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# HarmonicTheory.

## com Number Diagrams

www.harmonictheory.com

## Notes for the Number Section

Any number on a blue line has a factor of 2. Any number on a green line has a factor of 3. Any number in red has a factor of 5 and is in a ratio of 5/6 to the number beneath it. Some numbers can go on for generations of 5/6ths and still be whole numbers. In these diagrams only the first and second generations from the root number are shown; the first generation is shown in red, and, if there is a second generation whole number, it is shown in black just above the number in red. The number with factors of 2, 3, and/or 5 provide the primary warp and woof of the universal numeric fabric. These are the numbers used in the diagram 31,104Day in the Life of Brahma. The other numbers used 7, 11, and 37each provide a different colored thread to the fabric but use the same multiples of 2, 3, and/or 5 to interweave with the primary 2-3-5 structure. Any number on an orange line has a factor of 7. 7 is added in the diagram 15120The Lesser Maze in Theosophy because it adds numbers to the canon related to the ideal synodic moon cycle, and the ideal cycles of the outer planets Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. 15120 is also the sum of all the plane angles of the five Platonic solids and the number of years it takes for the equinoctial point to pass through seven signs of the zodiac. Any number on a magenta line has a factor of 11. 11 is added to the diagram 31680Music and Cosmology of the Earth and Moon. Astronomically and geometrically, the combined radii of the earth and moon is 5040 miles. A circle with a radius of 5040 miles has a circumference of 31680 miles (using = 22/7). Musically, 22 notes taken from a harmonic 2-3-5 lattice and translated into degrees on a circle, when totaled equal 3168. In terms of gematria, 3168 is the total of The God Apollo + Pythagoras + Jesus. ( + + ). John Michell in The Dimensions of Paradise describes 3168 as the representing the spirit which passes through and encircles the universe, Platos World-soul. The Christian term for this spirit, developed from the number 3168, was Lord Jesus Christ (800 + 888 + 1480 ). Any number on a purple line has a factor of 37. 37 is added in the diagram Gematria of Pythagoras and Jesus. The name Pythagoras () is 864 in gematria. 864 is 36 24. The name Jesus () in gematria is 888. 888 = 37 24.

11-15-2005

1
divisible by 4 divisible by 9 divisible by 10 divisible by 8

## 31,104 - Day in the life of Brahma

2 3
P re c e s s i o n a l c yc l e o f 2 5 , 9 2 0 ye a r s p l u s i t s d a w n ( 2 5 9 2 ) a n d t w i l i g h t ( 2 5 9 2 ) = 31,10 4 . 311, 0 4 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 = t h e n u m b e r o f ye a r s i n t h e l i f e o f B r a h m a , w h i c h re p re s e n t s t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e S o l a r S ys t e m i n t h e a n c i e n t B r a h m a n i c a l Ta b l e s . 31,104/25920 is in the ratio of 6/5 as are all the pairs of numbers (a number with its dawn and twilight.) Musically, the ratio of 6/5 or 5/6 is a minor 3rd.

divisible by 12 divisible by 6 (divisible by 7 - not used in this table) (divisible by 11 - not used in this table) divisible by 25 - (root of Saturn cycle)

## This table grows out of the Pythagorean tetractys

10

8
1 2 4 8 3 9 27 20

12

18

15

s 27

25

16

24

36
75

30

45

54

81

40

32

48

72

60

50

d 90

108

162

135

243

100

150
180

225

64

96

80

144

120

f 216
300 450
540

324

270

405

486

a
160

200
240

z 360

675
810

## ideal radius of Sun 432,000 miles

128

192
400
480

288
600
720

432
900
1080

648

972
ideal diameter of Sun a 864,000 miles

320

1350

384

576
1200
1440

864

1296

1944

1620

960

1800

2700

1152

1728

2592
5400

2160

3888

3240

31104/15552=2 31104/10368=3

## 10800/5400=2 10800/3600=3 10800/2700=4

2880

3456
27 days = ideal sidereal Moon cycle s 90 days = ideal Mercury cycle d 216 days= ideal Venus cycle f 360 days = ideal Earth cycle z 720 days = ideal Mars cycle g 4320 days = ideal Jupiter cycle h 6480 days = ideal Nodal cycle ./ 10800 days = ideal Saturn cycle j

h 4320

3600

31104/7776=4
25920/5184=5

5184

## . 6480 / 7776 j 10800

12960

10800/2160=5
25920/4320=6 25920/3420=8

31104/5184=6 31104/3888=8

10800/1800=6 10800/1350=8

8640

10368

15552

## 25920/2880=9 10800/1200=9 31104/3456=9 10800/1080=10 25920/2592=10

31104/2592=12

25920/2160=12

10800/900=12

10800/432=25
25920 number of years in precession of equinoxes cycle

31104

11-15-2005

1
Some numbers, like a day in nature, have a dawn and twilight that is a whole number. This is a theosophical concept explained in Mathematics of the Cosmic MInd by L. Gordon Plummer. One can find a number with its dawn and twilight by multiplying the original number by the overtonal musical ratio of the minor third (6/5) Ex. 90 x 6/5 = 108. One can also use the inverse (5/6) x 108 to find a day without dawn and twilight. Mathematically the decimal equivalent of 6/5 is 1.200 and the decimal equivalent of 5/6 is .833. Mystically, the gematria is:

## 15120 - The Lesser Maze in Theosophy

This table grows out of the Pythagorean lambda and tetractys 1 2 4 8 3 9 27 5

9
2 related

10

8
icosahedron 3600 tetrahedron 720 (x2) dodecahedron 6480 octahedron 1440 cube 2160 Total sum = 15120 40 20

12

14

18

15

3 related

21

s 27

5 related 7 related

16

24

s 28

25 30

35

45

36

42

54

63

81

32

48

56

72

50 60

k 84

70

d 90

75

105

135

108

126

162

189

243

80

64

96

112

144 l168

100 120

140

f 216 ; 252
350 420 450* 540

150 180

175 210

225 270

315

405

324

378

486

567

a
160 200 240 280

z 360

300*

525 630

128

192

224

288

336

432

504

648

756

972

675 810

## ideal radius of Sun 432,000 miles

1134
ideal diameter of Sun 864,000 miles

945

384

320

448

576

400 480

672

560

864

600* 720

1008

700 840

1296

900* 1080

1050 * 1260

1512

1944

1350* 1620

2268

1575 1890

800 960

1120

1200* 1440

1400 1680

1800* 2160

2100* 2520

2700* 3240

3150* 3780

1152

1344

1728

2016

2592

3024

3888

4536

2400* 2880

2800* 3360

3456
27 days = ideal sidereal Moon cycle s 90 days = ideal Mercury cycle d 216 days= ideal Venus cycle f 360 days = ideal Earth cycle z 720 days = ideal Mars cycle g 4320 days = ideal Jupiter cycle h 6480 days = ideal Saros eclipse cycle ./ 10800 days = ideal Saturn cycle j 28 days = ideal synodic Moon cycle s 84 years = ideal Uranus cycle k 168 years = ideal Neptune cycle l 252 years = ideal Pluto cycle ;

4032

3600* 4320

5184

6048

4200* 5040

. 5400* / 6480
7776

6300* 7560

9072

7200* 8640

8400* 10080

j10800* 12960

12600* 15120

## 10368 12096 15552 18144

21600* 25920

25200* 30240

31104 36288

when interlaced, is known in theosophy as the lesser maze the icosahedraon 3600, the dodecahedron 6480, the octahedron 1440, the cube 2160, the first tetrahedron 720, and the second tetrahedron 720. 15120 is also the number of years it takes for the equinoctial point to pass through 7 signs of the zodiac.

is the sum of all plane angles *15120 of the five Platonic solids, which,

11-15-2005

## *31680 - Music and Cosmology of the Earth and Moon

A square with a side of 7920 miles (2x3960, which is the mean radius of the Earth), has a perimeter (4 x side) of 31680 miles. 4 x 7920 = 31680. A circle with a radius of 5040 miles (5040 is the combined radius of the Earth 3960 miles, and the Moon - 1080 miles) has a circumference (using pi=22/7) of 31680 miles. (Circumference = pi x 2r). 22/7(2 x 5040) = 31680

Some numbers, like a day in nature, have a dawn and twilight that is a whole number. This is a theosophical concept explained in Mathematics of the Cosmic MInd by L. Gordon Plummer. One can find a number with its dawn and twilight by multiplying the original number by the overtonal musical ratio of the minor third (6/5) Ex. 90 x 6/5 = 108. One can also use the inverse (5/6) x 108 to find a day without dawn and twilight. Mathematically the decimal equivalent of 6/5 is 1.200 and the decimal equivalent of 5/6 is .833. Mystically, the gematria is:

11

12

10

18
25

15

s 27

## 1200 = lucnon = Light, lamp 832 = qeofilo = beloved by God

2 related 3 related 11 related 5 related

16

22

24

20

33
50 60

36
75 90

30

45

54

27 days = ideal sidereal Moon cycle s 90 days = ideal Mercury cycle d 216 days= ideal Venus cycle f 360 days = ideal Earth cycle z 720 days = ideal Mars cycle g

32

40

44

48

66
100 120

55

72

99
150* 180

108

64

88

96

80

132
200 240

110

165

144
275 330

198
300* z 360

f 216

297

160

220

495

1/1 =

128

176

192

264
400 480

288
550 660

396
600* g 720

432
825 990

594

## Db 256/243 = 16/15 = Db D D Eb Eb E E 10/9 = 9/8 = 32/27 = 6/5 = 5/4 = 81/64 =

320

352

384

528
800 960

440

a
ideal radius of Sun 432,000 miles

576
1100 1320

792
1200* 1440

864
1650* 1980

1188

640

880

a
ideal diameter of Sun 864,000 miles

4/3 = 1200000

704

768

1056
1600 1920

1152
2200 2640

1584
2400* 2880

1728
3300* 3960

2376

## Gb 729/512 = 1452624 F# 1024/729 = 1521648 G 3/2 = 1800000

1408

1536

1280

1760

Ab 128/81 = 2084800 8/5 = 2160000 Ab A A Bb Bb 5/3 = 2400000 27/16 = 2471912 16/9 = 2800000 9/5 = 2880000 15/8 = 3150000 243/128 = 3231648 3165189180 = *316809

2112

2304
4400 5280

3168
4800* 5760

3456

4752

3520

3200 3840

6600* 7920

4224

4608

6336
9600* 11520

6912
13200* 15840

9504

B B

12672

10560

13824

19008

## *Numbers rounded up above 30 and down below 30 total 3168 even

Harmonic ratios converted to degreesminutesseconds Example 15/8 = 1.875 (convert ratio to decimal) 1.875 is between 1/1 and 2/1, (the octave used for harmonic ratios) 1.875 - 1 = .875 (to get between 0 and 1) .875 x 360 = 315 (to find the degree point of 15/8 on a circle) 315 = 3150000 (converting 315 into degreesminutesseconds)

*38016

26400* 31680

## Gematria of Pythagoras and Jesus

This table grows out of the Pythagorean lambda & tetractys 1 2 4 8 3 9 27 5

Some numbers, like a day in nature, have a dawn & twilight that is a whole number. This is a theosophical concept explained in Mathematics of the Cosmic MInd by L. Gordon Plummer. One can find a number with its dawn and twilight by multiplying the original number by the overtonal musical ratio of the minor third (6/5) Ex. 90 x 6/5 = 108. One can also use the inverse (5/6) x 108 to find a day without dawn and twilight. Mathematically the decimal equivalent of 6/5 is 1.200 and the decimal equivalent of 5/6 is .833. Mystically, the gematria is:

4
icosahedron 3600 tetrahedron 720 (x2) dodecahedron 6480 octahedron 1440 cube 2160 Total sum = 15120 20 10

12

18

15

2 related

s 27

## 3 related 5 related 37 related

25 30

45

16

24

36

37

54

81

en idea = in nature; in idea olh = whole; perfect Puqagora = Pythagoras (Lesser Canon)

## h alhqeia = The Truth 40 50 60

32
h kardia = The heart

48

72

74

d 90

75

135

108

111

162

243

80 alhqeia = Truth

100 120

64

96

144

148

f 216

150 180

185

225 270

405

222

324

333

486
ideal radius of Sun a katabolh = Foundation

128

192

160

288

200 240

296

z 360

300*

370

450* 540

555

432

444

648

666

972

675 810

999
Kosmo = cosmos nou = mind, understanding Puqagora = Pythagoras ideal diameter of Sun a Alfa-W = Alpha-Omega

384
logaio = chosen o epi pasi Qeo = The God over All Ihsou = Jesus 800 960

320

576

400 480

592

g 720

600*

864

888

740

1296

900* 1080

1332

925 1110

1944

1350* 1620

1998

1665

1200* 1440

1480

1800* 2160

1850 2220

2700* 3240

2775 3330

1152

1184

1728

1776

2592

2664 3888

3996
Egw Alfa kai Wmega = I the Alpha and Omega

## Cristo = Christ 2400* 2880 2960

2368
Ihsou Cristo = Jesus Christ

3456

3552

3600* 4320

5184

5328

3700 4440

. 5400* / 6480
7776

5550 6660

7992

5920

7200* 8640

7400* 8880

10800* j12960

11100* 13320

7104

## 10368 10656 15552 15984

number of years in precession of equinoxes cycle 14800 17760 21600* 25920 22200* 26640

21312

31104 31968

A Pythagorean Value of Pi
Added together, the numbers 864 + (864 x 360) + (864 x 360 x 100) = a value of Pi accurate to 7 decimal places.

## The Greek gematria for the name Pythagoras is 864.

PUQAGORAS

864
The two most revered symbols of the Pythagoreans were the sphere and the Tetractys.

. . . . . . . . . .
10

360

## English letters Greek letters

P Y TH A G O R A S

PUQAGORAS P U Q A G O R A S
= 80 =400 = 9 = 1 = 3 = 70 =100 = 1 =200

The Sphere

The Tetractys

## Greek numeric values for the letters of the name Pythagoras

. . . . . . ....
Number of degrees in a circle Number of dots

864

360

10
*100 = 10 x 10 (the Pythagorean tetractys tenfold)

## Cosmic Cycles, Cosmic Numbers, and the Value of !*

Cycles 5 Dawn** 50 5 Twilight 60 6 Dawn 60 6 Twilight 72
72 is the ideal human pulse rate for 1 minute of 60 seconds. 72 is the number of years for the precession of the equinoxes to move 1. 72 is the ideal number of years for the human life span. 72 is the ideal number of breaths drawn in 4 minutes - the time required for the earth to rotate 1 on its axis.

5 x 10
60 is the ideal number of seconds in one miute.

5 x 60
360 is the ideal number of days in a solar year.

## 36 Dawn 360 36 Twilight 432

432 Hz is the ideal tuning pitch for A above middle C at 256 Hz. 432,000 is the ideal radius of the a in miles.

5 x 360
2160 is the ideal diameter of s in miles. 2160 is the ideal number of years for the precessional cycle to move through one sign of the zodiac.

10 x 2160

25920 x 12

## 2592 Dawn 25920 2592 Twilight 31104

25,920 solar years is the number of years in the Great Year of Plato. (It takes 25920 solar years to complete one precessional cycle.)

31104 x 10

311,040
2160 (diameter of s in miles) x 12 = 864,000 (diameter of a in miles) x 360 / 1000 =

## 311,040 311,040 311,040

864,000 = (diameter of the a in miles) 311,040,000 = 864,000 x 360 in a circle 31,104,000,000 = 311,040,000 x 100 (the tetractys x 10) Total = 31,415,904,000

## As a value of ! to 10 places 3.1415904000

*Ideas on this page are adapted and expanded from Mathematics of the Cosmic Mind by L. Gordon Plummer and The Kabala of Numbers by Sepharial **The dawn and twilight of a number are 10% of the number. 5 is 10% of 50 and is added before and after the number as dawn and twilight are added to the day. Mathematically, the can also be expressed as the musical ratio of 6/5, the harmonic minor 3rd. 50 x (6/5) = 60

## The Value of !, the Platonic Year, and the Hindu Yugas

Concepts adapted from The Holy Science by Swami Sri Yukteswar and Mathematics of the Cosmic Mind by L. Gordon Plummer

The Yugas ascending* (Iron Age) Kali Yuga 100 +1000 + 100 = 1200 solar years (Iron Age) Kali Yuga

## The Yugas descending 100 +1000 + 100 = 1200 solar years

(Bronze Age) Dwapara Yuga 200 +2000 + 200 = 2400 solar years (Silver Age) Treta Yuga (Golden Age) Satya Yuga 300 +3000 + 300 = 3600 solar years 400 +4000 + 400 = 4800 solar years 12000 solar years

(Bronze Age) Dwapara Yuga 200 +2000 + 200 = 2400 solar years (Silver Age) Treta Yuga (Golden Age) Satya Yuga 300 +3000 + 300 = 3600 solar years 400 +4000 + 400 = 4800 solar years 12000 solar years

## 12000 + 12000 = 24000 solar years

The Yugas ascending using the 108, (the sacred, mystical)form of 100 (Iron Age) Kali Yuga 108 + 1080 + 108 = 1296 solar years

The Yugas descending using the 108, (the sacred, mystical)form of 100 (Iron Age) Kali Yuga 108 + 1080 + 108 = 1296 solar years

(Bronze Age) Dwapara Yuga 216 + 2160 + 216 = 2592 solar years (Silver Age) Treta Yuga (Golden Age) Satya Yuga 324 + 3240 + 324 = 3888 solar years 432 + 4320 + 432 = 5184 solar years 12960 years

(Bronze Age) Dwapara Yuga 216 + 2160 + 216 = 2592 solar years (Silver Age) Treta Yuga (Golden Age) Satya Yuga 324 + 3240 + 324 = 3888 solar years 432 + 4320 + 432 = 5184 solar years 12960 solar years

## 12960 + 12960 = 25920 solar years

*Whether using 100 or 108 as the unit, the concept of the Pythagorean tetractys (1 + 2 + 3 + 4) is common to both

. . . . . . . . . .

1 2 3 4

25920 years is The Great Year of Plato 25920/12 = 2160 solar years = Platonic month. (2160 is also diameter of moon.) 2160 /30(days in a month) = 72 solar years = Platonic day. (72 is the number of solars years for the precession of the equinoxes to move 1.) (72 is the ideal human pulse rate for 1 minute of 60 seconds.) 72/24 (hours in a day) = 3 solar years = Platonic hour. 3 solar years = 3 x 360 days = 1080 days = Platonic Hour (1080 is the ideal radius of the moon in miles.) 1080/60 (minutes per hour) = 18 days = Platonic minute. 18 days x 24 hours = 432 hours 432/60 = 7.2 hours = Platonic second. (432,000 is the ideal radius of the sun in miles.)

8,640,000,000 solar years = 1 Brahmanic day (360 x 24000 x 1000) 3,110,400,000,000 solar years = 1 Brahmanic year (25920 x 12 x 1,000,000) 311,040,000,000,000 solar years = 100 years of Brahma or Age of Brahma (duration of the solar system in ancient Brahmanic Tables)

## The Value of ! and the Brahmanic Tables

The value of !, which expresses the relations of the circumference to the diameter of a circle, was concealed in the great cycle known as the Age of Brahma, 311,040,000,000,000 years. This age is one hundred years of Brahma, and a Brahmic year is therefore 3,110,400,000,000 solar years. This number is again divided by 360, which gives the value of the Brahmanic Day or 8,640,000,000 years. Then by adding together the value for the age, year and the day of Brahma, we have 314159, etc., which is the familiar value of ! or very nearly, 355 divided by 113. From The Kabala of Numbers by Sepharial, p.12.

. . . 311,040,000,000,000, the number of years in the Life of Brahma, which represents the duration of the Solar System as given in the ancient Brahmanical Tables, dating back many centuries before Christ. From Mathematics of the Cosmic Mind by L. Gordon Plummer,p. 34.

## 86,400 seconds = 24 (hours in a day) x 60 (minutes in an hour) x 60 (seconds in a minute)

86,400 seconds = 1 solar day 1440 minutes = 1 solar day (86,400/60 seconds per minute) 24 hours = 1 solar day (1440/60 minutes per hour)

## 31,104,000 seconds = 864,400 (seconds in a day) x 360 (days in a solar year)

31,104,000 seconds = 1 solar year 518,400 minutes = 1 solar year (31,104,000/60 seconds per minute) 8640 hours = 1 solar year (518,400/60 minutes per hour) 360 days = 1 solar year (8640/24 hours per day)

## 3,110,400,000 seconds = 31,104,000 (seconds in a year) x 100 (100 solar years)

3,110,400,000 seconds = 100 solar years (read as three billion, one hundred ten million four hundred thousand seconds)

86,400
311,040,000,000,000 seconds = 1000 solar years (read as three trillion, forty billion seconds)

seconds in a solar day seconds in a solar year seconds in a 100 solar years

3.141590400

## HarmonicTheory.com Music Diagrams

www.harmonictheory.com

## Notes for the Music Section

A432 Hz is the reference tuning pitch, not A440 Hz. A432 is used because the ideal radius of the Sun is 432,000 miles. D288 Hz is the center, not middle C. D 288 is the whole step just above middle C. D is used because it is the only note that has the same symmetry stepwise both ascending and descending, as will be shown extensively in the diagrams. Generally, in a C scale, C is the bottom note and the scale ascends from from C to C1, as C D E F G A B C1. In this work, D is the center and extends an octave in either direction, as

D1 E1 F1 G1 A1 B1 C1 D

D1

The 2-3 lattice is rooted in the the 2nd and 3rd harmonics of the overtone series, the octave and perfect fifth respectively. The Arithmetic and Harmonic Means of the octave also generate these perfect fifths, ascending and descending. The Arithmetic Mean of the octave generates the same perfect fifth that is the 3rd harmonic of the overtone series. The Harmonic Mean of the octave generates the perfect fifth descending, which is the same as the reflection of the harmonic perfect fifth of the overtone series. (In relation to the upper and lower bounding notes of the octave, the perfect fifth descending is the perfect fourth ascending, and the perfect fifth ascending is the perfect fourth descending.) The 2-3-5 lattice is rooted in the 2nd, 3rd, and 5th harmonics: the octave, fifth, and major third. The Arithmetic Mean of the perfect fifth generates the same major third that is the 5th harmonic of the overtone series. The Harmonic Mean of the perfect fifth generates the major third descending, which is the same as the reflection of the harmonic major third of the overtone series. (The major third descending is the minor third ascending, and the major third ascending is the minor third descending.) The 2-3-5-9 lattice is rooted in the the 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 9th harmonics. The Arithmetic and Harmonic Means of the major third generates major seconds ascending and descending. The Arithmetic Mean of the major third generates the same major ninth that is the 9th harmonic of the overtone series. The Harmonic Mean of the perfect major third generates the major ninth descending, which is the same as the reflection of the harmonic major ninth of the overtone series. (The major ninth, by octave reduction, becomes the major second. The large major second descending is the small major second ascending, and the large major second ascending is the small major second descending.)

8-13-2006

Harmonic Lattice from D 288 Hz, ratio 1/1 and A at 432 Hz (all notes are in the octave D288HzD576Hz, ratios 1/12/1)
NW m3rd des NE M3rd asc

Notes are given with note names ratios hertz & cents + or -

E
10/9 320 -18

B
5/3 480 -16

F#
5/4 360 -14

C#
15/8 540 -12

G#
45/32 405 -10

D#
135/128 303.75 -8

A#
405/256 455.625 -6

SW M3rd des

SE m3rd asc

## The AM of D288 and A432 is F#360

(pattern continues)

Ab

Eb
256/243 303.4 -10

Bb
128/81 455.11 -8

F
32/27 341.33 -6

C
16/9 512 -4

G
4/3 384 -2

D
1/1 2/1 288 0

A
3/2 432 +2

E
9/8 324 +4

B
27/16 486 +6

F#
81/64 364.5 +8

C#
243/128 546.75 +10

G#
729/512 410.06 +12

(pattern continues)

## The HM of D288 and A432 is F345.6

Gb
512/405 364.08 +6

Db
256/135 546.12 +8

Ab
64/45 409.6 +10

Eb
16/15 307.2 +12

Bb
8/5 460.8 +14

F
6/5 345.6 +16

C
9/5 518.4 +18

The Arithmetic Mean of the octave has a P5th ascending from the root. The Harmonic Mean of the octave has a P5th descending from the root. (See chart of AM, HM, GM generated from the number ratios of 1, 2, 3, and 4.)

Circles are used for the perfect intervalsthe unison, octave, perfect fourth, and perfect fth. Ovals are used for the other intervals in the cycle of fourths and fths from D (those intervals with divisors of 2 and 3, coming from the 3rd harmonic.) Diamonds are used for notes with divisors of 2, 3, and 5. There are two versions of each note except for G, D, and A.

Notes in brackets are alternatives of pitches with different intentions. [G#, D#, A#] has almost the same hertz (pitches) as (Ab, Eb, Bb), but the note names are are different (enharmonic spellings.) Similarly (F#, C#, G#) share almost the same pitches as [Gb, Db, Ab], but with enharmonic spellings, depending on the intention.

The Arithmetic mean of the Perfect 5th has a Major 3rd ascending from the root. With the AM pattern repeated, these ascending Major 3rds form their own spine of Perfect 5ths. The Harmonic mean of the Perfect 5th has a Major 3rd descending from the 5th. With the HM pattern repeated, these descending Major 3rds form their own spine of Perfect 5ths

8-13-2006

Harmonic Lattice from D 293.334 Hz, ratio 1/1 and A at 440 Hz* (all notes are in the octave D293.34D586.667, ratios 1/12/1)
NW m3rd des NE M3rd asc

Notes are given with note names ratios hertz & cents + or -

E
10/9 325.93 -18

B
5/3 488.89 -16

F#
5/4 366.67 -14

C#
15/8 550 -12

G#
45/32 412.5 -10

D#
135/128 309.375 -8

A#
405/256 464.06 -6

SW M3rd des

SE m3rd asc

## The AM of D293.334 and A440 is F#366.67

(pattern continues)

Ab

Eb
256/243 309.02 -10

Bb
128/81 463.54 -8

F
32/27 347.655 -6

C
16/9 521.482 -4

G
4/3 391.11 -2

D
1/1 2/1 293.334 0

A
3/2 440 +2

E
9/8 330 +4

B
27/16 495 +6

F#
81/64 371.25 +8

C#
243/128 556.88 +10

G#
729/512 417.66 +12

(pattern continues)

## The HM of D293.334 and A440 is F352

Gb
512/405 370.83 +6

Db
256/135 556.25 +8

Ab
64/45 417.186 +10

Eb
16/15 312.89 +12

Bb
8/5 469.33 +14

F
6/5 352 +16

C
9/5 528 +18

The Arithmetic Mean of the octave has a P5th ascending from the root. The Harmonic Mean of the octave has a P5th descending from the root. (See chart of AM, HM, GM generated from the number ratios of 1, 2, 3, and 4.)

Circles are used for the perfect intervalsthe unison, octave, perfect fourth, and perfect fth. Ovals are used for the other intervals in the cycle of fourths and fths from D (those intervals with divisors of 2 and 3, coming from the 3rd harmonic.) Diamonds are used for notes with divisors of 2, 3, and 5. There are two versions of each note except for G, D, and A.

The Arithmetic mean of the Perfect 5th has a Major 3rd ascending from the root. With the AM pattern repeated, these ascending Major 3rds form their own spine of Perfect 5ths. The Harmonic mean of the Perfect 5th has a Major 3rd descending from the 5th. With the HM pattern repeated, these descending Major 3rds form their own spine of Perfect 5ths

Notes in brackets are alternatives of pitches with different intentions. [G#, D#, A#] has almost the same hertz (pitches) as (Ab, Eb, Bb), but the note names are are different (enharmonic spellings.) Similarly (F#, C#, G#) share almost the same pitches as [Gb, Db, Ab], but with enharmonic spellings, depending on the intention.

* Since A440 is the conventional standard base pitch, I have included this page showing hertz values using A440 rather than A432. Note that the ratios and cents are still the same and are calculated from D ratio 1/1 and octave 2/1.

12-16-2005

Harmonic Mean
G 192

b =2(c x a)/(c + a) = 2(
D 144 D 144

D# 306

## Overview of the Arithmetic, Harmonic, and Geometric Means

Arithmetic Mean

x +

D 288 D 288

)
4/3

b = (a + c)/2
A 432

)
17/16 1.0625 1062 = o logo iqu 3/2 2/1

D 288

+
2

D 576

4/3

5/4 6/5 9/8 AM of D-D AM of G-D AM of Bb-D 10/9 AM of D-F# AM of D-A GM of D-D AM of D-D

D 144

G 192
HM of D-D

Ab 204
GM of D-D

A 216

Bb
230.4 HM of G-D

B 240

C 256
HM of Bb-D 8/9 5/6 4/5

C
259.2

D 288
9/10

E 320
HM of D-F#

E 324

F
345.6 HM of D-A

F# 360

G 384
HM of D-D

G# 408

A 432

D 576

## 3/4 17/16 1.0625 1062 = The True Logos

2/3

1/2

Total hertz of horizontal row = 5179.2 5179.2 rounded to 5180 5180 octave reduction to 2590. Greek gematria for 2590 = The Logos: Image of God 3/2

## O logo h eikwn tou Qeou

Geometric Mean

Geometric Mean

b = !(c x a)
Ab 204

b = !(a x c)

!(

D 144

D 288

Eb 306

G# 408

!(

D 288

D 576

11-10-2005

Color Tunings in Hue, Saturation, and Brightness for 12-Note Equal Temperament, 17-Note, and 22-Note 2-3-5 Limit Lattice
3/2 432 128/81 455.11 8/5 460.8

A
3/2 432 405/256 455.625 64/45 409.6

729/512 410.06

Bb

Bb

G# Ab Ab

A
A
700

## 5/3 480 27/16 486

8/5 460.8

Bb

A#
A# Bb G# Ab
19601/ 13860 407.294

G#

45/32 405

B B

27/16 486

800

B
900

600

G G
4/3 384

4/3 384

## 6793/ 5089 384.434

500

Gb
6064/ 4813 362.857

512/405 364.08

F# F#

81/64 364.5

## 1000 16/9 512 16/9 512

C C

C
C# Db
17843/ 9452 543.672 1/1-2/1 288-576 1200 140221/ 132351 305.125 29798/ 26547 323.269

F# Gb

400

F#
5/4 360)

5/4 360)

1100

300

F
32/27 341.33

F F

6/5 345.6

9/5 518.4

D
0

15/8 540

C# Db
256/135 546.12

D# Eb

E
100

200

E Eb

## 32/27 341.33 9/8 324

15/8 540

C# C#
243/128 546.75

D
1/1 288

D#
135/128 303.75

16/15 307.2

E E
10/9 320

9/8 324

D
1/1 288

Eb
256/243 303.4

Eb
16/15 307.2

The colors come directly from the Hue-Saturation-Brightness color wheel on the Macintosh computer. (I am using the note A as 0 red hue and moving counterclockwise in each of the 3 circles.) The inner wheel numbers show ratios and hertz for 12-tone equal temperament. The numbers just outside the inner circle from 01200 in 100 degree increments show the number of cents for each note. Notice that the cents are all even round numbers, but the ratios are huge and the hertz are uneven. For example, the note B in equal temperament is 900 cents, ratio 9043/5377 and 484.356 hertz. In the middle circle 17-note octave, both ratio and hertz are simpler with B at 27/16 and 486 respectively. The outer circle includes both the 2-3 limit lattice B of 27/16 (486 hz), and the even simpler 2-3-5 limit lattice ratio of B 5/3 (480 hz) The equal temperament hertz number will always be somewhere in between the the 2-3 limit and the 2-3-5 limit versions of the same note. For example, on the inner wheel, the equal temperament C is 513.158 hz ratio 4679/2626; the 2-3 limit C is ratio 16/9 and 512 hz, lower than the equal temperament C; but the 2-3-5 limit C is ratio 9/5 and 518.4 hz, higher than the equal temperament C.

12-16-2005

Color Tunings in Hue, Saturation, and Brightness for 12-Note Equal Temperament, 17-Note, and 22-Note 2-3-5 Limit Lattice
180 (0) 20848 (29) 216 (36) 15216 (332)

A
180 (0) 20931 (30) 15155 (331)

Bb

Bb

G# Ab Ab

14526 (325)

A
A

## 240 (60) 24719 (67)

216 (36)

Bb

A#
A# Bb G# Ab
330

G#

14609 (326)

B B
24719 (67)

G G
G
300 120 (300)

120 (300)

0-360 30

B
B
60

Gb
C
90 270

9506 (275)

F# F#

9524 (276)

280 (100)

C C

280 (100)

C
C# Db
120 240

F# Gb

F#
90 (270)

90 (270)

F
6636 (247)

F F
6636 (247)

72 (252)

288 (108)

150

210 180

D
315 (135)

C# Db
32240 (143)

D# Eb

E Eb
24 (204)

45 (225)

315 (135)

C# C#
32316 (144)

D
0 (180)

D#
1941 (200)

E E
40 (220) 24 (204)

45 (225)

D
0 (180)

Eb
1904 (199)

Eb

The innermost circle shows 12 equal divisions of 360. The colors and degree numbers come directly from the Hue-Saturation-Brightness color wheel on the Macintosh computer. (I am using the note A as 0 hue and moving counterclockwise in each of the three circles.) The middle wheel distinguishes the A#/Bb, C#/Db, D#/Eb, F#/Gb, and G#/Ab, which, in equal temperament, are considered the exact same pitch but with different note names. Recognizing these enharmonic spellings as two separate and distinct notes brings the number of notes in this octave to 17, which is the divsion of the net in the biblical parable of the Fishes in the Net. (See John Michell, Dimensions of Paradise, pp. 174178 and David Fideler, Jesus Christ, Sun of God, pp. 291308 for the numeric and geometric symbolism.) The outer circle is based on the 2-3-5 limit lattice harmonic ratios growing out of the 1the monad. Here the top number is the ratio translated into degrees on a circle and the bottom number in parentheses is the HSB color number. In this outer circle the color numbers begin with 0 as A red, but the musical ratios begin with D as ratio 1/1 and 0 harmonically. D is the harmonic mean of the octave from A to A, the perfect fth descending. Notice that in 12-tone equal temperament, while the complementary colors of red and cyan are 180 apart, the musical interval is an augmented fourth/diminished fth a tritone which has historically been considered a dissonant interval. Using the same number ratios for both color and interval keeps the complementary colors of red and cyan 180 apart, but changes the musical interval from a tritone in the inner circle, to a perfect fth in the middle and outer circles. The perfect fth is the most consonant interval next to the perfect unison and perfect octave. If the ratio degrees in the outer circle are added together, they total 3168. To quote John Michell, The general character of the number 3168, as conveyed by its position in ancient cosmological diagrams and the phrases associated with it through gematria, is that it represents the spirit which passes through and encircles the universe, Platos World-soul. The Christian term for this spirit, developed from the number 3168, was Lord Jesus Christ (Dimensions of Paradise, p. 173).

11-10 2005

## Legend for Harmonic Diagrams

Circles indicate the perfect intervals. Expressed as numbers, these are the simplest ratios of 1/1, 1/2, 2/1, 2/3, 3/2, 3/4, and 4/3. For these diagrams, 1/1 is D at 288 hz, the D just above middle C at 256 hz. D is color coded as a cyan circle. The ratio 1/2 is the D! at 144 hz, the D below middle C. The ratio 2/1 is the D! at 576 hz, the D above the C above middle C. Both these Ds are also color coded with cyan circles. Ratios 3/2 and 3/4 indicate the perfect fth above (the 3/2) and the perfect fourth below (the 3/4). In relation to D at 288 hz, the perfect fth above is A at 432 hz, and the perfect fourth below is A! at 216 hz. Ratios 4/3 and 2/3 indicate the perfect fth below (the 2/3) and the perfect 4th above (the 4/3). In relation to D at 288 hz, the perfect fth below is G at 192 hz, and the perfect fourth above is G at 384 hz. A is color coded as a red circle and G is color coded as a magenta circle. Vertical ovals indicate the major and minor intervals with ratios that can be divided by 2 and 3, often called the Pythagoreanor cyclic intervals. Diamonds indicate the major and minor intervals with ratios that can be divided by 5, and 2 or 3, often called the just or harmonic intervals. Horizontal ovals indicate mediated intervals whose pitches are between those with 2-3 or 2-3-5 divisors. (in relation to D) the perfect intervals are coded with circles (in relation to D) the major and minor intervals with 2-3 divisors are coded with ovals (in relation to the center spine) the major and minor intervals with 2-3-5 divisors are coded with diamonds the mediated intervals are based on the 17/16 ratio from D to D#/Eb. 17/16 = 1.062. 1062 = The True Logos o logo iqu

D G D A

Gb Db Ab

E B F# C# G# D# A#

Gb Db Ab Eb Bb F C

E B F# C# G# D# A#

Gb Db Ab Eb Bb F C

E B F# C# G# D# A#

(in relation to D) the augmented fourth and diminished fth are coded with a square and its diagonal indicating the geometric mean which is the square root.

Eb Bb F C

G#

Ab

11-10-2005

The 22 note octave in a 2-3-5 lattice with some form of A B C D E F G in each spine. Total degrees = 3168, which represents the spirit which passes through and encircles the universe, Platos World-soul (John Michell, Dimensions of Paradise p. 173.)
E 320 B 480 F# 360 C# 540 G# 405 D#
303.75

5/2-3 spine

A#
455.62

40 (10/9)
F
341.33

240 (5/3)

90 (5/4)
A 432

315 (15/8)

2-3 spine

C 512

G 384

D 288

E 324

B 486

Gb
364.08

280 (16/9)
Ab
409.6

120 (4/3)
Eb 307.2 Bb
460.8

0 1/1-2/1
F
345.6

180 (3/2)
C
518.4

45 (9/8)

24719' (27/16)

Db 546.12

## 9506' 32240' 15155' (512/405) (128/135) (64/45)

24 (16/15)

216 (8/5)

72 (6/5)

288 (9/5)

In this case the center spine has extended perfect fths outward in each direction from center D with only 4 notes above and 4 below from the 2-3-5 lattice. This reduces the number of pure thirds, but extends the number of perfect fths. However, again the total degrees = 3168, which represents the spirit which passes through and encircles the universe, Platos World-soul (John Michell, Dimensions of Paradise p. 173.)
E 320 B 480 F# 360 C# 540

40 (10/9) Ab
404.5

240 (5/3)
G 384

90 (5/4)
D 288

315 (15/8)
A 432 E 324 B 486

## Total degrees = 316809'

Eb
303.4

Bb
455.11

F
341.33

C 512

F#
364.5

C#
546.75

G#
410.06

1904' (256/243)

20848' (128/81)

6636' (32/27)

280 (16/9)

120 (4/3)

0 1/1-2/1

180 (3/2)

45 (9/8)

24719' (27/16)

9524' (81/64)

32316' (243/128)

15216' (729/512)

Eb
24 (16/15) 307.2

Bb
216 (8/5) 460.8

F
72 (6/5) 345.6

C
288 (9/5) 518.4

This is what might be called the mediated enharmonic octave. Each 7 note spine has some form of A B C D E F G. F#/Gb, C#/Db, G#/Ab, and A#/Bb are not differentiated (same hertz, i.e. pitches). This 22-octave is based on the 17/16 half step ratio from D to Eb, which has a gematria of The true ratio (o logo iqu). Total degrees = 3181.3182 = (37x43)2. 37x 43 = 1591 = All humanity. 1591 = Spirit of Life Pneuma zwh Pa anqropo
B
483.56 24427' (12089/7200)

E
322.375 4257' (2579/2304)

F#
362.67 9320' (12089/9600)

C# 544

G# 408

D# 306

A# 459

320 (17/9)

150 (17/12)

2230' (17/16)

21345' (51/32)

F
341.33

C 512

G 384

D 288

A 432

E 324

B 486

## Total degrees = 318115'

6636' (32/27)

280 (16/9)

120 (4/3)

0 1/1-2/1

180 (3/2)

45 (9/8)

24719' (27/16)

Gb
362.67 9320' (12089/9600)

Db 544

Ab 408

Eb 306

Bb 459

F
344.25

C
516.375

320 (17/9)

150 (17/12)

2230' (17/16)

21345' (51/32)

7018' (153/128)

28528' (459/256)

10-11-2005

The Arithmetic and Harmonic Mean of the Perfect 5th and the Geometric Mean of the Enharmonic Octave (D#306 Eb306) with the Three Modes that have the Same Pattern in both Upper and Lower Tetrachords

Ionian
Db
273.06

Ionian
Db 272 Whole Step

Dorian
D 288 Whole Step

Phrygian
D# 306

Phrygian
D#
303.75

1/2 Step

1/2 Step

Eb 306

E E 324 324

E
322.37

E 320

Whole Step F
345.6

F is HM of DA

Whole Step

1/2 Step F
341.33

Whole Step F#
362.67

F# is AM of DA

F
344.25

1/2 Step Gb
364.08

1/2 Step Gb
362.67

A is GM of EbEb

A is GM of D#D#

Whole Step

Whole Step

Ab
409.6

A#
455.62

Whole Step

Bb
460.8

Bb is HM of GD

Whole Step

1/2 Step

B
483.56

B is AM of GD

1/2 Step

B 480

Whole Step C
518.4

Whole Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

C
516.37

C# 544

## Whole Step Eb D# 612 612

D 576

D#
607.5

Whole Step

Stepwise arrangement of Spine of P5ths from Db273.06 Db546.12. The AM of Db Db isAb. The HM of Db Db is Gb.

Eb 612

Stepwise arrangement of Spine of P5ths from Eb306 Eb612. the GM of Eb306 Eb612 is A432.749

Stepwise arrangement of Spine of P5ths from D288 D576. The AM of D D is A. The HM of D D is G. 432,000 is the ideal radius of the Sun (in miles). 432 in Greek gematria is foundation katabolh

Stepwise arrangement of Spine of P5ths from D#306 D#612. the GM of D#306 D#612 is A432.749

Stepwise arrangement of Spine of P5ths from D#303.75 D#607.5. The AM of D# D# is A#. The HM of D# !D# is G#.

10-11-2005

The Arithmetic and Harmonic Mean of the Perfect Fifth and the Geometric Mean of the Enharmonic Octave with Ratios and Cents + or - for Tuning

Ionian
Db
273.06 128/135 +8

Ionian
Db 272
17/18 +1

Dorian
17/18
D 288
1/1 0

Phrygian
17/16
D# 306
17/16 +5

Phrygian
D#
303.75 135/128 -8

Eb 307.2
16/15 +12

Eb 306
17/16 +5

E 324
9/8 +4

E
322.375 2579/2304 +4.8

E 320
10/9 -18

F
345.6 6/5 +16

F
344.25 153/128 +8.8

F
341.33 32/27 +-6

F#
362.67 12089/9600 -.9

F# 360
5/4 -14

Gb
364.08 512/405 +6

Gb
362.67 12089/9600 -.9

G 384
4/3 -2

G# 408
17/12 +3

G# 405
45/32 -10

Ab
409.6 64/45 +10

Ab 408
17/12 +3

A 432
3/2 +2

A# 459
51/32 +6.9

A#
455.62 405/256 -6

Bb
460.8 8/5 +14

Bb 459
51/32 +6.9

B 486
27/16 +6

B
483.56 12089/7200 -2.8

B 480
5/3 -16

C
518.4 9/5 +18

C
516.375 459/256 +10.8

C 512
16/9 -4

C# 544
17/9 +1

C# 540
15/8 -12

Db 546.12
128/135 +8

Db 544
17/9 +1

D 576
2/1 0

D# 612
17/8 +5

D#
607.5 135-128 -8

Stepwise arrangement of Spine of P5ths from Db 273.06 Db546.12. This is the harmonic reection spine of 5ths in a 2-3-5 lattice. Ratios and cents + or - are shown

Eb 612
17/8 +5

Stepwise arrangement of Spine of P5ths from Eb306 Eb612. the GM of Eb306 Eb612 is A432.749 idealized to A432

Stepwise arrangement of Spine of P5ths from D288 D576.This is the spine of 5ths in a 2-3 lattice. 432,000 is the ideal radius of the Sun (in miles). 432 in Greek gematria is foundation katabolh

Stepwise arrangement of Spine of P5ths from D#306 D#612. The ratio of 17/16 in decimal form is 1.062. Gematria for 1062 is The True Ratio o logo iqu

Stepwise arrangement of Spine of P5ths from D#303.75 D#607.5. This is the harmonic spine of 5ths in a 2-3-5 lattice. Ratios and cents + or - are shown.

12-16-2005

How A B C D E F G are Generated from Center D through the Arithmetic and Harmonic Means of the Octave

We begin with the musical letters of the alphabet A B C D E F G. D is in the center - it is assigned the ratio of 1/1 and cycles per second of 288 hz. Its Greek gematria is Path (stibo*). All numbers below are actual hertz numbers.

D
A perfect fourth below D is A216 and a perfect 4th above D is G384. A216 is the Arithmetic Mean (AM) of D144 and D288. G384 is the Harmonic Mean (HM) of D288 and D576. A, D, and G are the three notes of the seven (A B C D E F G) that are bounded on each side by whole steps. As the perfect intervals, they are assigned the perfect shape of the circle.

3/4

4/3

A
216
The Breath

D
288
Path

G
384
Chosen

h pnoh

stibo

logaio

The combined total A216 + D288 + G384 = 888. For those of the Orphic tradition 888 = Olen (Wlhn), the Greek bard and Apollos rst speaker of oracles. For those in the Christian tradition, 888 = Jesus (Ihsou)

A perfect fth above A216 is E324 (ratio 3/2 and AM of A216 and A432). A perfect fth below G384 is C256 (ratio 2/3 and HM of G192 and G384). The combined total = 1468. 1468 = 1150 Beloved (Eufile) + 318 Sun (Hlio) 216
The Breath

256
true

288
Path

324
Pure; Sacred; Holy

384
Chosen

h pnoh

alhqjh

stibo

agno

logaio

A
3/2

G
2/3

A perfect fourth above C256 is F341.33 (ratio 4/3 and and HM of C256 and C512). A perfect fourth below E324 is B243 (ratio 3/4 and AM of E162 and E324). The combined total = 2052.33. 2052 = 1240 mystical (mustiko) + 812 song (wdh).
3/4 4/3

A
216
The Breath

B
243
Offering

C
256
true

D
288
Path

E
324
Pure; Sacred; Holy

F
341.33
Worthy 341

G
384
Chosen

h pnoh

korban

alhqjh

stibo

agno

axio

logaio

12-16-2005

The notes that are not perfect intervals from D are assigned an oval shape. Musically they are imperfect intervals, and geometrically they are ovals which are imperfect circles. These are the notes B, C, E, and F. The interval between B and C is a half step as is the interval between E and F. Here I have a G at the bottom and an A at the top to show the whole steps bounding A and G. (Again, it should be noted that only the ovals are bounded by half step intervals on one side.)

1/2 step

1/2 step

Whole Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

The modes come from using each of these 7 notes as a starting note which changes the pattern of whole and half steps giving a different avor to each mode. Listed below are the 7 possible patterns with their Greek names as used in jazz today. (For a clear explanation of modes and their ancient and modern assignment of names, see Counterpoint by Knud Jeppesen, pp. 5962.)

D Dorian

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

E Phrygian

1/2 Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

F Lydian

Whole Step

Whole Step

## 1/2 Step Whole Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

G Mixolydian

Whole Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

A Aeolian

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

B Locrian

1/2 Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

C Ionian

Whole Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

12-16-2005

The pattern of whole and half steps denes the mode, not the starting note. If I want to use the same pattern of notes as the Dorian mode but I want to start on the note G rather than D, I will need to change the B natural to a Bb.

D Dorian

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

G Mixolydian

Whole Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

G Dorian

Whole Step

Bb

Whole Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

If I want to use the same pattern of notes as the Dorian mode but I want to start on the note A rather than D, I will need to change the F natural to a F#.

D Dorian

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

A Aeolian

Whole Step

1/2 Step

B
1/2 Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

A Dorian

Whole Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

Whole Step

1/2 Step

F#

Whole Step

Lets look more closely at half steps. The half steps occurring between B and C and E and F are the naturally occuring half steps in the diatonic scale of A B C D E F G. Because there is already a half step between B and C, I can only add a half step below the B and a half step above the C. Similarly, I can only add a half step below the E and and a half step above the F. I will name these Bb, C#, Eb, and F#respectively, as the half steps that occur on either side of the natural half steps B, C, E, and F.

C# B Bb C Eb E F

F#

With the perfect interval notes A, D, and G, because they are bounded diatonically by whole steps on either side, chromatically I can add a half step on either side, so A can have both an Ab and A#, D can have both a Db and a D#, and G can have both a Gb and a G#.

A#

D#

G#

A
Ab Db

D
Gb

12-16-2005

In equal temperament, the enharmonic notes of G#/Ab, D#/Eb, A#/Bb, F#/Gb, and C#/Db are treated as the same pitch. These are like the black keys on a keyboard instrument. I have shown them below to demonstrate the symmetry outward in both directions from D. D is the only note that has this symmetry. It happens also to be the center note of A B C D E F G, making it the only possible center of this group of notes.

G# Ab

A# Bb B C

C# Db

D# Eb E F

F# Gb

G# Ab

In equal temperament, each note is 100 cents, beginning with C at 0 as shown below. Many electronic keyboards now have the capability to tune notes individually. Pitches are calculated in cents + or - from the 12 equal divisions. 100 0 300 200 600 400 500 800 700 1000 900

C# Db
100

D# Eb
300

F# Gb
600

G# Ab
800

A# Bb
1000

1100

1200

If I go back to the Arithmetic and Harmonic Means of A B C D E F G and keep extending them outward in either direction, I also generate the enharmonic notes of C#/Db, D#/Eb, F#/Gb, G#/Ab, and A#/Bb, but the outcome is quite different. First, here is how the pitches are generated from the ratio of 1/1, and by using only the ratios of 1/2, 2/1, 2/3, 3/2, 3/4, and 4/3. For a complete explanation of Aritmetic and Harmonic Means of octaves, see the diagram Aritmetic (AM) and Harmonic (HM) Means of Octaves descending and ascending from A (A=432 Hz and ratio 1/1). For musicians looking at the illustration below, it is the circle of fths ascending and fourths descending from D outward to the right, and the circle of fourths ascending and fths descending from D outward to the left.

b
Formula for Arithmetic Mean

a 2

b = (a + c) / 2

D = ( D! + D )

2/3 2/3 2/3 2/3

c D
576

!
3/4 3/4

3/4 3/4

Gb
179.79

Db
269.67
4/3

Ab
202.27

Eb
303.4
4/3

Bb
227.55

F
341.33
4/3

C
256

G b D b A c
384
4/3

E
324
3/2

B
486

F#
364.5
3/2

C#
546.75

G#
410.06
3/2

D#
615.09

A#
461.32

288
3/2

432

a D!
144

A!a
216

## Formula for Harmonic Mean

b = 2ac / (a+c)

D =

c ! x A 2x A ( A! + A c a

## Example 288 = 2 x 216 x 432 / (216 + 432)

12-16-2005

Now I have all 17 notes in hertz generated from the Arithmetic and Harmonic Means of the octave. Next I convert the hertz into cents. (I use a program called Justonic Pitch Palette to translate the hertz into cents.) The results are shown below.
Cents
588.10 90.06 791.99 294.09 996.08 498.03 0 701.96 203.91 905.87 407.82 1109.76 611.73 113.69 817.74 319.69 1021.65

Gb
359.56

Db
269.67

Ab
404.5

Eb
303.4

Bb
455.11

F
341.33

C
256

G
384

D
288

A
432

E
324

B
486

F#
364.5

C#
274.37

G#
410.56

D#
615.84

A#
461.88

Hertz

Cents

Then I round the cents values up or down to whole numbers. The cents values + or - are given comparative to their equal tempered divisions. Example Gb in equal temperament is 600 cents. Gb from the ratios of numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4 is 588 cents, 12 cents below the equal temperament Gb.
90.06 791.99 294.09 996.08 498.03 0 701.96 203.91 905.87 407.82 1109.76 611.73 113.69 817.74 319.69 1021.65

588.10

Gb
588 -12

Db
90 -10

Ab
792 -8

Eb
294 -6

Bb
996 -4

F
498 -2

C
0

G
702 +2

D
204 +4

A
906 +6

E
408 +8

B
1110 +10

F#
612 +12

C#
114 +14

G#
818 +18

D#
320 +20

A#
1022 +22

Cents + or -

Here again is the 12-tone chromatic scale with 12 equal divisions of 1200 cents, treating C# and Db as the same pitch, as well as D# and Eb, F# and Gb, G# and Ab, and A# and Bb. 100 0 300 200 600 400 500 800 700 1000 900

C# Db
100

D# Eb
300

F# Gb
600

G# Ab
800

A# Bb
1000

1100

1200

Finally, here is the chromatic scale of 17 notes. This 17-note chromatic scale elimanates enharmonic spellings found in equal temperament, hence 5 new pitches are added. C#/Db at 100 cents becomes C# 114 cents and Db 90 cents. Similarly D#/Eb at 300 cents become D# 320 cents and Eb 294 cents. F# and Gb separate so that instead of both being 600 cents, F# is 612 cents and Gb is 588 cents. G# and Ab separate so that instead of both being 800 cents, G# is 818 cents and Ab is 792 cents. Finally, A# and Bb separate so that instead of both being 1000 cents, A# is 1022 cents and Bb is 996 cents.

114 +14 0

C# Db
90 -10

204 +4

320 +20

D# Eb
294 -6

408 498 +8 -2

612 +12

F# Gb
588 -12

702 +2

818 +18

G# Ab
792 -8

906 +6

1022 +22

A# Bb
996 -4

1110 +10

1200 0

12-16-2005

The Arithmetic , Harmonic , and Geometric Means generated from ratios using the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1/1 1/2 2/1 2/3 3/2 3/4 4/3)
Formula for Arithmetic Mean

b = (a + c) / 2
Example 288 = (192 + 384) / 2

Gb
359.56

Db
269.67

Ab
404.5

Eb
303.4

Bb
455.11

F
341.33

C
512

G
384

D
576 432

A
648

E
486

F#
729

C#
546.75

G#
820.12

D#
615.09

Db
269.67

Ab
202.25

Eb
303.4

Bb
227.56

F
341.33

C
256

G
384

D
288

A
432

E
324

B
486

F#
364.5

C#
546.75

G#
410.06

D#
615.09

A#
461.32

c Gb
179.78

Db
134.84

Ab
202.25

Eb
151.7

Bb
227.56

F
170.67

C
256

G
192

D
288

A
216

E
324

B
243

F#
364.5

C#
274.37

G#
410.06

D#
307.54

## Formula for Harmonic Mean

b = 2 (a x c) / (a + c)
Example 288 =2 (216 x 432) / (216 + 432)

Db
269.67

Ab
404.5

Eb
303.4

Bb
455.11

F
341.33

C
512

G
384

D
576

A
432

E
648

B
486

F#
729

C#
546.75

G#
820.12

D#
615.09

A#
922.64

Gb
179.78

Db
269.67

Ab
202.25

Eb
303.4

Bb
227.56

F
341.33

C
256

G
384

D
288

A
432

E
324

B
486

F#
364.5

C#
546.75

G#
410.06

D#
615.09

Db
134.84

Ab
202.25

Eb
151.7

Bb
227.56

F
170.67

C
256

G
192

D
288

A
216

E
324

B
243

F#
364.5

C#
274.37

G#
410.06

D#
307.54

A#
461.32

b = ! (a x c)

## Example 288 = ! (384 x 216)

GM GM GM GM GM GM GM GM

89.89

269.67

101.13

303.4

113.78

341.33

128

a 384 b

288

216

648

243

729

274.37

820.12

307.54

922.64

Gb
179.78

Db
134.84

Ab
202.25

Eb
151.7

Bb
227.56

F
170.67

C
256

G
192

D
288
GM GM GM GM GM GM GM GM

A
432

E
324

B
486

F#
364.5

C#
546.75

G#
410.06

D#
615.09

A#
461.32

11-12-2005

The Arithmetic and Harmonic Mean of the Perfect Fifth Above and Below D288

We have dealt with the Arithmetic and Harmonic Means generated from the perfect intervals: the octave (1/2, 2/1), the perfect fth (2/3 3/2), and the perfect fourth (3/4 4/3). Thus far we used only the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4. We will now add the number 5. The ratio 5/4 is the major third, which is the 5th partial in the overtone series. The number 5 in relation to 4 also gives us the AM and HM of the perfect fth. A perfect fth below D288 is G192 and a perfect fth above D288 is A432. B240 is the AM of G192 and D288. F#360 is the AM of D288 and A432. Bb230.4 is the HM of G192 and D288. F345.6 is the HM of D288 and A432. The Arithmetic Mean of the Perfect Fifth below and above D288 with musical gematria
The AM of G192 and D288 is B240 The AM of D288 and A432 is F#360

192
Mary

B
5/4

F#
288
Path

432
Foundation

240
AM of G-D is B

Mariam

stibo

5/4

360
AM of D-A is F#

katabolh

G1

2/3

3/2

G1 B1

F#

The musical gematria of the triad G192 + B240 + D288 = 720 720 = Mind; understanding nou

The musical gematria of the triad D288 + F#360 + A432 = 1080 1080 = The Holy Spirit

to Pneuma Agion

sproro 720 = Spirit of God Qeion Pneuma 720 = The Holy Spirit o Agio Anemo
720 = Seed; birth

1080 = Ideal number of breaths taken in an hour 1080 = Ideal radius of the moon in miles 1080 = Threefold

trisso

The Harmonic Mean of the Perfect 5th below and above D288 with musical gematria
2/3 3/2

G1
192
Mary

HM of G-D is Bb

D
288
4/5 Path

HM of D-A is F

A
432
4/5 Foundation

Mariam

stibo

katabolh

Bb
230.4 The HM of D288 and G192 is Bb230.4

F
345.6 The HM of A432 and D288 is F345.6

G1 Bb1

## The musical gematria of the triad G192 + Bb230.4 + D288 = 710.4

The musical gematria of the triad D288 + F345.6 + A432 = 1065.6 1065 = Understanding, knowledge sunesi 1065 = God + Light; splendor 1066 = true + beloved, friend

## Pneuma Agion 710 = Holy Spirit 710 = Willingness, desire proqumia

711 = Wholly; utterly 711 = Muse

acri

Mousa

11-12-2005

## The Triads of Pythagoras (Bb-D-F) and Jesus (B-D-F#)

Maintaining D288 as the center and adding the arithmetic mean below (B240) and the arithmetic mean above (F#360) results in the minor triad B D F#. B240 + D288 + F#360 = 888 B D F#

## 888 = Olen 888 = Jesus

Wlhn (the Greek bard and Apollos rst speaker of oracles) Ihsou
D F#
5/4

## 240 + 288 + 360 = 888

B
5/4

F#
360
AM of D-A is F#

240
AM of G-D is B

G1
192
Mary

D
288
Path

A
432
Foundation

Mariam

stibo

katabolh

2/3

3/2

Maintaining D288 as the center and adding the harmonic mean below (Bb230.4) and the harmonic mean above (F345.6) results in the major triad Bb D F. Bb230.4 + D288 + F345.6 = 864 Bb
2/3

F
3/2

192
Mary

288
Path

432
Foundation

Mariam

stibo
HM of G-D is Bb

katabolh
HM of D-A is F

G1

D
4/5

A
4/5

230.4

345.6

Bb
Bb D F

## Puqagora agiwn Qewn

12-16-2005

These are the only 6 triads that have a perfect interval note as the mean (using D288 hz and ratio 1/1 as center). The perfect interval as the center makes it possible to move from the harmonic (minor-yin-descending from center) side, to the arithmetic (major-yang-ascending from center) side. In each case, the perfect fth comes from 2-3-5 (the upper or lower spine of fths), and the center comes from 2-3 (the center spine of fths). The symmetry becomes even more beautiful because the Majoryang-bright-sharp triad is on the minor-yin-gentle-at side, and the minor-yin-gentle-at triad is on the major-yang-bright-sharp side, creating a perfectly centered balance.
160 + 192 + 240 = 592 HM divinity 240 + 288 + 360 = 888 Jesus 180 + 216 + 270 = 666 1332 Gnostic diety Chnoubis

agaqoth
breath, spirit, inspiration

E Eb

G1 G1

B Bb

Ihsou
Pythagoras

F#

cnoubi
1296 = 576 Breath, spirit +720 mind

F#

C#

Serapi

AM

pneuma

Puqagora

Bb

pneuma + nou

teleth

## 345.6 + 432 + 518.4 = 1296

These are the 4 triads that have perfect intervals as the bounds. Each bounding P5th can generate both an arithmetic and harmonic mean.
192 + 240 + 288 = 720 AM 288 + 360 + 432 = 1080

These are the 4 triads that have 1 perfect and 1 imperfect interval as the bounds. Each bounding P5th can generate both an arithmetic and harmonic mean.
256 + 320 + 384 = 960 216 + 270 + 324 = 810

G1 B1 G1 Bb

D D

nou

D D

F# F

A A

to Pneuma Agion

C C

E Eb

G1 G1

to kuklon
to purify

the circle

A A

C# C

E E

beloved

filo
800 faith

HM

711 = Muse

Mousa

sunesi

kaqarizw

pisti

## 216 + 259.2 + 324 = 799.2

These are the 3 triads bounded by a 3/2 P5th, and generating an harmonic mean.
227.55 + 273.06 + 341.33 = 841.95

These are the 3 triads bounded by a 3/2 P5th, and generating an arithmetic mean.
243 + 303.75 + 364.5 = 911.25

Bb

Db

D#

F#

## 911 joy, grace

A+M+W
324 + 405 + 486 = 1215

cari

Eb

Gb

Bb

Ermeh + Puqio

G#

eufilh Aqana

Ab

gnwsi

F#

A#

C#

## 1367=368 Gentle, kind + 999 Ineffable God epio + Qeo aneklalhto

These are the 3 triads bounded by a 3-2-5 P5th, and generating an arithmetic mean.
273.06 + 341.33 + 409.6 = 1024 1024=256 x 4 = true x 4

These are the 3 triads bounded by a 3-2-5 P5th, and generating an harmonic mean.
270 + 324 + 405 = 999

Db

Ab

alhqh

x4

C#

G#

## the ineffable, the secret

ineffable God

o aporrhto
303.75 + 364.5 + 455.625 = 1123.88

Qeo aneklalhto

## 364.08 + 455.11 + 546.12 = 1365.31

Gb

Bb

Db

1365 shining

faeqwn
1536=1008 teacher + 528 The GoddessHestia (var. of)

D#

F#

A#

upisth

## 405 + 486 + 607.5 = 1498.5

Ab

Eb

prostroph + Istih G# D# A#

G#

D#

1499 messenger

shmantwr

F
Eb Bb F

C C

E G
Gb

B
B F# C# C#

## not used in 2-3-5 triads

Gb

Db

Ab

D
Db

A Ab

G#

D#

A#

Eb

Bb

F#

11-12-2005

This honeycomb pattern has all the ratios which are part of a 2-3 lattice on the front part of a cube with its octave. These are all circles, the perfect intervals G, D, and A; and the ovals of E, B, F#, C#, G#, Ab, Eb, Bb, F, and C. The diamonds have all the ratios which are part of a 2-3-5 lattice and are on the back part of the cubes. These are the 2-3-5 versions of all the notes except for those perfect intervals of G, D, and A. D288 at the very center is both the Arithmetic Mean of the perfect fth B240 and F#360, and the Harmonic Mean of the perfect fth Bb230.4 and F345.6. B-D-F# is a minor chord but on the major (sharp spine of fths). Bb-D-F is a major chord but on the minor (at spine of fths). Gematria for B240 + D288 + F#360 = 888 = Jesus. Gematria for Bb230.4 + D288 + F345.6 = 864 = Pythagoras
(Ihsou) (Puqagora)

E Bb
219.47

B
925.92

F# D
1111.11 1388.88

C#
2083.33

3125

G#

D# B
3750 4687.5

A#
7031.25

F
329.2

C
493.8

G
740.71

A
1666.66

E
2500 1041.67

F#
5184

C# A#
3515.63 7776

G#
11664

E F Db
164.6

B G
370.35 462.96

F# D
555.55 694.44

C#

G# E
1250 1562.5

D#
2343.75

Bb
109.73

C Ab
197.53 246.9

A
833.33

B
1875

F#
2592

C#
3888

G#
5832

Eb
296.29

Bb
444.44

F
666.66

C
1000

Db

Ab
98.76

Eb
148.15

Bb
222.22

F
333.33

C
500

E Ab
101.13

B
480

F# D
576 (Ihsou) 720

C# A
864 1080

G#
1620

D# B
1944 2430

A# F#
2916 3645

Eb
151.70

Bb
113.77

F
170.66

C
256

320

G
384

E C#
540 1296

E
160

B
240

F#
360

G#
810

D#
1215

A#
1822.5

Ab
50.57

Eb
75.85

Bb Gb
45.51 56.89

F Db
68.27 85.33

C Ab
102.4 128

G
192

D
288 (Puqagora)

A
432

E
648

B
972

F#
1458

Eb
153.6

Bb
230.4

F
345.6

C
518.4

Gb
22.76

Db
34.13

Ab
51.2

Eb
76.8

Bb
115.2

F
172.8

C
259.2

E Ab
26.21

B
248.83

F# D
298.6 373.25

C# A
447.9

Eb
39.32

Bb
58.98

F
88.47

C
132.71

165.88

G
199.06

E
671.85

E
82.94

B
124.42

F# D
149.29 186.62

C# A
223.95

Ab
13.11

Eb
19.66

Bb Gb
23.59 29.49

F Db
35.39 44.24

C Ab
53.08 66.36

G
99.53

E
335.92

Eb
79.62

Bb
119.43

F
179.15

C
268.72

Gb
11.79

Db
17.69

Ab
26.54

Eb
39.81

Bb
59.72

F
89.57

C
134.36

11-12-2005

## Arithmetic and Harmonic Means of the Major Third

We have dealt with the Arithmetic and Harmonic Means using the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 as divisors. 6 is the octave of 3 (6/3 = 2/1). 7 presents a whole other dimension and is not used as a divisor in this system. 8 is the octave of 4, so 9 is the rst new number to use beyond 5. 9 gives us the 9th partial above the fundamental which is also the interval of a ninth. This partial with its octave reduction is both the ninth and the major second. The Arithmetic Mean of D288 and Bb230.4 is C259.6. C259.6 is the small major second below D. The Harmonic Mean of D288 and Bb230.4 is C256. C256 is the major second below D. The Arithmetic Mean of D288 and F#360 is E324. E is the 9/8 major second above D. The Harmonic Mean of D288 and F#360 is E320. E320 is the small major second above D. I am awed by the clarity of the gematria.
259.6 259.6 + 288 + 324 = 871.6 324 C
9/10 AM of Bb - D is C259.6 HM of Bb - D is C256 10/9 8/9

C
9/8

E
9/8

E
9/10 AM of D - F# is E324 HM of D - F# is E320 8/9

Bb
230.4
House, temple

D
288
Path 10/9

F#
360
the victory of truth

oikion

stibo

h nikh alhqeia

C
256 C D E 256 + 288 + 320 = 864

E
320

C C D E

## 871 871 871 871 871

Pain, sorrow Secret, dark Web; cloak To purify against one's will

## 864 864 864 864 864 864

Pythagoras Holy of holies Of the Gods Throne of Abraxas Jerusalem Joiner's Square; corner stone

11-12-2005

## Arithmetic and Harmonic Means of the Major Third

The Arithmetic and Harmonic Means of the 2-3-5 major third from the two other perfect intervals of G and A

## 172.8 172.8 + 192 + 216 = 580.8

216 F
9/10

F
9/8 AM of Eb - G is F172.8 HM of Eb - G is C256 8/9

A
9/8

A
9/10 AM of G-B is A216

240

Eb
153.6
10/9

G
192
Path

B
Foundation

stibo

katabolh
There is only one A because it is one of the 3 perfect intervals A, D, and G.

F
170.66 F G A

## ollumi qanasmo upar ampu

243

B
There is only one G because it is one of the 3 perfect intervals A, D, and G. 9/8 AM of A - C# is B243 HM of A - C# is B240 9/8 9/10

270

F
172.8
10/9

A
216
10/9

C#

G
192

B
240

## 648 648 648 648

Initiation, celebration; mysteries teleth The House of Truth The Truth + Spirit The Kingdom of Peace domo alhqeia h alhqeia + pneuma h Basileia eirhnh

11-12-2005

Bb
C D D E

F#

hco pothno

## 288 +324 + 360 = 972

972 A vanishing

C
9/8

afanisi

E
324
AM of D - F# is E324 HM of D - F# is E320 9/10

259.6
AM of Bb - D is C259.6 HM of Bb - D is C256

9/10

9/8

Bb
230.4
10/9

D
288
8/9

D
288
10/9

F#
360
8/9

C
256
775 Messenger of the gods; guide

E
D
diaktoro 320

frhnoblabh

Bb

F#

## 288 +320 + 360 = 968

Eb
518 Mistake, error 518 sorrow, grief

G
729 The Perfected Work

C#

examartia luph

## 216 + 243 + 270 = 729

F
172.8
9/10 AM of Eb - G is F172.8 HM of Eb - G is C256 10/9 8/9

euergesia
729 Cubic Stone

B
9/8

Khfa
729 = 9 x 9 x 9

9/8

243
9/10 AM of A - C# is B243 HM of A - C# is B240 8/9

270

Eb
153.6

G
192

A
216
10/9

C#

F
170.66
516 The goddess Hestia

B
240
726 Unutterable 726 The Messiah

anaudo o Messia

Eb

Estia

C#

## 216 + 240 + 270 = 726

Ab
691 knowledge, science, history istoria 691 Power, force, victory, dominion

Bb

E
1093 understanding (901) + that which is played on the kithara (192)

F#

G#

## 324 + 364.5 + 405 = 1093.5

krato
9/8

Bb
230.4
AM of Ab - C is Bb230.4 HM of Ab - C is Bb227.55 9/10

gnwmh + kiqariama
9/8

F#
364.5
AM of E - G# is F#364.5 HM of E - G# is F#360 9/10

Ab
204.8
10/9

C
256
8/9

E
324
10/9

G#
405
8/9

Bb
227.55

F#
360

pantopth

Ab

Bb

688 cup

pothrion

F#

G#

1089

fqito

11-12-2005

Db

Eb

tropo

C#

D#

## 273.06 + 307.2 + 341.33 = 921.73

921 Rod, staff, law, canon

9/8

## 243 + 273.375 + 303.75 = 820.125

kanwn
9/8

Eb
307.2
AM of Db - F is Eb307.2 HM of Db - F is Eb303.4 9/10

## 820 To overcome, force 820 The sphere

C#
273.375
AM of B - D# is C#273.375 HM of B - D# is C#270 9/10

Db
273.06
10/9

F
341.33
8/9

B
243
10/9

D#
303.75
9/8

Eb
918 poppy

C#
mhkwn Mouse 270
816 Loving 816 Mercy

303.4

stergh elehmosunh

918 Moses

Db

Eb

C#

D#

Gb

Ab

Bb

F#

G#

A#

## 364.08 + 409.6 + 455.11 = 1228.79

1228 an undertaking, beginning

## 364.5 + 410.06 + 455.625 = 1230.19

1230 Thought; reection

epiceirhsi
9/8

Ab
409.6
AM of Gb - Bb is Ab409.6 HM of Gb - Bb is Ab404.5 10/9

fronti
9/8

G#
410.06
AM of F# - A# is G#410.06 HM of F# - A# is G#405 8/9 9/10

Gb
364.08
10/9

Bb
455.11
8/9

F#
364.5
10/9

A#
455.625

Ab
404.5

G#
405

Gb

Ab

Bb

F#

G#

A#

## ktisi Qeou icque to dikton

11-12-2005

The Pattern of Whole and Half Steps in the Three Modes Where the Pattern is the Same in both the Lower and Upper Tetrachord Ionian
Db 273.06 Db 272 Whole Step

Dorian
D 288
9/8 Whole Step

Phrygian
D# 306 D# 303.7

9/8

256/243

1/2 Step

Eb 307.2

9/8

## Eb 306 Whole Step

Dorian Lower Tetrachord

E E 324 324
256/243 1/2 Step

E W 1/2 W
322.37 Phrygian Lower Tetrachord 1/2 W W

E 320

9/8

F
345.6

F
344.25

F
341.33

F#
362.67

256/243

1/2 Step Gb
362.67

9/8

Gb
364.08

G 384
9/8 Whole Step

G# 408

9/8

9/8

Whole Step

Ab 409.6

A 432
9/8 Whole Step

A# 459

A# 455.6

9/8

## Whole Step Bb 459

Dorian Upper Tetrachord

256/243

1/2 Step

Bb 460.8

9/8

## Ionian Upper Tetrachord W W 1/2

B 486
256/243 1/2 Step

B W 1/2 W
482.67 Phrygian Upper Tetrachord 1/2 W W

B 480

Whole Step

9/8

Whole Step

C
518.4

C
516.37

C 512
9/8 Whole Step

C# 544

256/243

## 1/2 Step Db 544

9/8
Eb D# 612 612

Db 546.12

D 576

D# 607.5

Each vertical spine Eb is a stepwise arrangement of perfect fths. Each has a different pattern of half steps and whole steps. (The center spine grows from Arithmetic and Harmonic Means of D.) 612 The pattern of the center spine is totally balanced with W - H - W (W) W - H - W. In current modal theory, this pattern is called the Dorian mode. The pattern of the left spines has a sequence of W - W - H (W) W - W - H. In current modal theory, this pattern is called the Ionian mode. The pattern of the right spines has a sequence of H - W - W (W) H - W - W. In current modal theory, this pattern is called the Phrygian mode. Looking horizontally, the only time that whole steps occur in all ve spines is between Gb and Ab, between G and A, and between G# and A#. Mathematically, in terms of pattern, these are the only three possibilities where the pattern of whole and half steps is the same in both the lower and upper tetrachords.

11-12-2005

The Pattern of Whole and Half Steps in the Three Modes from Ab, A, and A#, Creating the Mixed Modes of Mixolydian, Aeolian, and Locrian. (In each case the pattern differs between the lower and upper tetrachord.) Mixolydian
Ab 409.6 Ab 408

Aeolian
A 432
9/8 Whole Step

Locrian
A# 459 A# 455.6

9/8

## Whole Step Bb 459

Dorian Lower Tetrachord

256/243

1/2 Step

Bb 460.8

9/8

B 486
256/243 1/2 Step

B
482.67

Whole Step

W 1/2 W

9/8

B 480

Whole Step

C
518.4

C
516.37

C 512
9/8 Whole Step

C# 544

256/243

9/8
Eb D# 612 612

Db 546.12

D 576
9/8 Whole Step

D# 607.5

9/8

Whole Step

256/243

1/2 Step

Eb 307.2

E E 648 324
256/243 1/2 Step

E
322.37

E 640

9/8

9/8

F
345.6

256/243

## Dorian Upper Tetrachord W 1/2 W

F
688.5 Phrygian Upper Tetrachord

F
682.66

F#
362.67

1/2 Step Gb
682.66

1/2 W W

9/8

Gb
364.08

G 768
9/8 Whole Step

G# 408

9/8

## Whole Step Ab 816

9/8

Whole Step

Ab 409.6

A 864

A# 459

A# 911.2

Each vertical spine becomes a mixed mode using Ab, A, and A# as starting notes. (A , the starting note of the center spine, is the Arithmetic Mean of D and its octave.) The pattern of the center spine is a combination of Dorian and Phrygian; W - H - W (W) H - W - W. In current modal theory, this pattern is called the Aeolian mode. (Aeolian also appears as the right spines pattern beginning on G# on the page using Gb, G, and G#.) The pattern of the left spines are a combination of Ionian and Dorian; W - W - H (W) W - H - W. In current modal theory, this pattern is called the Mixolydian mode. (Mixolydian also appears as the center spine pattern beginning on G on the page using Gb, G, and G#.) The pattern of the right spines are a combination of Phrygian and Lydian; H - W - W (H) W - W - W. In current modal theory, this pattern is called the Locrian mode. The two modes that have a half step rather than a whole step between tetrachords are Locrian with a atted or diminished 5th, and Lydian which has a raised or augmented fourth.

11-12-2005

The Pattern of Whole and Half Steps in the Three Modes from Gb, G, and G#, Creating the Mixed Modes of Lydian, Mixolydian, and Aeolian. (In each case the pattern differs between the lower and upper tetrachord.) Lydian
Gb
364.08

Mixolydian
Gb
362.67

Aeolian
G# 408 G# 405

G 384
9/8 Whole Step

9/8

## Whole Step Ab 408

Ionian Lower Tetrachord

9/8

Whole Step

Ab 409.6

9/8

A 432
9/8 Whole Step

W W 1/2

A# 459

256/243

A# 455.6

1/2 Step

Bb 460.8

B 486
256/243 1/2 Step

B
482.67

B 480

9/8

Whole Step

9/8

Whole Step

C
518.4

C
516.37

C 512
9/8 Whole Step

C# 544

256/243

9/8
Eb D# 612 612

Db 546.12

D 576
9/8 Whole Step

9/8

## Whole Step Eb Eb 612 612

Dorian Upper Tetrachord

256/243

Eb 307.2

9/8

E 648
256/243 1/2 Step

E
322.37

Whole Step

W 1/2 W

9/8

Whole Step

F
345.6

F
688.5

F
682.66

F#
362.67

F# 720

256/243

1/2 Step Gb
725.34

9/8

## Whole Step G# 810

Gb
364.08

G 768

G# 408

Each vertical spine becomes a mixed mode using Gb, G, and G# as starting notes. (G , the starting note of the center spine, is the Harmonic mean of D and its octave.) The pattern of the center spine is a combination of Ionian and Dorian; W - W - H (W) W - H - W. In current modal theory, this is called the Mixolydian mode. (Mixolydian also appears as the left spines pattern beginning on Ab on the page using Ab, A, and A#). The pattern of the left spines are a combination of Lydian and Ionian; W - W - W (H) W - W - H. In current modal theory, this pattern is called the Lydian mode. The pattern of the right spines are a combination of Dorian and Phrygian; W - H - W (W) H - W - W. In current modal theory, this pattern is called the Aeolian mode. (Aeolian also appears as the center spine pattern beginning on A on the page using Ab, A, and A#.) The two modes that have a half step rather than a whole step between tetrachords are Locrian with a atted or diminished fth, and Lydian which has a raised or augmented fourth.

## HarmonicTheory.com Geometry Diagrams

www.harmonictheory.com

11-15-2005

based on an article by the late Anne Macaulay, from the book Homage to Pythagoras. The same book is also published with the title Rediscovering Sacred Science

apolloN

## APOLLON - The Pythagorean Definition of God

a
A - Alpha-1st letter of Greek alphabet. The Alpha circle, (the big encompassing circle) diam = 10 units (10 x 6 = 60 ticks) circum = 10 x 22/7 = 31.43 units = 188.58 ticks circum =188.58 rounded = 189 ticks = 3^3 x 7

p
x

O - Omicron-16th letter of Greek alphabet. circum = 16 units (16 x 6 = 96 ticks) diam = 16 x 7/22 = 5.09 units Rounded diam = 5 units =30 ticks (5 units is also the diagonal of the 3 by 4 lambda rectangles.)

a
p
P - Pi-17th letter of Greek alphabet. diam = 17 x 7/22 = 5.41 units diam = 5.41 x 6 = 32.46 ticks rounded = 32 ticks circum = 17 units = 102 ticks
x

l o
x

n o
x

L - Lambda the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet. Symbolized by a 3 x 4 rectangle. (3 x 4 = 12) Width = 3 x 6 = 18 ticks. Height = 4 x 6 = 24 ticks. (Diagonal, shown at bottom left = 5 x 6 = 30 ticks = 5 units.)

n
N - Nu-14th letter of Greek alphabet. circum = 14 units = (14 x 6 = 84 ticks) diam = 14 x 7/22 = 4.45 units = 26.70 ticks Rounded diam = 4.5 units = 27 ticks

l
B 4 G
The Pythagorean 3 - 4 - 5 Triangles The diagonal of the 3 x 4 rectangle is 5, (from the Pythagorean theorem , a^2 + b^2 = c^2. 3^2 = 9. 4^2 = 16. 5^2 = 25. 9 + 16 = 25. Musically the ratio of 4 : 5 is a Major3rd B : G, 2nd to 3rd string on the cithara. Musically the ratio of 3 : 5 is a Major 6th, E : G 1st (top) to 3rd string on the cithara.

E 3

The Lambda Rectangles Each is in the proportion of 3 units (width) to 4 units (height). Musically the ratio of 3 : 4 is the Perfect fourth.The cithara (from which the guitar is descended) was the instrument of Apollo. It was tuned from the top string down, and the interval from the top string to the 2nd string was a Perfect fourth, as E to B.

## Dimensions and Musical Ratios from those Dimensions in Apollo Geometry

xO4 U

K A M

P O3 B x Q N E

BA=BE=CD=CF=3 units (6x3=18 ticks) CB=FE=DA=4 units (6x4=24 ticks) CA=CE=5 units (6x5=30 ticks) CT=7.5 units (6x7.5=45 ticks) CP=4.5 units (6x4.5=27 ticks) CQ=3.67 units (6x3.67=22 ticks) PK=PL=3.33 units (6x3.33=20 ticks) QP=.83 units (6x.83= 5 ticks) RS=2 units (6x2=12 ticks) TU=9 units (6x9=54 ticks) diameter O1 and O2=5 units (6x5=30 ticks radius O1 andO2=2.5 units (6x2.5=15 ticks) diameter O3=10 units (6x10=60 ticks) radius O3=5 units (6x5=30 ticks) diameter O4=5.33 units (6x5.33=32 ticks) radius O4=2.67 units (6x2.67=16 ticks) D

x O1

x O2

6-5-2005

## Dimensions And Musical Ratios In Apollon Geometry - Octave 5 - 10 units, 30 - 60 ticks

The Feminine Octave The Masculine Octave
G H The right side of the largest circle 1 unit = 6 ticks, 10 units = 60 ticks 10 units is the diameter of the largest (Alpha) circle Octave covers 5 - 10 units or 30 - 60 ticks string length ratios (denominator larger than numerator) ex. 10 x 8/15 = 5.33 units 5.33 x 6 = 32

The left side of the largest circle 1 unit = 6 ticks, 10 units = 60 ticks 10 units is the diameter of the largest (Alpha) circle Octave covers 5 - 10 units or 30 - 60 ticks vibrational ratios (numerator larger than denominator) ex. 5 x 16/15 = 5.33 units 5.33 x 6 = 32

Db 32 (5 x16/15)

## 5/5 16/15 6/5 4/3 8/5 9/5 10/5

G

O4 x
Ni F# 32 (10 x 8/15)

5/5 8/15 3/5 2/3 4/5 9/10 10/10 (G) (F#) (E) (D) (B) (A) (G) 5 5.33 6 6.66 8 30 32 36 40 48 9 54 10 60

30

32

36

40

48

54

60
K A
C 40 (5 x 4/3)

P O5 x O3
D 40 (10 x 2/3)

30 (

5x

5 5.33 6 6.66 8

10

10 /10 )
0/5 )

## (G) (Ab) (Bb) (C) (Eb) (F) (G)

30 .5 (2 x1

L E

F 54 (5 x 9/5)

A 54 (10 x 9/10)

x O1

O2 x

30 (

Eb 48 (5 x 8/5)

5x

10 /10 )

G 30 .5 (2 x1 0/5 )

B 48 (10 x 4/5)

Eb 8

10 6 Bb

10 6 E

8 B

(I have called this the feminine octave because it contains the komal or soft intervals. Like the Moon, which is reflected light, these might be called reflective sounds. They are the reflected intervals of the masculine overtonal intervals which are heard directly.)

Bb 36 (5 x 6/5)

E 36 (10 x 3/5)

(I have called this the masculine octave because it contains the overtonal or direct intervals. Like the Sun, whose light is direct, these are the overtonal intervals which can be heard directly above the fundamental tone.)

diam O1 and O2 = 5 units = 30 ticks o omicron circles diam O4 = 5.33 units = 32 ticks

p pi circle

## diagonals DH = FG = 10 units = 60 ticks diameter O3 = 10 units = 60 ticks

Dimensions And Musical Ratios In Apollon Geometry - Octave 2.5 - 5 units, 15 - 30 ticks
The Feminine Octave
The left side of the largest circle 1 unit = 6 ticks, 10 units = 60 ticks 10 units is the diameter of the largest (Alpha) circle Octave covers 2.5 - 5 units or 15 - 30 ticks vibrational ratios (numerator larger than denominator) ex. 2.5 x 16/15 = 2.67 units 2.67 x 6 = 16
Db 16 (2.5 x16/15)

## The Masculine Octave

The right side of the largest circle 1 unit = 6 ticks, 10 units = 60 ticks 10 units is the diameter of the largest (Alpha) circle Octave covers 2.5 - 5 units or 15 - 30 ticks string length ratios (denominator larger than numerator) ex. 5 x 8/15 = 2.67 units 2.67 x 6 = 16 O4 x
F# 16 (5 x 8/15)

G

## 5/5 8/15 3/5 2/3 4/5 9/10 10/10

10 /10 )
30

(G) (Ab) (Bb) (C) (Eb) (F) (G) 2.5 2.67 3 3.33 4 15 16 18 20 24 4.5 27 5 30
K A

(G) (F#) (E) (D) (B) (A) (G) 2.5 2.67 15 16 3 3.33 4 18 20 24 4.5 27 5 30

G
C 20 (2.5 x 4/3)

P O5 B x O3

30 (
D 20 (5 x 2/3)

5x

.5 (2 x1 0/5 )

L E

F 27 (2.5 x 9/5)

A 27 (5 x 9/10)

Eb 24 (2.5 x 8/5)

x O1
x5 /5 )

F 27 (2.5 x 9/5)

A 27 (5 x 9/10)

30 (

5x

10 /10 )
)

O2 x
G 15

G 30 .5 (2 x1 0/5

B 24 (5 x 4/5)

(2 .5

Eb 4

5 3 Bb

G
15 G

5 3

4 B

(5 x5 /5 )

(I have called this the feminine octave because it contains the komal or soft intervals. Like the Moon, which is reflected light, these might be called reflective sounds. They are the reflected intervals of the masculine overtonal intervals which are heard directly.)

Bb 18 (2.5 x 6/5)

E 18 (5 x 3/5)

(I have called this the masculine octave because it contains the overtonal or direct intervals. Like the Sun, whose light is direct, these are the overtonal intervals which can be heard directly above the fundamental tone.)

## radius O1 and O2 = 2.5 units = 15 ticks radius O4 = 2.67 units = 16 ticks

o omicron circles
pi circle

## AB = BE = DC = CF = 3 units = 18 ticks KP = PL= 3.33 units = 20 ticks DA = CB = FE = 4 units = 24 ticks

l lambda rectangles

## diameter O1 and O2 = 5 units = 30 ticks o omicron circles

l lambda rectangles

a alpha circle

11-15-2005

The Octave

## 1/2 - .500 500 = the number o ariqmo

60
x

1/2 - .500 500 = Thou art + IEOU (Gnostic name of God) 15 Ei + 485 IEOU

O3

2/1 = 2.000 2000 = The Perfected Work + The Gnosis 729 Euergesia + 1271 h Gnwsi

30 O1
x

30
x

O2

36

R 12

24

18

11-15-2005

## The Perfect Fifth and Perfect Fourth

2/3 = .6666 666 = the heart, soul, mind h frhn
x

2/3 = .6666 666 = Whole; perfect + wisdom 108 olh + 558 mhti

24

## 3/2 = 1.500 1500 = To know the God Apollo

12

Sx

36

85 oida + o Qeo Apollwn 3/2 = 1.500 1500 = Beloved lyre 1150 Eufile + 350 kiqari

18 C

## RS/DC=12/18=2/3 P5th DC/RS=18/12=3/2 P5th

3/4 = .750 750 = Helios(Sun) + Foundation (radius of Sun) 318 Hlio + 432 katabolh
x

O4
x

32

4/3 = 1.333 1333 = Beloved Hestia (var) 810 fili +523 Estih

24

24

18 D C

11-15-2005

## The Major Third and Major Sixth

4/5 = .800 800 = Faith pisti
x

A 30 24 D
x x

5/4 = 1.250

## 1250 = Divine (divine = 25. 25^2 x 2 = 1250) qeia

3/5 = .600 600 = The Godhead h qeoth 3/5 = .600 600 = Thou su 3/5 = .600 600 = Kosmos kosmo 5/3 = 1.666 1666 =Beloved Hestia 1150 eufule + 516 Estia 5/3 = 1.666 1666 =Beloved Demeter 1198 prosfilh + 468 Dhmhthr
x

## 16/27 = .5925 592 = Divinity agaqoth

O4

16
27/16 = 1.6875 1687 = Consciousness + Thou 1087 Suneidhsi + 600 Su

P
A 30
x x x

27/16 = 1.6875

27

18 D C C

11-15-2005

## The Minor Third and Minor Sixth

O4
x

5/8 = .625 625 = to learn; to know friendship; amity 74 daenai + 551 filia 5/8 = .625 625 = divine + cosmos 25 qeia + 600 kosmo

P
Q
x

x

x

27/32 = .8437

O4
x

32

## 843 = joy + kithara (lyre) 702 cara + 141kiqara

A 30
x x x

P
32/27 = 1.185 1185 flute + path 701 Aulo + 484 dromo
x

## 6/5 = 1.200 1200 = Light, lamp lucnon

27

32/27 = 1.185 1185 God + Mind; understanding 284 Qeo + 901 gnwmh

36 D C F C

## PC/diamO4=27/32= 27/32m6th diamO4/PC=32/27=32/27 m6th

The 8/9 9/8 Major Second and the 9/16 16/9 Minor Seventh
8/9 = .888 888 = Olen (Apollos first prophet) Wlhn
x

O4
x

16

8/9 = .888

P
A

24

27

x

## 1125 = Apollo + Truth 1061 Apollwn + 64 alhqeia

18 C F

9/16 = .5625 562 = verily dhpou
x

O4
x

32

P
A

16/9 = 1.777 1777 = the treasure + purity 1058 o qhsauro + 719 kaqarioth

48

27

18 C F

## 1058 o qhsauro + 719 qumo

CF/diamO4=18/32=9/16m7th diamO4/CF=32/18=16/9m7th

The 32/45 45/32 Tritone, the 9/10 10/9 Major Second and 5/9 9/5 Minor Seventh

O4
x

32

45
x x

## 45/32 = 1.406 1407 = Vital, full of life zwtiko

diamO4/CT=32/45=32/45tritone CT/diamO4=45/32=45/32tritone

x x

## 5/9 = .5555 555 = foundation; image idruma

K
10/9 = 1.111 1110 = the microscosm o Mikro Kosmo

20 A 18

P
B

P
5 Q
x x x

9/5 = 1.800 1800 = breath, spirit, inspiration + the creation of God 576 pneuma + 1224 ktisi Qeou 9/5 = 1.800 720 = mind; understanding + the Holy Spirit 720 nou + 1080 to pneuma agion

## 10/9 = 1.111 1110 = the macrocosm o Kosmo o olo

9 C

AB/KP=18/20=9/10M2nd KP/AB=20/18=10/9M2nd

PQ/(DC/2)=5/9=5/9m7th (DC/2)/PQ=9/5=9/5m7th

The 15/16 16/15 Minor Second, and the 8/15 15/8 Major Seventh

O4
x

O4
x

32

16

A 30
x x

O1
x

15

sunesi

## AC/diamO4 =30/32=15/16m2nd diamO4/AC=32/30=16/15m2nd

8/15 = .5333 533 = the love + foundation 101 h agaph + 432 katabolh

O4
x

16

O4

32 O3

x x

## 1011 Apollw + 864 Puqagora 15/8 = 1.875

30 C

60

1875 = Apollo + the divine wisdom 1061 Apollwn + 814 h qeia sofia

## diamO4/diamO3 =32/60=8/15M7th diamO3/diamo4=60/32=15/8m2nd

11-15-2005

There is an excellent explanation of the mathematical geometry of the vesica piscis and the shes in the net in both John Michells Dimensions of Paradise and David Fidelers Jesus Christ, Sun of God. The same story is is related about both Pythagoras and Jesus knowing the exact number of shes in the net. In the bible, the exact number of shes is given as 153. In the Pythagorean version, the actual number is not givenonly that Pythagoras knew exactly how many sh were in the net, and when he was found to be correct, asked that the shes be freed back into the water.

GM
153 Hz 306 Hz

A-2
108 Hz

Eb-1

A-1
216 Hz

Eb

GM

153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153

153

#
153 153 153

153

153

To add musically to this incredibly deep symbol, if the note at A432Hz is used as the basis (and it is a good basis because the radius of the Sun is 432,000 miles and the gematria for 432 is foundation katabolh), then the geometric mean of octave A216 and A108 is Eb153 (152.735 exact)! Also, although A432 is the hertz basis, I am using the note D as the ratio of 1/1, the ratio from which all other ratios are generated. The octave D144 is in relation to Eb153 in the ratio of 17/16, which is again in Greek gematria o logo iqu, the true ratio, when 17/16 is used in its decimal form 1.062.

153 as the Measure of the Fish in Archimedes The whole number ratio 153:265, which Archimedes uses for !3 in his treatise On the Measurement of the Circle, corresponds to the height and length of each rhombus in the diagram of the 153 shes in the net. Since 153:265 was known as the measure of the sh or vesica piscis in pre-Christian times, those skilled in mathematics would have immediately recognized the story of the 153 sh in the net as a geometrical story problem. In tems of accuracy, the ratio 153:265 differs rom the real value of ! by about one part in 10,000.

11-15-2005

If the enharmonic notes used in equal temperament (like the black keys on a keyboard) are separated out and treated as different notes, the total number of notes is 17 rather than the 12 notes of 100 cents each in equal temperament. This is just the right number of notes needed to ll in the diamond net of the vesica piscis. There are 16 small diamonds and the one big diamond which is the outer frame. The ratio of 17/16 in its decimal form is 1.062. What makes this remarkable is that 1062, in Greek gematria, is o logo iqu, the true ratio

A
A# Bb B C C# Db

## 32240 (143) 0 (180) 1941 (200)

A
A# Bb B C D## Dbb F F# Ab C# E E G## Gb

D
D#

Eb

24 (204)

45 (225)

6636 (247)

F#

90 (270)

Gb

9506 (275)

G
388 The Sun o Hlio 1275 Orpheus

120 (300)

G# Ab

14609 (326)

Wrfeu
15155 (331)

## Total degrees = 252757 .

2527=7x19^2

11-15-2005

From Gematria, A Preliminary Investigation of The Cabala by Bligh Bond and Simcox Lea

Light, though really threefold, has traditionally also a sevenfold nature. In the scheme of geometric representation, the rst emanation from, or manifestation of, the Absolute, in the series we are now considering, is gured as a Cube developed from an original point, which is one of its angles, and this is portrayed in its visible aspect of symmetry as a Hexagon with six internal lines radiating from the center.
! ! !

! ! !

Theoretically there is a seventh radius but never more than six are visible because the seventh approaches the eye and unites the central visible point with the eighth point lying exactly behind it. The six outward points, with their connecting lines represent the Kosmos, or manifestation of the Divine Power, and the seventh, the central point, is the Divine Source, the revelation of God to man. But the eighth or invisible original is required to complete the gure of the cube, which is only apprehended by the higher reason. The . . . New Creation is symbolized by the Cube, for a true knowledge of which a sense beyond that of mere physical vision is required. By this the presence of the seventh ray is revealed and the Eight points are manifest in their true relation. Thus from One are seen to proceed Seven and the Seven are connected with the parent One by rays or lines of Three several lengths (or which are now seen to be of three several lengths), wheras in the at representation only six were seen, and they were apparently of equal length.

! ! ! ! ! ! !

Now we are in the presence of three geometrical entities which by their joint operation determine the form of the Cube, and these are rst, the length of its side which is gured as 100the basic number in the Denary system (far older than decimal notation), on which the whole of the Gematria may be said to be built.

There are, as will readily be seen, three rays of this rst order emanating from any one point in the cube, and connecting that point with the three lying nearest to it in the cube. Secondly there are to be seen three more connecting lines which are the diagonals on the square sides of the cube, linking the rst point with the three next in order of remoteness, and these lines, on the scale now determined, measure each 100 x ! 2, or 141.42their total, 424.26, being integrally expressed as 424 or 425 by substituting unity for the fraction. Finally, there is the One ray leading diametrically across the cube to the opposite point, and the measure of this is 100 x ! 3, or 173.205. Call this 173. thus we have the total of the Seven rays

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! !

## side of square = 100 100 x 3 = 300

diagonal of square side of cube 100 x ! 2 = 141.42 141.42 x 3 = 424.26 (424 or 425)

## diagonal across cube 100 x ! 3 = 173.205

Thus we have for the total of the Seven rays the sum of 300 + 424.5 + 173, which is 897 or 898 and may with equal propriety be taken as either, as the actual gure is halfway between. Hence we nd in Gematria that whereas 897 gives AIZ EN THASIA EKKLHSIAI, 898 is the number by Gematria of OI Z ASTERES, the seven stars or rays which are the angels of the seven Churches.

In the three incommensurable orders of magnitude derived from the measures of the cube we have clearly a very suggestive parallel to the description in the Pistis Sophia of the three kinds of Light in the Lords enduma, which we are told vary in the quality of their beams (variae lucis) and in the imcommensurable nature of their proportions (vario tupw aliis aliis praestantibus innito modo). What are the authors of this old book trying to tell us? Let us assume that they really mean somethingthat they have a rational idea which they are trying to express. With this assumption let us then endeavor to see what sort of parallel modern science can offer to the interpretation we have placed upon the seven rays and the three cardinal measures of the cube. Those who have studied the physics of Light will know that the reputed Seven colours of the spectrum are really Three, and that the blending of these three produce the effect of Seven. There are three primary sensations of colour, and three only, the Red, the Green and the Violet-blue. And these each occupy a certain part of the eld, indenite as to its boundaries, but having an acme of intensity at or near the centre of each section. Near the centre of the spectrum, at a point where the purest green is observed, is the position of one of the xed lines of colour known as Frauenhofers E line. There are other such lines, lettered A to H, distributed over the eld, and these are measured according to their wave-length, in inverse order to their frequency, and the lengths are given in what are called tenthmetres (see Ganots Physics).

The whole series of light-rays comprises those whose wave-length varies from a little more than 7600 tenth-metres in the extreme Red to a little less than 3900 in the extreme Violetaltogether about an octave of light. Now if we take the Green ray at about line E or 5270 in measure then our series must be as follow: Red 7453 . . . . or 5270 x ! 2 Green 5270 Violet . . . . or 7453 x (1/! 3)

and this is remarkable, because 7453 brings us to the intense Red close to Frauenhofers A line (7604) and between it and B, whilst 4302 for the Violet brings us to the point of the most intense deep Blue, and practically on to Frauenhofers line G which is 4307. We must be content to leave our instructed readers to judge as to the real nature of so striking an approximation. If, on further investigation, the parallel appears based on undeniable physical fact, then a few more such instances may go far to rehabilitate the lost wisdom of Antiquity. And if it be true that the data of the colour-scalewhich are derived from molecular motionsare indeed founded upon harmonics whose source is not, as in the case of sound and other physical measure, based upon the interaction of forces having whole-number proportionals, but upon those mysterious entities, the Roots of Two and Three, then we are face to face with a condition pointing to a genesis of motion in a region of space unknown to us, and wherein the dynamic laws operate in a relation quite unfamiliar. It looks as if a fourth and interior dimension must be assumed, and is this not precisely what some physicists say of the Atom, that it must possess some substance in a fourth dimension?

From GEMATRIA, A Preliminary Investigation of the Cabala, by Frederick Bligh Bond and Thomas Simcox Lea published by Research into Lost Knowledge Organization Trust

## Blue 4302 7453 x (1/! 3) Frauenhofer line G (4307)

Looking at Red, Green, and Blue from the hexagonal cube viewpoint

Looking at Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow from the hexagonal cube viewpoint

## HarmonicTheory.com Astronomy Diagrams

www.harmonictheory.com

11-15-2005

## Beginnings of Music of the Spheres The Number 3168

A Square with a side of 7920 miles (2 x 3960) has a perimeter (4 x s) of 31680 miles 4 x 7920 = 31680

mference circu

of circle = 3168

0 mi les

## perimeter of square 31680 miles

The Earths mean diameter is 7920 miles. (2 x 3960). The Moons mean diameter is 2160 (2 x 1080). The combined radii of the two bodies are equal to 3960 + 1080 = 5040 miles. A circle with radius 5040 has a circumference (using pi =22/7) of 31680 miles. (Circumference = pi x 2r) 22/7 (2 x 5040) = 31680

The mean circumference of the Stonehenge sarsen circle is 316.8 ft. or a hundredth part of 6 miles.

## (radius of earth) 3960 miles

MOON

1080 miles

1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7 = 5040 7 x 8 x 9 x 10 = 5040

From the point of view of numbers, the division of the modal octave must necessarily be of twenty-two intervals. This division is not pecular to music, but represents a universal law. Indeed, the relation of those twenty-two intervals with the seven notes of the scale is the only one that can give to music a complete and logical substructure. p. 75 Music and the Power of Sound by Alain Danielou

The general character of the number 3168, as conveyed by its position in ancient cosmological diagrams and the phrases associated with it through gematria, is that it represents the spirit which passes through and encircles the universe, Platos World-soul. The Christian term for this spirit, developed from the number 3168, was Lord Jesus Christ. p. 173 The Dimensions of Paradise by John Michell
Lord
ASC

Jesus 1 8 2 7 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Christ

CCW

1/1-2/1

Kur io I hsou
C to G

Cr ist o
6 1 1 2 3 7 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1/1 = 000000

00 19 24 40 45 67 72 90 95 120 145 152 180 209 216 240 247 280 288
4/3
F-

## 16/15 Db Db 10/9 9/8

256/243
C+

2 4 1 1 7 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
243/128

Db 256/243 = 190448 Db 16/15 = 240000 D D Eb Eb E E F 10/9 = 400000 9/8 = 450000 32/27 = 663600 6/5 = 720000 5/4 = 900000 81/64 = 952400 4/3 = 1200000

C-

800
15/8

Db+

C++ Db--

B
C-B++

## Also from Gematria

D-D+ B-

32/27 6/5 Eb

Eb

EbBb++
Eb-D++

Bb

9/5

The God Apollo = 1415 (+1=1416) O Qeo Apollwn = 1415 2# x 3 x 59* = 1416 2# x 3 + 35 = 59* P y t h a g o r a s = 864 Puqagora = 864 2# x 3 x 36 = 864 J e s u s = 888 Ihsou = 888 2# x 3 x 37 = 888

Gb 729/512 = 1452624 F# 1024/729 = 1521648 G Ab Ab A A Bb Bb B B 3/2 = 1800000 128/81 = 2084800 8/5 = 2160000 5/3 = 2400000 27/16 = 2471912 16/9 = 2800000 9/5 = 2880000

Eb++ E-

Bb
BbA+++ Bb--

16/9

5/4

81/64 E
E++ F--

A++

27/16

F+

F++ F#-Ab++

A-

G--

## *Numbers rounded up above 30 and down below 30

G++ AbGG+

Harmonic ratios converted to degreesminutesseconds Example 15/8 = 1.875 (convert ratio to decimal) 1.875 is between 1/1 and 2/1, (the octave used for harmonic ratios) 1.875 - 1= .875 (to get between 0 and 1) .875 x 360 = 315 (to find the degree point of 15/8 on a circle) 315 = 3150000 (inverting 315 into degreesminutesseconds)

Gb

Gb+

Ab
128/81

729/512

F#

Ab

8/5

3/2

pi can be expressed as 3.1416..., but can also be expressed as 22/7, either way it expresses the approximate relation between the circle and its diameter. To put the the twenty-two intervals of the octave on a circle follows in a logical and consistent manner

Circulation of the Cosmos, the Pythagorean Progression, and the Vedic Scale
This diagram is adapted from the book Mathematics of the Cosmic Mind by L. Gordon Plummer; The Greater and Lesser Perfect Systems, a website on Greek Esoteric Music Theory by John Opsopaus; and Alain Danielous book, Music and the Power of Sound, the Influence of Tuning and Interval on Consciousness. On the diagram, If you start at the lower right and read thru the orbits from lower right to upper left (using earths orbit for the Sun); the orbits from Saturn inward are: Saturn orbit(j), Jupiter orbit (h), Mars orbit(g), Sun-earth orbit(a), Mercury orbit(d), Venus orbit(f), Moon orbit(s). Using the same planetary order but inserting the note assignment of the planets from Greek Esoteric Music Theory, the notes are Saturn (G), Jupiter (F), Mars (E), Sun (D), Mercury (B), Venus (C), Moon (A). This sequence of notes, G, F, E, D, B, C, A is a musical manifestation of a deep mathematical and cosmological truth. To quote from Danielous chapter on the Music of the Greeks: The Theory of the Scale. The Pythagorean theory can be very briefly expressed as follows; the demiurge had divided the composition [of the soul of the world] into seven parts, which relate to one another like the terms of two geometrical progressions, one of ratio 2, (1, 2, 4, 8) and the second ratio 3, (1, 3, 9, 27). With the help of these two progressions, the demiurge has formed a single progression [of] 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 8, 27. This Pythagorean progression, with its characteristic inversion of the fifth and sixth numbers, is to be found in every traditional system and is, for example, the basis of the scale on which the Samaveda is sung, a scale that in much more ancient times showed the same inversion. This ancient vedic scale in modern notation would be: Pa(G) ma(F) Ga(E) Re(D) Ni(B) Sa(C) Dha(A). The numbers representing these notes would correspond to those of the Pythagorean progression (Alain Danielou, Music and the Power of Sound, p. 97).

1 2 4 8 3 9 27
j h

Mo on O

1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 9 - 8 - 27 G-F-E-D-B-C-A

rbi

## Saturn G Jupiter F Mars E Sun D Mercury B Venus C Moon A

rbit rcu r Su y Orb a n it
Ve nus O

Pa ma Ga Re Ni Sa Dha

g
t Me

d f
Ea r th Or bit

Ma Ju

rs pit er
Sa tur

Or Or nO rbi t bit

bit

Follow the red line from the earth (x) outward for the days of the week and the musical cycle of 5ths (Earth and Sun are both note D)

Earth(x) to Moon(s) / Sunday to Monday / Re (D) to Dha (A) Moon(s)to Mars(g) / Monday to Tuesday / Dha (A) to Ga (E) Mars(g) to Mercury(d) / Tuesday to Wednesday / Ga (E) to Ni (B) Mercury(d) to Jupiter(h) / Wednesday to Thursday / Ni (B) to ma (F) Jupiter(h) to Venus(f) / Thursday to Friday / ma (F) to Sa (C) Venus(f) to Saturn(j) / Friday to Saturday / Sa (C) to Pa (G) Saturday(j) to Sunday(a) / Pa (G) to Re (D)

Th

eB

oun

dle

ss

## HarmonicTheory.com Gematria Diagrams

www.harmonictheory.com

Aa 1

Bb 2

Gg 3

Dd 4

Ee 5

Zz 7

Hh 8

Qq 9

Ii 10

Kk 20

Ll 30

Mm 40

Nn 50

Xx 60

Oo 70

Pp 80

! 90

Rr 100

Ss 200

Tt 300

Uu 400

Ff 500

Cc 600

Yy 700

Ww 800

900

11-15-2005

## The Divisors, Gematria, and Musical Gematria of 1224

153 Hz 153 Hermes

Ermh

1
408 Hz
Ab

2 408
Ab

Eb-1

Eb Eb1 Eb2

Trust, Faith

pisti
Eb 306 Hz

Worship; Glory

seba
Ab

pisti

408 Hz

## Ab408 is the Harmonic Mean of Eb306 and Eb612

24 12 6 3 34 68 136 17

D-2

72 36 18 9

## 612 Pure, sacred, holy (324) + path (288)

h alhqeia
D-2 72 Hz

The truth

Whole; perfect

olh
A-2

h kardia
D-1

The heart

108 Hz

72 Hz

D-2

612 Truly (61) + Friendship (551) nai + filia 612 Messenger (540) + the Truth (72)

144 Hz

## A108 is the Arithmetic Mean of D72 and D144

72 The Truth

h alhqeia

Pompo + h alhqeia

Foundation

icque to diktuon

katabolh
A

Pythagoras

Apollon
Eb1

Puqagora
A1

Pythagoras

h alhqeia
Eb1 612 Hz

Puqagora
A1 864 Hz

kala paidagwgo
Eb2 1224 Hz

## 1224 Wisdom (781) + the Logos (443)

Sofia + o Logo
1224 Beautiful (52) Teacher (1172)

432Hz

612 Hz

864 Hz

kala paidagwgo

11-15-2005

## The Divisors, Gematria, and Musical Gematria of 3168

The general character of the number 3168, as conveyed by its position in ancient cosmological diagrams and the phrases associated with it through gematria, is that it represents the spirit which passes through and encircles the universe, Platos World-soul. The Christian term for this spirit, developed from the number 3168, was Lord Jesus Christ. John Michell, Dimensions of Paradise p. 173

1 2
x

4
1056. messenger (540) + Hestia (516)

x x

## O Qeo Apollwn + Pyqagora + Ihsou

pompo + Estia
1056. true (256) + faith (800)

1056 528
Istih

8 264 132 66 33
x C-3

3168
1584 792 396 198

alhqh pisti
528. The goddess Hestia 264. Of truth 132. All, whole

3168 Light bringing 1184 + Light of God 1984 Selah foro + fw Qeon 1584 Apollo 1061+ Hestia 523

C-4

16
x

alhqeia apan

Apollwn + Estih
792 Mind, understanding 720 + the truth 72 nou + h alhqeia 396 Pure, sacred, holy 324 + the truth 72 agno + h alhqeia

32
x

99

3168
288
G-2

96 48 24 12 6 3
96 Morning; east 96 The victory G-4 G-3 x

11 22

144
D-1 D-2 x D-3 x x x D-4

72 36 18 9
72 Hz D-2

## 99 Hestia 29 + the truth 72

Estih* + h alhqeia
99 Knowledge; teaching of the mysteries

44 88 176 352

maqhma

hoih h nikh

## 72 The Truth 144 Hz D-1

h alhqeia

144 The Heart 288 Hz 288 Path 22 Hearth; altar , Hestia 88 Victory, the goddess Nike D

h kardia

stibo

estia* Nikh

lampa

11-15-2005

## The Divisors, Gematria, and Musical Gematria of 5040

The ideal combined radius (in miles) of the Earth and the Moon

1
336 to worship x

## 5040 combined radius (in miles) of earth and moon

sebazomai
Earth(9) + Hestia(27) Gea + Istia* D-3 36 Hz Immortal(26) + Hestia (22) The truth x

336 168
x

2
x

5040
2520 1260 630 20
x 315 x

## 2520 to initiate into the mysteries + Orpheus

meuw + Orfeu
1260 Superior, More excellent upertero 630 Precious; Honored

aiei + Estia*
G-3 48 Hz

h alhqeia
D-2 72 Hz

4 84
x

15 30

5 10

60
B-3

42
x

8 16

120
B-2

240 112
x

21

40 80
x x x

x x

B-1

7
Magic The truth

14
x

28
x x

56
x

5040
48
G-3 x105

63

126

252

504

1008

aiei + Estia*
G-3 48 Hz

mageia
B-3 60 Hz

h alhqeia
D-2

45
F#-2

90 180 360
F# -1

35

144
D-1 x

72
D-2 x

126 Heart

kear

72 Hz

24 12 6
x

## B60 is the Arithmetic Mean of G48 and D72

F# x

210 420

70

36
D-3 x x

18 9
72 Hz D-2 72 The Truth 144 Hz

720
F#1

## 140 280 840 560 1680

h alhqeia
D-1

3
To be within

eneimi
B-2 120 Hz

The Heart Beautiful (52) + spirit (128) h kardia kala + aiqhr D-1 144 Hz F# -1 180 Hz

h kardia

## 720 Mind; Understanding nou 720 Seed, birth

elix i Isi

sporo
210 Strength; force

D144 is the Harmonic Mean of B120 and F#180 This combination of notes - B D F#in the next octave up is the gematria for Jesus 240 + 288 + 360 = 888 888 = Ihsou

Qeion Pneuma

## mikrokosmo stergh + Puqagora Ourano + o qumo

1680 Loving (816) + Pythagoras (864) 1680 Heaven (891) + the soul (789)