circular saw draw18 amos (110x znlps = 2000).Thesaw could overload a 1S-amp circuit, butnota 20-amp one.

groundingand load requiremenlo Checking Ensure trhal a Vower Iool is rated elecLrically oafe,checkinq ito nameVlate. A oamVle nameVlale is shown A tool above. should beapproved by lhe UL (Underwnters Laboratorieo) or COA(Canadian SLandards Associalion). Aloomake surethal the Vower tool ie grounded or double-ineulaLed. pluqand maybe marked A grounded tool hasa lhree-pronq "qroundinq required" to a' ,d o u b l e - i n s u l a l e do l i s m a r k e d "double ineulaNed a" n d m a y b e a rN h es y m b o e l h o w nF . o ra Lool or exten;ion cord with a Nhree-Vronq use pluq, ?ower o n l ya e i m i l a r o u N l e tn : ever b e n do r r e m o v e L h et h i r d , o r qroundinq, of a pluq.Eneure thaNLheoutrleL, ueually Vronq on a 15-or 20- ampcircuitr, can Vrovtde eufficient current, for NheVower Nool. CheckNhe amperaqe ratring of Lhepower tool if iNie rated af, 1Oor moream?ereo, on its nameplale; Iurn off any hiqhcurrentr-drawing applianceo operalinq onlhe sameelecLric al circuitr.







Mil<eDunbar buildsfine fumiture at hisworlshop in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The author of seven books and a contributing edrtorof AmericanWoodworker and EarlyAmericanLife magazines,Dunbar alsooffersWindsor chairmakingseminars across NorthAmerica. cabinetrnaking at Montreal GilesMiller-Mead taught advanced technical schoolsfor more than ten years.A native of New ZeaLand, he hasworked asa restorerof antiquefurniture. Td Fuller is product managerat Delta lnternational MachinerylPorterCable(Canada).He is currently working in new product development and marketingfor woodworking tools and equipment.He is alsoan amateurwoodworker.

PUBLISHER KennethWinchester PR.ESIDENT Pierre L6veill6 Editor Series Series Art Director SeniorEditor Editor Art Directors Designers PictureEditor Writers Assistant Research Contr ibuting Illustrators PierreHome-Douglas Francine Lemieux Marc Cassini Iim McRae Normand Boudr..ault,Luc Germain HldneDion, Michel Gigubre Christopherfackson Andrew Jones, David Simon BryanQuinn Gilles Beauchemin,Roland Bergerat, Michel Blais,Jean-Guy Doiron, Ronald Durepos, Robert Paquet, Maryo Proulx, James Th6rien Administrator Natalie Watanabe ProductionManager MichelleTurbide System Coordinator fean-Luc Roy Phongrapher Robert Chartier AdministrativeA ssistant Dominique Gagn6 Proofreader GaretMarkvoort Indexer ChristineM. facobs Time-Life Booksis a division of Time Life Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY TIME-LIFEINC. President and CEO JohnM. Fahey Eilitor-in-chief fohnL. Papanek

Sharpening & tool care. p. cm.- (The Art of woodworking) Includesindex. ISBN0-8094-9933-9 1 Woodworkingtools- Maintenance and repair. 2. Sharpening of tools. I. Time-Life Books. IL Title: Sharpening and tool care. III. Series. TT186.5451994 684'.08'028-dc20 94-26232 CIP For information about any Time-Life book, pleasecall 1-800-621-7026, or write: ReaderInformation Time-Life CustomerService P.O.Box C-32068 Richmond,Virginia 2326r-2068 @ 1994Time-Life BooksInc. All rights reserved. in any form or by No part ofthis book may be reproduced means,including information any electronicor mechanical without prior writstorage and retrievaldevices or systems, ten permissionfrom the publisher,exceptthat briefpassages may be quoted for reviews. Printed in U.S.A. Published simultaneously in Canada. TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time WarnerInc. U.S.A. R 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

President Vice-President, Director of Marketing ExecutiveEditor ExccutiveArt Director Editor Consulting Proiluction Manager John D. Hall Nancy K. Jones RobertaConlan Ellen Robling fohn R. Sullivan Marlene Zack

6 INTRODUCTION 12 14 16 18 20 SHARPENINGBASICS The cutting edge tools and accessories Sharpening Benchstones Benchgrinders 86 MAINTAINING PORTABTE POWERTOOLS tips and schedules 88 Maintenance 90 Anatomy of a router saw 92 Anatomyof a saber 94 Anatomyof a platejoiner 95 Anatomy of an electricdrill 96 Anatomy of a sander 97 Anatomy of a circularsaw 98 Repairingportablepower tools 104 MAINTAINING STAIIONARY POWERTOOLS tool maintenance stationary 106 Basic 108 Thblesaws 113 Radialarm saws I20 Band saws 126 |ointers and planers 131 Drill Presses I33 Lathesand shapers 136 Other tools 140 GLOSSARY r42 INDEX 144 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

24 SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS 26 Handsaws 30 Chiselsand gouges 39 Benchplanes 46 Scrapeis 51 Roughingand shapingtools and bits 55 Braces 58 SHARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS 60 A galleryof bladesand bits 6I Toolsand accessories for sharpening 62 Routerbits and shapercutters 64 Molding knives 65 Drill bits 70 Circular sawblades 73 Band sawblades 79 Jointerand planerknives


Richard Starron the


henI wasa kid I thoughtworkingwoodwasreallydifficult.Ir was, too, \/\/ Y Y because my dad's tool bench wasdominated by roughscrewdrivers and assorted wrenches, dull saws, anda fewauger bits.I remember it with fondness because it helped setmeon mylifet path,but it suredidrt'tencourage meto master thepieces of rough, splittypinethatI occasionally worked on. Sharp handtoolswerea revelation to a guywho grewup thinkingthat woodworking required some sortof special genius andalot of powerfrrl equipment.When I encountered a craftsman whobuilt finecountryfurniture, milesfromthenearest power line,I was inspired to learnasmuchasI couldabout howto make toolswork well.Asa result, woodbecame a muchmorewelcoming material to me.Today, asa seasoned teacher ofwoodworkingto children, myjobisto helpmystudents appreciate thepossibilities ofwood. Thelastthing Iwanttodoisletthemworkwithbumtools. It iseasy to fallin lovewith handtools. I have a small collection of time-mellowed implements thatI wouldnotthinkof putting towork They represent ahistory of effort problern-sohing and thatisacomfort tomymodern mind" I also hara fineoldtools other thatare frequentlyput intoservice. Butthetools I use werydayinteachinghave much las ofanaura about thernKids bang them around and drop thanalltoofrequently. What isimportant about themisthattheyworkright. Thedifference between a dull tool anda sharp oneis something every woodworkerneeds to know.It is thedifference between thefrustrated kid I wasandthe kidsI teach today. WhenI showa childhowto whittle,heor sheis expected to try every knifeon therack,usually four or fivetools.Onlyby making thiscomparison will it become clear whicharereally sharp andwhicharejust okay. Every woodworker hashisor herownpreferred wayto sharpen anedge tool. Some use oil stones, slow sandstone wheels, Arkansas stones or leather strops. Others prefer waterstones, theuse of whichis almost a ritual.ln myschool shop, fapanese I need to work quicklyandI have longsince settled on a grinding beltandbuffing wheel. At home, I have fallenin lovewith thenewtechnology of diamond stones. I firmly believe that,whilesharp toolsareessential, thereis no oneright wayto sharpen tools,onlythebestwayfor you.It takes timeto figureit out,but it is time you mustbewilling to spend. It is like buildingthefoundation of your home. Everything else rests on it.
RichardStan hastaughtwoodworking to middleschool students in Hanover,NewHampshire, since1972.His bookWoodworkingwith Kids ispublishedby ThuntonPress. Starrhaswritten numerous articles forEtne Woodworking, Today's Woodworker and otherpublications.His television seriesWoodworking for Everyonewasbroadcast onpublic television.


Philip Lowediscusses

tepping up to apoorlymaintained machine cancreate a spectrum of emotions fromapprehension to frustration. When thehandwheel onyourtable saw forces youto oneknee, requiring twohands andallof yourstrength to raise theblade, and whenthemachine screams andsmoke billows asstock is fedthrough, face it: Itt timeto do a littlemaintenance! Perhaps themoststraightforward partof shop maintenance istheobvious reason behind it safety andefficiency. It isveryimportant to keep cutting implements sharp. Moreaccidents occur withdulltools because more force isrequired to operate thetool. Youll need afewtoolsto getyoustarted, including a grease gun,anoil can, WD40*, graphite, siliconspray, andpaste wax.It is alsoconvenient to have a setof wrenches, sockets, hexwrenches, andbrushes for cleaning gears. pickup Finally, some abrasives such assteelwool, finesilicon paper, carbide andamill filefor deburring shafts andnicksin tabletops. Cutters such assaw blades, knives for jointers andplaners, shaper cutters, bitsfor routers anddrill presses andturningtoolsmustbekeptsharp andfreeof pitchand resinin orderto cut cleanly. Pitchandresinon cutters andsaw blades, whichcan kickback, cause canberemoved with spray oven cleaner. Some in-house sharpening can bedone to carbide tools with a diamond stone. High-speed steel cutters such as turning tools andshaper knives can besharpened onabench grinder or honed with abench andslipstones. Alignment of tables andfences is also important. Theposition of a tabletop is important especially if it hasslots cutin it for mitergauges. Theslots need to beparallelto thecutters. Thesame istruefor fences. Lubricate gears andways that raise andlowerarbors andtables. Lubrication of gears exposed and ways should bedone withgraphite, spray silicon, or paste waxThese prevent drylubricants buildup of sawdust thatwouldoccur if theparts were greased or oiled.Bearings with grease fittingsor oil caps should beattended to periodically with theappropriate lubricant. Thetables andbeds of allmachines should beinspeaed and, if necessary, filedflat. These surfaces should bekeptfree ofrustandpaintsplatterings andshould becleaned with steel woolor finesilicon-carbide paper. Once clean, anapplication of paste wax will helpprevent rustandallowstock to slide across thesurface with less effort. PhilipC.Lowe makes in Beverly, Massachusetts. Lowe finefurniturein hisstudio has been building throughout past North America the 25 furniture for clients for years, andhas spent 10years program ashead instructor of the at North furniture Bennet Street School in Boston, Massachusetts. Heisffiliated with theErneWoodworkingseries of videos andhiswrittenworles appear in theirmagazine. frequently


Ian Waymarktalks about

"Tools h. old adage do not make thecraftsmad'contains a degree of truth. I Still,sharp tools-althoughtheywillnot make youa craftsperson-will greatly improve yourskills. andenhance In fact,in my opinion,a great dealof skill displayed bytoday's crafupeople isbased largely ontheirabilityto create andmaintain a keen edge on theircuttingtools. Mywoodturningtravels throughout NorthAmerica, Australia, andNewZealand have brought mein contact withmany first-class woodworkers, carvers, woodturners, andjustplain"hewers"of wood. Theyhave worked in schools, homeworkshops, and craftfairs,with avarietyoftools fromtheverybathigh+peedsteelto thecrudesthomemade implemens. Still,theyallhadonethingin common: Theyused sharp tools. Asvariedasthecrafts andcraftspeople are,soaretheirmethods andtoolsused for sharpening. Each one,used correctly, will create a keencuttingedge. Thebest arethose thatdo not overheat cuttingedges. Thisis probably themostcommon problem experienced bynovices whensharpening tools. It is especially serious if the tool is made of carbon tool steel rather thanhigh-speed Whencarbon steel. tool 'temper" 'hardness" steel isheated until it turnsbluethe or is removed, andthetool becomes softandwill not hold an edge for morethana fewseconds. High-speed steel, on theotherhand, will sustain a great dealof heat withoutdamage. Thesimple solution to"tip burning"is to use shaqpening equipment thatdoes not generate highheat or to use equipment thatis constantly cooling thecuttingedge as it isbeingground. Wetgrinding will assure thewoodworker a coolcuttingedge for (usually tworeasons: Firstthegrinding wheel isflooded with a coolant water) to preventheatbuildupandsecond, thewetgrindingwheels usually turn at a veryslow ratewhichreduces theheatgenerated process. by thegrinding Personally, I find the wetgrinding system bothtoo slowandtoo messy. My experience with wetgrinding has been oneof constantly cleaning theslurryof sawdust andwater fromthestone. Mypreference for sharpeningis awhitealuminum oxide grindingwheel followed byaquicktouch-up onanextra-fine neoprene honing wheel. I choose thealuminum oxide wheel simply because itsporosity makes it averycoolgrinding wheel compared to oldgray stone or thesandard sanding belts or disa.It isalso veryfastcutting, thereby reducing thetime at thegrinderandreducing thetime allowed for theheatto buildup on thecuttingedge. TohonemytoolsI usea neoprene wheel because it is fastandit maintains thehollowgrindformed by thegrindingwheel. | IanWaymarkhas taught industrial education in Canadafor 16years. Heistheowner of Woodturner'sWorld, a store onGabriola Island, BritishColumbia, thatspecializes in wood rurningtools. Waymark designed theOrca1 lathe andtheSabre Sharpening Center. ' '




t on. time or another, virtualI l. \ lv everv woodworker has lookedupon tool sharpening asa rainy-day task, an onerous duty undertaken only asa lastresortthat seems progress calculated to delay on the moment's favorite project. Although it may be impossible to persuade allwoodworkers to embrace thejoysof tool sharpening-assome do-sooner or later, mostadoptan attitude of enlightened selfinterest, an understanding that regular attention to tool conditionwill speed, rather than retard, progressand improve bottrthequalityofwork and enjoyment of it. In Japan, apprentice woodwork-

But all sharpening work comes downto this:Tools aresharpened bywearing away steel to forma fine edge, andpolishing thatedge soit slices asaccurately andeffortlessly possible. as Among manytools, two areessential: a sharpening stone anda grinder. Once,all sharpening stones came fromtheground; sandstone, novaculite. and othermaterials quarried have been andcut into (page Thenicked cuttingedge of a planebladeis bench stones 18)from the squared grinder.Clamping on a bench theblade earliestdaysof woodworking. in a commercial grindingjigkeepstheendof Morerecently, protechnology has perpendicular theblade to thegrinder's duced synthetic stones thatsubstiabrasive wheel. tutefor thedwindling supply of natural abrasives. years ers spend atthesharpening bench before attempting to cut A somewhat provided oldertechnology also thefoot-powwood. Thepractice isrooted in reality: Tocutandfinish wood, ered grinding sandstone wheel anditsdescendant, thebench (page onemustuse sharp tools. grinder 2?),which saves muchlaborin removing nicks Themost realistic route to sharp tools for most woodworkers andformingbevels before finalhoning. Iies in regular attention. When sharpening andmaintenance are Thischapter isintended to remove themystery andsome of partof regular adopJed ats worlshop routine, thetimerequired thelaborfromthesharpening process. With a grinder, a few isreduced-and thebenefits of keen edges arequickly realized. benchstones, (page anunderstanding of theprocess 14),and jigsandaccessories There aremany quickand practice, thatpromise youcan have shaqper tools-and derive pleasure more easy results, andnoshortage of techniques withthesame goal. fromyourwoodworking.

A Japanese is beingused topolishthebackof a bux chisel. finish stone Waterstones like theoneshown at leftarea goodchoice for puxing the polish on a blade. The abrasive slurry on the surface of the final fine stone isformedbyparticles of abrasive and metalmixingwith water.


canbe defined as A cuttingedge A two flat,polished meetsurfaces ing at an angle. mostblades Since are designed to bepushed through wood, partica keen cuttingedge is essential, ularlyfor dense hardwoods that can quickly blunttools. Anyflaw, likea nick in a planer knifeor a chisel blade, will betransferred to thewoodbeingcut. Do not assume thatjustbecause a chisel is newthatits edge is assharp or asstraight asit should be.Even thebest tools need to besharpened when new, In its simplest form, sharpening andregularly thereafter. In orderto is like sanding:It consists of the achieve akeen cutting istem- wearingawayof one materialby a edge, steel pered hardness to a certain whenthe hardermaterial, usingsuccessively toolisforged. Since tempering isdone finer abrasives. Whenthebevel of a athightemperatures,thetoolmaywarp chisel is drawnacross a sharpening slightly asit cools. Youcanskirt this stone, particles the abrasive scratch problem by choosing tools made with the surface of the chiseluniformly, high-quality steel. Even is creating a flat surface.As shown thebest steel likelyto showmanufacturing imper- below, finerandfinerstones make the fections. Low-quality tools,however, scratches finer andfiner,until a mirmaynever achieve andholdanedge. ror-likefinishis achieved.
Thedifference betyveen a dull and sharpcuttingedge becomes obvious whena bladecutsinto wood.On thelefthandsideof thewood surface shownatleft, awell-sharpproducing ened chisel severed thewood thin fiberscleanly, shavings; a dull chisel torethewood fiberson theright-hand sideof theboard. Anotherwayto determine whether a blade is sharpor dull is to examine thecuttingedge itself;a dull edge reflects morelight than a sharpone.


Smoothing a cufting edge Thequality of thecutting edge andfinish ona toolblade depends particles onthesize of abrasive used to sharpen it. Just asyou grades paper, would sand a tabletop with progressively finer of sharpening begins withcoarse abrasives andmoves upthrough particles finergrits. Theonlydifference is thesize of abrasive particles involved. Forexample, a coarse IndiarM stone has measuring about 173microns across, while a hard Arkansas oilstone particles-about hassmaller 10 microns. Commerical honing compound used for buffing hasextremely fineparticles, assmall

(Bycomparison, as0.5 micron. thediameter of a human hairis approximately 40 microns,) Thephotos above, of a chisel blade magnified approximately 200times, reveal how sharpening improves (above, grooves a tool's edge. A dullchisel left)has andpitson its back anda nicked edge. These flaws will leave a rougher finishonwood thanthesmooth backandedge that is achieved after thechisel issharpened andpolished ona finish waterstone (above, particles righ).fhe waterstone hasabrasive measuring 1 micron in diameter.




1:GRINDING STEP 3: H0NING STEP 0RLAPPING process progressively nicked cutting start the Honing uses finer stones such ashard Arkansas Forbadly scratched or edges, grinding the bevel, then lapor Japanese finishing stones to smooth out the scratches on bysquaring thecutting edge, ping flattening back of the blade. Grinding is done with the bevel caused by sharpening. Then the tool is turned or the grinder lapwith over andlapped to remove the burron the cutting edge. a bench andcoarse stones such asWashita; (below) plate. lapping The microbevel is also honed at this stage. rough abrasives or lapping compounds ona STEP 2: SHARPENING STEP 4: P0LISHING grinding, canstart Fora razor-sharp edge anda mirror-like f inish, thetool Fortools thatdo notneed sharpening withhardblack Arkansas, ceramic or here. lnitial sharpening removes anyroughness onthe canbe polished of the Japanese finish stones, aswellasstrops impregnated with bevel andestablishes a finewireburronthe back compounds. blade. Sharpening is done by hand or withbevel-setting finebuffing jigson medium stones such assoftArkansas.


Honing a microbevel When a toolblade is razor-sharp, more force is necessary to drive theblade into thewood, anditsedge is more likely to Byhoning bebrittle. a secondary bevel, or microbevel, ontopof thefirst(inset), youcanincrease the cutting effectiveness of thetoolandprolong the lifeof thecutting edge. Microbevels areslightly steeper thantheoriginal bevel of the tool.(For a listof common bevel angles forvarious blades, see theback endpaperof thisbook.) lt canvary fromaslittle as2" to asmuch as 10";thesteeper themicrobevel, thetougher theedge. Yet themicrobevel should notbeovenvorked. A fewlightstrokes on a benchstone is usually a small hairsufficient to produce linestripat theedge of themainbevel (left). lt themicrobevel iswider thanhalf of thewidth of thebevel, thebevel should bereestablished bysharpening.



Honing aompound
^^lia) +a 'A'rr""rln+h

wheel of 4rrnderto polieheharpened bevel: contains a mixLure of chromiumdiox' rdeand other fine abraaivea

Benchatone (page 18) Any oilatoneor wateretoneuaed to honeor aharpen

Benah grinder (page 21) Medium-gritwheel(left-hand eide) equaree and 4rinde blade:cloth wheel(riqht-hand etde)poliehee cutLinqedqe

Neoprenepoliahing wheel Kubberwheel for qrindinqand eharpenin4; available in 4rite between 90 and 24O. Wheel muat turn away from t.ooledge Lo prevent it from catchinq the ed7e

Aluminum oxide wheel )tandard wheel for 7rtndingand oharpening; in 6- and available B-inch aizeoand a ranqeof qrito

Dregger Uaedto Lrueor reohapeqrinder wheele and expooe a freah cuLLinqeurface.7tar-wheeldreeaer (above)hae up to four starehaped wh eela;diamond-point featurea a diadreaaer (below) mond eet in a bronze tip

Felt wheel Available in aofL,medium, and hard: dreaeedwith for final buffin4compound of cuttinq edqe poliehing

Multi-t'ool jig 9 kew'4rrndingji7 /iqhL, Lop) holde akewaat 20' an4leand pivote on cenLer pin to grind radiuaed akewchiaela. )liding
eharpentna iia (riaht.

mid)te) ioote crZklpi

undercrosabar.Doth are attached to an adiuatable tool reeL (riqht, bottom), whichmounta to benchin front of qrinder.

Wet/dry grinder (paqe 21) Lar4e,water-bathed wheel honeebevele: waLerprevenLetools from overheatinq and carrieeaway meLal and 4rit.)maller, dry wheeluaedfor 4rindtng



Lapping aompounds )et of ailiconecarbide powdere ueed in conjunction with a lappin4 plate to flatten and potiah tool backa;4rita ran4e from 90 to 600

Auger bit file Uaedto eharpenauqer bite and other drill bita: one end hae no teeth on edqeaand other end hae teeth only on ed4eato preventfilin4 adjacent eurfacea Cant-aaw file Uaedin placeof a three-equare file in openinge of lesa than 60'

5ingle-aut baatard mill file Uaedto aharpen spade bita and true the rima of Foretner bitE

Three-aquarefile Trian7ularfile uaed for eharpeninqForetner and multiapur biLe

Sharpenin7 atone holder Securea oilatones and wateratonea up to B inchea lonq for aharpening; rubberfeet hold atone in place

Angle checker Braae quidefor checking bevel and microbevel anqleeof oharpened toola; anqlesran1e from 15'to 12O'

Honing guide and anqlejig For honinqplanebladee, Deviceholda blade at appropriate an1lefor honin7a bevel:rotatina the wheel on top of the jiq eete anqleebetween15' and 35'

Diamo nd- coated ho ning filea Uaedto aharpen carbide router bita; atored inaidetheir pivotin7 handlee.thown abovefrom top: cearae, medium,and fine filee

9t'rop A leatheratrip 1luedto a handle; dreaaed honin7 withcommercial compound or other

fine abraaivea to polieha tsitfiles Boron-carbide etonee uaed to aharpen router bita: qiveaa finer finiah than diamondhonin7fileo of equalqrit. Handlefeaturea maqnifying lena for checkinqaharpneae Wateratone atorage unit Tlaatic reaervoir uaed to immerae up to four watergtonegfor atoraae betweenaha rpeninqa; featu rea clampe that can be flipped up to hold the wateratone for aharpening or honing and a glaea lappingplate

Diamond needle file Small half-roundfile uaed for aharpeninq bandaaw bladea 4


is the most com1-h. benchstone I monlyfoundsharpening accessory in the shop.Oncereferred to asnatural stones, 6enchstones now encompass many man-made materials, ranging from aluminum oxide to ceramics. "stones" Many includefine diamond bondedto steel. aregenerally Sharpening stones divided into two groupsaccording to the lubricantused with them:oil andwater. ground Lubrication serves to disperse particlesand preventthem from cloggingthe stone. Choosing between the two is mostly a matter of feel;some woodworkers preferthe edgea glassy gives hardblackArkansas oilstone a tool; others like the fine control a softer finishwaterstone offers. fapanese Naturallyoccurringoilstones have long beenregarded asthe finestsharpeningstones. Quarriedfrom novaculite andsoldasWashita andfukansas stones, these sharpening surfaces arebecoming permits, scarce. If your budget natural stones area goodinvestment; theywill lasta lifetime. madeof aluSynthetic substitutes minum oxide(IndiatM stones) or silicon (Crystolonr')areless carbide expensive and just aseffective asnaturalstones, thoughtheytendto wearmorequickly. An economical comoromise is theuseof an India" stonefoi roughsharpening andwhetting, anda hardArkansas stone for honingand polishing. Whenusing oilstones, wipe themoftenwith a ragto preventglazing. Do not usea heavy oil, process; asit inhibitstheabrading a light machine oil cutwith kerosene worls best. Waterstones areJapanese in origin, and cut much fasterthan oilstones. Because theyuse water, ratherthanoil as the lubricant,thereis no oily mess left Waterstones on clothes andworkpieces. comein finer grades than oilstones, makingthempopularwith woodworkerswho liketo honeandoolish.Because theyaresofter thanoilstones, newabrasiveis constantly exposed during use, andthe slurryformedby the waterwill form a fine polishingpaste. Waterstones havetheir drawbacks, however. Because they aresofterthan oilstones, they must be trued more often (page19). Toolsshouldbe dried and wiped with oil thoroughlyafter sharpening to prevent rust. Waterstones also in water. If your shop shouldbe stored is prone to cold temperatures, keep your waterstones from freezing, asthey will shatter.

Hard Elack Arkaneae An extra-fine, lOOO-4rit natural atone uaed for razordental and other

5ofb Arkanaaa A medium,SOO-qrit natural stone ueed for initial aharpenin4 of dull ed7ea

Hard Arkansaa A fine, BOO-4rit natural atone uaed for honinqtoola to a aharp edqe

Waehita A coarse, faat-cuttin4 15O-qrif,natural etone uaed for flattenin7 and lapping badly nickedtoolo

Combination stone AIao knownaa an lndiat' atone. A aynthetic atone made from aluminumoxide with 90 arit on one face and 600 on the other: uaed for 4eneralaharpeninq and honinq.



Flattening thestone All benchstones willdeveloo a hollow in prolonged thecenter after use. Totruea benchstone, flatten it ona machined surpane face, such asglass or a lapping table. For oilstones, rubthesurface with (left)in motion a circular a slurry made froma coarse lapping compound mixed grit withhoning oil.Start witha coarse gritsuntilthe andwork through finer stone is flat.Totruea waterstone, use water instead of honing oil fortheslurry, paper or weVdry silicon carbide taped to thelapping surface.


OTHER STONES 5lipatone A ahaped atone ueed forturninq and carvinq toola,featurinq both roundedand anqled ed4ea;a ran7e of qrita ia availablein both oil and water type6

Japaneae frniahing stone An extra-fine, 12OO-6riteynthetic atone made from cerium oxide;uaed for final honin4 and poliohinq;amall Nagura stone ueed to create alurry Diamond etone A hard aynthetic stone made from microaaopicdiamond cryatala bondadto aolid ateel plate; feabures a true, flat aurface that will not wear like other 6tonee. Availablein a ranqe of qrita between

Japaneee coarae sione A coarse, 1BO-4rit eynthetic atone made from ailiconecarbide; uaod for flattenin7 and lappinqbadly nickedtoole

Gouge slipstone A conical etone uaed ror qouqe5;concavequrface aharpens outaide ed1eof tool, whileconvexaurface deburra the inside ed6e.A ranqe of 6rito ia availablein both oil and water typeo Ceramia et'one A fine, hard lOOO-4rit aynthetic atone made from bondedaluminumoxide; uaed for honin6. Needano lubricant

22Oand 12OO for any oharptaak enin7 or honing

plane andsharpening f, romsquaring I' irons to polishing chisels andturning grinder tools, thebench isaworthwhile addition to awoodworking shop's sharpening station. Bench grinders areclassified accordingto theirwheel diameter. Standard 5to 8-inch benchtop models, with %to motors, pop%-horsepower are themost ular sizes. Larger wheels arebetter, as smaller wheels produce can exaggeratedhollow-ground bevels. can Grinders bemounted on a worksurface or fastened to a separate stand. Rotating around 3500 rpm,a bench grinder removes faster steel thanasharpening stone. Unfortunately, it also heats up thetool,andyoumaylose thetool's If thesteel temper. begins to change colgrinding, or during deepening to atrue blue, thetemper has lost,andthe been toolmustbereground. Motorized whetstones and wet/drygrinders feature
water-bathed wheels that turn at slower speeds, suchas500rpm, allowingyou to grind tools without constantly dipping them in waterfor cooling. Most grinders canbe equipped with optionalrubbersharpening wheels, cloth buffing wheels, and leatherstropwheels in additionto standard abrasive wheels. which come in a variety of grits (see below will eventually ). Grindingwheels become dull andclogged with metalparticles,and their edges may go out of (page square. A wheeldresser 22) canbe usedto true the faceof a glazed wheel and square its edges.

Thecuningedge gets of a skew chisel a sharpening on a wet/drygrinder. Because thelargewheelof this typeof grinderrotates relatively slowlyand is continually bathed in water,theblade being sharpened remains cool,which reduces the riskof destroying itstemper.Standard grinderwheels bench oftenrotateat speeds that qretoofast asa result,the for honingmanytools; tool's steel caneasily overheat.


ABRASIVE TYPE ABRASIVE (GRA[{) SrZE GRADE SCATE STRUCTURE BOiID TYPE A:Aluminum oxide C:Silicon carbide Z:Aluminum zirconium

Coarse: 8, 10,12,14, Medium: 30,36,46, tine:70,80,90,100, Very fine: 220,240,280,320, 16,20,24 1 2 01 , 5 01 , 80 54,60 400,500,600

Soft Medium Had A B C D E F GH I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y X Z Dense 0pen I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 t 4 1 5 1 6 etc

B: Resinoid BF: Resinoid reinforced E:Shellac 0: Oxychloride R:Rubber RF: Rubber reinforced S:Silicate V:Vitrified
Courteey ofthe American National Standarda lnatitute

Choosing a grinder wheel Thewheels supplied ongrinders areusually toocoarse for use withfinertools. A wide variety of replacement stones areavailable, butselecting theright oneis nosimple matter. Youneed to decipher thecodes marked onthesides of thewheels, quality. describing theircomposition andabrasive Thechart (They youinterpret above will help these codes. areusually found sandwiched between twonumerical manufacturer's symprinted bols ontheside of thestone.) lf youplan to usea

wheel to grind carbon-steel tools, andthenhone witha benchstone, buya wheel marked A 80 H 8V.Thismeans thewheel is (A), (80), aluminum oxide fine-grained andrelatively soft(H), (8).The witha medium structure or concentration of abrasives particles arebonded together bya process of heat andfusion (V).Forhigh-speed known asvitrification steel tools, a medium hardness your of I orJ is better. lf youplan to use tools right offthegrinder, choose a wheel witha grain size of 100or I20.




Grinding wheel Medium BO-7rit aluminum oxide wheelaquaree and eharpenecuttin4 edqee

Spark defleator Directa aparko downward and away from the operator Eye ahield

Buffinq wheel Felt or cloth poliehee wheel bevel of cuttinq edqeo

Wheelcover for Kemovable qrind' chan4ing in7 or buffin4 wheela

Tool reet adjuatment nut

Adjuetable to deaired anqle for qrindin4 or buffin4;typically poei' inch of wheel tioned within'/o

On/off awitch


lO-inch,22O-qrit wheella bathed in water to keeptoole cool durinq qrindrune at 70 RPM inq and honin4; Eye shield Lower tool rest Adjuetable to deairedanglefor 4rinding; typically poeitioned within '/uinch of wheel-

Upper tool rest Adjuatableto desired anqlefor qrindin4or honinq;typically poeitioned within'/e inch of Featureaalot wheel. for olidinqanqlejiq

Tool rest adjuetment handles

Five-inch,lOO-qrit wheeluaed for preciaion ed4e qrindin7; runa at 3450 RfM




Truing thewheel A grinding wheel should betrued when ridges or hollows appear onthestone or if it becomes discolored. Youcanuse either a star-wheel ordiamond-point dress(right), er. To usea star-wheel dresser move thegrinder's toolrestaway from thewheel. Withtheguard in position, switch onthegrinder andbuttthetip of thedresser against thewheel. Then, withyour index finger resting against the toolrest, move thedresser fromside to side. To usea diamond-point dresser (below), hold thedevice between theindex finger andthethumb of onehand, setit on thetoolrest, andadvance it toward thewheel untilyour index finger contacts thetoolrest.Move either dresser back a n df o r t ha c r o sts h ew h e eu l n t i lt h e edges aresquare andyouhave exposed fresh abrasive.

ltlIItlllt llll lllIllJ llll llll tllllu ilfl IllJ lll1 lllt illl iltlllt tll]
Diamondpoint dreaeer qrindinq eLandard wheel mounled on the lefY-hand sideof a qrinder, bench neo?rene or felt, buffin7 wheele mounledon the riqh|-handrequire a chanqe of Iool pooitionfor buffingoo f,heIool does noNcalch in Nhe whee|Anolher eoluLion is f,o reveree the riahLquardto ex?oeeNhe handwheel rear (right).lnthis poeition,Ihe of lhe wheel buffinq wheel opineawayfrom you inolead of lowardeyou,oo you can butrLheNool aL Lhesamean7le qrindinq ao you do when it.



A MOBII.E SHARPEI{ING DOTLY A sharpening is more than station justa dedicated forsharpenspace all of your ing.lt is a way of keeping jigs,andsharpgrinding benchstones, clean andwellening accessories Thesharpening organized. station shown below is essentially a sturdy The lowbench witha storage shelf. plywood unitis builtfrom%-inch and1-by-3 stock. Byadding locking it becomes a mobile sharpencasters, about ingdolly thatyoucanwheel youneed the shop to wherever to

sharpen: at the lathe, the carving bench, or near thesink. To build thedolly, cutthe base plywood. from%-inch Make it large all your sharpenough to incorporate gear ening sothatit is nottooclutup to 3-by-6 feetis a good tered; size. Screw fourcorner blocks to the underside of the base, andfasten a locking caster on each block. To strengthen the dolly, cut the pieces for theskirts andlegs from 1-by-3 stock. Thelegs should be long for thetopto sit at a enough

comfortable height; between 32 and people. 36 inches is right for most Screw the legpieces together, then inside attach theskirts to the legs' faces. Fasten theshelfandthetoo gluea waterto theskirts. lf desired, plastic andoil-proof laminate work surface to thetop. youhave Once builtthedolly, mount grinder a standard bench or weVdry grinder to theendof the bench so thatboth wheels areaccessible. Secure a lapping table(insef) at the opposite endfor lapping andflattenThisis simply ingstones. a piece of plate glass %-inch tempered secured plywithcleats to a piece of %-inch wood, fastened to thetop. Have the glass larger cutthree times thanyour largest bench stone. yourmost Now mount commonly used benchstones either byusing cleats or screwing theirwooden storage boxesto thetabletop; countersink the fasteners. Other accessories could portable posiinclude vise light a ora grinder. tioned to shine onthe


youto easily accessible, allowing of powtheproliferation espite I years, the tool in and maintain sharpen hand Ll er toolsin recent with a little elbow In fact, the shop. part of toolsarestillanimporiant you grease andtherightmaterials, shop. woodworking the modern hand restore a rusty old can even planes play and Handsaws, chisels, plane thanwhen to better condition avital rolein manycabinetmaking (page 40). joints it was first bought andchopfromcutting tasls, yourself for handtool up Setting stock. pingmortises to smoothing reand maintenance sharpening and likecarving Forsome crafts, quires Allyou no great investment. as toolssuch turning,hand-cutting jig shown for cleaning, a few need aresolvents above, Thesimple shop-made chisels arevirtugouges andskew piece devices for adjusting commercial in a of emery of a dowel wrapped consisting allyindispensable. blades, stones andfilesfor honing burrs and removing cloth,is ideal thathand advantage Onedistinct for cleaning theproper gouges. and sharpening-and rounded edge of toolsofferovertheir electrically from the pages will The following technique. is thatthey powered counterparts the most commonly you how care for and sharpen show to With to sharpen andmaintain. arerelatively straightforward (page 26)andchisels and handtools,from handsaws com- used no hidden circuit boards or sealed are handtools, there j9),scrapers (page (page (page planes 46), gouges 30) to bench thatmustbe sharpened ponents, no carbide-tipped blades (page hand drlls 55). bits for braces and andchisels, and such assaws professionally. With mosthandtools, but therewards areconsiderTheworkis relatively easy, and made of wood, yougetahandle, often iswhat whatyousee properly mainand Hand tools that are well sharpened True, not allhandtoolsarequitethissim- able. asteel cuttingedge. prolong projects the quality your and will improve the of the tained for adjusting planes feature screws andlevers ple.Bench your tools. edge. Still,all thepartsare lifeof of thecutting angle andposition

of a drawknifeis honedby an axeThecutting edge Holdingonehandleof thetoolasshownat stone. thecrook against left and buttingtheotherhandle theentireedge of thearm exposes for sharpening.


a handsaw is a three-step Q harpening r.J operation. Asshown on page 28,the process begins with jointing, or filing thetipsofthe teethsothattheyareall the same height.This is followed by setting theteethto thecorrect anele. Thisensures that thebladecutsstraigf,t anddoesnot stickin thekerf.Setting involves bending the teethalternately to eachsideof the blade's centerline. The final stepin the process is sharpening itselt,typically with a file. Not all handsaws are identical.The shape, spacing, and setofthe teethvary according to the typeof cuttingthe saw will perform.The spacing between teeth is usually expressed in TPI, or teethper inch.Thefollowingpages describe howto sharpen rip saws, combination saws, and both Japanese andWestern-style crosscut saws. Because oftheirveryfineteeth, dovetail andtenonsaws should be sentout to a professional for sharpening.



; .'tJ

/ji; i#
A commercialsaw setbendsthe teethof a combinationsaw to theproper angle with the bladeclampedin a benchvise.Settingthe teethof a saw bladeis a keystep procees, in the sharpening producinga kerf that preventsthe blade from binding.


Leading edqe

\t/I I

| T la

Filing ripsaw teeth Ripsaws have widely spaced teeth withfromf iveto seven perinch(TPl). pronounced teeth They also have a more set thanother saws. Both features enable them to cutquickly along thegrain. Asshown above, theleading edges of rip teeth arealmost vertical. Tosharpen theteeth, usea triangular millfile,drawing it straight across each tooth at a 90" angle to theblade axis.



Filing combination teeth Combination saws aredual-purpose saws thatcanbeused for bothripcutsandcrosscuts, although theyrip more slowly than a ripsaw andcutmore roughly thana crosscut saw. Combination teeth slope forward andbackward at thesame angle (about 60') andbothedges arebeveled. Sharpen bothedges using a triangular millf ile (above), tilting thehandte of the f iledown slightly.



crosscut teeth Sharpening spaced-eightto12 sawareclosely Theteethof a crosscut little set.Crosscut teeth theyhave very TPIis typical-and which enable them leading edges withbevels, feature sloped grain. rip the teeth are Aswith saws, across the to cut cleanly file at the same millfile,Hold the witha triangular sharpened 65" (above). whichis typically angle asthe bevel,

Japanese closscut teeth Sharpening have tall,narrow saws, which cut onthe pullstroke, Japanese on leadwithverylittleset.Also, theteetharebeveled teeth should be edges, andonthetips.All edges ingandtrailing file heldat about a 60'angleto the sharpened witha feather blade(above),

A eaw holder Storinq handaawsproperlywillboth the tools eliminate clutt'erand keao The and oafefrom damaqe. acceeeible eimpledeviceshownherecan be ueed Lo hanqa oawon NheehoVwallin plain view. Cut a woodecrap a liffile thicker to the oame?rothan lhe eaw handle file ae the openingin the handleiuoe atemplaie, Fasten NheoVeninq'ae the piecetothewall at a convenient heiqht,thenscrewa emallblockwith rounded endstothepieceao at'urnMakethe turnbuckleohoraer buckle. of the handle openinq, Nhanthewidth the than lhe heiqht.Leave but lon7er ecreweliqhtly loooeeo thatyou can pivoI th e tu r nbuckle verti c allyto eecurelhe eawto the wal|



A BENCH VISE SAW HOTDER jig Secured in a vise, thesimple shown at left will holda sawat a convenient height forsharpening. Make thejaws fromtwopieces of %inchplywood about 10 inches long and 7 inches wide. Then saw two%-inchthickstrips andgluethemalong the inside faces of the jaws, flush with thetopend; thestrips willgripthesaw blade. Fasten the twojawstogether near the bottom end,screwing a strip plywood of %-inch between them. F i n a l l yb ,ore a hole f o ra c a r r i a g e boltthrough the middle of thejaws andinstall theboltwitha washer and wing nut. Touse thejig,secure thebottom end your in vise. Loosen thewingnut,slipa sawblade between thejaws, andtightenthenutto hold thesaw securelv.

theteeth 1 Jointing I Mount thesaw teeth-uo in a vise with padon each a wood side of the blade for protection. Install a flat millbastard file jointing jig.Hold in a commercial saw the jig f latagainst theside of theblade and pass thefile back andforthacross the full length of theteeth(righ\.fhiswill f latten all of theteeth to thesame height. A fewpasses should besufficient.



r) Setting theteeth L Witnthesawstill in thevise, adjust a sawsetto thesame TPIastheblade. posiStarting at either endof the blade, tionthefirsttooth thatis bentaway from y o ub e t w e etn h ea n v i a l n dt h e p u n c h b l o c kS . queez te h eh a n d l t eo s e tt h e tooth (right).Workyourwaydownthe length of the blade, setting all teeth that arebentaway fromyou. Then turnthesaw around in thevise andrepeat theprocess ontheremaining teeth.

Filing theteeth. Refer to theappropriate illustration on page 26 or27 fortheproper fileand youaresharpenfiling angle forthesaw ing.For thecrosscut saw shown at left, hold a triangular fileat about a 65" angle to theblade withits handle tilteddown slightly. Asyoufiletheteeth, work from one end of theblade to theother, filing all theteeth thataresetin onedirection. Then turnthesawaround to sharoen the remaining teeth.


andgouges must have razorf hisels U sharpedges to work properly. Sharpening a standard woodworking chisel issimple; allyouneed isacombination sharpening Formost stone. chisels andgouges, youwill have to hone and polish thecutting edge aswellasproduce thecorrect bevel angle fortheblade.
Well-sharpened blades areessential for turning chisels and gouges. Dull cuttingedges not only produce poor results; they arealsomore difficult to controland dangerous to use.This section of the chapterexplains how to sharpen and refurbish a wide range of chisels and gouges.

Even the most rusted and pitted blade can be renewedwith steelwool, mineral spirits, clean rags,and a bit of elbowgrease.




thenew handle 1 Turning I Turn a n e wh a n d l f e o r a c h i s eo lr gouge o n t h e l a t h eC . u ta b l a n k f r o ma dense, strong hardwood likeashor hickory.Thegrain runthelength of the should A oiece blank. thatis 1% to 2 inches square anda fewinches longer thanthe youneed f inished length willyield a suitablehandle. Mount thepiece between centers onthelathe andturnit to a gouge. smooth cylinder using a roughing Buy a brass ferrule forthehandle, Then use a parting toolto turna tenon on one e n do f t h eb l a n k io accommoda th te ferrule M . easur th e ei n s i d e diamete orf (right)and withdialcalipers theferrule size t h et e n o n to fit tightly.

r) Mounting thefenule and theblade I Remove thehandle fromthe lathe, setit end-down on a work surface, and (far in place witha mallel taptheferrule /eff). Next, remount the handle on the lathe andshape it witha skew chisel and gouge. youaresatisfied spindle Once with thehandle's shape andfeel, bore a hole in thetenon endto accommodate thetang of theblade. Bore thehole onthelathe witha Jacobs chuck attached to thetailstock; make sure thehole iscentered in theblank. Thehole's diameter anddeoth depend onthetypeof tang. For a roundsection, untapered tang, thehole should be2 to 3 inches deep andequal to the t a n gd i a m e t e F r .o ra s q u a r e - s e c t i o n , tapered tang, drilltwoholes asyouwould counterbore fora screw andplug: Make thetophalf thesame diameter asthetang 1%inches fromthetio andthebottom halfthesame widthasthetang% inch fromitstip.Insert theblade into thehand l ea n dr a ot h e b u t te n do f t h eh a n d l e witha mallet hearlefil.




thecutting edge 1 Honing procedure I The two-step shown onthis page canbeused to sharpen anystandard paring, chisel, such asa f irmer, or mortise chisel. Start byhoning a secondary bevel ontheforward edge of theexisting one(insef)-then polish called a microbevel and flatten theback side of theblade. Toform themicrobevel, laya combination stone coarse-side u0 on a work surface between twocleats secured withscrews. Saturate thestone withtheappropriate lubricant, if necessary, untilit pools onthesurface. Holding withtheexisting theblade bevel flatonthestone, raise it about 5'andslide thecutting edge along thestone in long, (left).Apply passes elliptical moderate untila microbevel forms. Dressure Turn thestone over andmake a fewoasses on thef ineside.


\ \




r) Polishing and flattening Z ne back side oftheblade Saturate h ef i n es i d e o f t h es t o n e and, holding thechisel f latonthestone, blade pattern bevel-side up,move it in a circular (right)untilthe flat sideof the cutting
pdqp is qmnnth




thecutting edge 1 Grinding gouge grinder I Sharpen a roughing-out ona bench equipped grinding witha medium wheel Position anda feltwheel. the guard Holding and turnonthemachine. theblade between the fingers andthumb of onehand, setthecutting edge onthetool lightly rest andadvance it until thebevel contacts thegrinding wheel. lf youwant to change thebevel angle of thecutting edge, adjust thetoolrest to thedesired angle. Withyourindex finger (/eff) rollthe blade onthewheel untilthe against thetoolrest, flatagainst entire edge is ground. Keep thebevel thewheel at alltimes. Continue, checking theblade regularly, until thecuttingedge is sharp andthebevel angle is correct. To prevent the blade from overheating, occasionally dip it in water if it is carbonsteel, or remove it fromthewheel if it is high-speed steel to let it cool down.

GOUGE-SHARPEl{I1{G JIG Thejig shown at right will hold a gouge sothat the blade contacts the grinding wheel at the correct angle. Thedimensions in the illustration gouges. will accommodate most turning Cut plywood. from%-inch Screw thebase andguide it to thebase with theguide together andfasten countersunk screws fromunderneath. Make the guide opening large enough forthearmto slide through freely. Cutthe armfrom1-by-2 stock andthetool plywood. thetwoparts support from%-inch Screw of thetoolsupport together, thenfasten the bottomto thearmflush withone end.For theV-block, block andsaw a 90'wedge out cuta small to size to thetoolsupport. of oneside. Glue the piece To usethejig,secure it to a work surface so wheel. thearmlines updirectly under thegrinding Seat thegouge handle in theV-block andslide the armsothe beveled edge of thegouge sits g h e e lC f l a to nt h eg r i n d i nw . lamp t h ea r mi n place. Then, withthegouge clear of thewheel, switch on thegrinder andreposition thetoolon thejig. Rollthe beveled edge across thewheel (right,bottom).

Guide (top) %"x 1'1"x 9" (eidea) %"x 1%"x 9" Arm t/o"x1%"x13%" Tool auppott (back)%"x2"x2%" (bottom)%"x1%"x2'1"

Eabe %"x3"x13%"



lliilllt lll fiI1 lllilll lilllli lltjifi ttj]lll lllJ illt lllr lilt lllltlll
g guides Shop-made honin and rugl removerg Theinside edgeo of qou4ee can be ditriculN Nohone and etrop if you do noNhavea eliVoLone or eLropwiNh Nhecorrect, ehaVe.You can make \: nu qi d e b y a g o u q e - h o n i4 wrap\t piiq i dowel *iti ooolsrit sand\ (near riqht). For etroppinq, VaVer fold a eLripof leaLher eimply to fit the ineide edqeof the 4ou4e(far riqht). jiqs lo cleanrusl Youcan aleoueeNheee from an old blade. or oilNina

r) Polishing thecutting edge L Sntttto theerinder's feltwheel and move thetoolrest outof theway. Hold a stick of polishing compound against thefeltwheel to impregnate it withabrasive. Grip thehandle of thegouge in your right hand andhold theblade between thefingers and thumbs of your lefthand. T h e nw , i t ht h eg o u g e a l m o sv te r t i c a l , s e tt h e b e v efll a t a g a i n s tt h ew h e e l . Lightly rolltheblade fromside to side against thewheel to polish thebevel. A slight burr willform ontheinside edge of thetool. Tofeelfortheburr, runyour gently finger across theinside edge of theblade. Toremove it, rolltheinside face of theblade against thewheel until theburrrubs off.Avoid overbuffing the blade t; h i sw i l ld u l l t h e c u t t i ne gd g e . Test thetoolforsharpness bycutting a scrap across Theblade thegrain. should produce a clean shaving.



grinder ona bench 1 Sharpening properly I Position theguard andturn Holding onthegrinder. theblade between thefingers andthumb of onehand, set flatonthetoolrest theblade andadvance it until theblade lightly touches thestone (/eff). Adjust thetoolrestto create the desired bevel angle. Roll thecutting edge from onthewheel andpivot thehandle leftto right while keeping thebevel f lat (inset). onthegrinding wheel at all times Continu re o l l i ntg h eb l a d e a n dm o v i n g thetoolhandle from side to side until the edge is sharpened, stopping frequently to check thegrind andcool thetip, Hone thecutting edge andremove theburrby hand, asshown below, oruse thegrinder's (page felt wheel 34).

r) Honing thecutting edge L Once hasbeen onthegrinder, the bevel sharpened usea flat benchstone io polish thetoolto a razor-sharp edge. Saturate thestone withoil,thenrolltheoutside bevel across theabrasive surface to hone the hbove) bevel onthecutting edge.

theburr Q Removing r.J Use a convex slipstone matching thecurvature of thegouge to remove theburr thatforms ontheinside of thecutting edge. Lubricate theslipstone if needed andhone theinside edge until t h eb u r r i se l i m i n a t e d .




theoutside bevel 1 Whetting I Setanoilstone on a plywood base, screw cleats to thebase around thestone to keep it frommoving, andclamp thebase to (The a work surface. leather strop is used to polish theoutside bevel in step4). Saturate the stone, thensetthe outside bevel of thegouge flat on it. Starting at oneend,move the blade back andforth along thestone witha rhythmic motion, simultaneously rolling thetoolsotheentire bevel contacts thesharp-

(above). ening surface Avoid rocking theblade toofar,asthis willtend to round over itscorners andblunt thecutting edge. Continue untilthebevel is smooth anda burrforms on the inside edge of theblade. You canalso carry outthisstep on a grinder, asshown on page 33, butif youuse themachine be sure to adjust theangle of thetoolrest to match the bevel angle of thegouge.

r) Honing aninside bevel Z On "you have sharpened thegouge's outside bevel, use a conical slipstone to hone inside a slight bevel ontheblade and to remove theburr formed in step1. Puta fewdrops of oil onthecutting edge of the gouge. Then, holding thestone ona work surface, move the blade back andforth along thestone making sure thatyoukeep your thecutting wellaway edge from fingers. Continue until theburr isremoved and an inside bevel of approximately 5'forms.



theinside bevel Q Polishing piece folded of leather to strop r.J Use a gouge. Spread some theinside bevel of the polishing leather and compound on the inside curve foldit soitsedge matches the Draw the blade along the of thegouge. bevleather repeatedly to polish theinside (left). Thiscanalso bedone using the el grinder. feltwheel of a bench

bevel Polishing theoutside polishing onthestrop anduse the compound Spread some theoutside shown in step1 to polish rolling technique same (above). if a burrhasformed, bevel; Check the inside bevel

grinder anda felt canalso usea bench repeat step 3. You (page withpolishing compound 34) wheel impregnated forthistask.



theoutside edges 1 Whetting I Sharpen each side of a V-tool separately. Setupandsaturate anoilstone as youwould gouge to sharpen a carving 36).Hone oneoutside bevel of the @age (page V-tool asyouwould a chisel 32), moving theblade back andforth along thelength of thestone andkeeping the bevel flat onthestone. Repeat on the other sideof theV (right). SIop working youhave when removed therough marks from theground edge anda small burr forms ontheinside oftheedee.

r) Removing thehook yousharpen I Wnen theoutside bevels of a V-tool, a hook of excess metal willformat theapex of theV (inset). Thishook youhone mustbeground away before theinside bevel in step 3. Holding thetoolonthestone, rollthecorner across thesurface(above). Move thetoolfromendto endalong thestone untilyouwear away the hook andan outside bevel forms at theapex of theV, forming onecontinuous beveled edge. This process will create a burrin thecenter of the inside edge, which is removed in steo 3.

theinside bevel Q Honing r-,1Toremove theburrformed in steps I and2, anonone an inside bevel, use a triangular slipstone thatmatches theangle of theV-tool blade asclosely as possible. Clamp the stone securely in a bench vise andsaturate it withoil.Toavoid crushingthestone, do notovertighten thevise. Draw theendof the (above), blade's inside edge back andforthalong the stone pressure applying lightdownward untilthe burris removed anda slight inside polish bevel forms. Tofinish, theedge with (page (page a leather strop 37) or thefelt wheel of a grinder 34).


planecanbe bench I good-quality why it A costly, but thereis no reason shouldnot lasta lifetime-or two.This sectionshowshow to carefor a plane, and includesinformation on sharpenthe tool. Youcansave ing andadjusting vourselfsomemoney-without sacrihcing a whit of quahly-by refurbish40).Evena tool ing an old plane(page by and discarded that hasbeenabused canbebroushtbackto life. someone else Tightening thefrog setscrews is a fundamental stepin thereassembly plane of thebench (page 45).


Lateral adjuotment lever Levelablade in mouth of plane, allowin7the uaer to aet it parallel to the oole Cap iron screw )ecurea blade Cap lock Holda levercap in place and applieetenaion to t.he blade aeoembly Lever cap Muet be loosened and lifbed off to remove ca? iron and blade

Levercap aarew Securea lever cap, cap iron, and blade to fro4

Depth-of-cut adjuatment knob )eta the cuttin7 depth of the blade; a %z-inch depth ia ideal for mdst operationa

Frog 9upporta blade:pooition of fro7 determinea width of mouth opening Frog 6etoarew Lockefrog in place Frog adjuatment 6crew Turnedto alide fro4 back and forth, widenin7or narrowtnq mouth openinq; ahouldbe poai' tioned ao that openin4ie inch %z and'/,a between

Cap iron Exerts preggure on blade,preventinq chatter by makinqthe aaaembly more riqid

att 9ole

Blade A[aoknown aa plane 'beveliron;inatalled down on fro4, For beet reauha, it ehouldbarelypro' trude from mouth




and cleaning theplane 1 Dissassembling you I Refer to theanatomy illustration on page 39 to help take theplane apart. Start byloosening thelever capscrew and releasing thecaplock, then take offthelever cap, capiron, and blade andsetthemaside. Next, loosen andremove thefrog setscrews andseparate thefrog from thesole of theplane. You canalsounscrew thefrontandback handles fromthe body. partindividually Clean each using a brass-bristled brush dipped in mineral spiils (abovd.

r) kpping thesole oftheplane paper L tapea length of emery to a smooth andflat surface, plate such asa glass or saw Reattach table. thehandles andthe frog to thebody of theplane, thenslide thesole along theemery paper, pressure applying even to keep thesoleflat (right). Continue lappingthe sole untilthe metalon itsbottom surface isuniformly bright andclean, indicating thatthesole is level. Check (step thesole for square 3) periodically.



forsquare Checking thesole should be Thesurfaces side. Repeat fortheother beexactly sole sole should hbove). of the plane's andsides Thebottom you lapping will need to continue lf not, both ways. plane square hand, butt a in one the other. Holding at 90'to each andthesides. andonesideof the thesole the bottom against square combination


forsquare edge thecutting 1 Checking to detersouare I Usea combination edge of theplane whether thecutting mine (/eff,). lf it is is square to thesides blade edge on a bench thecutting not,square grinder, thegrinder's sure to adjust making at 90" to thewheel. toolrest



r) Creating a hollow-ground bevel plane Z S h a r p e n ia ng blade involves three steps: creating a bevel on the blade's cutting edge, honing a microbevel onthef irstbevel, andremoving the process. burr thatresults from thehoning Tocreate thefirstbevel, clamp theblade jig grinding bevel-down in a commercial andadjust thetoolrestto create a 30' bevel. Holding thejig onthetoolrest, a d v a n cie t t o w a rt d h ew h e eu l ntil the (above). cutting edge makes contact Slide theblade side-to-side across the pressing wheel, lightly. Check thecutperiodically grinding tingedge andstop when thebevel forms.

tlll fill ll11 tlll lllt IIljilllllt tll] tlll ililllilllilillJ tlll lltljljllll
Grindingwith a eander lf you do not owna bench qrinder, you can grinda Vlane blade .,, on abelisander.'lnstall a ,r/ lOO-7ritbelt,, mountLhe ,.,' Nool upoide downin a s|,and, and secure the oland Lo a work surtace. Turnon Nhe sander and holdthe beveled eide of Ihe blade on Nhe bell atlhe aVVroprialeangle.




Honing themicrobevel you the plane blade's Once sharpen grinder, as in step 2, the edge on a cutting (insef, bevel hollow-ground result will bea on a lefl.lf youdidthejobbyhand you a flat will obtain stone, sharpening (insef, you right).ln either case, bevel on the first a microbevel need to hone sharpening Place a combination bevel. work surface. stone finesideup on a the cleats to thetableagainst Screw Fora holto keep it frommoving. stone in a bevel, clamp theblade low-ground guide honing angle-setting commercial touching thestone. withthe bevel withtheappropriate Saturate thestone h o l d i ntg h eh o n i n g lubrican atn dt h e n , guide, back andforth the blade slide thesharpening from endto endalong (right).Apply pressure moderate surface you lf arestartforms. untila microbevel in a clamp theblade ingwitha flatbevel, guide honing angle-setting commercial Then touching thestone. withthe bevel of theblade a fewdegrees raise theangle asfora holtheoperation andcomplete low-ground bevel.

Lapping thebun process willcreate a thin Thehoning ontheflat faceof ridge of metal, or burr, Toremove the burr,saturate the blade. again. Holding of thestone thefineside perfectly flat on the stone, theblade it in a circular sideup (left), move bevel pattern of thecutting untiltheflatside edge is smooth.



theblade forsharyness f, Testing r,f Clamp a softwood board to a work surface and,holding the blade bevel-side up in yourhands, cutacross thegrain of (right). the surface A sharpblade will cleanly slicea sliver of wood fromthe board without tearing the wood f ibers,

Honing theendofthecapiron Secure a benchstone to vourwork surface; in the illustration at left.a diamond stone, which should be lubricated withwater, is shown in its ownbox.Set thefrontportion of thecapiron thatcontacts theblade flatonthestone andslide (/eft). pattern it in a circular onthesurface Continue untilthetip of thecapironis perfectly flat.This willguarantee thatwood chips will notbecome trapped between the ironandthe blade once thetwopieces arereassembled.




theblade assembly 1 Positioning I Position thecapironon thetopfaceof the blade extending about %o inchbeyond theendof thecapiron. (above, Tighten the cap ironscrew left).Thenplace the the blade, capiron, andlever blade assembly-including Thegapbetween thefrontedge cap-in position on thefrog. should be between of the blade andthefrontof the mouth

inch.lf thegapis toowideor narrow, remove %z and%a the loosen frog blade assembly and both setscrews about %turn. gap Then adjust thefrogadjustment screw to setthe proper (above, right).Tighlen the setscrews and reposition the blade assembly on thefrog, it in place withthecap securing lock.



adjuatment knob

Lateral adjuatment

Centering theblade and adjusting thedepth of cut Holding theplane upside down, move the lateral lever adjustment untilthecutting edge is parallel to thesole andcentered in themouth. Tosetthecutting depth, turnthedepth-of-cut adjustment knob so protrudes (left). the blade fromthe mouth About inchis desirable; less forhighly %z figured woods. Conf irmthesetting witha testcut ona scrap board. Theshaiings should bepaper-thin.


p roperly honed, a handor cabinet I scraper is unsurpassed for smoothing andflattening a woodsurface before finishing. For eithertype of scraper, sharpening is a four-step process, shown beginning on page 47. First,the edges of the scraper are filed square, then honed,and finallv turned overinto a burr anda hook (page 40. Youcanproducetheburr andthehook in two steps with a standard like the one burnisher, shown below, or create thehookin one operation with a variable burnisher (photo,left).The result is a cuttingedge that should be capable of slicing paperthin curlsof woodfrom a workoiece.

Honinga handscraper issimple work with thehelpof thevariable burnisher shown at left.Thedevice a carfeatures biderod mounted within thewoodbody. Aknob on thetopadjusts theangle of precise therod,providing control of the burnishing angle, whilethejig is run back andforth overthecuttingedge.


trol than a hand scraper

Burniaher Formathe fine burr and hookon the cutting edgeof a ecraperafter honin4. Koundmodeleare ueuallyuaedfor curvedecraperoand trianqular modda for rectan4ular gcrapers;tri-burntaherehowncombinea round,




theedges square 1 Filing I Secure thescraper in a vise, edge up,witha wood block ononeside to keep it rigid. Clamp a millbastard filein a jointer commercial saw andpress thejointer f irmly against pressure onesideof thescraper. Exert moderate asyoumake passes several back andforthalong theedge of thetool (above) untiltheexisting hook disappears andtheedge is flat.Turn thescraper over in thevise andrepeat theprocess fortheother edge.

r) Honing theedges Z- Secure a combination sharpening stone f ine-sroe upona work surface withcleats andlubricate it. Pressing thescraper (above) flatonthestone, rubeach face witha circular motion produced until anyroughness byfiling disappears. Next, hold thescraper upright andslide theedges back andforthdiagonally across thestone untilthey aresmooth withsharp corners. Tofinish, again slide theface lightly over thestone to remove anyDurrs.

theedges Q Burnishing r-,1Wioe a tinvamount of oil ontothe eage oi thesciaper to reduce friction between theburnisher andthescraper. Start to forma hook on each cutting edge of thescraper by laying thescraper flat on a work surface withanedge extending offthetable, thenruntheburnisher back (left), andforthalong the edge exerting pressure. strong downward Turn the scraper over andburnish theedge onthe other face. Now burnish theother cuttins edge thesame way.



Turning thehook h es c r a p e erd g e upinthe S e c u rte vise a l i t t l em o r e o i l o n t oi t s a n dw i p e e , ake e d g eH . o l d i ntg h eb u r n i s h l e rv e lm a fewpasses along theedge in onedirect i o nu n t i l t h ee d g e s w e l ls l i g h t l y . pressure Apply moderate to turnthe edge outward on oneside(nght). Then holdthe burnisher sothatthehandle is 10"to 15"above thehorizontal andcontinue to burnish until theedge turns over inioa hook. Toforma hook on theother (below), repeat the sideof theedge process withthescraper turned around you in thevise. Thegreater the pressure Turn apply, thebigger the hook. the scraper over in thevise andturnthe hooks ontheopposite edge.


theedge 1 Filing I A l t h o u gih t se d g e isbeveled a, is in c a b i n est c r a p e r sharpene dm u c h wayasa hand the same scraper. Start byfiling thebevel, thenpolish the bevel (step 2) andturnover a hook(steps 3 and4. Remove theblade from thecabinetscraper by loosening thethumbholding it in place. screws Clamp the blade beveled-edge up in a vise between pads. twowood Then runa bastard mill f i l ea l o n g t h e b e v e lu , sing a combinaperiodically tionsquare to check thatthe remains angle a|45" (right).



r') Polishing thebevel Z. Secure a sharpening stone to a work in the illustration surface; at left,a diamond stone is shown in a sharpening box. Lubricate thestone, thenholdthescraper blade flat-side down andslide the blade pattern in a circular to remove anyburr formed byfiling. Next, turntheblade over sothe bevel is flushonthestone and repeat to polish the bevel. A fewpasses should besufficient, Usethecombinationsquare to helpyoumaintain the bev1). el angleat45' (step

Burnishing thecutting edge Hold thescraoer blade bevel down on a worksurface withthecutting edge overhanging thetable. Wipe some oilonthe edge and,holding a burnisher at a slight pass angle to the blade, the rodback andforthacross its flat edge(below). pressure Apply strong downward forming a hook onthecutting edge.



Forming thehook S e c u rt e h eb l a d e b e v eu l pin a machinist's vise andapply a little more oilon it. Holding theburnisher in both pull hands flush against the45" bevel, yourbody; maintain thetooltoward con(above). pressure stant downward Gradually tilt thehandle of theburnisher until therodis at angle of about 15' t o t h eb e v e T l .h i s w i l lc o m p l e t h ee hook onthecutting edge.

lm lllr ilfi lllilll llll ull llllltl filt lltllll llll ]xl lll] lllr l]lr I]lJ
Mainlaining lhe ao r rect burniohing angle llolding a burnieher aNNhe ?roper anqleie NhekeyNoburniohinq Nhe bevel of a cabinelecraper. Ao a vieualquide, ueea proNractor and a equare Nomarka lineat, a 45' anqle on the wall facinqyouwhenyou A do Nheburniehinq. markat LocaNebhe in eyelevel direcbly yourviee. linewibh Ao,you VaeeN,he ,bur-, n i s h ea r lonqNhebevel, lry to keep Lherod Varwiththe line allel on Nhe wall,



in thissec1-h. handtoolsfeatured I tion ofthe chaoter areasdiverse as the individualtasksneeded to work a standing treeinto a piece of furniture. They rangefrom rough to fine-axe to spokeshave, an implementmost often usedto whittle a workoiece to its final form. For the sharpener, however, all these toolsshare feature: Theyaresingleone bladedtools that rely on a correctly angled bevelto cut wood properly. The followingpages will showyou how to honeandpolisheach ofthe toolsshown below. The first step in the process involves smoothingawaydefects and restoring the bevelon the blade, if the cuttingedge requires it. Thiscanbedone grinderasyou woulda plane on a bench blade(page 42)or ona wet/drygrinder (photo, right). Toprolong blade life,grind onlywhatis required to restore theedge. Also,be carefi.rl not to overheat theblade; thiscandestroy thetemperof themetal.Oneadvantage of thewet/drygrinder is thatyou do not have to interruptthe grindingperiodically to cooltheblade. The water-bathed wheelautomatically takes care ofthis concern.
A wet-dry grinder touchesup an ax blade. To createa uniform bevelacross the blade,it is important to hold the bladesquareto thegrindingwheel and at a constant angle.


A curved drawknife typically ueedto ohapea workpieceafLer adztn1;bladeia beveledon outer eide only Adzea Curvedehapingtoole for rou7hinq out hollowed workpiecea:hollowin4 adze (left) ie beveledon outeide ed4e

Spokeahavea Metal flat-face model (top) emoothe and ahapeaflat or convexaurfacee; woodenapokeehave (bottom) ie a traditional tool featuring a low cuttinq an4le for ehapinqend qrain. Eoth are puehedor pulled with the qrain

Hewing hatchet For rou4h ahapinq4reen wood:beveledon one eide only for etraiqht cuttinq

Drawknife Ueedto debark qreen wood loq aectioneand ehapeoLock; bladeie ueuallybeveled on one eide only for otraight cuttin4




Sharpening a wooden spokeshave blade Remove the blade from the handle bypinching thetangs that protrude through thehandle andpushing them downward. For is heldupside down fromits usual sharpening, theblade cutis,withthetangs facing rather tingposition-that down than up.To prevent thetangs fromcatching onyour work surface during sharpening, setyour sharpening stone atop a wood block to provide thenecessary clearance. Holding theblade

bythetangs, setits bevel flat onthestone. Because the blade is longer thanthewidth of thestone, hold thecutting edge diagonally asyouslide thebevel back andforth onthestone. Repeat withtheblade angled theother way. Repeat again with theblade held straight thesharpening is combbove).0nce plete, turntheblade over andhone thef latside to remove the process. burr formed bythesharpening

Honing a metal spokeshave blade Toremove fromthe handle, theblade loosen thescrew in the middle of thehandle. Setup a benchstone ona work surface; a water-lubricated diamond stone in a sharpening boxis shown (above, guide above. lnstall the blade in a commercial honing

left)andhone thecutting edge asyouwould a plane blade (page pass 43I Toflatten thesole of a flat-soled spokeshave, the (above, sole back and forth along a medium-grit benchstone right). Continue until themetal has uniform sheen.



Honing a drawknife in a onehandle of thedrawknife Secure vise withtheblade Ievel and machinist's facing lubricate a fine thebevel up.Then a combination benchstone-in thiscase, along thelength stone-and rubthestone (left), motion using a circular of thebevel, ontheprimary bevTohone a microbevel of thestone slightly. el,adjust theangle ontheflatside Finally, make a fewpasses of theblade to remove anvburrformed bysharpening.


Honing aninshave isfacsothecutting edge to a work surface Clamp theinshave to hone theedge. Start above. Use a slipstone ingup,asshown witha Honing an adze one. Work stone andprogress to a finer witha rough-grit vise, a ss h o w n a b o v eW . rap a Secure t h e a d z ei n a b e n c h ontheblade. shine develops circular motion until a uniform a dowelwhose diameter closely to remove anyburr. sheetof emerypaperaround a fewstrokes Give theflatside of theblade Hone thecutting edge polish m a t c h etsh e c u r v e o f t h e a d z eb l a d e . witha leather strop issharp, thebevel theblade 0nce (page the length of the bevel. a b a c k - a n d - f o rm th otion along witha fewpasses u s i n g 37),f inishing compound andpolishing w i t h a s l i p s t o nte o remove any lf theinshave H o n e t h e f l a t s i d eo f t h e b l a d e theburr. oftheblade to remove ontheflatside side. eo n e theother side. b u r r .l f t h e a d z eh a sa k n i f e - e d gh sides-hone theother on both hasa knife-edse-beveled




grinder Using a bench youhave Once sharpened the blade of a polish roughing orshaping tool, thebevel andremove anyburrformed bytheprogrinder. cess onthefeltwheel of a bench Fora metal spokeshave blade, impregnate thewheel withpolishing compound andolace thebevel of theblade onthe (above). trailing edge of thewheel Move theblade side to side to exoose theentire bevel to thewheel. Bufftheblade only enough to remove the burr, using a light touch to avoid rounding theedge. Run thewhole length of thebevel back and forth across thewheel to oolish it uniformly. Repeat onthef latside of the blade. Test thecutting edge forsharp(page ness on a piece of softwood 44).

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?HO? TI?
Choooinq a durable axhandle Deepite the availability of a vdriety of oynlheXiccompounde, wooden-handled axeeremainVoVular, They are liqhLand etrronq, and feature a well-balanced feel, Theolren7th of the handle depends on lhe orienNalion of the qrainto lhe axhead. Choose an axwilh a handle that has lhe qrainrunninq parallel to Ihe cuLNin4 edqe (bottom); handleswiNh the grainrunning perp endicular (top) to Lhefacd tend Lo breakmoreeaeily.


largely superseded drillshave f, lectric for boring holes in the Lhand tools most modern woodshoo. Nevertheless. stillkeep braces andhand woodworkers these toolshave drills handy, because not readily dupliunique capabilities asworking cated by power tools, such in tight quarters or boringa holeto a precise depth. Maintaining these hand tools ismainquestion keeping their moving ly a of parts To clean andsharpening theirbits. a brace, unscrew thechuck shell clean andremove thejaws, asshown atright. procedure you thesame cleaning as Use plane parts wouldfor the of a bench pages a0).Theremaining of this @age howto sharpen auger chapter describe andspoon bits.

an essential Cleaningthe chuckis abrace. element of maintaining Theexploded viewof a brace chuck in thephotoat right shows the parts that require cleaningthe jaw. shelland thetwo-piece


Cuttinq edqe,

or lip

Auger bit Thecuttinq edqe-or lip-bitee, pulle,and quideo the the apure acore the outline of bit into the workpiece; the hole so t'hat' the lip doee not t'ear the woodfibere




thecutting edge 1 Filing I Secure the bit in a bench vise. thenusea needle fileto sharpen the (You cutting edge. canalsousea specialized auger bitfileforthejob.)Hold the file on the leading edge andmake a fewstrokes along the surface. Repeat withtheother cutting edge.

Filing thespur
Position the bit upright in thevise. Holding thefileflushagainst theinside edge of onespur,make several strokes (right)unlil youproacross the surface ducean even shine on the spur.Repeat withthe other spur.



from thespurs Removing burrs

h o n eo n Holding a v e r yf i n e d i a m o n d

edge of theoutside surface, slide a work to remove onthestone oneof thebitspurs (right). by sharpening anyburrformed (You f ine of very canalsousea piece and light touch Work with a cloth.) emery remove the burr, strokes to enough use only y o u d i a m e ter. r e d u c i n t g h e b i t r i s k or spur. with the other Reoeat


a spoon bit Sharpening i sg completed, ishoned u n i f o r m l0 yn . c et h es h a r p e n i n In the nose ona benchstone. easily Spoon bitscanbesharpened f e l t w h e e o l fa bench t h e n o s e o n t h e sides of both in itsown sharpen- o o l i s h stone above, at left,a diamond illustration p o l i s h i n g ad nd, g r i n d e r . c o m poun w h e e w l i t h lmpregna tt he e onthe of thebit'snose theoutside Holding ingboxis shown. to front of the nose lightly touch the thebitvertically, motion. holding witha semicircular thesurface rock thebitacross stone, (above, side. Repea| with the back right). the wheel thatthe to ensure throughout angle Hold thebit at thesame



Still,therearetimeswhenyou tool, or shaping ikeanycutting parshould turn to a professional, a powertool with a dull blade have if blades and bits ticularly performwell.A dull or bit cannot lost their or have chipped edges to skate offaworkdrill bit will tend result of overgrinding. temper as a into piece, rather thanbitingdeanly mustbeprerouter bitsalso Some or router bit A sawblade thewood. thatis balanced, something cisely may with bluntedcutting edges in fu a to achieve the shop. difficult And woodthat is surburn stock. good idea to it is a rule of thumb, jointer with or planer faced by a to a your bits and blades send out knives maybediffiunsharpened periodically, or service sharpening cultto glueup or finish. amajor timetheyneed everysecond In addition to cuttingandshapyou have sharpOnce sharpening. blades well-sharpened ingproperly, properly, it should ened an edge includbenefits, andbis offerother lastfor a longtime-the occasionsupthe metalguidebloclcs to replace and tear onmotors, Designed ingreduced wear isallthatit takes to maingtide alhoning plied with mostbandsaw6heat-resistant life fatigue, andlonger less operator tain it. prolongbladelife. Madefrom a mnhelp for theblades andbitsthemselves. blocl<s the Thepages that followcover resinthat is itsown lubritoolblades graphite-impregnated Manufacturers of power for sharpening techniques than basic bloclcs lastlonger nonmetallic cant,these recommend sendandbis generally powertool blades andbits in the to theblade, andcanbe setcloser to aprofessional metalblocl<s ingtheirproducts practice job With a little andthe shop. cuts. and controlled allowingmoreaccurate the However, sharpening service. you keep the can right accessories, in theworlahop. canoftenbedone rememrazor-sharp. But and bis ofyourblades cuttingedges of howto sharpen a widevariety Thischapter will showyou starts with thequalityof thesteel edge always cutters berthata keen bitsandshaper power andbits,fromrouter toolblades choose bits (page sharpening, always of (page 79).In a pinch, itself;for longlife andease 62)to jointer andplanerknives (page made fromthebest steel. together 76). andblades can besoldered band sawblade even abroken

grindgrinderwith thehelpof a commercial on a bench A wist bit is sharpened Originallydestgned ingjig that holdsthebit at theproperangle. for themetalastheuseofpower wo*ing industry,twistbitstooktheirplacein woodworking and accurately. periodicsharpening cleanly to boreholes grew.Theyneed tools



Drill bits (pa7e 65)

Planer knivea

Molding head and knivea (paqe 64)

Knife honing guide and planer whilethey are atill in cutterhead;diamond-ahaped cuttinq etone aharpenawhileaauare gtone removeo the burr from thi face of the knife Commercial reain aolvent (page 71) Cleanapitch, qum,qawduat, and reain from circular aaw bladee and router bits

aaw blades (paae 70) '

Jointer knivea (paqe B5)


Drill bit grinding attachment (page 58) Holdo%- to %-tnch-diameter twiat bita for oharpeninq; mountedto workaurfaceand ueedwrtha bencharinder Router bit eharpener A boron-carbide aLoneuaedto aharpencarbon ateel, htqh-epeed eteeLand carbide-tipped router bita; 4iveea finer finiah than dtamondftleaof eaualarit. Handle featurea maqnifyinq leno for checkin4 eharpneee

Drill bit-aharpening jig (page 66) Toweredby an electric drill, Lhie jiq eharpenahi7h-apeed ateel twiet bita and carbide maaonrybite up to 'l inch rn drameLer; holder eecureabit. aL properdepth and angleaqainet eharpjiq eningotone inoide Circular saw blade-settinq jig (page 72) in benchvieeto joint and eet the f,eethof circu' Clamped tn Iar sawe up Lo 12 incheein diameter. Dladera locked ji7 and rotated aqainet file to jointteeth; Leethare eet by tapprngthem wttha hammeraqainaLmandrel


Knife-aetting jigs (page 79) jiq ueedto holdjointer Magnetic or planerknivea at Lhecorrect heiqht for tnetallaLion in the machine, Jiqe for planer (below) are ueedtn paire for kniveeup ji7 for jotnter to 20 tnchealong; (ri7hL)aete kniveeup to B inchea in lenqLh, and can be extended with a third bar for kniveeup to 14 incheelonq


Jointerlplaner-knife jig (page 79) aharpenling jointer and planer Uaedto aharpen knivea: knifeie clampedtnjtq and rear ecrewadjueLeLo hold knife at properanile aaainaL ^l

Circular saw bladeeharpeningjig (page 72) MounLed on workbench to eharpenctrcularsaw bladea after qrindinqand oettinq: blade ie held injiq whiletaper file ta drawnacroos the Leeth at LheproperptLchand anqle


Secured in abenchvise, oneofthe cutting edges of a shaper cutterreceives its with a fine diamond final sharpening hone.Theprocess is a two-step operation, beginning with a mediumhone(far left). Because theyoperate at highspeeds, dull routerbitsand shaper cutters oyerheat quickly. Cutters that areproperly sharpened makesmoother, moreaccurate cuts.


Sharpening theinside faces gum,or sawdust Clean anypitch, offthe (page bit witha commercial resin solvent 71),thenusea ceramic or diamond sharpening fileto hone the inside faces of the bit'scutting A coarse-grit edges. file is best if a lotof material needs to beremoved; usea f iner-grit f ilefora light touch-up. Holding theinside face of one cutting edge flatagainst theabrasive surface, rubit back andforth(right). Repeat withtheothercuttingedge. Hone bothinside faces equally to maintain thebalance of thebit.Take care notto filethebevel behind thecutting edge.




thepilot bearing 1 Removing you I Before cansharpen a piloted router bit, youneed to pilot remove the bearing. Usea hexwrench to loosen the (above). bearing

"flr1lf"lflf'fir Ilf"llf 1lr"1lf'1lf1ll-1ll-llflflftlt-1flftll'1flr1lr

A storage raakfor ehaper auttero thaoer cullers are ofEen sold in cumbersome \\X p a c k a g i n q t h a l c ac no n \ tribule Io clulter. Orqanize \\ ' your ehaVer bite with a ehopmade otroraqe rack likethe one ehownhere.The rack will keeo lhe aullero visible and Drill a oeriesof holee accessible. in a boardand qluedowelo in lhe holesLo holdlhe culf,ere.To Vrevenf, lhe cutling edqeo from nickinq eacholher,uoeyour larqeet-diameter cutler ao a quideto opacinqlhe dowelholeo.lfyou planio hanqlhe rack on a wall,borethe holesatra oliqht anqleeo that,the cutters willnol olip off the dowels.

r') Sharpening thebit L Sharoen the bit witha ceramic or diamond sharpening fileasyouwould a non-piloted bit (page 62);Ihenre-install the bearing withthehexwrench. lf the bearing notrotate does smoothly, spray a little b e a r i nlg ubrican ot ni t . l f i t i s worn outor damaged, replace it.



Sharpening molding knives Thecutting edges of tablesawor radial armsawmolding knives areeasy to touch up or sharpen while theyaremounted in the molding head. Clamp thehead in a vise withoneof theknives bench clear of (above)to the bench, thenusea slipstone hone its inside faceasyouwould a router bit (page 62l. Reposition the headin the vise to hone theremaining knives. Use thesame number of strokes to hone each knife sothatyouremove anequal amount of metal fromthemall.andmaintain their identical shapes andweights. Analternainvolves tivemethod removing the knives (right) witha hexwrench andsharpening themon a flatoilstone,



grinder Using a bench Holding thebit between theindex finger and thumb of onehand, setit onthe grinder's your toolrest andadvance it toward thewheel until index finger contacts thetoolrest. Tilttheshaft of thebit down andto the leftsothatoneof (above). thecutting edges, or lips,is square to thewheel Rotate thebit clockwise to grind thelipevenly. Periodically check theangle of thecutting edge, as shown in thephoto at right, andtryto maintain theangle at about 60".Repeat forthesecond Tokeep cutting edge. bits sharp, use them at thespeed recommended bythemanufacturer. Wipe them occasionally withoilto prevent rust.

To boreclean holes,the cutting edges of twist bits shouldbe angledat about 60". As you sharpena bit, periodicallycheck the anglewith a protractor.Butt one of the cuttirtg edges against the baseof theprotractorand swivelthe arnt flush againstthe sideof the bit.



jig Using a commercial Setupthejig following themanufacturer's instructions. For themodel shown, secure anelectric drill to thejig;thedrillwillrotate thesharpening stone inside thedevice. Adjust theangle block to theappropriate angle forthebitto besharpened andinsert gauge. thebit in thedepth Thegauge will youto secure enable thebit at thecorrect height in theholder. Fitthebit holder over IhebiI hbovd andthenuseit to remove thebit fromthegauge. Now secure thebit andholder to theangle Turn block. onthe drilland,holding it steady, slowly rotate thebit holder a full360' against thestone inside the jie tieht).Apply lightpressure; toomuch force willoverheat the bit.




theinside bevel 1 Grinding I Totouch upa Forstner bit,truethetop edge of thebit'srimwitha f ile,removing lf thebeveled anynicks. edges of thecutgrind inside tingspurs therimareuneven, themusing an electric drillf itted witha grinding rotary attachment. Secure thebit grind in a bench vise asshown and theedges (right). untiltheyareall uniform

r) Sharpening lifters thechip I tlsea sinsle-cut millbastard fileto lightly f iletheinside faces of thecutters. Hold thef ilef latagainst one of thecutknown ters-also aschiplifters-and make (left). a fewstrokes along thesurface RepeaI w i t ht h eo t h e c r u t t e rF . inist hh ej o bb y honing thebeveled inside edges therim witha slipstone.




thecutting spurs 1 Filing I Secure thebit upright in a bench vise anduse a triangular fileto hone the push leading edge, orface, of each spur(above). File witheach stroke, towards point, thebit's brad tilting thehandle ofthefiledown slightly. Then filethetrailingedge, or back, of each spur thesame way. Fileall thespurs bythesame youdo notover-file amount sothatthey remain at thesame height. Make sure thecutting spurs; theyaredesigned to be %z inchlonger thanthechiplifters.

point Filing thebrad File thechiplifters asyouwould those of (page a Forstner biI 67).Then, filethe brad(above). point untilit is sharp


thechiplifters 1 Filing I Clamp thebit upright in a bench vise andfiletheinside faces of thetwochip lifters asyouwould those of a Forstner bit (page 67). Fora brad-point bit, however, usea triangular needle file (right), honing until each cutting issharp edge andeach chiplifter is flat.



r) Filing spurs thecutting L Use theneedle fileto hone theinside Hold spurs. faces of thebit'stwocutting andf iletowards thetoolwithbothhands (rghf), spur issharp untrl each thebrad-point


Filing a spade bit vise a Secure thebit in a bench anduse single-cut millbastard filetotouch smooth edges. File onthepush upthetwocutting (\efl,tilting thehandle down slightly slroke of thecuttrng edges; to match theangle Then touch between 5" and10"istypical. of the upthecutting edges oneither side point thesame way(inset),Iaking carenot itstaoer. Donotremove toomuch to alter metal of thepoint, asthiswill at thebase weaken thebit.


a blade 1 Removing I Working at thefront of thetable, remove theinsert andwedge a piece of scrap wood under a blade tooth to prevent theblade from turning. Use thewrench supplied withthesaw to (Most loosen thearbor nut(/eff). table saw arbors have reverse threads; the nutis loosened in a clockwise direction.) Finish loosening thenutbyhand, making sure thatit does notfallinto themachine. Carefully lifttheblade and washer offthearbor. Carbide{ipped professionblades arebest sharpened ally; buthigh-speed steel models can besharpened in theshop(page 72). A worn or damaged blade should be discarded andreplaced.

The commercial bladecarriershown aboveis a handy storagedevicethat will protectyour circularsaw blades from damageand make it easierto transportthem. This modelaccommodates uD to ten L]-inch blades.

r) Installing a blade Z- StiOe theblade pointing onto thearbor withitsteeth in thedirection of blade (toward rotation thefront of thetable). Insert theflange andnutandstart tightening grip byhand. Tofinish tightening, thesaw blade witha rag anduse thewrench supplied withthesaw(above). Donotusea piece of wood asa wedge, asthiscould result in overtightening thenut.




saw blade Removing a portable circular surface Setthesaw on itsside ona work housing facing up.Retract withtheblade guard gripping and, the thelower blade nutwith witha rag, loosen thearbor blade supplied withthe saw(right). thewrench theouter washer, then Remove thenutand from . sw i t h slide t h eb l a d e t h ea r b o rA be la s a wb l a d e s c, arbide-tipp dd e s table bg u,t shoulb d es e n o t u tf o rs h a r p e n i n types canbesharpened high-speed steel place Toinstall a blade, it on in theshop. p o i n t i n ig nthe t h ea r b o w r i t hi t st e e t h rotation In . stallthe directio on fblade themby washer andthenut,andtighten withtherag, use Holding theblade hand. t h en u ta n a d d i t i o n a l t h ew r e n cth ogive quarter turn.Donotovertighten.


S o a k i ntg h eb l a d e re t h eb l a d e using a commercia l sin Clean ( .C o m m e r c io av l en cleaner t, ursolvent p e n t i n eo , r a solution o f h o t w a t e rw i t h F o rs t u b b o r n ammonia c a na l s ob e u s e d . ) p i t c ha n dg u md e p o s i t s s,o a k theblade pan in a shallow i n t h ec l e a n i na gg e n t bd rush to clean a n d u s ea b r a s s - b r i s t l e the teeth (/eff).




theteeth 1 Jointing I T os h a r p etn h et e e t h ofa circula sra wb l a d ei ,n s t a t l lh e jig following blade in a commercial saw-setting themanufacturer's instructions. For themodel shown, theblade teeth should bepointing counterclockwise. Install thejointing head onthe jig, butting itsfile up against thesaw teeth. Then tighten the thumbscrew until theteeth drag against thefile.Tojoint the teeth sothey areallthesame length, clamp thejig in a bench (above). vise androtate ihe blade against thefileclockwise After each rotation, tighten thethumbscrew slightly andrepeat until thetip of each tooth has been filed flat.

r) Setting theteeth Z. Remove thejointing head from thejig andinstall thesettinghead. Also remove thejig from thevise andsetit onthe benchtop. Adjust thehead fortheappropriate amount of set, orbend. Using a pinpunch and ball-peen hammer, lightly strike (above). every second tooth against thesetting head Remove theblade andreverse theposition of thesetting head. Reinstall p o i n t i nig t h eb l a d e w i t ht h et e e t h n t h eo p p o s i t de irection, youskipped, andrepeat fortheteeth again striking every second tooth.

Sharpening theteeth Once thesaw teeth have been iointed andset, filethem using a commercial sawjig.Mount sharpening thejigto a workbench andinstall theblade loosely onthejig so theblade turns. Following themanufacturer'sinstructions, rotate thetriangular file in thefileholder andadjust theguide arm pitch to match therequired andangle of the saw teeth. Starting witha tooth thatis pointing totheright, filethecutting edge byslidingthefileholder along thetopof thejig (right). RoIaIe theblade counterclockwise, skipping one tooth, andrepeat. Sharpen all theright-pointing teeth thesame way. Adjust thetriangular fileand theguide arm to work ontheleft-pointing teeth andrepeat, sharpyouskipped. ening alltheteeth


Securedbetweentwo wood blocksin a benchvise,the teethof a band saw with a triangular bladeare sharpened can alsobe honed file. Band saw blades while they are installedon the machine. periodiThe teethshouldbe sharpened cally and set after every three to five In fact, a propefly honed sharpenings. and setband saw bladewill perform benerthan a brand new one.


theblade 1 Gleaning (above), pullit away in thedirecrags twoclean between sawdust and blade blade, remove a band saw sharpening I Before the cutting to avoid snagging its normal rotation yourelease tension tionopposite the blade sure fromit. Make wood chrps material. in the holding the edges Then, offthewheels. slipping theblade f irstbefore



theblade forsharpening O Installing L You c a ns h a r p ea nb a n d s a wb l a d e either page on a bench vise(photo, 73)or onthemachine. Toinstall theblade onthe band sawfor sharpening, mount it with pointing theteeth in thedirection oppoposition-that sitetheircutting is,facing up instead of down. Turn theblade inside o u ta n dg u i d e i t t h r o u gth h et a b l e slot (right), holding you it withtheteethfacing andpointing up.Sliptheblade between theguide blocks andin thethroat column slot, thencenter it onthewheels. Make guide sure theblade assembly is raised as high above thetable asit willgo.

frladequide aeeembly-

theblade Q Sefting r-J lf theteeth need to beset,adjust a commercial saw setto t h es a m e p e ri n c ha st h eb a n d n u m b eo rf t e e t h s a wb l a d e . Secure theblade in a handscrew andclamp thehandscrew to thesaw table. Starting at thehandscrew-end posiof theblade, tionthefirsttooth thatis bent to therightbetween theanvil andpunch block of thesaw setandsqueeze thehandle to set thetooth(above). your Work wayupto theguide assembly, settingall theteeth thatarebent to theright. Then turnthesaw setover andrepeat fortheleftward-bent teeth. Continue setting alltheblade teeth section youdonotomit bysection. Toensure anyteeth, youwork mark each section onwithchalk.

Sharpening theblade Sharpen theteeth yousetthem, thesame way working on one blade section at a time. Hold a triangular fileat a 90"angle to theblade andsharpen each tooth thatis setto theright, g u i d i nt g h ef i l ei n t h es a m e d i r e c t i ot n h a tt h et o o t h i ss e t (above). Then sharpen the leftward-bent teeth thesame way. Use thesame number of strokes on each tooth. Once all the teeth have been sharpened, remove theblade, turnit inside outandreinstall it forcutting, pointing withtheteeth down. (page Tension andtrack theblade 123.)



ilil lll lllllllJ lllJ lll1 lllitjlj lllllllt lllJ llliilu llrJ ilIj ilti llJ ]ltt
Rounding a band oaw blade To helozrevenN a newbandsaw from bindinq in blade Lhe kerf of curved culs, usea silicon- ] without I llill carbide sbone itE back back i iilll oilto Lo round rounditE illl,' f

\ edqe a , e e h o w n h e r e .I l to r1llll ANNach the stone handle. ll\lli:ir a ehoV-made r;, , Teneio an n dI r a c k t h e l l l t l ;l
blade(pa1e123),f,hen turn on Nhesaw,Wearinq holdNheetone eafety qoqqleo,

a q a i n o t l h e b a c k o f t h e b l a d ea n d

pivotthe eLone. Turnoff the eawafNera f ew minutee. olowly the otonewill ln additrion Norounding the backof Lheblade, t'oqeNher. where trhebladeendeare welded smoolh any bumpe

guide blocks Installing heat-resistant guide your Replacrng band saw's standard will withheat-resistant blocks blocks more lengthen blade lifeandpromote cuts. Remove the accurate andcontrolled a hex wrench to original blocks byusing them to the loosen thesetscrews securing (above). guide Slip out assembly upper replaceold blocks and insert the the with Pinch theblocks together ments. y o ut rh u m b i n d e f x i n g e u r n t i t lhey and (You can also almost touch theblade. beusea slipof paper to setthespace guide blade). tween the blocks andthe Tighten Thefrontedges thesetscrews. blocks should bejustbehind of theguide gullets. Toreposition theblocks, theblade andturntheir loosen their thumbscrew or retract adjustment knob to advance and theblocks. Tighten thethumbscrew assemrepeat the process fortheguide below thetable. blylocated




thebroken ends oftheblade 1 Grinding I A broken band sawblade canbe repaired in theshop. Start bycreating a 20' bevel oneach endof theblade using (left). grinder a bench Asshown in the inset, thebevels will increase thecontact area between thetwoblade ends when youjointhem, strengthening thejoint. Then use a piece of emery cloth to roughen bothblade ends; sand thesurfaces untiltheirbluish color disappears. This willhelp thesoldering alloy adhere to the properly. blade surface

jig uptheblade in thesoldering ! Setting jig 4- Secure a commercial soldering in a machinist's vise. Next, usea brush to spread fluxon the beveled ends of the blade and%inch in from each end. Position the blade in thejig sothetwobeveled (right). ends arein contact Make sure the blade is tightandstraight in thejig.



Soldedng theblade ends Heat thejointwitha propane torch, thenunroll a length of the solder and touch thetip to thejoint-notto the flame. Continue heating thejoint(above) untilthesolder covers thejointcompletely. Turnoff the torchand let the jointcool.

Filing thejoint Once thejointhascooled, remove the blade fromthejig andwash off the fluxwithwarm water. lf there is anexcess of solder ontheblade, file it off carefully witha single-cut bastard mill file (left) untilthejointis nothicker thantherest of the blade, lf thejointseparates, reheat pullit apart, it to meltthesolder, and repeat steps 2 through 4.




Twisting theblade your Pressing right thumb f irmly against theblade, twist your it by pivoting righthand upward. Theblade willbegin to formtwo loops(above).

theblade 1 Holding I Before storing a band sawblade, remove anyrustfromit withsteel wool andwipeit withanoilyrag. Then, wearing safegrasp ty goggles andgloves, the blade withthe teethfacing you;point your away from leftthumb upandyour right thumb down(above).

Coiling theblade pausing Without or releasing the blade, keep rotating it in pivoting yourlefthand thesame direction while in theoppositedirection. Theblade willcoilagain, forming a thirdloop (above). pipecleaners, Secure theblade withstring, or plastic twistties.



jigsholdsa planer A pair of magnetic knifeat thecorrect height in thecutterhead,allowingtheknife to befixed in placeaccurately. Suchjigstakethe phase guesswork out of thetrickiest of planerknives-installing sharp ening themproperly. Periodic sharpening ofplanerknives is essential. Stock that is surfaced by dull knives is dfficult to glueand does not accept finishes well.A similar jig is available jointer knives. for setting


theknives 1 Cleaning I Jointer knives canbe honed while theyarein thecutterhead. Start fromthe bycleaning them. Shiftthefence away tables andmove theguard outof theway. Making sure thejointrotate er is unplugged, thecutterhead witha stickuntiloneof

point theknives is at thehighest in itsrotation. Then, holding thecutterhead steady withonehandprotected bya rag,usea smallbrass-bristled brush soaked in solvent to clean the knife (above). Repeat fortheother knives.



Aligning the infeed tabte L withtheknives Cuta prece of Yrinchplywood to the width sn f e e d o f t h ej o i n t e r ' i t a b l ea n ds e c u r e it t o t h e t a b l ew i t h d o u b l e - f a c e td a p e .T h e plywood will protect the tablefromscratchy o uh o n e e sw h e n t h e k n i v e sN . exta , djust the infeed tableso that the beveled edge of the knives i s a t t h e s a m el e v e la s t h e . e ta s t r a i g h t t o p o f t h e p l y w o o dS board on the plywood and across the cutterhead a n d ,h o l d i n g t h e c u t t e r h e asd teady with the beveled e d g eo f o n e k n i f ep a r a l l etlo t h et a b l e , l o w et rh e i n f e e d t a b l eu n t i lt h e b o t t o mo f t h e b o a r dc o n t a c t s the bevel (left).Usea woodshimto wedse the cutterhead in olace.


Honing theknives
S l i d ea c o m b i n a t i os nt o n ee v e n l V

across thebeveled edge of theknife(right). Move thestone witha side-to-side motion until thebevel isflatandsharp, avoiding contact withthecutterhead. Reoeat the process to hone theremaining knives.




.|i tii driillllj ,Ij,jjiJL tJl|t ii]l,ll il[ lllllli lilllil 'ii
thifting knives for longer life To Vrolonq the life of a set ol jointer knives havebeen LhaN nicked, loosen Lhe tocK 5crew6 Oecuringoneknife and slidethe knife
aboul'/a inch in eiNher directrion.Iiqhten lhe lock screwe and carefully rotaLe trhe cuLler-

I T o g i v ej o i n t e r knives a full-f ledged sharpening re , movt eh e mf r o mt h e c u t terhead U . nplug t h em a c h i n e s,h i f tt h e fence away f r o mt h e t a b l e sa , n dm o v e t h eg u a r d o u t o f t h e w a y .U s ea s m a l l w o o ds c r a pt o r o t a t et h e c u t t e r h e a d u n t i lt h e l o c ks c r e w s e c u r i n g o n eo f theknives a r ea c c e s s i b lb ee t w e e t n he t a b l e sC . o v etrh e e d g eo f t h e k n i f ew i t h t o u rh a n d st.h e nu s ea a r a g l o p r o t e cy wrenchto loosen eachscrew(above). L i f tt h e k n i f ea n dt h e r e t a i n i nw gedge outof the cutterhead.

theknives 1t Removing -



r-) Cleaning theretaining wedge L Clean anypitch orgumfromtheretaining wedge using a (above, brass-bristled brush dipped in solvent left).ff theface of theretaining wedge thatbutts against theknife is pitted or youmay rough, have trouble setting theknife height when rein-

s t a l l i ntg h ek n i f eF . l a t t etn h ef a c e o f t h ew e d g a e sy o uw o u l d (page thesole of a plane 40) untilit is smooth. Alsousethe brush to clean theslotin thecutterhead thathouses theretainingwedge andknife(above, right).

jig theknife ina sharpening ? Installing r-J Use a c o m m e r c ik an l ife-sharpening j i g t o s h a r p etn r n i f eC h ej o i n t ek . enter t h ek n i f e i n t h ej i g b e v e u l pa n d clamp it in place bytightening thewing nuts; use yourhand(right). a ragto protect Make sure thattheblade is parallel withthelip of thejig.lf theknife does notextend out farenough from thejig,insert a wood shim between theknife andtheiipclamns



Sharpening theknife Seta sharpening stone on a flat,smooth work surface; in the illustrations on this page, waterstone a diamond-grit is shown. To adjust the jig sothe beveled edge of thejointer knifeis flat on thestone, turnthejig over, rest the bevel on the stone, andturnthewingnutsat theother endof thejig the stone-in this case withwater-and hbovd. Lubricate

slide theknife back andforth. Holding theknob-end of thejig flatonthework surface andpressing the knife on thestone, (below). pattern move thejig in a f igure-eight Continue until thebevel is flat andsharp. Carefully remove the knife fromthe jig andhone theflatside of theknife to remove anyburr formed process. in thesharpening



the knifein thejointer R Reinstalling g edge i n t h ec u t : , f I n s e rtth e r e t a i n i nw t e r h e a dc e n t e r i n i ct i n t h e s l o tw i t h i t s grooved edgefacingup. Withthe beveled edge of theknife facing t h eo u t f e e d table, slip it betweet nh e r e t a i n i n w g edge and the frontedgeof the slot,leaving the beve l p r o t r u d i nfg r o mt h e c u t t e r h e a d .

theknife height fi Setting theheight of theknife using a L,f Adjust jig (page commercial 85),or dothejobby hand, asshown at right. Cover theedge of ly w i t ha r a ga n dp a r t i a l t t h ek n i f e ighten lock each screw o nt h e r e t a i n i n w ge d g e . Usea small wooden wedge to rotate the cutterhea ud n t it l h ee d g e o f t h ek n i f e is pto i n t - a l s o a t i t sh i g h e s known a sT o p Dead Center orTDC. Then, holding thecutplace terhead stationary witha wedge, a straight hardwood board on theoutfeed table sothatit extends over thecutterhead. justbrush The knife should against theboard along t h ek n i f e 'e sn t i r e length lf . not, use jack a hex wrench to adlust theknife screws. Once t h e k n i f ei s a t t h ec o r r e ch teight, t i g h t etn h el o c k screw sn t h e r e t a i n i n g o w e d g fe ullyb , eginnin wg ith t h eo n e i nt h e center andworking outtoward theedges. Sharpen andinstall theremaining knives thesame way.




jig Using a knife-setting magnetic at rightfeatures Thejig shown rnife a tt h e arms t h a tw i l lh o l d a j o i n t ek youtighten while theretaincorrect height in Insert theknife ingwedge lock screws. it at its highandposition thecutterhead theknife asyouwould to install estpoint 84).Then mark a lineon by hand(page thecutting edge. thefence directly above jig on theoutPosition the knife-setting lineon feed table, aligning thereference i n eo nt h e t h ej i g a r mw i t ht h em a r k e ld line onthe fence, asshown. Mark another reference fence directly above thesecond te h ej i g a n d l i n eo n t h ej i g a r m .R e m o v theoutfeed table. extend thislineacross (The y o uq u i c k lp yo s i t i o n line w i l lh e l p ll knife.) t h ej i gt h en e x t i m ey o ui n s t a a aligning its Reposition thejigonthetable, ines on referenc l ie nes wrth t h em a r k eld the Then use a wrench to tishten thefence. (rEhf). lockscrews

Jointer knifeeettinq jig



installing a planer knife Removing and from Remove a olaner knife themachine knife it asyou would a jointer andsharpen (page theknife use the Bi). Toreinstall s u p p l i ew d i t ht h e k n i f e - s e t t ig nu gi d e available modmachine ora commercially on page 79. Place el liketheoneshown ru t t e r h e a ad nd t h ek n i f e i n t h e p l a n ec partially Hold the tighten thesetscrews. guide knife-setting beside oneof theseton screws sothatitstwofeetareresting on each side of theopenthecutterhead Then thesetscrew witha hex ing, adjust of theknife contacts wrench until theedge (/eff). Repeat for thebottom of theguide theremaini ngsetscrews.




typically located and recognize wherea tool mayhavea problem. Fortunately, the partsof a powpowertoolswill work betterandlast for properer tool that endurethe most abuse Ionger ifthey arecared and most often sufferdamage are ly. At its most basic,preventive thosethat are alsothe easiest to maintenance is easy to do andtakes access: the plugs, power cords, no morethan a fewminutes. At the motorbrushes, andon/offswitchendof your work day,for example, As shownbeginning getin thehabitof cleaning dustand es. on page 98, these components canbe replaced dirt from your tools.Referto the Before easilyand inexpensively. schedules on page88 for additionideas. When you undertaking a repair, however, al maintenance checkwhetherthe tool is still covthewarranty buy a newtool, register warranered by themanufacturer's and file the owner'smanualin a placeand follow all the ty. Openingup a tool that is still convenient instrucunderwarrantywill usuallyvoid operating andmaintenance A beltsander in a commercial standispaired the guarantee. tions suggested by the manufacThe decisionto repair other with a p\nuoodtruingjig to correct a router's turer. Owner'smanualstypically partsof a portable poweitool, such guides out-of-round sub-base, whichcanproduce includetroubleshooting to theproblem, install asthe motor and motor bearing, help usersrecognize and handle imprecise cuts.Tocorrect pin in therouter, your tool'sorigfor example, depends on a number malfunctions. Keep a centering drill a holein the jig to holdthepin, and turn on thesander. of factors, including your own abilinal packaging shouldyou needto ities.Unless you feelcomfortable return an item for servicing. Thenslowlyrotatethesub-base against thebelt portable round. makingan electrical Because toolsareelecuntil it isperfectly or mechanicalrepair,you arebetterofftaking tricallypowered, caringfor them is power Today's thetool to an authorized service center. If you do elect to open asmuch a matterof safety asof performance. an internalcomponent, label toolsaredesigned to insulate thi userfrom electrical ihock, up a tool to repairor replace problem canbehaz- thewiring andthepartsyou disconnect to helpyou reasseman electrical but any tool that develops provides powTheageandvalueof a tool is alsoa conThischapter illustrations of theportable ble thetool properly. ardous. The most worthwhileremedyfor a 2O-year-old in woodworking with cutawayviews sideration. er toolscommonly used The and mechanical components. drill with a burned-outmotor maybe a newdrill ratherthan of their principalelectrical partsare to helpshowyouwherethese a new motor. drawings aredesigned

hatever or theirpricerange list offeatures, all portable

A combination square confirms that theblade of a circularsawisperpendicular plate.All powersaws relyon thisalignment to thetool's base accurate cuts. To correct the adjustment, Ioosen thebevel adjustment for plateuntil thesquare knobshownin thephotoat left and tilt thebase is plate against both the and blade, then tighten the knob. flush


here areno industry-wide standards I for servicing portable powertools designed for the homeshop.Manufacturersof industrial-use oowertoolsissue maintenance schedules for theirproducts, but these toolstypically undergo heavier usethan the average homeworkshop tool.Forindustrial tools, servicing isusually scheduled every100hoursofuse andincludes a comolete Brushoverhaul. esarereplaced, bearings arecleaned and (or replaced), lubricated andthewiring, motor,andotherelectrical components arechecked and,ifnecessary, repaired. For the typical power tool in the home shop, however,maintenance schedules and requirements are less clearcut. Much depends on how a tool is used. A circularsawused by theweekend woodworkerto cut the occasional plank will obviouslyrequirelessattention thanoneused by a busycarpenter or cabinetmaker who regularly relies on f portable power Checking tools Thechart at right lists thechecks that power should be made on portable tools ona regular basis. Develop a timetable your thatsuits workhabits. Tools that areused frequently orthatgetheavy use should bechecked often. his tool to crosscut 8/4 stockand saw sheets of plywoodto manageable lengths. The chartbelowliststhe checks that shouldbemadeon manyportable power tools.Thetasks listedarestraightforward and canbe done in a matter of minutes. How oftenyou performthese checks will depend on your own needs and circumstances. As a rule of thumb, anytool that doesnot performthe way it is designed to shouldbe investigated. You can do the work yoursell but be aware that troubleshooting electrical problems in a powertool requires specialized, equipmentaswell asa sound knowledge of how to useit. If you are uncomfortable working with electricity, takethetool to an authorized service center for reoair. While toolsmadea few decades ago canbe completely disassembled, many recentmodelsfeature internalcomponentsthat arefactory-sealed andvirtu-

ally inaccessible. In sometools,for example, thebearings aremechanically pressed onto the motor spindle. Attempting to separate thebearing from themotor in such tools without theright instrument will destroy thebearing. Manufacturers claimthatsuch developments in tooltechnology prohave duced moredurable, longer-lasting products. Whilethisis no doubttrue, oneconsequence forthepower toolbuff "user-serviceable parts" of tools withno isthatrepairs can onlybecarried outby properly equipped service centers. Togetthemostfromyourtoolsand keep repairs to a minimum, refer to the tipslisted page. on theopposite Read yourowner's manual before using atool to make certain youcan operate it properly. Andnever tryto use atoolforatask for whichit isnot designed. A toolwill failwhen subjected to stress it isnotbuilt to handle.

T00t Router

MAINTENANCE Check thecollet for play andrunout (page 91) Clean thecollet andsoindle Ensure thatthesub-base is smooth andfreeof damage Check theguide rollers andblade supports forwear Check theblade clamo Check thatbase is square to blade Check theplunge mechanism for play Check theblade andspindle forwear Inspect thepins andglides Insoect thedrive belt Check thechuck bearing for play Inspect thechuck forwear platen Check thesteel andcorkpadforwear Check thedrive belt Check theendroller play fordamage or excessive Inspect thecondition of therubber onthedrive roller Lubricate thegears Check thearbor bearings Check theguard return springs Check blade alignment Check thepadforwear or splitting (onrandom-orbit Check theeccentric bearing sander) Check thepadsupport

Saber Saw

Plate Joiner

Electric Drill Belt Sander

Gircular Saw

Orbital Sander






. Read your owner's manual carefully before operating anytool. . Donotusea toolif anyof its parts inspect blades, is loose or damaged; before starting bits,andaccessories anooeration. . Keeo and blades andbitsclean discard anythatarechipped sharp; or damaged. o Turn an unfaa tooloff if it produces have thetool miliar vibration or noise; resuming operations. serviced before . Donotleave when it a toolrunning is unattended. . Follow instructhemanufacturer's blades, bits, or accestions to change thetoolfirst. sories; unplug . Before shaping, or sanding cutting, loose knots using remove a workpiece, salvaged wood for a hammer; inspect before cutting. nails andscrews r Donotattempt nails; to cutthrough ruin kickback andalso thiscancause a blade or bit. . Use gauge wire when theappropriate power cordor replacing a damaged anextension cord. using . Keep cord outof thetool's thepower path; do notusethetoolif thecord is frayed. . Make sure theblade or bit is not withtheworkoiece when in contact youturnon a tool; to allow thecutter feeding it come to full speed before intothestock. . Donotforce a cut; a toolthrough it to a blade or cause thiscansnap Allow or bit veer off course. the blade to cut at its ownspeed. . Make andadjustsure thatanykeys fromthe areremoved ingwrenches it on. toolbefore turning . Keep of sawa tool's airvents clear the motor. dustto avoid overheating r Donotusea toolforextended oeriit to cool. allowing odsof timewithout

100' 18 16 L4 I2 10

3.5-5.0 5.1-7.0



gauge wire theproper Ghoosing gauge resultin linevoltage, may cause a drop withthewrong cord Using anextension Todetermine theminimum heat, andtoolburnout. of power, excessive ingin a loss lf, for instance, gauge see thechart above. needed forthetoolandtaskat hand, wire theminiextension cord, yourtool a 5O-foot motor andyouareusing hasa 4-amp listed bythe extension cords be 18.Choose onlyround-jacketed should mumgauge (CSAI. (UL), Association Standards ortheCanadian Laboratory Underwriters

llll llll llll llil llll l]l1 lllt llll llll l]lt filr lllr illl lllr llllll] lllt illl
5toringbite Thecutlinq ed4eeof router and drill maAeof car' Nhoee bite,parLicularily if Ihey are Ihrown bide,can be nicked in eloraqe.Trot'eclyour NoqeLher holder. ehop-made bibewilh a oimple of ln a blockof wood.borea eeriee holee Lhesizeof lhe bit shanke wibhtrhe and store Nhem cuLtinqedqeuV.



Upper moior bearing LocaLed aL end of moLor ahaf| to reducefricLion a9 motor armaTure apine;may be aealed

Eleatronic variable apeed control

?train reliever Deeiqned to prevent, cord wear and fraying

Eruoh aeaembly A eprinq-loaded carbon rod encaaedin a houoin4;conducta currenl, to the mot;orarmature. Exceeeive eparke flyin4 from Lhe m,otor indicaLe wornbruahea

On/off switch

Plungeloak knob Dit can be plunqed whenknobra looaened;Li7htenedto IockdeotredcutLin4depth in place

Depth etop bar SeLecuI;tin7 depth; qap bel,ween end of bar and aLop ocrewequala depth of cuL Power aord Depth stop bar clamp Looaened to releaae depth otop bar; tt7hhened f,o eet cuttinq depth PIug Eaee plate or sub-base Muat be emooLh and free of qouqea Turret etop KoLateeto poertionapproprtate etop ecrewunderdepLh etop bar; hei7ht of each acrew te adjuotableto vary cuLtin4 depth of aucceesive paeeee




base and a magnetic Using a dialindicator pinin therouter asyou Install a centering down would a bit andsetthetoolupside suchasa table saw. surface, on a metal to r a magnetic atd i a li n d i c a t o Connec next to therouter. andolace thebase base therouter andposition Turn onthemagnet pincontacts theplunger sothecentering r .a l i b r a t h e ed i a l o f t h ed i a li n d i c a t oC following the manufacindicator to zero Then turntheshaft of instructions. turer's by hand to rotate thecentering the router pin(righil. willregister Thedialindicator that runout-the amount of wobble collet thebit.lf therunout thecollet iscausing replace thecollet. exceeds 0.005inch,

gauge Using a feeler youcan lf youdo nothave a dialindicator, gauge witha feeler testforcollet runout Withthe anda straight hardwood block. pin in thecollet andtherouter centering down ona work surface, clamp the upside lightly to thetool's sub-base sothe block piece touches the pin.Turn the of wood router anyrunout willcause shaft byhand; pinto move theblock. Then thecentering gauge anygap usea feeler to measure (/eft). lf the between thepinandtheblock gap exceeds 0.005inch, replace thecollet.



Trigger-loak button Locke tri4qer awitch in depreeeed poeiLion for conLinuoue eawinq 5train reliever Deaignedto prevent cord wear and fraytn4

Gear aeaembly

Ecaentric arank bloak Drivea reciprocating ahaft Variablespeed dial Power cord

Elade clamp Secureeblade to ahafD;blade is rnaerted in collarand aetecrewie tiqhtened Reaiprocatin7 ahaft

Erush aaeembly A epring-loaded carbon rod encaaed in a houeinq: conducLa current to the mo'or armal;ure. Exceeaiveaparko flyinq from the motor ei4nifywornbrueheo Motor bearing Locatedat end of motor ahaft to reducefriction aa motor armature opina;may be eealed

Guide roller Supporto back of blade

Eaee plate or shoe

ffi g


Eaee plate oetsarew Looeenedto ttlt baee ptate






lllllllJ illjllllllll lllt tlll ljllljlllilllilllll1 lllt lllltl|llllllillllr

Extending blade life lf mosf,of the olockyou inchor thinner, cut is 3/+ lhe top third of your blade willbeLheonlyportionshowinq wear.To makebelNeruoeof lhe full lenqlhof the cutLinqedqe, inslallan auxiliary ehoeon the baee df p l a l eo f L h ee a wo n c e t h e N o p t h i ro a blade begino Nodull.To make Ihe ehoe, plywood cul a piece of Yz-inch Nheeame len4Ih as the baeeVlateand eliqhtly wider. plateand mark HoldLhewooda4ainoLtrhe Lheoutlineol Nhenolch cul ouN for Nheblade. 1aw ouNIhe notch and cut,a eloLforNheblade. )crew makinq oureNhaIthe back Lheauxiliary ehoein Vlace, of Lhe bladefite in NheeloL (lf Nhebladeie noI 6u?you are cutIin7.) it may wander porLed, and breakwhen

Ghecking theblade angle Square a saber saw blade each timeyou i n s t a la l n e wb l a d eU t h es a w , . nplug it upside down in a bench thensecure vise asshown above. Use a combination s o u a rte ocheck whethe th r eb l a d e is plate. square withthebase lf not,loosen witha hex wrench thebase olate setscrew a n dt i l t t h ep l a t e u n t it l h eb l a d e butts T.h e n flush agains th t es q u a r e tighten thesetscrew.



Fixed-angledface )eta qap betweencutter wheel and Lop face of workpiece; elidee up and down on adjuatable fence

Depth adjuatment knob For aettin7 cuttin4 depth of cutter wheel

On/off switch

Locking lever )ete adjuatable fenceat any anqle from O" to 90'

Adjustable fenae Keepafaceplate aquare to beveledaurface; fence reeta on top of workpiece during cut

Cutter wheel

?lu6 ----, Loakingnut )ecurea baae plate to motor houetng

Power cord



Motor bearing Located at end of motor ahaft t.o reduce friction ag motor armaf,ure apina; may be sealed

Erush aesembly A oprin7-loadedcarbon rod encaaedin a houainq;conducts current to the motor armature, )parka flyinq from the motor ia a aian of worn brushes

Revereing switah Changeadirection of motor rotation

Variable speed trigger switch Dial aeta motor apeed



Druah aaeembly A sorina-loaded carbon rod encaeedtn a hoiaini: conducLe current Lo LhemoLor eparkeflyinqfrom armaLure.Exceeatve the motor te a etqnof wornbruehee

Motor bearing Located aL end of moLor ehafL to reduce frtction ag maLor armature epine: may be eealed

On/off trigger

Power cord


Eleatria aam


Pad oupport

Paper clamp




The cap housirtgof a router is lifted off the body of the switch tool, revenling the wiring connections for the toggle to inside.As shown irr thephoto at right, gaining access the intentnl conlponents of mostportablepower toolsis the retainingscrews that simply a matter of loosening the tool housingto the body.The capproviding secw'e access to the brush assembly on for this router is located the sideof the tool body to the right of the switch.


. Unplug anyrepair to its internal a toolbefore undertaking youmayinadvertently components; contact current in a defective tool-evenwiththeon/off switch turned off. . Allow a power toolto cool before servicing it. . Use parts onlyreplacement thatmeet thesame specif ications a st h eo r i g i n a l s . . When a power toolstops working, determine whether or youtakeit nottheproblem originates outside of it before power thetool's cord; a frayed apart. Caref ullyexamine plugis a common cord or a broken cause of failure. . Before disassembling a power tool,make a diagram of wire connections to make reassembly easier. . Before undertaking a repair, contact themanufacturer to findoutif a service manual forthetoolis available.


Removing andinstalling a brush assembly Brushes arespring-loaded carbon rods or blocks thatconduct electricity to therotating armature of a power tool's motor. Over w se a o r r b e c o md ea m a g eY do .u c a na c c e st s he t i m e ,b r u s h e assembly byunscrewing thebrush caponthetoolbody-normally lf there a plastic caproughly thesize of a dime. is nobrush cap, youwillhave to remove themotor housing to access thebrushes. youhave Once located thebrush assembly, carefully lift it outof push thetool. Totest thebrush, on it to check thespring. lf the spring is damaged orthebrush is pitted, uneven, orworn shorter youwillneed to replace theassembly. thanitswidth, Some brushwitha wear line. Buya replacement esaremarked at anauthorized foryour Toreinstall service center brand of tool. a brush assembly, f it it intoposition in thetool(right), Then insert andtighten thebrush capor reattach themotor housing.



theoldswitch 1 Removing I Set thetoolona work making surface, sure thatit is unplugged. For therouter shown at left,remove thecaphousing to expose theswitch mechanism. Loosen theswitch retaining nutandscrews, then disconnect thewires securing themechanism to thetool.lf thewires areconnected bywirecaps, simply loosen the (left) caps anduntwist thewires. lf the c o n n e c t i oa nrs es o l d e r es dn . io t h ec o n nections withpliers. Use short strips of masking tape to label thewires to help youreconnect themproperly.

r) Installing thereplacement switch L Buv a reolacement switch at anauthorized service center, noting themodel and serial numbers of your tool. Connect the new switch to thewires in thetoolhousing, youtookto takeout reversing thesteps t h eo l do n e . R e m o vt e h em a s k i ntg ape strips fromthewires, twist thewire ends fromthetoolandswitch together, and screw a wire caponto each connection to secure andinsulate it. Fittheswitch into p o s i t i oin n t h et o o lh o u s i n g s, crew the , n dt i g h t e t switch bracke in t p l a c ea n he (ilghil. retaining switch nutwithawrench Replace thetool's caphousing.




wire terminals thecord's 1 Accessing p o w ec ro r d ag tool's tothe I T h ew i r e t e r m i n ac ls onnectin m e c h a n i sa m r ec o n t a i n e w di t h i n t h em o t o h r ousing. switch For shown at right, reach theterminals byremoving thesander a n dl o o s e n i n th ges c r e ws se c u r i nt g he t h ea u x i l i a rh ya n d l e m a i nh a n d l e t o t h et o o lb o d y R . e m o vt e h eh a n d l t eo e x p o s e t h ew i r e terminals.

/) Disconnecting theoldpower cord plug, L Ona power cord witha two-prong there areusuary from to wire terminal screws in twowires thecord connected retaining securthetoolhousing. Unscrew theplug bracket loosen ingthecord to thetoolhousing, theterminal screws (below), wireends andcaref ullyremove the power cord's from theterminals. Use strips of masking tape to Iabel each youattach to help thewire ends of thenew cord to terminal theappropriate terminals.



power Preparing thereplacement cord power at a hardware store or an Buy a replacement cord it has thesame specif icenter, making sure authorized service power cords The wire ends of new cations astheoriginal cord. To andinsulation. areusually covered to theendwithjacketing prepare forinstallation, use a knife to cutaway a few thecord Then strip offabout inches of thejacket covering thetwowires. thewires, exposing the ol theplastic insulation around %inch forthistask(page 102). Youcanalsousewirestrippers ends. intothemetal wire; if yousever anyof thestrands, Avoid cutting insulatio n e ore to snip o f ft h ed a m a g e sd e c t i oa nn dr e m o vm pliers needle-nose to carefully twist a fresh section. Use uncover (left), thenbend thewire ends strands snugly together thewire in thetoolhousing. into semicircles thatwillhug theterminals from theleftside, so around thescrew clockwise Place thewire istightened. asthescrew it willwrap around

Installing thereplacement cord ends a r o u ntd h et e r m i n ailn s t h et o o l Hook t h ew i r e each wire to theappropriate housing, making sure to attach in tape. Holding thepower cord screw. Remove themasking (below), position, retaining bracket in place screw thecord thehandles onthetoolbodv. thenreinstall




preparing theoldplug and thepower cord 1 Removing justabove I Use a knife to slice through thepower cord the plug. Prepare thecut endof the power cord forthereplacementplugasyouwould when replacing a newpower cord (page 100).Startbycutting away about 2 inches of thecord jacket witha knife(above, /eff), thenremoving about %inch of insulation to exDose the bare wire. This canbedone with

theknife orwire strippers. With thestrippers, simply insert thewire endintotheappropriate-size opening, squeeze the jawsof the strippers (above, together right),andpullthe wire out.Thedevice willsever the insulation. Then useneedlepliers nose to twistthewireends together andformthem intoa hook.

/) Gonnecting thepower cord plug L rcmereplacement Buya plugat a hardware store, making sure it has thesame number andshaoe of prongs astheoriginal. Theplug shown consists of twoparts: the prong section, which includes theterminal, a plug case, andretaining screws thatholdthetwo parts together. Sliptheendof the power cord through theplug case, thenattach each w i r ee n dt o t h et e r m i n a lo sn t h e plug(right), tightening thescrews to hold thewireends securely.



-fll' 'flf" ffi*llf'1[l"ffi lll"$1lll"'llf-ff'fl11lrffilnfll$r1flf

Dieabling a powertool To prevenN unaulhorizeduse of a powertool, olipIhe boll of a minipadlock trhrough oneof the tines in lhe power cord pluq.Thelock willmakeit impoooible to pluq you are uoing in lhe Nool.lf a keyedloak,slore the keyeout of lhe way in a cupboard or drawerlhaf,can be locked.

theplug Q Assembling r.J 0ncethe oower cordwires areconnected to the plug, assemble thetwo parts of the plug.Pullthecasing over theplug andtighten theretaining screws untilthey aresnug(above). Tocomplete t h er e p a i r t, ighten t h e p l u gr e t a i n i n g clamp screw. This willsecurely hold the plugandthepower cord together.


; -..C.#

belts, such aschecking tasks, these and keeping switches, cleaning (page 106), apply to clean tabletops areonly woodworkingmachines mainteOther of the tools. most possible if the equipmentis kept to thedesign tasks are specific nance andfindtuned. Whetheryou clean particular machine, suchas of a old band saw havea cantankerous the blade adjusting and cleaning into making to be cajoled that needs on tilt mechanisms height and radia straightcut,or a brand-new (page 112),fixingan saw a table al arm sawthat hasslippedout of (page bandsawwheel unbalanced on thewayfrom thefacalignment from an air water 122), orbleeding your howto adjust tory,learning (page 139). compressor properly will machines stationary howto tuneup your Knowing andincrease theresults improve will not onlygive tools stationary fromthem. yourpleasure of understanding you deeper a areappreManywoodworkers provide it will also work; how they thenuts about exploring hensive youwith a list of things to check andmany andboltsof theirtools, for used models. when shopping the dial indicatorchecls A magnetic-base manuals donotencourage owner's jointer's How fence square? Is a of a drill press spindle moststationHowever, tinkering. for runout-the press does a drill much runout would that thespindle amountof wobble ary powertoolsarequitesimple Does themitergauge have? chuck For accurate transmitto a bit or accessory. andconstruction. in theirdesign smoothly? saw slide of a table not exceed drilling therunoutshould which saw, Taking thetopoffa table tune up woodworkers Many shouldbe thespindle 0.005inch.If it does, is likea majoroperation, sounds just before the (see tools theirstationary replaced or repaired page131). to doandit canquickfairlysimple project. This can be major of a start works, howthemachine ly reveal who woodworkers if youare oneof those to schedule to keep difficult adjust, or tweak clean, whatyoushould andexactly idea to it isa good cases, projects onthego.In such has many smoothly. it running your stationary to maintaining pow- devote alittletimeperiodically presents themajorstationary thatfollows Thechapter your project fromthebest will benefit every Thatway, mainte- tools. thebasic andexplains bywoodworkers ertoolsused tools cangive. of for each one. Some procedures nance andtroubleshooting andconsistenheprecision fromstationary cyweexpect

that thewheels confirms a longstraightedge open, covers Wth thewheel wrtical plane. otherand in thesame of a bandsawareParallelto each shouldrest Asshownin thephotoat left,thestraightedge flush against canbe Thetilt knobon thetopwheel wheel. thetopand bottomof each intoproperalignment. to bring thetopwheel adjusted



Drive belts transmit power from themotorto themovingparts in power manystationary tools, including thejointplaner, er,discsander, qnd table sawInhightorquetoolssuchasthe table sawshown in the photoat right,threebelts areused to driyethe arbor. Any drivebeltthat is cracked or wom extensivelyshouldbereplaced.


Checking belt tension Toomuchbelttension canstrain a stationary tool's motor bearings, while toolittletension often leads to slippage andexcessivewear, To check drivebelttension on thejointer shown above, unplug thetoolandremove thepanel covering thebelt. pinch Then thebeltbetween thepulleys withonehand(above, bD.fhe amount of deflection willvarv withthetool: asa rule

of thumb, the beltshould flexlrzinchfor every inchof span pulleys. between lf there istoolittle ortoomuch tension, adjust it following themanufacturer's instructions. For smooth operation,thepulleys should bealigned; if they arenot,loosen the adjustment pulley setscrew on the motor witha hexwrench (above, right), and slide thepulley pulley. in linewiththeother



tabletop a stationary machine Cleaning clean the running smoothly, Tokeep stock wiping offanypitch tabletop frequently, witha ragandmineral orgumdeposits or pitting with Remove anyrust spirits. oil (left), finesteel wool andpenetrating the wipe andsand then offanyresidue A coat of paste area withfinesandpaper. thenbuffed willmake wax rubbed onand pushing edge much wood into thecutting less tirins.


a power switch Cleaning clogged, causing tools canbecome Theswitches onstationary preventing lf the it fromoperating. or even theswitch to strck and remove theswitch cover unplug thetool, switch sticks,

problems, periToprevent such immediately. clean theswitch compressed airinto byblowing odically clean outtheswitch iI hbove).


tlt h. tablesawis the cornerstone of I manyworkhops, putto use in nearly everyphase ofeveryproject.Because of its crucialrole,your tablesawmust be consistently accurate and its parts square and true. The normal forces of routineusewill eventually throw a table sawoutofalignment. Even a newmachine straightoffthe assembly line usually needs a certainamountof adjustment beforeit canperformsafely andproperly. ThetablesawcomDonents that need to bechecked andaligned arethose that comein contact with theworkoiece during thecut:theblade, table, miter gauge, andrip fence. Ifany ofthese partsis not in proper alignment, you risk burn marks,tapered cuts,or kickback. The simple tune-up procedures shownbelowand on thepages that follow will improve theperformance of any tablesaw. It is a goodideato takethe time to undertake them beforestarting a newproiect. For the sake of efficiency, follow the stepsin the order they appear. Youwill onlybeableto alignthe miter gaugewith the sawblade,for example, if the tablehasbeensquared with theblade.For safety, remember to unplug your saw beforeperforming these checks and adjustments.

Most tablesaws featurewormgear and rackmechanisms connected to crankwheels to raise and tilt thearbor assembly and blqde. These mechanisms canbecome caked with pitch preventing andsawdust, thesaw from operating smoothly. In thephotoat right, compressed air is beingusedto cleqn theblade heightmechanism.


thetable alignment 1 Checking gauge I Theface of themiter andtheblade must beperfectly perpendicular. To check gauge this,position themiter at the front of thesawblade. Clamp a square wood block against the gauge miter withtheendof theblock butted against a saw blade tooth. Mark anX ontheblade next to thetooth;this willenable y o ut o c h e c k t h es a m e y o un e e d s e c t i oo nf b l a d e should to

performing repeat thetestafter gauge step 2. Slide themiter and theblock together toward theback of thetable while rotating the (above). blade byhand Theblock should remain butted against thetooth astheblade rotates fromfront to back. lf a gapopens between theblock andthetooth, ortheblock binds against the youwillneed blade asit is rotated, to align theIable(step 2).



r) Aligning thesaw table following the thesawtable Z nalust For manual instructions. themodowner's wrench to loosen the el shown, use a hex bolts thatsecure thetopto thesaw table under the bolts arelocated sland?ight); thetable. Loosen all butoneof thebolts position thetable slightly; the andadjust tightened willactasa pivot, boliyouleave process. Repeat simplifying thealignment l). Once thetableis theblade test(sfep tighten aligned withtheblade, correctly bolts. thetable

C h e c k i ntg h eb l a d e angle

Remove thetable insert, thenbutta square against thesaw blade combinatron fhe blade of the between twoteeth(lefD. agains th t es a w s q u a rs eh o u l f di t f l u s h is a gapbetween thetwo, blade. lf there rotate theblade angle adjustment crank flush until thesaw blade rests against the blade. Reposition theangle adjustsquare's willreturn to ment stop sothatthe blade position itsproper each timeit isadjusted.






gauge Aligning themiter withthesaw table gauge With themiter outofthetable slot, usea combination souare to conf irm thatthefaceof thegauge is square withthe edge of thegauge bar(above, Ieft). lf it is not,usetheadjustment handle onthegauge to square thetwo. place gauge Then themiter in itstable slotandbuttthesquare against thegauge (above, right). Theblade of thesquare . s h o u lf di t f l u s h agains th t eg a u g e lf thereis a gapbetween the two,have thegauge machined square at a metalworking shop.

Illl ljlll]ll llj lllltlll l]ll fitl lllt ljlllllt filt ljlt tllj lllllllt lllltlll
Fixin1 alooee miter gauge Toeliminate exc eo6iv e side-t o- eide miter qauqe of the Vlay in iIs sloL,remove the qauqe from the t able and placetrhebar edqeup on a board, \ Ueea ball-oeen hammerand a prickpunch Lo etrikethe edqeof the bar in a otaqqered pa|tern everyinchalonq alonaiL it. This willraiee rai bumpo on lhe edqe of the bar and resulLin a Niahuer fit, in the eloL,lf Nhe fiL is Noo Iiqht,,file Ihe bumpe downas neceooary.




your Checking adjustments Test theaccuracy of your table saw adjustments bycrosscutting a couple of scrap boards. Tocheck theblade-to-table alignmentm , ark a nX o n a b o a r d a n dc u t i t f a c ed o w n atyour m a r kT . hen t u r nt h e cutoff over andhold thecutends together (board A in theillustration at left).Anygap between thetwoends reoresents twice the in thetable alignment; if necessary, error repeat in step3 on page thetestshown gauge 109.Tocheck themiter adjustment, crosscut thesecond board, facedown as well, f lip onepiece over, andbuttthe twopieces together on edge(board B). Again, anygaprepresents twice theerror in theadjustment. lf necessary, square (page gauge 110). themiter again


Adjusting theripfence Lock theripfence in place alongside themiter slot. lf thefence andtheslotarenotparallel, adjust theangle of thefence following instructions. Some models feature themanufacturer's thatyoucanloosen or adjustment bolts at thefront of thetable

(above, tighten witha hex wrench to change thealignment left); you others have fence adjustmeni bolts that canloosen witha (above, parallel wrench right). For thismodel, adjust thefence to themiter slot, thenretighten theadjustment bolts.




Adjusting theleveling screws Tosetthetableinsert level withthesaw place table, a square board across the insert andthetable. Adjust theleveling screws at thecorners of the insert witha (lefDuntilthe insert hexwrench is f lush w i t ht h et a b l e t o p Y.o uc a na l s o adjust the insert slightly below thetable at the front andslightly above thetable at the back; thiswillprevent theworkpiece from catching or binding ontheinsert during thecut. lf your saw's insert does nothave leveling screws, fileor shimthe insert to make it lieflush withthetable.


Cleaning thetrunnions you pitchandhardened lf your table saw's blade sticks or moves when sluggishly a brass-bristle brush to remove stubborn sawraise ortilt it, clean theheight mechanisms andtilt adjustment dustdeposits. Then scrub themachined ways onthefront and (above, inside thesaw. Start byremoving thetabletop following theman- rear trunnions right). Once all theparts areclean, lubriparts graphite ufacturer's instructions. Blow outthesawdust withcomoressedcate allthemoving witha orsilicon-based lubriparts air,thenclean the moving within thesaw. Start withthe cant; oil andgrease should beavoided asthey tendto collect (above, blade height andtilt mechanisms /eff), using solvent and dust.Replace thetabletop andfine-tune thesaw(page 108).


pivoting armsaw's many and I radial A sliding parts youto pull a enable blade tluough aworkpiece in avariety of angles anddirections. Thisflexibility, however, canleadto problems. Unless parts keptin alignthesadsmoving are ment, itsperfonnance can become sloppy andpotentially dangerous. Theprocedures thatfollowwill help youfine-tune a radialarmsaw sothatit will cutaccurately andsafely. Adjusting aradial armsaw can betime-consuming because of its manymovingparts. To you make theadjustments manageable, canperform themin twosteps: testing andadjusting thetable, clamps androller (page bearings 114), andaligning and (page 117). squaring theblade perForsafety, yoursawwhile unplug forming these checks andadjustments.

problems Oneof themostcommon with theradialarm sawis bladerotationthat is notparallelor perpendicular to thetable, jig shownin the A simple knownasbladeheel. L-shaped sounding photoat right canhelpyou diagnose and correct heeling. A blade that is turningtruewill produce a uniformsound as its teeth projectingfrom brushagainst thesharpened dowel the jig. The soundof a heeling blade will change as its teethtouchthedowel.


Cleaning thetrackandbearings Usea solution of ammonia andwater to your clean radial armsaw's track androller bearings. Pulltheyoke asfar back as it willgo,thenwipe thetrackusing a clean (left). ragdampened withthesolvent Push theyoke toward thecolumn andclean the frontportion of thetrack.Next, clean the roller bearings, located to thefrontand rear of thecarriage thatconnects theyoke your to thearm. Wrap theragaround finger, dip it in thesolvent, andholdit against pushing theroller bearing while theyoke away fromyou.Coat thetrackandbearings withlightmachine oil,thenwipe off theexcess.




Leveling thetable with thearm points Tiltthesaw's motor until thearbor itsendslightly down, above table Ievel. Then swivel thearmto position thearbor ovet r h er a i ln u t s onboth sides ofthe p o s i t i om neasur t a b l ei;n e a c h th e eg a p between thearbor andthetable. lf the m e a s u r e m ea nrte s n o te q u a lr,a i s e the l o we n do f t h et a b l e b yt u r n i n g t h er a i l n u ti n a c l o c k w i s de i r e c t r ou ns , ing the head of anadjustable wrench to lever up (left). the tablesurface f henmake the same adjustment ontheother side of the table. Reoeat themeasurements to make sure thetable is level.


themiter clamp 1 Adjusting I Swivel thearmto theright to a positionbetween 0" and45". Lock themiter clamp, which onthesaw shown is located at thefront endof thearm. Tryto push theendof thearmtoward the0' position (right), lf there is anyplayin thearm, a d j u stth ec l a m p t h a th o l d s it inplace. Forthe model shown, usea hexwrench r lamp totightet nh em i t e c adjustment screw, located inside an access hole at theback endof thearm.



r) Adjusting theyoke clamp for L Rotate theyoke to a position between theones used crosscutta in ng dr i p p i n g L.o c k t h ey o k e clamp handle th , en usebothhands to tryandpush themotor to thecrosscutting (above). position Themotor not if it does, adjust should budge; position. locks it in For model theclamp that the shown, tightdn d etrh ea r mf o l l o w i n ge e nt h ea d j u s t m en nu t tl o c a t eu th manufacturer's instructions, Lock theclamp andcheck again forplay.

Adiusting thebevel clamp Q \,, Tiltthemotor to a oosition between 0'and 45", Lock the bevel clamp, thenusebothhands to try to move the motor (above). lf there is anylooseness, adjust theclamp. For the model shown, use wrench motor a socket to tighten the support nutat theback of themotor, thenrelease theclamp andtry tilting themotor to each of thepreset angles; if youcannot move motor, the loosen thesupport nutslightly. Otherwise, lock iheclamp again andcheck once more forplay in themotor.

Adjusting theripclamp
L o c kt h e r i p c l a m p , t h e nu s eb o t h hands t o t r y t o s l i d et h e y o k ea l o n g the arm (left). Theyokeshouldnot move;if i t d o e sa , d j u st h ec l a m p . F o rt h e m o d e l e s h o w nr , e l e a st h e c l a m p .t h e n u s ea wrench to tighten t h e n u t a t t h e e n do f t h e r i p c l a m pb o l t .T r ys l i d i n g t h ey o k e along t h e a r m ;i f i t b i n d s , loosen thelock nut slightly. recheck Otherwise, the clamp a n dt i g h t e n t h e n u tf u r t h e r if needed.




'l Adjusting thecarriage roller bearings I Tocheck roller thecarriage bearings, press your thumb against each onein turn your while sliding from thecarriage away hand. Thebearings should turnasthecarriage slides along thearm.lf your thumb youwill keeps from one of them turning, need to tighten thebearing; if thecarriage binds onthearm, a bearing willneed to be loosened. In either case, adjust thebearingwhile holding thebolt stationary witha (lefil.fighten wrench second or loosen the retighten bolt asrequired, then thenut.

r) Adjusting column-to-base tension L Wtpe t h ec o l u m n c l e a nt,h e nl o o s etn h ef o u rs e t s c r e w s vibrates as it is raised or lowered, adjust thefourbolts locatonthefront of thecolumn base using a hex wrench. Tocheck ed in theaccess holes on the back cover of the base. Reoeat c o l u m n - t o - bta esn es i o n u,s eb o t h h a n d tso t r yt o l i f tt h ee n d thetests and,if necessary, make additional adlustments. Then (above, of thearm(above, left);there should be littleor nogive to try pushing thearmsideways right); if there is anyrotajustenough t h ec o l u m nT .urn t h ee l e v a t i n cg rank i n b o t hd i r e c t i o nts h;e tionof thecolumn, tighten thesetscrews to prea r ms h o u l s dl i d e s m o o t hu ly i se x c e s s i v e p a n dd o w nl.f t h e r e vent movement. Run through thetests a f inal time, f ine-tuning os in , r i f t h ea r m jumps m o v e m ea nttt h ec o l u m n - t o - bja et o o r theadiustments.




theblade withthetable 1 Squaring yoke in thecrosscutting I Setthesaw's position Release the andinstall a blade. the motor counterclamp andtilt bevel clockwise asfarasit willgoin the0" posiTocheck theblade theclamp. tion.Relock position, between two butta framing square (right).Ihe fit flush square should saw teeth lf anygap against thesideof the blade. the bevel between them,adjust shows to bring setscrews andtilt themotor clamp flush against thesquare. theblade

r) Squaring withthefence theblade Z. Release themiter clamo andswivel asfaras it willgoin thearmto theright thenrelock theclamp. the0" position, andbuttone armof Release theripclamp while a framing square against thefence justtouches the blade tooth theother nearest to thetable. Holding the blade slide theyoke along the arm(left); steady, pullslowly The dulling thetooth. to avoid make a constant rubbing sound blade should the edge of the square. asit moves along the blade and lf a gapopens up between binds, adjust the square, or if theblade followthesetscrews in thecolumn base ingthemanufacturer's instructions.




Fine{uning horizontal rotation 1 I Install a blade and setthemotor in its position; horizontal tilt themotor counterclockwise asfarasit willgo,thenlock the bevel clamp. Totestforblade heel, build jig andbore an L-shaped sounding two holes in it. Sharpen theends of twodowelsand fit them into thejigasshown. Then position thejigto align a blade tooth near theback of thetable directly over theverticaldowel. Lower theblade until thetooth rests lightly onthedowel; clamp thejig . earin glove , inplace W ag work spin the blade backward, listen, andcaref ullynote (/eff). thesound Slide theyoke along the armto align a tooth near thefront of the table over thedowel andrepeat thetest. The posisound should bethesame in both tions. lf it is not, adjust themotor support nutaccording to themanufacturer's instructions andrepeat thetest.

Eliminating vertical blade heel Tiltthemotor counterclockwise asfar position, as it willgo in thevertical then lock thebevel clamo. Totestforvertical j ig gs ot h a t p, ositio heeling tn h es o u n d i n thetip of thehorizontal dowel aligns with a blade tooth near theback of thetable. Lower theblade andsend it spinning backward soyoucansample thesound asin slepI (right). Slide the yoke along the s, a r ma n dr e p e atth e p r o c e s a djusting theheight if necessary; once again listen forchanges in tone. lf there is a discrepancy, release theyoke clamp andadjust position themotor's following themanufacturer's instructions. Retest untileach testproduces similar tones.




forsquare Testing thesaw of your adjustYou cancheck theaccuracy you much as armsaw ments to a radial (page 112). To deterwould fora table saw to mine whether theblade issquare the mark anX ona wide board and saw table, it at your mark. Then turnone crosscut piece thecutends together over andhold ( A i n t h ei l l u s t r a t i a gap . ny ot nr i g h t )A the represents twice between thetwoends if in theblade-to-table alignment; error repeat theadjustment shown necessary, on page 117. Nowbuttthetwoboards (B).lf thetwopieces do against thefence perfectly is not notfit together theblade to thefence. Again, anygaprepresquare theerror; if necessary, square sents twice theblade to thefence.


Cutting a kerfinthefence and auxiliary table Install of %-inch-thick, knot-free a fence wood thetable spacer andthe between front make thefence slightly higher table; workpiece. For thanthethickness of your of%-inch a na u x i l i atra yb l ec , u ta p i e c e hardboard or plywood thesame size asthe front table anduse contact cement to glue gapbetween it down, leaving a slight it and jamming sawdust from thefence to prevent crosscutting or between thetwo.Before thefence making miter cuts, slice through intotheauxiliary andYrc to % inchdeep table inthe90' and 45' oaths oftheblade. Then, raise theblade above thetable and position. rotate the motor to theripping Turn a n dl o w e irt t o m a k e a o n t h es a w %o-inch-de ce up t .P u l l t h ey o k e along o u ta s h a l l o w rip t h ea r mt o f u r r o w trough i n t h ea u x i l i atra yb l e .

gO" ker-t

Auxiliary table


the band Tl or manywoodworkers -I saw's thin,flexibte blade makes it the toolof choice for cutting curves, resawing,andmaking fine,straight cuts. And because theblade teeth cutdownward, is no danger there ofkickback. Since the bandsawbladeis only supported on thecrownof two large wheels, it mustbeproperly tensioned (page andtracked 123) every timeyou change blades, otherwise you risk crooked cutsandbroken blades. Setup adjustments for themachine arenot time-consuming, but theyareimporParticular tant. attention should bepaid (page to the alignment of the wheels 123). Misaligned wheels canGruse excessive blade vibration. Alsoperiodically adjust theguide assemblies andcheck (page thetable for square 123). procedures Ifthese do not restore a poorlycuuing performance, saw to peak thewheels or tiresmay beto blame. The steps shown below andon thefollowingpages detail howto correct out-ofroundandunbalanced wheels, andwill make yourbandsaw cutstraighter and helpitsblades lastlonger.

After manyhoursof use, thetireson bandsawwheels canbecome worn, caked with sawdust, or stretched out of shape.If thethickness of abandsawtire is uneven aroundthewheel. inserting a screwdriver bladeunderthe tire, as shownin thephoto at left, and working it aroundthetire'scircumference canrestore itspropershape.


thewheel bearings 1 Checking grasp I Open onewheel cover, the wheel at thesides, androckit back and torlh(right). Repeat whileholding the wheel at thetopandbottom. lf there is play in thewheel oryouhear a clunking noise, remove thewheel andreplace the bearing. Then repeat thetestforthe other wheel.



r) Testing forout-of-round wheels I Start withtheupper wheel. Bracing a th r uide assembly, stick agains t eu p p eg holdtheendof thestickabout \e tnch from Then away thewheel's tire. spin the wheel by hand(right), lf thewheel ortire is outof round, thegapbetween thestick a n dt h ew h e ew l i l lf I u c t u a t t eh ; ew h e e l may even hitthestick. lf thediscrepancy (sfep %:inch, remedy theproblem exceeds 3). Reoeat thetestforthelower wheel.

anout-of-round wheel Q Fixing r.,f Start bydetermining whether the itself tireor thewheel is theproblem. Trystretching thetireinto shape with (photo, page a screwdriver 120),lhen repeat thetestin step 2. lf thewheel isstill outof round, use a sanding block to sand thetire; thismay compensate foruneveness in thetire.For thelower wheel t, u r no nt h es a w a n dh o l d the sanding block against thespinning tire (left). For theupper wheel, leave thesaw unplugged androtate thewheel byhand. perRepeat step 2 again. lf theproblem s i s t st,h ew h e eilt s e l ifs o u to f r o u n d . Have it trued at a machinist's shop.




wheel alignment 1 Checking I Toensure thatvour band saw wheels areparallel to each otfrer anO in thesame plane, vertical holda straightedge against them(page 104).The straightedge should rest flushagainst thetopandbottom of each wheel. lf thewheels areoutof alignment, tryto bring thetopwheel to a verticalposition withthetilt knob. lf the straightedge stillwillnotrest flush, measure thegapbetween therecessed wheel (above)to andthestraightedge determine how faryouneed to move theoutermost wheel in (step 2). r) Shifting theoutermost wheel l inrcatignment Remove theoutermost wheel following theinstructions in your owner's manual. (lt is better to shifttheoutermost wheel in to correct thealignment rather than to move theinner wheel out;thiskeeps thewheels asclose aspossible to thesaw frame.) Then shift thewheel byremoving oneor more of thefactory-installed wash(lf there ers(above). you arenowashers, canshim therecessed wheel withwashersto bring thewheels intoalignment.) Reinstall thewheel andtiehten theaxle nut.Repeatstep 1.

lllllllllll tllj lltt lll l1ll ll|J IlJ ll|l llfi lllllll lltlllt llllIjIJ tltl
Zalanainga band saw wheel Tochecklhewheels of aband it:, eachone ) garyforbalance,eVin by hand.Whenit comeotoregt, makea markatbhe bottom and opinit aqain.lf the markcomesto reetral lhe bollom morethan lwo limes oul of lhree,the wheel ie imb alanced. Tocorreal. lhe problem, drill ehallow holeebetween Ihe rim and opokee atlhe heavy VoinX (ri1ht). Remount, lhe wheel and pefformf,heheet,aqain.Borea6 ., manyholeo as neceoaary.When j the wheel olope returninq Nolhe oame pooilion,it is balanced.




Tracking theblade hanthesaw andturnthetension Unplug to raise clockwise dleat thetopof thesaw onthe andincrease tension thetoowheel fromside to side Deflect the blade blade. Increase thetension to gauge thetension. inchto aboul Yo untilthe blade deflects Totrack the sideof thevertical. either assembly, r uide b l a d el,o w etrh e u p p eg to r h e eb l yh a n d t h e ns p i nt h eu p p ew in the theblade istracking check whether lf it is not,loosen the center of thewheel. Then spin thewheel lock screw. tilt knob to angle while turning thetilt knob(right) is centered. until theblade thewheel


bearings thethrust 1 Setting guide byeye to seeif theupper I Check lf not, assembly is square to the blade. adjust loosen theguide assembly setscrew, is square theassembly sothatthebearing andtighten thesetscrew. to the blade, and Then, loosen thebearing thumbscrew knob until thethrust turntheadjustment justtouches theblade. Back the bearing (left) and tighten the bearing off slightly guide Thelower assembly thumbscrew. thrust bearing, which is located directly thetable insert, is adjusted the beneath spinthe way. Tocheck thesetting, same wheel byhand. lf the blade makes upper spin,back thebearing off either bearing slightly andrecheck.



r) Setting guide blocks guide Z- Tosettheupper blocks, loosen t h e i rs e t s c r e w as n dp i n c h t h eb l o c k s your together using thumb andindex finger until they almost touch theblade. Alternagauge tively, usea slipof paper or a feeler (left) Io setthespace between the blocks a n dt h eb l a d eT . i g h t etn h es e t s c r e w s . Next, loosen thethumbscrew andturnthe adjustment knob untilthefrontedges of t h eg u i d e b l o c ka sr ej u s tb e h i n t d h eg u l lets. Tighten thethumbscrew. Setthelowerguide blocks thesame way.


Aligning thetable 1 gauge I To ensure thatthe miter slot is properly aligned on both sides of the gauge table slot, setthemiter in itsslot andslide thegauge back andforthacross thetable. Thegauge should slide freely pressure. withonlymoderate lf thegauge pliers binds, uselocking to remove the a l i g n m ep n itn .T h e ni,n s e rt th ep i ni n t o its hole andusea ball-peen hammer to (right) tap it deeper untilthe mitergauge slides freelv.



Checking thetable angle posiWiththetablein thehorizontal tion,remove thetableinsert, thenbutta square against theside ofthe combination fit asshown. Thesouare should sawblade flushagainst the tableandblade(right). lf thereis a gapbetween thetwo,loosen underneath the thetwotablelockknobs sure thetableis seated tableandmake properly Tighten the on thetablestop. the lockknobs. lf thegapremains, adjust 3). tablestopGtep

Aligning thetable stop Tiltthetable outof thewav, thenuse twowrenches asshown to adjust thetable stoo.Use the lower wrench to holdthe locknutstationary andtheupper wrench Turnthestop to turnthetablestop(left). clockwise to lower it andcounterclockwise to raise it. Recheck thetable angle.


tf h. team ofjointerandthickness I planer are responsible forsquaring theedges andfaces ofa workpiece. The project success of anywoodworking rests onthese firstcrucial steps, soit isessentialthatbothmachines are setupproperly.Eventhe most accurate tablesaw will only compounderrorsmadeat the jointingandplaning stage. jointingdepends Accurate on precise alignmentof the two tablesand the fence. Beginby ensuring that the outfeedtableis at the sameheightasthe cuttingedges of theknives at their highest point, also known as Top Dead Center or TDC ftelow).Then check that thetables areperfectly square to thefence andaligned with eachother(page 127). Because it hasmore movingparts, planerrequires thethickness a little more attention. Most importantly, always checkto seethat the feed rollersare properly adjusted(page129)and that the planer's bedis parallel to the cutterheadalongits length (page130).

Mostjointershave90"positive stops that canbefine-tuned if thefence cannotbe accurately squared to the tablethroughnormaladjustment. For the modelshown(left), the 90"positive stopis a springJoaded plungerthat sits in an indexcollar. position, Tofine-tunethefence the indexcollaris adjusted by means of a setscrew


height table 1 Checking I Withthejointer unplugged, usea smallwooden wedge to rotate thecutterhead untiltheedge of oneknifeis at its point. highest Then hold a straight hardwood board ontheoutfeed table sothat it extends over the cutterhead without contacting the infeed Iable(right).The justbrush knife should against theboard. Perform thetestalong the length of the knife, moving the board fromthefence to the rabbeting ledge. Repeat thetest fortheother knives. lf a knife fails the (page test,adjust its height 84I lf none of theknives is level withtheboard, raise or lower theoutfeed tableby loosening the tablelockandmoving theoutfeed table adjustment handle.



r) Adjusting thepositive stop isstillnotlevel L f tneoutfeed table posiwiththeknives, adjust thejointer's prevent tivestops, which thetable from m o v i no gu to f a l i g n m ew hile inuse. nt For firsttighten themodel shown, the lock outfeed table andloosen thetwo locknuts ontheother side of thetool. Back off thetwopositive stops andthen adjust the height of theoutfeed table (sfep withtheadjustment handle l) until thetable is level withtheknives at their point highest of rotation. Tighten the table lock. Tighten thepositive stops as farasthey willgo,then tighten thelock nuts(lefD.


thetables 1 Aligning J - R e m o vte h el o i n t e r 'fs e n c et,h e nr a i s e t h ei n f e e d t a b l e When thetables areperfectly level, tighten thelocking screws. to the same height asthe outfeed table. Use a straightedge lf youhave a jointer withgibscrews, adjust oneor more of the gib irm tables are absolutely level. lf the alignscrews at the back of the tool until the straightedge rests to conf thatthetwo (above, position pulley mentis notperfect, horizontal f lush on both right); remove adjust the of thetables. tables the cover, Themodel features if necessary, lf youmoved shown eccentric table supports thatcanbe to access thescrews. theoutfeed (page adjusted byfirstloosening a locking screw andthen tapping an table during thisprocess, recheck its height 126). (above, adjustment camwitha hammer andscrewdriver left),



r) Squaring thefence with thetables posiL Wttn thefence setin itsvertical t i o n ,h o l da t r ys q u a r o e n t h eo u t f e e d table neat r h ec u t t e r h e a ad n db u t tt h e squareb ' sl a d e . he agains th t ef e n c eT fit flush square should against thefence. gapbetween lf there isany thetwo, slackhandle, enthelocking tilt thefence until it isflush withthesquare, andretighten (lef|.fhe 90'positive thehandle stop should beengaged in theindex collar. lf is stillout-of-square, thefence adjust the positive stop(page 126).

One of the most commonjointing and planing defects is snipe,or a concave cut at the trailing end of a workpiece.On a planer, snipeoccurs when there is too much play between the table and thefeed rollers,and can be correctedby proper feed roller adjustment(page 129). On a jointer (right), snipeoccurs when the outfeed table is set lower than the knives point ofrotation, and at their highest can be correctedby aligning the outfeed table (page 126).



C l e a n i np gl a n er o l l e r s P l a n efre e dr o l l e r s c a ng e t d i r t yq u i c k l y pitchJilled whenplaning softwoods suchas p i n e .P e r i o d i c a lu ly s em i n e r as l pirits ora solution of ammonia andwater witha brassbristled brush t o c l e a nm e t a lf e e dr o l l e r s . lean rubbef re e d o f p i t c ha n d r e s i n C (right). rollers with a sharpcabinetscraper

Adjusting feed rollers presSometimes it is necessary to increase sure ona planer's feed rollers, aswhen planing narrow stock orwhen stock slips a si t i s f e di n t o In .either t h em a c h i n e grip case, theinfeed roller should f irmly (Some planers theboard. feature a serrated metal infeed roller; in thiscase the pressure should beenough to move the board but notsomuch thatthe rollers pattern leave in theboard a serrated after planers, it is planed.) Onmost thefeed rollers are adjusted byturning spring-loaded screws on topof themachine. For the ca p s m o d es lhown r, e m o vte h ep l a s t i c andadjust nuts withanopen-end thehex (left). wrench Make sure after adjusting t h ef e e d r o l l e rts h a t h et a b l e isparallel (page to therollers 130).lf therollers do notcarry thewood smoothly through the planer after adlustments, clean therollers orwax thetable.



thetable forlevel Checking p l a n e rt 's T oc h e c k if your able islevel runtwo andparallel to thecutterhead, jointed sirips of wood of thesame thickness through opposite sides of themachine (left),Ihen compare theresulting thicknesses. lf there isa measurable difference, accordin to gt h em a n u a d j u stth et a b l e facturer's insiructions. lf your model of planer hasnosuch adjustment, reset the knives in thecutterhead sothatthey are slightly lower at thelower endof thetable fortheerror. to comoensate

Lubricating theheight adjustment periodically Toensure smooth operation, clean theplaner's height adlustment mecha n i s mf , i r s tu s i n g a c l e a nd , r yc l o t h to grease. remove sawdust and Then lubricate thethreads witha Tef lonrM-based lubrigrease; cant orautomotive bearing oilshould beavoided asit may stain thewood.


havea reputation as J) rill presses l-rf workhorse machines that rarelyAnd yet if ever-require maintenance. just aseastheycanslip out of alignment powertool. ily asanyotherstationary problems Most drill press arefound in the chuckand table.A tablethat is not square to the spindleis the most problem, remecommon and is easily is more died.Runout.or wobble. a serious problem,and canbe tracedto the

or chuck. If theproblem lies with spindle thespindle, it canoften befixed simply thespindle with a hammer by striking isat fault,it until it istrue;if thechuck must beremoved andreplaced. Do not neglect thedrill press'belts andpulleys in yourmaintenance. Check keep thebelts for wear, andalways them properly. tensioned Periodically check the pulleys, in the and replace them bearings if theybecome worn.

Thespeed of manydrill presses is changed by a systemof belts andpulleys housed in thetopof thetool. Tokeep these thebelts at theproperdegree of tension, presses thebelts drill featurea leverthat loosens for changing and tightens themto setthecorrect tension (right).A bebshould flex about1 inchout of line.


thetable 1 Aligning I Install an8-inch-long steel rodin thedrillpress chuck as youwould a drillbit,then raise thetable until it almost touches therod.Butta trysquare against therodasshown; theblade rest flush it (above). lf there isa gap, should against adjust the following instructions. For table themanufacturer's themodel pinunder shown, remove thealignment thetable, loosen the table l o c k i nb go l t a , n ds w i v e l t hte able untilthe r o di s f l u s h withthesquare. Tighten thelocking bolt.

r') Conecting chuck runout L Use a dialindicator to seeif there is anyrunout, or wob(page ble,in the chuck 105).lt there is, raptherodwitha (above)and hammer for runout ball-peen thenmeasure again; 0.005inchisconsidered themaximum acceotable amount. you Pullthe armof thedialindicator ouiof theway each time taotherod.




Removing and remounting a chuck arecommonly attached to the Chucks quillof a drillpress witha tapered spinmodels have dle.(Older often chucks thataresimply screwed in place.) To remove a faulty chuck thatfeatures a t a p e r es dp i n d l e f i,r s tl o w etrh eq u i l l Fitanopen-end andlockit in place. wrench on topof around thespindle thechuck andgive thewrench a sharp upward blow(above). Thechuck should slide out.lf not, rotate thespindle and presstryagain. Toremount thechuck, fit it into thespindle byhand. Then, with jaws give fullyretracted, thechuck's the witha wooden mallet. chuck a sharo blow

llll lltt llll]tl lllt tllt llll IIttlti illl illt lllfitl llll lll1 fitl llll llll
Che aking tabl e alignment Tocheckwhebher a drill preoo t ableie equare NoNheeVindle, make a 90'bend aL each len7Ih end of a 12-inch of wirecoal hanqer. lneerl oneend of the wirein Ihe chuck and adjuotthe table heiqhl until Ihe obher end of rhe wire Ihe luoI Loucheo Lable. KoIaLeIhewire;iIshould barely ecra?e Nhe Iable aI all poinledurinqiNeroIaNion. lf not, adiuet,Ihe table.



shouldbe of a lathe Thedrivecenters keptassharpasyour turning tools. orpointofa drivecenter If thespurs theywill notgrip aredull or chipped, properly. Drive centers theworkpiece grinder or on q bench aresharpened on the with afiIe (right).A 35"bevel of each spurworksbest. underside


bed Sanding thelathe may lathe thebedof your is in a humid climate, lf your shop canprevent thetailstock of rustwhich develop a thin layer bed To keep the lathe fromsliding smoothly. andtoolrest

the asit appears bysanding anyrustassoon clean, remove (above),200-grit orf iner, thenapply bedwithfinesandpaper wax. a oaste



Draw-filing thetoolrest Because it is made of softer steel thanthe turning tools used against it, thebearing surface of thetoolrestwill develop low spots, marks, andnicks withconstant use. lf notremedied, these imperfections will betransferred you to theworkpieces turn,or cause thetoolto skip. You canredress a toolresteasily witha single-cut bastard millfile.Draw-file therestbyholdi n gt h ef i l ea t a n a n g l e a n dp u s h i nig t across the workfromrightto left in over(/eff). lapping strokes Continue untilyou have removed thenicks andhollows, then smooth thesurface with200-grit sandpaperor emery cloth.

Checking forcenter alignment precise Turning between centers requires alignment of drive centers between headstock youwill andtailstock, otherwise produce off-center turnings. Toseeif the drive centers lineup,insert a four-spur drive center in theheadstock anda live center in thetailstock. Slide thetailstock along the bedup to the headstock kight). Thepoints of thedrive centers should meet exactly. lf theydo not,youmayhave to shimthetailstock orfile down its base.



runout lorspindle Checking face up dialindicator Seta magnetic-base of the sotheplunger table ontheshaper the Calibrate contacts thespindle. device gauge following themanufacturer's to zero slowly turnthespindle instructions. Then will Thedialindicator by hand(right). of amount runout-the register spindle to r e i l lt r a n s f e w o b b lte h a tt h es o i n d lw thetestat intervals Perform thecutter. adjusting thelength of thespindle, along %inch aI a time.lf therunout itsheight 0.005inchfor anvof thetests, exceeds reolace thesoindle.

thefences Squaring fence-ora of a shaper Thetwohalves parfence-must beperfectly router table cuts w i l lb eu n e v e n . a l l e lo , t h e r w iy so eu r first on a shaper, Tosquare thefences Hold a locking handles. loosen thefence fences. The two against the straightedge thestraighthalves should buttagainst (left).lf wood behind not, add shims edge paral lel. I they are thefences unti


Because a scrollsawbladeis heldin clamps thatpivot on theendof the sAw's armsduringa cut, replacing a bladeis a tricky taskthat risks stretching and snapping thedelicate cutting edge. Themodelof scrollsawshownat Ie[tfeatures a uniqueblade-changing wrenchthat holdsthebladeclamps steady asthebladeis tightened.

Checking blade tension Theblades of a scroll saw-likethose of a proper band saw-require tension to cut effectively. Toolittletension will cause excessive vibration andallow theblade to wander during thecut.Toomuch tension canleadto blade breakage. To adjust blade tension on the model shown, first tilt the blade tension lever forward. Then adjust the blade tension knob(right) to increase or decrease blade tension. Tilt the blade tension lever back andtestthe b l a d el.t s h o u l d e f l e ca t b o u% t inch pushed when fromside to side. Pluck the blade a n dr e m e m b t eh r es o u n dl.t w i l l youto tension quickly allow theblade in f uture. Always adjust thetension when youchange blades.



lnotallingan air pump and scrolleaws Older
modele oomeforeiqn oflen comewith- I ouNa eawdusl {; blowec a device S lhatkeeosthe cult inq line clearwhile the eawie in use. Asimpleelectric pump aoparium and tume co??er tubinq Qiqht) can dothetrick at a

Squaring theblade blade to the saw's To souare the scroll against square table, butta combination should f it Thesquare theblade asshown. is a gap, lf there flush against theblade. andadjust loosen thetablelockknob thenutonthe90'stopuntilthetable is level andthereis nogapbetween Tighten the andtheblade. thesquare lockknobGbove).

fu'action of the cost

inserL a10'to 1Z'inch atlachment.Simply of a eawdusiblowin7 an plaoticair hose,makinq len7thof coppertubing into the ?um?'o the hoseto lhe oawe upperarm, and bendt'he airLiqhtoeal,Tape ?inchthb'endof rhe t'ubeeliqhrly copfe, endto p'ointat, the blade. it's preeeure. to direct,theair and increase



Testing fortrueness Tomeasure whether thewheel istrue, first remove anyabrasive discs. Connect a dial indicator to a magnetic base andsetthe base onthetool's disctable. Place the device sothatitsarmcontacts thediscand turnonthemagnet. Calibrate thedialindicator to zero following themanufacturer's instructions. Turn thesanding discby (left). hand, andread the result Thedial indicator willregister thetrueness of the wheel. Perform thetestat various ooints around thedisc. lf theamount of wobble exceeds 0.005inchforanyof thetests, position adjust themotor or have thebearinsq ronlrned

Tracking thesanding belt Tostraighten a sanding beltthatis not tracking true, turnthebelt-and-disc sander's tracking knob clockwise or counterclock(righl.f o wise while thetoolis running problems, correct severe tracking unplug thetoolandrelease tension onthesandingbeltbypushing down onthetracking knob. Center thebeltonthepulleys and release theknob. Then turnonthetool andadjust thetracking knob asrequired. Always track thebeltwhen changing belts or installing a new one.



Draining thecompressor for hasbeen used When anaircomoressor of timeor in exceedanextended oeriod moisture willcolhumid conditions, ingly may cause Thismoisture lectin thetank. besprayed outwiththe rust;it canalso finish. lacquer air,which canruina spray shutoff themotor, Todrain themoisture, fromthetank,andopen relieve all pressure (right). valve at the bottom the drainage on depending Drain thetankperiodically, howoftenyouusethe compressor.

airfilters Changing theoil and 100 hours of operation, change After every oil.Todrain theoil, anaircompressor's relieve from shutoffthemotor, all pressure plug witha thedrain thetank,andloosen wrench. Collect theoldoil in a container of it safely. Close thedrain anddispose plug withtheoil recomandfill thepump (left). Do mended bythe manufacturer Also check theair notoverfill thepump. remove filterweekly. Toclean theairf ilter, andlift off thefilter(inset). the housing of detergent thefilterin a solution Clean replace it if it cannot becleaned. andwater;


A-B-C Abrasive:A coarse powder or a pieceof paper or fabric coatedwith grit particlesusedto smooth wood. Arbor: A shaft driven by a stationary power tool motor to turn a revolving blade or other cutting implement. Bearing: A machined part located on a motor shaft,permitting the shaft to turn without friction. Belt tension: The measureof how tight a stationarypower tool drive belt or abrasive belt is stretched acrossits pulleys. Benchstone:Any natural or synthetic sharpeningstoneusedat the bench. Bevelcut Sawingat an anglefrom faceto facethrough a workpiece. Blade heeh Bladerotation that is not perfectlyparallelto the fenceof a table saw or the arm of a radial arm saw. Blade set:The amount that saw teeth are alternatelyoffsetto left and right, allowing a bladeto cut a kerf slightly wider than its own thickness to help preventbinding. Blade tension: The measureof how tight a band sawblade is stretched across its wheels. Brushes:A carbon or copper conductor that deliverscurrent from the stationaryelementof an electric motor to the rotating coil. Buffing: Polishinga sharpened edgeto a mirror-like finish using a cloth or rubber wheelimpregnated with fine abrasive compounds. Burnisher: A rod-like steeltool usedto turn a lip on a tool edge, especially scraperedges. Burr: A small ridge formed on the flat faceof a tool blade asa result of the honing process. Cap iron: A metal plate screwed to a planeblade,preventingchatter and the buildup of wood chips. Carbide-tipped blade:A sawblade on which the teeth aremade of a compound of carbon and steel; suchbladeedges are strongerand staysharperlonger than conventional high-speedsteelblades. Chip lifter: The machined surfaces on a Fortsneror multi-spur bit directly behind the cutters. Chuck Adjustablejaws on a drill or drill pressfor holding bits or other accessories. Collet The sleeve that grips the shankof a router bit. Combination bladq A circular saw blade designedfor making both crosscuts and rip cuts. CrosscutA cut madeacross the grain of a workpiece. D-E-F-G.H-I Dado head:A blade,or combination of bladesand chippers,usedto cut dadoesin wood. Dado: A rectangularchannelcut into a workpiece. Dial indicator: A measuringdevice with a magneticbaseusedto determine runout on stationaryand portable power tools, typically calibrated in thousandthsof an inch. Drill point angle The angleto which a drill bit must be ground and sharpened for efficientcutting. Drive belt Any rubber belt that connectsa stationarypower tool motor with its arbor or spindle,sometimes through a systemof pulleys. Drive center:A lathe accessory mounted in either the tailstock or headstock to support turning work; can either be fixed or turn with the work by meansof ball-bearings. Feelergauge:A preciselyground metal blade,furnished in sets,used to accurately measurethe gap betweentool parts. Fence: An adjustable guide designed to keepthe edgeor faceof a workpiecea set distancefrom the cutting edgeof a tool. Ferrule: A metal ring that tightens aroundthe end ofa handleto prevent splitting. Frog:The part ofa hand planethat supportsthe blade;usuallythe frog can be moved back and forth to adjust the mouth openingof the plane. Grinding: The initial stepin sharpening where nicks are removed,the cutting edgeis squared,and the bevel is established; typically done on a bench grinder.


Gullet The gap betweenteeth on a sawblade. of converting Honing: The process a rough-ground edgeto a smooth, uniform cutting edge. Hoolc A uniform burr turned on the cutting edges of a scraper. Infeed: The part of a machine's table that is in front of the blade during a cutting operation. l-K-r-M-N-O-P-Q fointing: Cutting thin shavings from the edgeand faceof a workpieceuntil they are flat and square. left when wood is Kerf: The space removedby the sawblade. Kickback The tendencyof a workpieceto be thrown back in the direction of the operatorof a tool. Lapping: Rubbing the faceof a plane or chiselblade acrossa sharpening stoneto removethe burr that resultsfrom honing the blade. Microbevel A secondarybevelhoned on the cutting edgeof a blade. Miter cut A cut that anglesacross the faceof a workpiece. Oilstone: Any natural or synthetic sharpeningstonethat usesoil as a lubricant. Orbital action: The up-and-forward movement of somesabersawblades the tradion their upstroke;replaces tional straight up-and-down action of a reciprocating-typesabersaw. Also. the eccentricmotion of the

abrasive disc on an orbital or random-orbit sander. Out-of-round wheel A band saw wheelthat is not perfectlyround. Outfeed: The part of a machine's table that is behind the bladeduring a cutting operation. Platen:A support plate for sandpaper belts on sanders. screw Positive stop: An adjustable on a stationarypower tool usedto keepthe tool's table at a set angle, typically90'and 45o. surrounding the Quill: A sleeve the amount spindleof a drill press; that the quill can be raisedand lowereddeterminesthe depth of hole a drill presscan bore. R-S Raker:A tooth in a sawbladethat clearssawdustand wood chips out of the kerf. thread: A machinedthread Reverse that tightensand loosensin the oppositedirection to the rotation of the tool bit so that the cutter remainstight during operation. Rip cut A cut that follows the grain of a workpiece-usually made along its length. Runout The amount of wobble in tool'sarbor or spindle. Sharp: A cutting edgeis said to be sharpwheretwo flat, polishedsurfaces meetat an angle. Slipstone:A sharpeningstonewith curvededges usedto sharpengouges and other similarly shapedtools.

cut createdby a Snipe:A concave jointer or planer at the end of a workpiece,the result of improper pressure on the workpieceor inaccuratelyset tableheight. Spindle: The threadedarbor on a power tool that turns cuttersand accessorres. of a workpiece Square Two surfaces that are at 90" to eachother. Stropping: Polishinga sharpened edgeto a mirror-like finish using strips of leatherimpregnatedwith fine abrasive compounds. T-U-V-W-X.Y-Z Tearout The tendencyof a blade or cutter to tear the fibers of wood, leavingraggededges on the surface of the workpiece. Teethper inch (TPI): A unit of usedto identifr types measurement and usesof sawbladesby the number of teeth per inch of bladelength. Ternper:The degreeofhardness in tool steel;also,the color of steel after the tempering process. Tracking: Adjusting a band saw belt so that it is blade or abrasive centeredon the tool's wheels. Waterstone:Any natural or synthetic sharpeningstonethat useswater asa lubricant. Wheel dresser:A deviceusedto true the working surfaceof a grindfresh abrasive. ing wheel and expose


Pagereference s in italics indicatean illusreferences tration ofsubjectmatter.Page in bold indicate a Build It Yourselfproject. multispur bits, 68 spade bits, 69 spoonbits, 55,57 storage, 89 twist bits, 58,65-66 Routers non-pilotedbits, 62 pilotedbits, 63 router bit sharpeners, 61 storage, 89 Storingbits (ShopTip), 89 Blades, 60 Bandsaws. 123 planes, 13,17,41-44 Bench Circularsaws, 61 72,86 arm saws,64, 113, 117,118,119 Radial saws, 93 Saber Scrollsaws. 136-137 Shapers,62,6j Tablesaws, 64,70, 109 See alsoKnives Braces,55-57 Brushassemblies, 98 Build It Yourself: Hand tools benchvisesawholders.28 jigs,33 gouge-sharpening Mobile sharpening dollies,23 Chisels: Handles,3I Sharpening,32 88,97 Circularsaws, Blades alignment,86 jigs, 61,72 blade-setting blade-sharpen ing jigs,61, 72 changing, 7.1 cleaning,Tl sharpeting, T2 139 Compressors, Disc-and-belt 1 38139 sanders, Drawknives, 24, 51,53,54 Dressers, 16,22 Drill presses, 131 131-132 Chucks, Runout.105 Tablealignment,131 checking tablealignment(Shop Tip), 132 Drills,88,95 Bits augerbrts,55-5./ bit grindingattachments, 58 6l brad-pointbits,68-69 Forstner bits, 67 multi-spur bits, 68 jigs, 61,66 sharpening spade bits, 69 spoonbits, 5t 57 storage, 89 twist bits, 58,65-66 See alsoDrill presses E.F.G.H Electrical outlets,front endpaper Electricdrills. See Drills Extension cords.89 Files, 17 Gouges,25, 30 Handles,3l Sharpening carvinggouges, 3G37 jigs,33 gouge-sharpening roughing-outgouges, 33- 34 35 spindlegouges, v-tools,38 honing guidesand rust Shop-made (ShopTip), 34 removers Grinders.See Benchgrinders Grinding,15 Handsaws: Benchvisesawholders,28 Fiing,26-27,29 loirlting,29 Setting,26,29 Storage sawholders(ShopTip), 27 Hand tools,25 Drills.55-57 Roughingand shaping tools,5.1-54 alsoBench planes; See Chisels; Gouges; Handsaws; Scrapers Hatchets. SeeAxes Honing,15

aper Abrasives, backendp Adzes, 51,53,54 Air compressors, 139 Air pumps: Scrollsaws. 137 Axes,51,54 Choosinga durableax handle(Shop

Bandsaws: .123 Blades, repairing broken blades,76-77 rounding a band sawblade(Shop Tip),75 sharpening,T3-74 storage, 78 Guideassemblies, 123-124 guideblocks,59, 75 Heat-resistant Tablealignment,124-125 Wheels,120-121 alignment,104,122 balancing a band sawwheel(Shop Tip), 122 Belt sanders, 88 Benchgrinders, 16,20,21 Grindingjigs,13 Multi-tool jigs, 16 wheelguardsfor buffing Reversing (Shop Tip),22 Wheels dressing,22 identification.20 Benchplanes, 39 3fl 45 Assembly and adjustment, Blades (ShopTip), 42 grindingwith a sander honing guideand anglejigs,17 sharpening,41-44 squaring,13 Refurbishing, 4G41 Benchstones. 13 Oilstones. 18 Truing, 19 'Waterstones, 12,17,18,19 Bevels,backendpaper Microbevels, 15 Bits,60 Dri]ls augerbits, 55-57 brad-point bits,68-69 58,61 drill bit grinding attachments, drill bit sharpeningjigs, 61, 66 Forstner bits. 67

Inshaves, 51,53,54 Iigs: Grinders grindingjigs,l3 multitool jigs, 16 Hand tools jigs,28 gouge-sharpening handsaws,28 Planehoning guideand an$e jigs,17 Routers plywoodtruingjigs, ST powertools Sharpening jigs,61,72 circularsawblade-settirrg circular sawblade-sharpening jigs,61,72 drill bit grinding attachments, 5& 6l jigs,61,66 drill bit sharpening jointer/planer jigs, 61,79 knife-setting


f ointer/planerknife-sharpening ji9s,61,82-83 planer/jointer magneticknifesettingjigs, 29, 85 twist bit sharpeningjigs, 66 126 Jointers, jigs, 61,79 Knife-setting jigs, 61,82-83 Knife-sharpening Knives backendpaper betrels, installation, 85 sharyenrng,79-84 shifting knives for longer life (ShopTip), 8l Positivestops, 126,127 Snipe,128 Table alignment, 127-128 Tableheight,.126 Knives: Jointers bevels,backendpaper installation, 85 jigs, 61,79 knife-setting jigs, 61,82-83 knife-sharpening sharpening,79-84 shifting knives for longer life (ShopTip), 8l Molding knives, 64 Planers banels,backendpaper jigs, 61,79 knife-setting jigs, 61,82-83 knife-sharpening Lapping,15 Lathes,133-134 Lowe,Philip, S-9 M-N-O-P-Q Microbevels, 15 l8 Oilstones, Orbital sanders. 88 Planers, 126 129,130 Cleaning, Knives endpaper betrels,back ji gs,61, 79 knife-setting jigs, 61,82-83 knife-sharpening sharpening, 79,85 Rollers,.l29 Tablealignment,130 Benchplanes Planes. See Platejoiners,88, 94 Plugs,102-103 Polishing,15 Powertools: Brushassemblies, 98 Drive belts,106

89 Electricalsupply,front endpaper, cords,100-101 phtgs,102-10j 99, 107 switches, wattageratings,front endpaper Lathes, 133-134 Maintenance, 8, 87-89,105 Platejoiners,88 98 Safetyprecautions, front endpaper, disablinga powertool (ShopTip), i03 136-137 Scrollsaws, Tip), l3Z installing an airpump (Shop Shapers, 62,135 storageracksfor shapercutters (ShopTip), 63 TabIes, 107 Benchgrinders; SeealsoBandsaws; Drill presses; Drills; Circular saws; Jointers;Planers;Radialarm saws; Routers; Saber saws; Sanders; Table saws R-S-T-U-V 113 Radialarmsaws, Auxiliarytables,l19 Blades bladeheel,113,118 squaring, 117,119 11+115 Clamps, ll3 Cleaning, Fences,119 Molding knives, 64 l13, lI6 Slidingmechanisms, 174 Tableadjustment, Routers, 88,90,98 Bits,62-63 router bit sharpeners, 6l storage,89 Colletrunout, 9l Sub-bases truing,87 88,92 Saber saws, Blades extending bladelife (ShopTip), 93 squaring,93 precautions: Safety Powertools,fo nt endp aper, 98 disablinga powertool (ShopTip), 103 Sanders, 88,96 138139 Disc-and-belt sanders, 46 Scrapers, Banels, backendpaper Sharpening 46,48-50 cabinetscrapers, 46,47-48 handscrapers, maintaining the correct burnishing angle(ShopTip), 50

Scrollsaws: Blades, 136-137 Installingan air pump (ShopTip), l3Z 62,135 Shapers, Storageracksfor shapercutters (ShopTip), 63 Benchstones stones. see Sharpening 6, I 1, 13-15 Sharpening techniques, Sharpening to ols, 16-17 Belt sanders grinding with a sander(ShopTip), 42 Burnishers,46 maintaining the correct burnishing angle(ShopTip), 50 variable burnishers, 46 Dtessers, 16,22 Mobile sharpening dollies,23 For powertools,6l See alsoBenchgrinders;Benchstones ShopTips: Hand tools,27, 34,42, 50,54 powertools,22, 89,93,103 Portable powertools,63,75, 81, 110, Stationary 122,132,137 Spokeshaves, 51,52,54 Starr, Richard,6-2 Stones. see Benchstones 17 Strops,backendpaper, Switches, 99,107 Tablesaws: Blades angleadjustment, 109 changrng, T0 storage,T0 112 Cleaning,108, -l12 Height and tilt mechanisms, Miter gauges (Shop fixing a loosemiter gauge Tip), 110 lI0 squaring, Molding knives, 64 Rip fences, I l1 Tablealignment,108-109, 111 Tableinserts,112 Tip burning, l1 Tools.See Hand tools;Powertools; Sharpening tools Twist bits: Bevels,back endpaper

Waterstones, 18,-19 finishstones, 12,18,19 fapanese Storage units, 17 Waymark, Ian, l&11 Wet/dry grinders,16,20,21


Theeditors wish to thank thefollowing SHARPENINGBASICS CooperTools,Apex,NC; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; Diamond MachineryTechnologyInc., Marlborough,MA; GarrettWade Company,New York, NY; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont; RecordTools Inc., Pickeiing,Ont.; The WoodworkersStore,Rogers, MN; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont.; Unicorn Abrasives of Canada, Brockville,Ont.; VeritasTools Inc., Ottawa Ont./Ogdensburg, NY; Woodcraft SupplyCorp., Parkersburg, WV SHARPENING AND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Anglo-AmericanEnterprises Corp., Somerdale, Nf; Blackand Decker/EluPowerTools, Tools,Apex,NC; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; Diamond Machinery _Hunt Valley,MD; C-ooper TechnologyInc., Marhorough, MA; GarrettWadeCompany,New York, NY; GeneralTools ManufacturingCo., New York, IriY; GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury MA; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Norton Abrasives CanadaInc., Montreal, Que.;RecordTools Inc., Pickering,Ont.; RobertSorbyLtd., Sheffield, U.K./BusyBeeMachineTools, Concord,Ont.; SandvikSaws and Tools Co., Scranton, PA; The WoodworkersStore,Rogers, MN; VeritasTools Inc., OttawaOnt./Ogdensburg, NY; Woodcraft SupplyCorp., Parkersburg, \4IV S}IARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Adwood Corp., High Point, NC; Anglo-AmericanEnterprises Corp., Somerdale, NJ; Blackand Decker/EluPowerTools,Hunt Valley,MD; CooperTools,Apex,NC; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable, Guelp!, Ont.; Diamond MachineryTechnologyInc., Marlborough,MA; GarrettWade Company,New York, NY; GeneralTools ManufacturingCo., New York, NY; GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury, MA; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; LagunaTools,LagunaBeach, CA; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Norton Abrasives CanadaInc., Montreal, Que.;RecordTools Inc., Pickering,Ont.; SandvikSaws and Tools Co., Scranton,PA; The WoodworkersStore,Rogers, MN; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont.; VeritasTools Inc., Ottawa Ont./Ogdensburg, NY; Woodcraft SupplyCorp., Parkersburg, \MV; WoodstockInternational,Bellingham, WA; Wood Systems Inc., New Beilin, WI MAINTAINING PORTABLEPOWERTOOLS AdjustableCI?Tp Co., Chicago,Irt Bhck and Decker/EluPowerTools,Hunt Valley,MD; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter Cable,Guelph,Ont.; Dewalt Industrial Tool Co., Hampstead, MD; GeneralTools ManufacturingCo., Inc., New York, NY; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; NewmanTools Inc., Montreal, Que; Sears, Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; Stanley Tools,Division of the Stanley Works, New Britain, CT; Steiner-Lamello A.G Switzerland/Colonial SawCo., Kingston,MA; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont. MAINTAINING STATIONARYPOWERTOOLS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; CampbellHausfeld,Harrison,OH; CooperTools,Apex,NC; Delta International Machinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; GeneralTools ManufacturingCo., Inc., New York, NY; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; |elEquipment and Tools,Auburn, WA; NewmanTools Inc., Montreal, Que; Sears, Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; StanleyTools,Division of the Stanley Works, New Britain, CT; Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and LouisvilleiKY Thefollowingpersons alsoassisted in thepreparation of this book: LorraineDor6, Graphor Consultation,Solange Laberge, Rob Lutes,Genevidve Monette

Cover RobertChartier 6,7 Marie LouiseDuruaz 8,9 Steve Lewis l0,llPerry Zavitz 14 (Iowerleft, lowerright)Hans Blohm


TYPE OF ABRASIVE paper Emery Garnet sandpapel Aluminum oxide sandpaper Silicon carbide sandpaper AVAILABLE GRITS Coarse/med ium/f ine 50-280 40-400 80-600 ABRASIVE OUALITY
Cnarco. fairlv cnfi

USES F l a t t e n i np gl a n e soles Finergrits usedfor general sharpen ing g r i t su s e d Finer forhoning tool blades a n db e v e l s Honing t o o lb l a d e s a n db e v e l s Lapping backs o f t o o lb l a d e s P o l i s h i ntg ools; lapping backs of tool blades C l e a n i ntg ables of stationary power tools

Medium Medium t o f i n e ;h a r d Fineh ; ard Fine; v e r yh a r d E x t r e m ef ly i n ea n d h a r d Coarse to fine; soft

WeUdry sandpapel 60-1200 silicon carbide Silicon carbide lapping compounds 90-600 Steel wool 0/00/000/0000


Nolhinqpula a mirrorfinishand razor-eharV edqe like A combinaLion on Loole an old-f aehioned etrroo. youto workuV stroVlike Nhe oneehown below allowe qradeeof buffing to a hiqhpolieh with several com' To make the stroV, eimVly cut a of Vounds. Viece he a r d w o oe dN o c a inches 2-inch-squar k bouN12 l o n qa n d l u r n a h a n d l e o n o n ee n d .G l u ee l r i p eo f ecrapleaNher Lo eachof the four sidee;harness leatrher worke besL, althouqh an old beltr willdo the firstlhree eides Lrick.The can becharged wiLh coaroe to finebuffinq compoundo: for finalVoliohinq, Lhelaet, eideie ueed wiLhoul anycompound.




Turning acraper: 8O'

Planeiron: 3O' (eofLwoode25") 9kew:3O" Oouge: 35'-55" Twiet.bit:59"

Chisels:3O' (parin4chteel20", morttetnqchieel4O')

Jointer and planer knives:35'