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General Tips

Take advantage of Units Know trends Narrow Answer choices ACS practice book Chem 1 topics electronegativity trends molecular structure shape titrations Converting units ect Intramolecular forces attractive forces within molecules Intermolecular forces attractive force between molecules weaker then intramolecular forces Abasent in gas phase effects melting!boiling point influences solubility and structure "like dissolves like # polar!polar$ caused by opposing charges of polar molecules Capillary action abilitiy of li%uid to flow against gravity"adhesion!cohesion$ Surface tension energy re%uired to strech a li%uids surface "increase with &'($ Viscoisty )esistance to flow of a li%uid "increase with &'($ Types of intermolecular forces(in order of strength) London dispersion forces caused by instantaneous dipole *nly &'( in non+polar particle All molecules have ,-( "although effect is small in ions$ .olari/iability # ease with with an electron can be moved 'olecular shape # larger surface area0 stronger ,-( Dipole-Dipole -ue to polarity and shape of molecule Caused by permanent dipole"polar molecules$ ydrogen !onding -ipole+-ipole interactions with 1 and a highly electronegative molecule ion-dipole interactions determines solubility of ionic compoudns in water salts dissovled in water are attracted to water molecules &onic compound with polar compound

Li"uids and Solids

Li"uids 2apori/ation"re%uires energy!endothermic! 3reaks intermolecular bonds$ Condensation")eleases energy4 e5othermic! Creates intermolecular bonds$ 6nthalpy of 2apori/ation + # $ap energy re%uired to vapori/e one mole Gases 7hen molecules are in the vapor phase they e5ert a $apor presure" .2 8 n)T$ 2apor pressure increases e5ponentially with temperature 7hen vapor pressure 8 e5ternal pressure li%uid boils Normal boiling point"3. at standard pressure$ Critical point point at which you can no longer achieve a li%uid by increases pressure Triple point # point at which solid li%uid and gas can e5ist Clausius-Clapeyron %"uation(& and '-point form)

Solids No change in concentration Arrange in (nit Cells "can be made up of molecules4 atoms or ions$ (nit Cells three+deminsional crtstalline structure that makes up solids 1!9th of each particle on corner of cube 1!:th of each particle on face of cube 1!;th of each particle on edge SC # Simple Cubic "1 cell$ ,ength of edge # :r Coordination number + < !CC # 3ody Centered Cubic ": cells$ ,ength of edge # ;r!s%rt"=$ Coordination number + 9 )CC # (ace Centered Cubic "; cells$ ,ength of edge # :r!s%rt":$ Coordination number # 1: Cesium Chloride "CsC,$ *rodination number 9 *ne Cl surrounded by 1!9th of 9 Cs in corners 1>1 ratio Sodium Chloride" NaCl$ Coordination number < Cl ions form face centered"1!: of each face$ Na ions in center and edge "? of each edge$ 1>1 ratio

*olarity(*) 'oles of Solute!,iters of solution # temperature dependent due to volume *olality(m) 'oles of solute!'ass of solvent # temperature indepdendent *ole fraction 'ols of component!"Total moles of compound$ Hsolution = Hsolute + Hsolvent+ Hmix Hsolution = (- Hlattice energy +( Hhydration)

+elating Solu,ility to partial pressure Sgas - . /gas

0here S - solu,ility1 . - henry2s constant1 p - partial pressure

Colligati$e /roperties # -ependent on number of particles dissolved "i 8 2an@t 1off (actor$ 3oiling .oint elevation ATbp - 3bp4m4i 3bp 8 constant"characteristic of solvent$ 4 CB!molal (ree/ing .oint depression ATfp - 3fp4m4i 3fp 8 constant *smosis "*smotic .ressure$ # 5 - *4+4T4i + - C9:C< atm6K4'1 (T in .el$in) 7smosis # (low of solvent molecules from regions of low solute concentration to regions with high solute concentration Van2t off )actor- number of ions formed when one molecule is dissolved in solution 7hat is the 2an@t 1off (actor for 3aCl:D EEEE 7hat is the 2an@t 1off factor for C;19D EEEE 7hat is the 2an@t 1off (actor for Calcium NitrateDEEEE

Chemical Kinetics )actors that effect rate of chemical reaction Concentration Temperature Catalyst Ability to make contact "Collision Theory$ Nature of reactants"tendency to change$ +ate of reaction Change in concentration over change in time "decreases e5ponentially as reaction proceeds$ 1 &nitial )ate : &nstantaneous )ate = Average )ate )ate of reaction 8 1

4 Frate of decomposition!formationG

"Negative for decomposition ! .ositive for (ormation$

HTo e%uate rates divide by coefficients of balanced e%uationsI +ate La0 )ate of )eaction 8 k 4 FAGm 4 F3Gn
89:18!: 8 concentration of reactants 3 - rate constant m1 n 8 *rder of reactant0 m J n 8 Total *rder"Can be J!+!fraction$

'ust be determined e5perimentally from kinetic data " ;ot coefficients<) Compare the effect changing the concentration of one reactant has on the reaction rate to determine order .lug orders and concentrations of any e5periment and solve for k

+ate Constant (3) (nits Units for nth order reaction 8 s-& 4 '(&-n) Kero *rder )ate constant UnitsDEEEEEEEE (irst *der )ate constant UnitsD EEEEEEEE Second *der )ate constant UnitsD EEEEEE Integrated +ate La0s in linear )orm(y - m5Jb$ Kero *rder "linear$ FAG - -3 4 t J FAo: (irst *rder"linear$ > lnFAG- -3 4 t J lnFAo: Second *rder"linear$ > 1!FAG - 3 4 t J 1!FAo: (irst *rder )eaction &ntegrated )ate ,aw ((sed for half life$ lnFAG!FAoG 8 +k 4 t alf life Amount of time re%uired for half a %uantity to disappear " 9mount remaining - &6'= half li$es) Using &ntegrated rate law> ln(89:689o: - -3 4 t 3 - rate constant
t - time

t&6' - >?@A63 Collision TheoryB 1 'olecules must collideE : 'olecules must have sufficient energy = 'olecules must have proper orientation"geometry &ncrease in temperature &ncrease in rate of reaction

9rrhenius %"uation - Used to calculate rate constant 3

k 8 A 4 e"+6a!)T$

9 8 fre%uency factor T 8 temperature

%a - acti$ation energy (temperature must ,e in

+ - 9 =1; L!"mol4 k$

Two point form

k increases as A increases 4 T increases4 6a decreases Catalyst &s not consumed 'ay react to form intermediates that are later consumed .rovides alernative mechanism for reaction with a lower 6nergy of activation *echanism # series of elementary steps"bond break!form$ making up a reaction> Unimolecular + 1 )eactant 3imolecular + : )eactants Trimolecular + = )eactants *veral"Net$ )eaction is the sum of it@s elementary steps e5cluding intermediates )ate law is determined by the slowest step in the reaction " rate determining step$ )ate law must be e5pressed in terms of reactants0 not intermediates Intermediates # A substance that is produced in a reaction but is consumed in a later step Chemical %"uili,rium -ynamic # "in constant motion$ )eversible "a forward and reverse reaction$ )ate of forward 8 )ate of reverse

6%uilibrium Constant # .C 8 FCGcF-Gd

C C D - products 9 C C - reactants a1,1c1d - respestive coefficients


7nly (a") and (g)1 (s) and (li") do not count

1eteregenous e%uilibria # Contains a mi5ture of phases 1omogenous e%uilibria # Contains a single phase Driting and manipulating . eEpressions Adding reactions together # Knew 8 k1Mk: 'ultiplying reactions by constant c # k new 8 kC )eversing direction # knew 8 1!k MTable 1= : MTable 1= =
Strong 9cids Cl1 !r1 I1 ;7A1 'S7F(polyprotic)1 Cl7F 1 Cl7A Strong !ase 7 ,onded to a group & metal or the A hea$iest group '1 Ca1!a1Sr +eaction Guotient -

G - CcDd 9a!,

9 1!1C1D 8 concentrations of a%ueous and gaseous atoms

a1,1c1d 8 respective coefficient

%"uili,rium Constant (.c) )eaction Nuotient at e%uilibrium for specific reaction Temperature dependent Kc # if Kc O 1 .roduct (avored0 Kc P 1 )eactant (avored "Translates to acids!bases$ 9cid IoniHation Constant(.a) Nuantitative measure of the strength of an acid I ,arger Ka # Stronger Acid

7:I8J-: F J: :8! 8!:


!ase IoniHation Constant(.b$ # Nuantitative measure of the strength of an base 87 I ,arger Kb # Stronger base

Le Chatelier2s /rinciples &f any change is imposed on a system at e%uilibrium then the system tends to shift to counteract said change Increase in concentration of reactants O )eaction proceeds towards products Increase in concentration of /roduct O )eaction proceeds towards reactants Increase!decrease in preassure!volume O )eaction proceeds toward with fe0er gas molecules %Eothermic(-L ) A J 3 Q C J "1eat$ 1eat can be viewed as a product0 Increase in temperature O )eaction proceeds towards reactants %ndothermic(KL ) A J "1eat$ Q C J 1eat can be viewed as a reactant> Increase in temperature O )eaction proceeds towards product %"uili,rium Constant(/artial /ressures) .p - .c I(+T)Ln p
) 8 Ras Constant" C9:14 T 8 Temperature in K4 SN 8 change in gas mols

and p7 Nuantitative e5pressesion of the acidity!alkalinity of an solution "C+1;$ "acidic PT4 basic OT$ p - -log8 A7: - p1 is dependent on 1=*0 Strong acids donate more 1=* p7 - -log87 : 9utoioniHation of 0ater .0 - 8 A7K:I87 -: - &I&M-&F Caused by the amphoteric characteristic of water Used to convert between *1 and 1 =* when solvent is 1:*

ConNugate 9cid-!ase /air Two species that differ 7;LO by a hydrogen ion 9cid Strength and molecular structure(re$ie0 this in greater detail) ,arger Ka stronger acid 'ore easily a proton is donated the stronger the acid"think about electronegativity!molecular si/e$ 7eaker the bond strength stronger the acid4 1& O 1( "acidity$ Le0is 9cids and !ases 9cids !ase

Determining the p of a ,uffers1 0ea3 acids6,ases1 strong acids6,ases1 .c1 e"uili,rium ma3e-up IC% Ta,les>>>>IC% Ta,les>>>>> IC% Ta,les>>> !uffers )esist changes in p1 when small amounts of acid!base are added 7hen an Acid"proton!1J source$ is added to a buffer system4 the protons bond to the base thereby neutrali/ing the protons4 decreasing the concentration of the base4 and increasing the concentration of the conUugate acid 'ust consist of a weak acid!conUugate base or vice versa " ;o Strong 9cids6!ases) %ffecti$eness of a ,uffer most effective when ratio of acid to base is 1>14 and when acid and base are large p - p.a K6- & anderson- assel,alch %"uation 8 A7: - ( 9 E .a) 6 (9-)

p - p.a K Log(C> !ase69cid) p7 - p.,K Log(C> 9cid6!ase)

p.a - -log(.a) p K p7 - &F

Three Reneral procedures for 7eak Acid!Strong 3ase "vice versa$ V %"ui$alence0 -etermine molarity of ConUugate base!acid produced4 then treat as weak base!acid reacting with water V alf-0ay point> 1enderson+1asselbalch e%uation ,ogarithmic drops off V 9r,itrary point 1enderson+1asselbalch e%uation Calculate concentrations" ,ogarithimic doesn@t drop off$ V Reneral procedure for Strong Acid!Strong 3ase -etermine limiting and e5cess reagents0 subtract mols of limiting from mols of e5cess Treat remainder as strong acid!base reacting with water


MSolubility increases at temperature decreases"pressure increases$ .sp + Solubility .roduct Constant0 Can be viewed as the Kc for precipitation reaction "solid e5cluded$ *olar Solu,ility - measure of the number of moles per liter that can be dissolved before solution becomes saturated M7hen given the 'olar Solubility you can use this value for the molarity of a solute with the same coefficient in the balanced e%uation M7hen asked for 'olar Solubility use an IC% ta,le and .sp /redicting formation of precipitate + &f asked if a precipitate will form4 compare G with .sp (make sure you know this) P The smaller the Ksp the more rapidly a precipitate will form "whyD$

%ntropy and )ree %nergy

)irst La0 of Thermodynamics Total energy of the universe cannot change W energy cannot be created or destroyed W Wconservation of energyW

%universe - %system J %surroudnings "Xou system is the reactants of your e%uation$

Second La0 of Thermodynamics 6ntropy of universe increases in a spontaneous process"fundamental for spontaneity e"uations) LSuniverse 8 LSsystem K LSsurroundings 8O LSuniverse 8 LSsystem L system!Tsurroundings
"Usable form$"Spontaneous when overall positive$

Third La0 of Thermodynamics The entropy of a perfect crystal at M3(a,solute Hero) is e"ual to Hero

Spontaneity - occurring without any e5ternal driving force "not re%uiring energy input under given
conditions System results in having less free energy if spontaneous (Thermodynamically fa$ora,le)

-riving forces of spontaneity"thermodynamic favorability$

o %nthalpy 'easurement of the internal energy of the system0 exothermic is favorable o %ntropy 'easure of disorder0 Increase in disorder is favorable S - 3 ln(D) where S 8 entropy4 k 8 3olt/mann Constant4 and 7 is measure of disorder "related to the
number of microstates$

Standard %ntropy- 6ntropy of a species at :Y9K for a particular state!allotrope!comple5ity!mass!degree of dissolution "'ore ordered states4
allotropes4 and more comple5 molecules generally have higher standard entropies$

-isorder increases as S increases .hase changes more disordered state &ncrease in number of product molecules &ncrease in temperature"related to enthalpy$ Solids dissociating into ions

Determining Spontaneity using LSuniverse 8 LSsystem K ( L

system!Tsurroundings$ Renerally you will be given tabulated data of the entropy and enthalpy for the reaction


(rom results plug into e%uation 7ith competing signs the spontaneity of the reaction will be temperature dependent> "Note an e5othermic reaction will have a negative L which will result in an A reaction is said to be Henthalpy!entropy drivenI depending on which term is causing the favorability
overall positive term


reactants 8 L

of system

ZSproducts + ZSreactants 8 LS of system

Gi,,s )ree %nergy # measure of the total energy change for the system "reaction$ at a constant temperature ",ooking at thermodynamic favorability from Uust the system$

'ultiply the previous e%uation through by T to obtain the e%uation for Ribbs (ree energy o 3ecause multiplying through by a negative4 a reaction is spontaneous when LG is negative

o LG - -LS K L
Usually tabulated data will give the LG 1 Q L 1 Q LS Q "HnotI values$ 'eaning at standard conditions To find the change in Ribbs free energy at non+standard conditions Use LG - LG Q K+TlnG where N is the )eaction Nuotient "look at when SR 8 C4 e%uilibrium$ "could be in pressures$

%lectron Transfer (7Eidation6+eduction)

9,solutely 3no0 ho0 to find 7Eidation states o ;on-Inclusi$e Ta,le(re$ie0 for all rules) 1 &n free4 uncombined elements4 *5idation State 8 C : A monatomic ion has an o5idation state e%ual to its charge = The sum of the *5idation states of each atom in a neutral compound must e%ual C ; As follows4 in a polyatomic ion the o5idation state of all the atoms is e%ual to it[s charge \ 'etals in group 1 and group : have o5idation states of 1 and : respectively ?> 7Eygen - -'1 ydrogen - -& 7Eidation"reducing agent$ # ,oss of electrons by a species0 increase in o5idation number +eduction"o5idi/ing agent$ # Rain of electrons by species0 decrease in o5idation number 7IL +IG 7Eidation is Losing +eduction is Gaining (electrons) Steps in !alancing %"uations for reduction-oEidation reactions 1 -etermine half+reactions by o5idation states "look at non+1!*$ : ,ook whether in basic or acid solution (or 3asic use *1!1:*4 Acidic 1J!1:* = 3alance by *ass "3alance o5ygen first4 then hydrogen$ using ] ; 3alance by Charge"add e+$ \ )epeat :+= with other half reaction < Add reactions so added electrons cancel


%lectrochemical Cells
Two types of electrochemical Cells &> Voltaic6Gal$anic Cell # generate electric current by spontaneous"product favored$ chemical reaction + electrons pushed by emf '> %lectrolytic Cell Used for electrolysis"current used to bring about a nonspontaneous reaction Gal$anic6Voltaic Cell o 6lectrons travel through e5ternal wire from anode"negative$ to cathode"positive$ 7Eidation occurs at anodeR +eduction occurs at Cathode o &ons move through salt bridge Cell /otentials Cell /otential % Qcell 8 % Qcathode - % Qanode 'ore positive % Q greater tendency for reduction "cathode$ in other words4 more positive % Q means better o5idi/ing agent "look at chart trends^$ ;ernst %"uation - % Qcell at nonstandard conditions % - % Q - +T6n) lnG1 where n is the number of electrons transferred4 ( 8 faradays % - % Q - >M'STV6n ln8productsUc6reactantsUa: at 3 - '@V

;uclear Chemistry
6very atom of an element has the same number of protons but can have different number neutrons"isotopes$ or electrons"ions$ 'ass number 8 protons J neutrons Atomic number 8 number of protons Types of radioacti$e decay Alpha and beta decay Alpha radiation ,east penetration # most ioni/ing stream of helium nuclei"alpha particles$ decrease in mass number by ; and atomic number by : 3eta radiation Change of a neutron into a proton Nucleus emits a stream of electrons 'ass number remains constant atomic number increases by 1 "loses an electron 8 gaining a proton$ Ramma ray emission ,east ioni/ing but most penetration 1igh energy photons emitted from particle rearrangment after decay .ositron emission .ositron"anti+electron$ # particle with negligible mass and J1 charge "electron but positive$

'ass number remains same atomic number decreases by 1 6lectron capture &nner oribtal electron is pulled into nucleus No emission "an elecron combines with a proton to form a neutron$ 'ass number remains constant Atomic number decreases by 1