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Ultraconductors Full Seminar Report


Posted by admin on August 1, 2012, filed in: Electrical Seminar Topics 1

Ultraconductors Full Seminar Report


Superconducti it! is an important c"aracteristic o# an! electrical conductor t"at "as a "ig" conducti it! and allo$s t"e electric current to #lo$ in it $it"out an! energ! dissipation or loss% &e kno$ t"at $"en t"e electric current is passed t"roug" a conductor' it produces some "eat due to t"ermal energ! and t"e atoms in conductor ibrate% T"e temperature o# electric conductor is proportional to t"e atom ibration in t"e conductor

material% T"ese atomic ibrations in t"e conductor pre ent t"e electron #lo$ and an electrical resistance produces in t"e conductor% (o$ t"is concept e)plains t"at i# t"e ordinar! conductor "as a er! lo$ temperature e en *ero temperature t"en t"ere $ill be no atomic ibration in t"e conductor and t"e electric current $ill #lo$ $it"out an! dissipation o# energ! or barrier and t"us t"e electrical resistance goes to *ero o"m% &e kno$ t"at t"e conductor at *ero degree temperature is not possible to get but some electric conductor "as t"e superconducti it! c"aracteristics on "ig"er temperature% T"e superconducti it! $as disco ered in mercur! in 1+11 b! a ,utc" p"!sicist Heike -amerling" .nnes at t"e minimum temperature at /-% and a#ter t"is man! ot"er metals or electrical conductors $ere disco ered #or superconducti it! but t"e "ig"est temperature at $"ic" superconducti it! #ound $as 01-% &"at are Ultraconductors2 Ultraconductors are suc" kind o# materials t"at demonstrate a c"aracteristic set o# electrical conducti it! and make current #lo$ like a superconductor in t"e electric conductors and "a e *ero electrical resistance in one dimension% Ultraconductors are not t"e material #or #ree public usages% Ultraconductors are de eloped and patented materials used in commercial applications using alid license% Some dielectric pol!mers "a e ultraconductors c"aracteristics%

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Tags: Ultra Conductors 4ull Seminar 5eport' Ultra Conductors Seminar Topic' ultraconductors 9 Pre ious Po$er :ualit! Seminar 5eport

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Seminar Topics J Project >deas G Seminar Topics And ,iscussion G Engineering Seminar Topics G Electrical Seminar Topics L ultraconductors Tags: ultraconductors' ultraconductors ppt' ultraconductors pd#' Post 5epl! #hread Ratin": < Votes E < A erage 1 0 1 / M #hreaded 'ode ( Linear 'ode ultraconductors <1E</E0<1<' <;:/M P8 Post: )* project topics SP ,eser ed 8ember Posts: 0'/=+ Joined: 8ar 0<1<

ultraconductors Tec"nical introduction Ultraconductors are patented1 pol!mers being de eloped #or commercial applications b! 5oom Temperature Superconductors >nc B5..TSD% T"e materials e)"ibit a c"aracteristic set o# properties including conducti it! and current carr!ing capacit! eCui alent to superconductors' but $it"out t"e need #or cr!ogenic support% T"e Ultraconductor properties appear in t"in BM E 1<< micronD #ilms o# certain dielectric pol!mers #ollo$ing an induced' nonEre ersible transition at *ero #ield and at ambient temperatures NN 1<< -% T"is transition resembles a #ormal insulator to conductor B>ECD transition% T"e base pol!mers used are certain iscous polar elastomers' obtained b! pol!meri*ation

in t"e laborator! or as purc"ased #rom industrial suppliers% Se en c"emicall! distinct pol!mers "a e been demonstrated to date% Superconducti it! is t"e p"enomenon in $"ic" a material losses all its electrical resistance and allo$ing electric current to #lo$ $it"out dissipation or loss o# energ!% T"e atoms in materials ibrate due to t"ermal energ! contained in t"e materials: t"e "ig"er t"e temperature' t"e more t"e atoms ibrate% An ordinar! conductorKs electrical resistance is caused b! t"ese atomic ibrations' $"ic" obstruct t"e mo ement o# t"e electrons #orming t"e current% ># an ordinar! conductor $ere to be cooled to a temperature o# absolute *ero' atomic ibrations $ould cease' electrons $ould #lo$ $it"out obstruction' and electrical resistance $ould #all to *ero% A temperature o# absolute *ero cannot be ac"ie ed in practice' but some materials e)"ibit superconducting c"aracteristics at "ig"er temperatures% >n 1+11' t"e ,utc" p"!sicist Heike -amerling" .nnes disco ered superconducti it! in mercur! at a temperature o# appro)imatel! / - BE0@+o CD% 8an! ot"er superconducting metals and allo!s $ere subseCuentl! disco ered but' until 1+=@' t"e "ig"est temperature at $"ic" superconducting properties $ere ac"ie ed $as around 01 - BE0M<o CD $it" t"e niobiumEgermanium allo! B(b16eD >n 1+=@ 6eorge 3ednor* and Ale) 8uller disco ered a metal o)ide t"at e)"ibited superconducti it! at t"e relati el! "ig" temperature o# 1< - BE0/1o CD% T"is led to t"e disco er! o# ceramic o)ides t"at super conduct at e en "ig"er temperatures% >n 1+==' and o)ide o# t"allium' calcium' barium and copper BTi0Ca03a0Cu1.1<D displa!ed superconducti it! at 10M - BE1/=o CD' and' in 1++1 a #amil! based on copper o)ide and mercur! attained superconducti it! at 1@< - BE111o CD% T"ese O"ig"EtemperatureO superconductors are all t"e more note$ort"! because ceramics are usuall! e)tremel! good insulators% 7ike ceramics' most organic compounds are strong insulatorsP "o$e er' some organic materials kno$n as organic s!nt"etic metals do displa! bot" conducti it! and superconducti it!% >n t"e earl! 1++<Ks' one suc" compound $as s"o$n to super conduct at appro)imatel! 11 - BE0/<o CD% Alt"oug" t"is is $ell belo$ t"e temperatures ac"ie ed #or ceramic o)ides' organic superconductors are considered to "a e great potential #or t"e #uture% (e$ superconducting materials are being disco ered on a regular basis' and t"e searc" is on #or room temperature superconductors' $"ic"' i# disco ered' are e)pected to re olutioni*e electronics% 5oom temperature superconductors BultraconductorsD are being de eloped #or commercial applications b! 5oom Temperature Superconductors >nc% B5..TSD%Ultraconductors are t"e result o# more t"an 1@ !ears o# scienti#ic researc" 'independent laborator! testing and eig"t !ears o# engineering de elopment% 4rom an engineering perspecti e' ultraconductors are a #undamentall! ne$ and enabling tec"nolog!% T"ese materials are claimed to conduct electricit! at least 1<<'<<< times better t"an gold' sil er or copper%

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