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ADS-51-HDBK

AERONAUTICAL DESIGN STANDARD


HANDBOOK

ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT


QUALIFICATION (RAQ) HANDBOOK

21 OCTOBER 1996

UNITED STATES ARMY AVIATION AND TROOP COMMAND

ST.LOUIS, MISSOURI

AVIATION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER

DIRECTORATE FOR ENGINEERING


DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release,
distribution is unlimited.
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
1-1 PURPOSE
1-2 SCOPE
1-3 DEFINITION OF ROTORCRAFT AND LIGHT AIRCRAFT
1-3.1 ROTORCRAFT
1-3.2 AIRCRAFT
1-4 INTENDED AUDIENCE
1-5 AIRCRAFT AND ROTORCRAFT QUALIFICATION
1-5.1 PURPOSE
1-5.1.1 AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION
1-5.1.2 SPECIFICATION COMPLIANCE
1-5.1.3 MILITARY QUALIFICATION
1-5.1.4 FIRST ARTICLE
1-5.1.5 FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS QUALIFICATION
1-5.1.6 STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY
1-5.2 SCOPE
1-5.2.1 AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION
1-5.2.2 SPECIFICATION COMPLIANCE
1-5.2.3 MILITARY QUALIFICATION
1-5.2.4 FIRST ARTICLE
1-5.2.5 FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS QUALIFICATION
1-5.2.6 STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY
1-5.3 GENERAL TECHNIQUES
1-5.3.1 TESTING
1-5.3.2 ANALYSIS
1-5.3.3 MODELING
1-5.3.4 SIMILARITY
1-5.4 DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUES
1-5.5 SUSTAINMENT TECHNIQUES
1-6 QUALIFICATION ITEMS, TIMING, AND OBJECTIVES
1-6.1 INTRODUCTION
1-6.1.1 CONCEPT EXPLORATION AND DEFINITION (PHASE 0)
1-6.1.2 DEMONSTRATION AND VALIDATION (PHASE I)
1-6.1.3 ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING DEVELOPMENT (PHASE II)
1-6.1.4 PRODUCTION AND DEPLOYMENT (PHASE III)
1-6.1.5 OPERATIONS AND SUPPORT (PHASE IV)
1.6.2 NEW SYSTEM
1-6.2.1 ITEMS
1-6.2.2 TIMING
1-6.2.3 OBJECTIVES
1-6.3 MODIFICATION
1-6.3.1 ITEMS
1-6.3.2 TIMING
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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

This chapter describes the purpose and scope of this handbook, introduces the concept of
air vehicle qualification, and provides an overview of qualification methods.

1-1 PURPOSE requirements for the program. Excluded


The purpose of this handbook is two- from the discussions of this handbook are
fold. First, it is intended to serve as a tuto- tests normally conducted after completion of
rial for persons unfamiliar with the airwor- airworthiness qualification testing, such as
thiness qualification process. This includes force development test and experimentation
Government and contractor personnel who (FDTE) tests that are intended to provide
are involved in development of requirements insight into the type of force structure best
or members of the design team who are not suited to the operation of the air vehicle.
directly involved in the qualification proc-
ess. In this context the handbook provides 1-3 DEFINITIONS OF ROTORCRAFT
*
an overview of the airworthiness process for AND AIRCRAFT
developing requirements. It describes air
vehicle and typical system requirements as a 1-3.1 ROTORCRAFT
guide for airworthiness qualification. Sec- A rotorcraft is defined as a heavier-
ond, it is intended to serve as a reference than-air air vehicle that depends principally
guide for those involved in preparing airwor- for its support in flight on the lift generated
thiness qualification documentation. This by one or more rotors and may include static
includes persons who are responsible for lifting surfaces contributing less than half
generating and reviewing documentation the required lift. An airworthy rotorcraft is a
that establishes the airworthiness of systems rotorcraft whose capability to function satis-
and subsystems. Requirements for and ex- factorily when used within prescribed limits
amples of airworthiness documentation are has been demonstrated.
covered in the Appendices to this handbook.
1-3.2 AIRCRAFT
1-2 SCOPE An aircraft is defined as a powered
This handbook addresses the airwor- (heavier-than-air) air vehicle whose princi-
thiness qualification of air vehicles and re- pal lifting surfaces are statically positioned,
lated systems. The air vehicle and systems i.e., fixed-wing airplane. Similarly, an air-
to which an airworthiness qualification pro- worthy aircraft is one whose capability to
gram is applicable might be completely new function satisfactorily within prescribed
or might be the result of major modification limits has been demonstrated.
of a previously qualified system. This
*
handbook is for guidance only. It cannot be Note: Reconfigurable air vehicles, e.g., tilt rotor
and tilt wing air vehicles, have unique features that
cited as a requirement. If it is, the contractor
are not specifically covered in this handbook except
does not have to comply. It is not intended for a reference to a vertical takeoff and landing
to provide mandatory or regulatory require- (VTOL) air vehicle specification, but they may be
ments that must be achieved during the qualified by combining rotorcraft and aircraft qual i-
course of a program. Such requirements fications and defining unique qualification requir e-
ments to demonstrate satisfactory operation of their
will be included in the specific contractual
transient and unique features.

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1-5.1.1 Airworthiness Qualification


1-4 INTENDED AUDIENCE Airworthiness qualification is de-
This handbook is intended for both fined as an analysis, design, test, and docu-
Government and contractor audiences. For mentation process used to determine that an
Government design team personnel this item—air vehicle system, subsystem, or
handbook provides an overview of the phi- component—is airworthy. The primary
losophy of airworthiness qualification and a purpose of airworthiness qualification is to
source of detailed references upon which to demonstrate that the air vehicle has the ca-
base contractual airworthiness qualification pability to function satisfactorily and safely
program requirements. For contractor de- when used within prescribed limits. In ad-
sign team personnel this handbook provides dition, airworthiness qualification is re-
a guide to responding to requests for pro- quired to ensure that a system or component
posals (RFPs) and to implementing and exe- is properly integrated into an airworthy plat-
cuting airworthiness qualification programs. form. Airworthiness qualification is con-
ducted to ensure the overall risk of operating
1-5 AIR VEHICLE QUALIFICATION the air vehicle is minimal.
The paragraphs that follow provide a
description of the purpose, scope, and tech- 1-5.1.2 Specification Compliance Valida-
niques of air vehicle airworthiness qualifi- tion
cation. Specification compliance validation
is defined as the process used to determine
1-5.1 PURPOSE that an item meets its established require-
The main purpose of air vehicle ments. The purpose of specification compli-
qualification is to ensure that the product ance validation is to show through inspec-
meets its intended requirements. Airworthi- tion, analysis, demonstration, and/or testing
ness qualification, specification compliance that an item satisfies all contractual per-
verification, military qualification, first arti- formance specification requirements. Even
cle validation, flight safety parts qualifica- though specification compliance validation
tion, and structural integrity verification are is primarily a process used to demonstrate
all processes leading to qualification of sys- that the contractor has met the requirements
tems, subsystems, and components. All of of the contract, much of the data may be
these processes include test methods and used to substantiate the airworthiness of the
techniques used to ensure continued validity system.
of the qualification results in expected envi-
ronments. Each has a different focus, but all 1-5.1.3 Military Qualification
lead to the ultimate goal of qualification. Military qualification is defined as a
Although treated separately in the following test and documentation process used to en-
subparagraphs, these activities are often in- sure the military utility of an item is estab-
terrelated and overlap during the conduct of lished. Its purpose is to ensure that an item
air vehicle qualification programs. The pur- will perform adequately in a tactical envi-
pose of each is discussed in the subpara- ronment. Thus military qualification usually
graphs that follow. includes extensive testing requirements over
a wide range of environmental conditions.

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1-5.1.4 First Article Validation tural design criteria. Structural integrity


First article validation is the process verification is used to verify that load paths
used to determine that the first item pro- and stresses are as predicted and to identify
duced by either the original developer or an poor structural design details to alleviate and
alternate source meets its physical perform- prevent (where possible) future maintenance
ance requirements. The purpose of first ar- difficulties.
ticle validation is to ensure that the manufac-
turing processes employed yield an accept- 1-5.2 SCOPE
able product that will retain the properties of The range of the scope of determina-
previous qualification. The first article vali- tions and tests that are the basis for each as-
dation process is usually conducted after the pect of qualification is discussed in the fol-
item being procured enters the production lowing subparagraphs. Determinations are
phase of development. This validation is findings supporting qualification substantia-
also used to verify that the production tool- tion that may be verified by data review, in-
ing and processes have not changed the spections, or other actions that require no
characteristics that were qualified on a pro- further tests or analyses.
totype.
1-5.2.1 Airworthiness Qualification
1-5.1.5 Flight Safety Parts Qualification Airworthiness qualification is a pro-
Flight safety parts qualification is gressive assessment process performed at
defined as a process of identification and the component, subsystem, and system lev-
intensive analysis, testing, control, and man- els to ensure that a system meets airworthi-
agement of parts that have been determined ness requirements. The scope of determina-
to be critical to the operational safety of an tions and tests that are the basis for airwor-
air vehicle. The purpose of flight safety thiness qualification includes determinations
parts qualification is to ensure not only that of the desired operating envelope, testing to
these critical parts are properly designed, verify operations within that envelope, and
analyzed, manufactured, and tested as part of establishing any limit actions to assure safe
the air vehicle qualification program but also operation. The process of airworthiness
that critical characteristics are identified and qualification includes engineering analysis,
the manufacturing process is established and formal inspections, design reviews, safety
frozen. The primary differences between assessments, contractor demonstrations, and
qualification of flight safety parts and quali- contractor and Government qualification
fication of other parts are the increased level tests. The requirements for airworthiness
of management and the increased level of qualification are developed by the procuring
technical detail required for flight safety activity and documented in the Airworthi-
parts. ness Qualification Plan (AQP). The Airwor-
thiness Qualification Specification (AQS)
1-5.1.6 Structural Integrity Verification defines the contractor’s obligation to con-
Structural integrity verification is duct specific analyses, reviews, tests, sur-
defined as a process used to establish, veys, and demonstrations to fulfill the re-
evaluate, and substantiate the structural in- quirements and objectives specified in the
tegrity—airframe strength, rigidity, damage AQP.
tolerance, and durability—of an air vehicle.
The purpose of structural integrity verifica- 1-5.2.2 Specification Compliance Valida-
tion is to ensure compliance with the struc- tion

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Specification compliance validation nation and test that constitutes first article
is a comprehensive assessment of whether a validation is a subset of previous qualifica-
system performs in compliance with the tion to reconfirm performance and additional
specification requirements. The emphasis is testing to validate manufacturing processes.
on performance, and the quality assurance
portion of the system specification should 1-5.2.5 Flight Safety Parts Qualification
normally contain a compliance matrix that The scope of determinations and
indicates how compliance with each para- tests that are necessary for flight safety parts
graph of the specification is determined. qualification (FSPQ) is the detailed identifi-
The scope of a specification compliance cation of characteristics of parts that are
validation matches the specification. For critical to sustaining safe flight and the
example, a subsystem-level specification identification of tests for those characteris-
compliance validation would address the tics. FSPQ activities include analyzing the
subsystem-level specification requirements. design of flight safety parts, testing at the
component level for specific flight safety
1-5.2.3 Military Qualification characteristics of the part, and establishing
Military qualification may be inspection criteria and part tracking re-
achieved by establishing that an item pos- quirements.
sesses the required military utility by either
analysis or test. The scope of military 1-5.2.6 Structural Integrity Verification
qualification is the process by which an item Structural integrity verification en-
is tested for performance, reliability, and compasses the establishment of acceptable
maintainability in the full range of its ex- structural design criteria, adequate materials,
pected operating environments. Expected process and joining methods, design analy-
environments for military qualification in- ses, load analyses, stress analyses, damage
clude, but are not limited to, possible global tolerance analyses, vibration analyses, ma-
field conditions, i.e., extreme cold, sand and terials tests, full-scale static tests, fatigue
dust, altitude, etc.; weapon effects, such as tests, and flight and ground loads surveys.
blast, radiation and ballistic impacts; and
human interface and engineering considera- 1-5.3 GENERAL TECHNIQUES
tions in global military environments for op- Qualification may be performed at
erability and maintainability. the component, subsystem, or system level.
General qualification techniques include
1-5.2.4 First Article Validation testing, analysis, modeling, similarity
First article validation consists of (equivalency), and combinations of these
establishing that the article was manufac- techniques.
tured according to its applicable processes The techniques described may be
and procedures and that the manufactured applied individually or in combination de-
part meets its performance requirements in pending upon the specific circumstance of a
its specified environment. The critical as- program. The application of total quality
pect of first article validation is ensuring that management and concurrent engineering
the production manufacturing procedures principles and techniques to qualification
and processes can result in a product of the requires early involvement in the design
same performance level as the product re- process of not only the designers of the item
sulting from the prototype development and but also of those involved in the testing,
qualification effort. The scope of determi- manufacture, and support of the item. Ap-

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plication of these principles and technique prequalification testing under controlled,


ensures that the design process produces an known conditions, and qualification testing.
item that is testable, producible, and sup- Issues unique to rotorcraft include hovering
portable. performance, vibratory characteristics, and
transitional flight performance. Issues
1-5.3.1 Testing unique to aircraft with fixed-wings include
Testing involves applying the scien- high-speed landing gear considerations, stall
tific principles of experimentation to charac- characteristics, cabin pressurization, and
terize the properties of an item under con- thrust/propeller reversals.
trolled conditions. A test has a stated objec-
tive, a predefined set of procedures to be 1-5.5 SUSTAINMENT TECHNIQUES
performed during its conduct, a method for Qualification techniques that apply
collecting and assessing the test data, a set of primarily during the operational and support
pass-fail criteria, and a description of the test phase of the life cycle of an item include
results. testing and similarity. During the opera-
tional and support phase, qualification ac-
1-5.3.2 Analysis tivities center primarily on changes to and
An analysis is an evaluation of the improvement of an existing design, and
characteristics of an item performed on the similarity techniques are often applicable.
basis of engineering and scientific principles When such techniques are not applicable,
to determine whether the item meets its per- test and analysis may be used as appropriate.
formance requirements. Also of significant importance during sus-
tainment is the verification of characteris-
1-5.3.3 Modeling tics, such as durability, that could not be
Modeling techniques involve the in- fully assessed during a development pro-
vestigation of the properties of a model— gram because of limited test time. Another
either physical or conceptual—of the real qualification technique that applies during
system in order to infer the characteristics of the sustainment phase is the assurance that
the real system. replacement parts or repair items meet or
exceed the criteria established by the origi-
1-5.3.4 Similarity nal manufacturer. This is otherwise known
Similarity qualification is based on as the qualified parts program.
the concept that if two items are similar with
respect to a characteristic of interest and one 1-6 QUALIFICATION ITEMS,
of the items has been previously qualified, TIMING, AND OBJECTIVES
the similar items may also be considered for Items that require qualification in-
qualification. A statement of similarity clude components, subsystems, systems, and
without any basis for comparison is insuffi- modifications to systems that ensure satis-
cient and should not be accepted. factory performance of the item.

1-6.1 INTRODUCTION
1-5.4 DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUES The time span of a piece of military
Qualification techniques that apply equipment development can be viewed as a
primarily during the development portion of life cycle in which the item passes through
the life cycle of an item include analyses, various stages. Typically, these life cycle
modeling, prototyping, informal and formal phases are concept exploration and defini-

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tion, demonstration and validation, engineer- During production and deployment


ing and manufacturing development, pro- the item is manufactured based on the data
duction and deployment, and operation and developed in the engineering and manufac-
support. Demilitarization and disposal turing development phase. The manufac-
should be considered during all life cycle tured item is sent to the using unit or to a
phases because of the potential safety con- depot for storage.
siderations, e.g., hazardous material, that
carry forward to the final activity of the life 1-6.1.5 Operations and Support (Phase
cycle. If a mission need cannot be satisfied IV)
by a nonmaterial solution, i.e., change in The operations and support phase
doctrine, operational concepts, tactics, consists of use of the system by operational
training, or organization, a Mission Need units and the associated training, supply, and
Statement (MNS) is developed. The MNS is maintenance activities. It also includes re-
a broad statement of need rather than sys- moval of weapons, environmentally safe
tem-specific solutions. Phase 0 begins with detoxification or containment of hazardous
approval of the MNS. Descriptions of the material, deformation of expended life items
life cycle phases follow. to prevent reuse, and commercial resale or
recycling.
1-6.1.1 Concept Exploration and Defini-
tion (Phase 0) 1-6.2 NEW SYSTEM
During concept exploration and A new system is defined as a newly
definition, conceptual alternatives to satisfy designed system that requires performance
mission needs and airworthiness require- of a full range of development activities.
ments are defined. Typically, it requires engineering develop-
ment, prototype fabrication and testing, and
1-6.1.2 Demonstration and Validation production efforts.
(Phase I)
During demonstration and validation 1-6.2.1 Items
a likely candidate or candidates to satisfy the Qualification is an incremental proc-
stated need is(are) tested to show that the ess that typically is performed on compo-
selected candidate(s) is(are) viable. nents, subsystems, and systems. These
items are normally prototype hardware fab-
1-6.1.3 Engineering and Manufacturing ricated during the development process.
Development (Phase II)
During engineering and manufactur- 1-6.2.2 Timing
ing development, design engineering and Because qualification is an incre-
testing are performed to define an end-item mental buildup process, timing is critical to
that satisfies the military need. The main the success of a qualification program.
product of engineering and manufacturing Components should be qualified before the
development is documentation of informa- subsystem into which they will be integrated
tion for use in the production of the end-item is qualified. The subsystem-level tests and
for field use. analyses should achieve certain minimum
goals prior to initiation of system-level tests.
1-6.1.4 Production and Deployment Similarly, numerous analyses and ground
(Phase III) tests should be successfully completed prior
to flight testing. Flight testing is an incre-

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

mental, progressive activity during which 4. Those that incorporate a source of


periodic assessments of progress are made energy which could be hazardous, such as
prior to proceeding to the next phase of the explosive ordnance, explosive or flammable
qualification program. fluids, and laser energy
5. Those that could affect the operat-
1-6.2.3 Objectives ing limits and/or emergency procedures
The objectives of qualification dur- specified in the operator’s manual, see
ing development are to ensure that a newly AR70-62, Airworthiness Qualification of US
developed item meets its intended require- Army Aircraft System (Ref. 1).
ments. Because the item is newly devel- 6. Those that could affect the cur-
oped, it can be expected to require signifi- rently approved ordnance configuration or
cantly more qualification effort than modifi- its controlling software.
cation programs.
1-6.3.1 Items
1-6.3 MODIFICATION The qualification test articles that are
A modification program is defined as normally available during modifications
a change to an existing system to provide an may be a combination of prototype hardware
added capability or exploit technological for those items undergoing modification and
advances. Modifications can range from production hardware for those items already
minor changes to a component to major developed and not requiring modification.
changes affecting the entire system. Minor As in new developments, the components,
changes, however, do not usually require subsystems, and system may undergo quali-
qualification. Modifications that would fication depending on the nature and magni-
measurably affect the airworthiness of an tude of the modification effort.
aircraft include but are not limited to
1. Those that could affect 1-6.3.2 Timing
a. Structural integrity The timing discussions of subpar. 1-
b. Propulsion, transmission, and 6.2.2 apply to a modification program as
drivetrain stability and control well. Specific timing considerations are a
c. Air vehicle flight performance function of the magnitude and nature of the
d. Aerodynamic characteristics, in- modification effort.
cluding rag
e. Control response and stability 1-6.3.3 Objectives
f. Electromagnetic characteristics The objectives of qualifying a modi-
g. Navigational system effectiveness fication are to ensure that the changes incor-
h. Flight control system authority porated do not adversely impact the system
and effectiveness from an airworthiness standpoint and that
i. Weight and balance the desired capabilities or performance im-
j. Flight control system logic and provements as expressed in the changed ob-
software. jective for the item have been achieved.
2. Those that could restrict the flight
crew in the performance of normal duties 1-7 SOURCE QUALIFICATION
3. Those that could increase the Source qualification, applicable pri-
danger to the crew in the event of an acci- marily at the part or component level, is the
dent qualifying of a producer's manufacturing and
inspection processes and procedures as be-

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ing acceptable for the production of speci- procurement contract may stipulate that the
fied items. contractor developing an item is required to
participate in the selection and qualification
1-7.1 QUALIFIED PARTS LISTS (QPL) of alternate sources.
When a supplier has demonstrated
that he can consistently produce an item in 1-8 USE AS TEXTBOOK,
accordance with the requirements of an ap- REFERENCE, AND PREPARATION
plicable specification, that manufacturer's GUIDE
item is placed on the QPL for that specifica- This handbook has a number of in-
tion. The agency responsible for the particu- tended uses. First, as a textbook, it provides
lar specification establishes the criteria for an overview of airworthiness qualification
and determines compliance with require- programs and testing by describing the ele-
ments for QPLs. ments and procedures necessary for success-
ful accomplishment of an airworthiness
1-7.2 SOURCE-CONTROLLED ITEMS qualification program. Second, this hand-
The concept of source-controlled book provides a tutorial text on airworthi-
items is to use existing items known to be ness qualification for new personnel by
effective in the system being qualified with- providing "how-to" instructions on structur-
out detailed knowledge of the item or its ing an Airworthiness Qualification Program.
critical characteristics. This usually is ap- Finally, this handbook is intended to be a
plied to complex subsystems in which one reference for preparing each of the following
or more adequate products exist, typically documents: Airworthiness Qualification
involving critical proprietary processes that Plan (AQP), Airworthiness Qualification
are not practical to duplicate. Specifications (AQS), Contractor Flight
Release (CFR), Airworthiness Release
1-7.3 SPECIFICATION CONTROL (AWR), Statement of Airworthiness Qualifi-
ITEMS cation (SAQ), and Airworthiness Qualifica-
Specification control items are items tion Substantiation Report (AQSR) both in
that are certified by their manufacturer to terms of essential elements as described in
have been built and tested in accordance the appendices to the handbook and required
with an applicable specification. For elec- content as described in the body of this
tronic equipment the Defense Electronic handbook. The Department of Defense In-
Supply Center (DESC) conducts audits to dex of Specifications and Standards
ensure that a source meets the requirements (DODISS) (Ref. 2) is used to identify un-
of the specification or standard. classified federal and military specifications
and standard, QPLs, military handbooks,
and those industry documents coordinated
1-7.4 ALTERNATE SOURCES for Department of Defense (DoD) use. The
During the course of or subsequent DODISS is composed of an alphabetical
to the original qualification process, alter- listing and a numeric listing, and it contains
nate sources may be qualified by demon- procedures for ordering these documents.
strating that they can produce the item to a
performance and quality level equivalent to
that of the original source. The purpose of
alternate sourcing is to eliminate depend-
ency on a single source for a critical item. A

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

REFERENCES

1. AR 70-62, Airworthiness Qualification of US Army Aircraft System, 15 July 1978.

2. Index of Specifications and Standards, Department of Defense, published yearly.

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

1-6.3.3 OBJECTIVES
1-7 SOURCE QUALIFICATION
1-7.1 QUALIFIED PARTS LISTS (QPL)
1-7.2 SOURCE CONTROLLED ITEMS
1-7.3 SPECIFICATION CONTROL ITEMS
1-7.4 ALTERNATE SOURCES
1-8 USE AS TEXTBOOK, REFERENCE, AND PREPARATION GUIDE

CHAPTER 2 - AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION PROGRAM


2-1 INTRODUCTION
2-2 AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION PLAN (AQP)
2-3 AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION SPECIFICATION (AQS)
2-4 SURVEY VERSUS DEMONSTRATION TEST REQUIREMENTS
2-4.1 SURVEYS
2-4.1.1 SIMPLE SURVEY
2-4.1.2 VERIFICATION AND EFFECT
2-4.1.3 SURVEY FOR ANALYSIS
2-4.2 DEMONSTRATIONS
2-4.2.1 TESTING
2-4.2.2 ACTION
2-4.2.3 ANALYTICAL
2-5 AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION PROGRAM -
TEST MANAGEMENT
2-5.1 PLANNING
2-5.2 TEST INTEGRATION AND COMPUTER RESOURCES
WORKING GROUPS
2-5.2.1 TEST INTEGRATION WORKING GROUP
2-5.2.2 COMPUTER RESOURCES WORKING GROUP
2-5.3 TEST COORDINATOR
2-5.4 GOVERNMENT PLANT ACTIVITY
2-5.5 TEST VERSUS SPECIFICATION MATRICES
2-5.6 CONTRACTOR FLIGHT RELEASES
2-5.7 AIRWORTHINESS RELEASES
2-6 REQUIREMENTS TAILORING
2-6.1 GENERAL PHILOSOPHY
2-6.2 CONSIDERATIONS
2-6.2.1 TECHNICAL RELEVANCE
2-6.2.2 ASSESSMENT OF RISK
2-6.2.3 RESOURCES
2-7 OTHER AIRWORTHINESS CRITERIA ADOPTION
2-7.1 CIVIL AGENCIES
2-7.2 MILITARY
2-7.3 FOREIGN
2-8 AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION SUBSTANTIATION
REPORT (AQSR)
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

2-8.1 VOLUME I - AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION


FINAL REPORT
2-8.2 VOLUME II - SPECIFICATION COMPLIANCE BY
PARAGRAPH
2-8.3 STATEMENT OF AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION
(SAQ)

CHAPTER 3 - SYSTEM SAFETY


3-1 INTRODUCTION
3-2 OBJECTIVES
3-3 SYSTEM SAFETY PROCESS
3-3.1 KNOWN PRECEDENT (BLOCK A, FIGURE 3-2)
3-3.2 SYSTEM DELINEATION (BLOCK B)
3-3.3 IDENTIFICATION OF FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS (BLOCK C)
3-3.4 SYSTEM HAZARD ANALYSIS (BLOCK D)
3-3.5 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION (BLOCK E)
3-3.6 HAZARD CATEGORIZATION AND EVALUATION (BLOCK F)
3-3.7 ACTIONS TO ELIMINATE OR CONTROL HAZARDS (BLOCK G)
3-3.8 MODIFICATION OF SYSTEM ELEMENTS (BLOCK H)
3-3.9 EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION OF ACTION TAKEN (BLOCK I)
3-3.10 ACCIDENT OR INCIDENT ANALYSIS (BLOCK J)
3-3.11 COMPONENT AND/OR SYSTEM TEST AND
DEMONSTRATION (BLOCK K)
3-3.12 INCREASED SAFETY ASSURANCE (BLOCK L)
3-3.13 AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION (BLOCK M)
3-4 ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES
3-5 KNOWLEDGE OF HAZARDS
3-6 CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDS
3-7 RESOLUTION OF HAZARDS
3-7.1 CONTROL METHODS
3-7.2 SUBSTANTIATION OF HAZARD RESOLUTION
3-8 SYSTEM SAFETY MANAGEMENT PLAN
3-8.1 PURPOSE
3-8.2 CONTENTS
3-9 SYSTEM SAFETY PROGRAM PLAN (SSPP)
3-9.1 PURPOSE
3-9.2 CONTENTS
3-10 SAFETY ANALYSES AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
3-10.1 PRELIMINARY HAZARD ANALYSIS
3-10.2 SUBSYSTEM HAZARD ANALYSIS
3-10.3 SYSTEM HAZARD ANALYSIS
3-10.4 OPERATION AND SUPPORT HAZARD ANALYSIS
3-11 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS IN NEW TECHNOLOGY
3-12 SAFETY TESTS
3-13 FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS (FSP) PROGRAM
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

3-13.1 IDENTIFICATION OF FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS


3-13.2 FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS QUALIFICATION
3-13.3 FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS RECORDS
3-13.4 FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS SURVEILLANCE
3-13.5 FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS DISPOSITION

CHAPTER 4 - TECHNICAL REVIEWS, DATA, AND


DOCUMENTATION
INTRODUCTION
4-2 CONTRACT DATA
4-2.1 REQUIREMENTS
4-2.2 DATA ITEM DESCRIPTIONS
4-2.3 CONTRACT DATA REQUIREMENTS LIST (CDRL)
4-3 CLASSIFIED AND CONTROLLED DATA
4-3.1 CLASSIFIED DATA
4-3.1.1 ARMY REQUIREMENTS
4-3.1.2 INDUSTRIAL REQUIREMENTS
4-3.2 CONTROLLED DATA
4-4 APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS
4-5 PROGRAM PLANS
4-6 TECHNICAL REVIEWS AND AUDITS
4-6.1 PROGRAM PROGRESS REVIEWS
4-6.2 PRELIMINARY DESIGN REVIEWS
4-6.3 CRITICAL DESIGN REVIEWS
4-6.4 FLIGHT READINESS REVIEWS
4-6.5 FIRING READINESS REVIEWS
4-6.6 SPECIAL TECHNICAL REVIEWS
4-6.7 SOFTWARE REVIEWS
4-6.8 CONFIGURATION AUDITS
4-6.9 INTEGRATED PRODUCT TEAM (IPT) REVIEWS
4-7 COMPONENT DESIGN AND QUALIFICATION DATA
4-7.1 STANDARD AND QUALIFIED PARTS DATA
4-7.2 STRUCTURAL COMPONENT DATA
4-7.3 ENGINE AND DRIVE TRAIN COMPONENT DATA
4-7.4 HYDRAULIC-PNEUMATIC-FUEL SYSTEMS COMPONENTS
DATA
4-7.5 ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS DATA
4-7.6 OPTICAL COMPONENTS DATA
4-7.7 FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS DATA
4-7.8 MATERIALS DATA
4-8 SUBSYSTEM DESIGN AND QUALIFICATION DATA
4-8.1 ENGINE TRANSMISSION, AND DRIVE SUBSYSTEMS
4-8.2 FUEL AND OIL SUBSYSTEMS
4-8 3 ROTOR, PROPELLER, AND PROPROTOR SUBSYSTEMS
4-8.4 HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SUBSYSTEMS
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

4-8.5 LANDING GEAR


4-8.6 ELECTRICAL SUBSYSTEMS
4-8.7 AVIONICS SUBSYSTEMS
4-8.8 CREWSTATIONS DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS
4-8.9 CREWSTATIONS
4-8.10 PASSENGER FURNISHING
4-8.11 HOISTS
4-8.12 CARGO PROVISIONS
4-8.13 LAVATORIES AND GALLEYS
4-8.14 TARGETING, ARMAMENT, AND FIRE CONTROL
4-8.15 SOFTWARE DATA
4-9 SYSTEM DESIGN AND QUALIFICATION DATA
4-9.1 CHARACTERISTIC AND PERFORMANCE DATA
4-9.2 STRUCTURAL DATA
4-9.3 PROPULSION AND POWER TRAIN DATA
4-9.4 FATIGUE LIFE DATA
4-9.5 AERODYNAMIC PROPERTIES
4-9.6 WEIGHT AND BALANCE DATA
4-9.7 SYSTEM VIBRATION DATA
4-9.8 ACOUSTICAL NOISE DATA
4-9.9 CLIMATIC DATA
4-9.10 ICING DATA
4-9.11 ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS DATA
4-9.12 WEAPON SYSTEM DATA
4-9.13 EXTERNAL STORES DATA
4-9.14 SURVIVABILITY
4-9.15 ENGINE AND FLIGHT CONTROL ELECTRONICS DATA
4-9.16 SYSTEM ENDURANCE DATA
4-9.17 SYSTEM SAFETY DATA
4-9.18 INTERFACE CONTROL DOCUMENTS
4-9.19 MISCELLANEOUS
4-10 GENERAL QUALIFICATION ASSURANCE AND OPERATIONAL
READINESS DATA
4-10.1 GENERAL QUALIFICATION ASSURANCE
4-10.2 TESTABILITY, STANDARDIZATION, AND
PRODUCIBILITY
4-10.3 RELIABILITY AND RELATED DATA
4-10.4 TRAINING AND TRAINERS
4-10.5 TRANSPORT DATA
4-10.6 MANPRINT DATA
4-10.6.1 MANPOWER
4-10.6.2 PERSONNEL
4-10.6.3 TRAINING
4-10.6.4 HUMAN FACTORS
4-10.6.5 SYSTEM SAFETY
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

4-10.6.6 HEALTH HAZARDS


4-10.7 LOGISTICS
4-10.8 BATTLE DAMAGE, CORROSION, AND
INTEROPERABILITY
4-10.9 SHIP COMPATIBILITY
4-11 TECHNICAL DATA PACKAGE (TDP)
4-11.1 ENGINEERING DRAWINGS AND ASSOCIATED LISTS
4-11.2 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS
4-11.3 MANUFACTURING AND PROCESS SPECIFICATIONS
4-11.4 TOOLING DRAWINGS
4-12 DATA MANAGEMENT
4-12.1 TAILORING DATA REQUIREMENTS
4-12.2 REPORTS AND DATA
4-12.3 DATA SUBMITTAL
4-12.4 RECORDS AND MANUALS
4-13 CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT
4-13.1 FUNCTIONAL BASELINE
4-13.2 ALLOCATED BASELINE
4-13.3 ALLOCATED BASELINE EXPANSION
4-13.4 PRODUCT BASELINE
4-14 GOVERNMENT-INDUSTRY DATA EXCHANGE PROGRAM
(GIDEP)
4-15 LESSONS LEARNED
4-15.1 THE SAFETY DATABASE
4-15.2 THE COMBAT DATABASE
4-15.3 THE LOGISTIC DATABASE

CHAPTER 5 - QUALIFICATION ASSURANCE


5-1 INTRODUCTION
5-2 HARDWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM
5-2.1 QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM ELEMENTS
5-2.2 QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM INCORPORATION
5-3 SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM
5-3.1 SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM ELEMENTS
5-3.2 SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM
INCORPORATION
5-4 INSTRUMENTATION AND CALIBRATION FOR TESTING
5-4.1 INSTRUMENTATION PLANS AND REVIEWS
5-4.2 FLIGHT TEST INSTRUMENTATION
5-4.3 RANGE INSTRUMENTATION
5-4.4 CALIBRATION REQUIREMENTS
5-5 APPROVAL OF PLANS AND REPORTS
5-6 TEST WITNESSING
5-7 TEST FACILITY VALIDATION
5-8 SIMULATION VALIDATION
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

5-9 TESTABILITY
5-9.1 GENERAL TESTABILITY FEATURES
5-9.2 AUTOMATIC TEST EQUIPMENT (ATE)
5-9.3 SELF-DIAGNOSTICS AND BUILT IN TEST (BIT)
5-9.4 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST AND EVALUATION (NDTE)
5-10 TEST-ANALYZE-FIX-TEST (TAFT)
5-11 DEFENSE SPECIFICATIONS, STANDARDS, AND HANDBOOKS
5-11.1 SPECIFICATIONS
5-11.2 STANDARDS
5-11.3 HANDBOOKS
5-12 MAKE OR BUY PLAN
5-13 SPECIAL TOOLING
5-14 STANDARDIZATION PROGRAM
5-15 PRODUCIBILITY

CHAPTER 6 - MODELING
SECTION I - PHYSICAL MODELS
6-1 INTRODUCTION
6-2 AERODYNAMIC MODELS
6-2.1 AIRFOILS AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL AERODYNAMIC
SHAPES
6-2.2 FLOW TANKS
6-2.3 WIND TUNNELS
6-2.4 FORCE MODELS
6-2.5 POWERED FORCE MODELS
6-2.5.1 AERO-INTERFERENCE MODELS
6-2.5.2 AEROELASTIC MODELS
6-2.6 PHYSICAL LAYOUT MOCK-UPS
6-3.1 ICING TUNNELS AND ICING MOCK-UPS
6-3 INERT GENERAL REDUCED SCALE MODEL
6-3.2 FUSELAGE MOCK-UP
6-3.3 CREWSTATIONS
6-3.3.1 CREWSTATION MOCK-UP
6-3.3.2 MODULAR RECONFIGURABLE CREWSTATION SIMULATOR 6-20
6-3.4 MISSION CREW, PASSENGER AND CARGO AREA
6-3.5 COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SUBSTITUTION FOR
MOCK-UPS
6-4 FUNCTIONAL SUBSYSTEM MOCK-UPS
6-4.1 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
6-4.2 PRESSURE SYSTEMS
6-4.2.1 HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
6-4.2.2 HIGH PRESSURE PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS
6-4.2.3 LOW PRESSURE PNEUMATIC AND VACUUM SYSTEMS
6-4.3 ENGINES AND DRIVE TRAIN, FLUIDS, AND
ACCESSORIES
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

6-4.4 ROTOR SYSTEM


6-4.4.1 MECHANICAL ROTOR AND CONTROLS
6-4.4.2 ROTOR AND ELECTRONIC CONTROLS
6-4.4.3 WHIRL TEST ARTICLE
6-4.5 ELECTRONIC SYSTEM MANAGER NETWORKS
6-4.5.1 GENERAL CONTROL AND DATA BUS NETWORKS
6-4.5.2 ELECTRONIC FLIGHT CONTROLS
6-4.5.3 INTEGRATED COCKPIT AVIONICS NETWORKS
6-4.5.4 ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROLS
6-4.6 TARGETING, FIRE CONTROL, ARMAMENT AND
STORES STATIONS
6-4.7 LANDING GEAR
6-4.8 LIGHTING MOCK-UP
6-4.8.1 INTERIOR LIGHTING
6-4.8.2 EXTERIOR LIGHTING
6-5 GROUND TEST VEHICLE
6-6 MOCK-UP REVIEW AND APPROVAL

SECTION II - SIMULATIONS
6-7 INTRODUCTION
6-7.1 ABSTRACT EMULATION
6-7.2 PHYSICAL EMULATION
6-8 SIMULATION BASES AND VALIDATION CRITERIA
6-8.1 TABULAR DATA MODELS
6-8.2 CHARACTERISTIC FUNCTION MODELS
6-8.3 TRANSFER FUNCTION MODELS
6-8.4 STATISTICAL FUNCTION MODELS
6-8.4.1 STATISTICAL RESULTS
6-8.4.2 MONTE CARLO RESULTS
6-8.5 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) MODELS
6-8.6 NEURAL NETWORK MODELS
6-8.7 COMPOSITE AND HYBRID BASES
6-9 EMULATORS
6-9.1 INTRODUCTION
6-9.2 SYSTEM EQUIPMENT
6-9.3 ENVIRONMENTS
6-9.4 EVENTS
6-9.5 INTELLIGENCE
6-10 SIMULATORS
6-10.1 INTRODUCTION
6-10.2 MISSION EQUIPMENT
6-10.3 FLIGHT SIMULATORS
6-10.4 MISSION FLIGHT SIMULATORS
6-10.5 BATTLE ENGAGEMENT SIMULATORS
6-11 SIMULATIONS AS SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENTS
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

6-11.1 HOST
6-11.2 HOST ENVIRONMENT
6-11.3 SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT
6-11.4 EMBEDDED SIMULATIONS

CHAPTER 7 - COMPONENT QUALIFICATION


7-1 INTRODUCTION
7-2 QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS
7-2.1 TYPES OF COMPONENTS
7-2.2 TYPES OF TESTS
7-2.3 COMPONENT QUALIFICATION MATRIX
7-3 QUALIFICATION PROCEDURES
7-3.1 TEST SPECIMENS
7-3.2 TEST PLANS
7-3.3 QUALIFICATION REPORTS
7-3.4 QUALIFICATION BY SIMILARITY
7-3.5 SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS
7-4 PARTS CONTROL PROGRAM
7-5 FUNCTIONAL QUALIFICATION TESTS
7-5.1 PURPOSE
7-5.2 DETAILED REQUIREMENTS
7-6 STRUCTURAL QUALIFICATION TESTS
7-6.1 STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY PROGRAM
7-6.1.1 STRUCTURAL DESIGN
7-6.1.2 FATIGUE INTEGRITY
7-6.1.3 STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY VERIFICATION
7-6.1.4 STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY MAINTENANCE
7-6.2 STATIC LOADING
7-6.3 FATIGUE LOADING
7-6.4 COMPOSITE STRUCTURES
7-6.5 CRASH RESISTANCE
7-7 FAA STRUCTURAL QUALIFICATION
7-7.1 STRUCTURE
7-7.2 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
7-8 ENDURANCE AND SCREENING QUALIFICATION TESTS
7-8.1 ENDURANCE TESTING
7-8.2 SCREENING TESTS
7-9 GENERAL PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS
7-9.1 VIBRATION
7-9.2 TEMPERATURE
7-9.3 ACCELERATION
7-9.4 SHOCK
7-9.5 SAND AND DUST
7-9.6 GUNFIRE
7-9.7 RAIN
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

7-9.8 HUMIDITY
7-9.9 FUNGUS
7-9.10 ICING
7-9.11 SOLAR RADIATION (SUNSHINE)
7-9.12 SALT FOG
7-9.13 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE
7-9.14 LEAKAGE (IMMERSION)
7-9.15 LOW PRESSURE (ALTITUDE)
7-9.16 TEMPERATURE, HUMIDITY, VIBRATION, ALTITUDE
7-10 ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENTS
7-10.1 ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE (EMI)
7-10.2 ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE (ESD)
7-10.3 NUCLEAR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (NEMP)
7-10.4 LIGHTNING
7-10.5 TEMPEST
7-11 OPTICAL/ELECTRO-OPTICAL QUALIFICATION TESTS
7-11.1 TARGETING SYSTEMS
7-11.2 PILOTAGE SYSTEMS
7-12 SURVIVABILITY QUALIFICATION TESTS
7-12.1 BALLISTIC TESTS
7-12.2 DIRECTED ENERGY TESTS
7-12.3 NUCLEAR HARDENING TESTS
7-12.4 NBC TESTS
7-13 COMPONENT TEST-ANALYZE-FIX-TEST
7-14 MATERIAL QUALIFICATION
7-14.1 STRUCTURAL ALLOWABLES
7-14.2 ENVIRONMENTAL RESISTANCE
7-14.3 SPECIAL PROPERTIES
7-14.4 PROCESS DEFINITION AND CONTROL
7-15 PROCESS QUALIFICATION
7-16 SPARES AND REPAIR PARTS QUALIFICATION
7-16.1 BUILD TO PRINT
7-16.2 SPECIFICATION CONTROL
7-16.3 SOURCE CONTROL

CHAPTER 8 - SUBSYSTEM QUALIFICATION


8-1 INTRODUCTION
8-2 ENGINE, TRANSMISSION AND DRIVE SUBSYSTEM
QUALIFICATION
8-2.1 ENGINE PERFORMANCE
8-2.2 TRANSMISSION AND DRIVE PERFORMANCE
8-2.3 ENGINE, TRANSMISSION AND DRIVE VIBRATION
DETERMINATION
8-2.4 ENGINE, TRANSMISSION AND DRIVE ENDURANCE
8-2.5 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

8-2.6 FIRE DETECTION AND EXTINGUISHING


8-3 FUEL SUBSYSTEM QUALIFICATION
8-3.1 FUEL CAPACITIES
8-3.2 REFUELING AND DEFUELING
8-3.3 SLOSH AND VIBRATION
8-3.4 FUEL SUPPLY AND FUEL TRANSFER
8-3.5 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT
8-3.6 INERTING SYSTEMS
8-3.7 AERIAL REFUEL
8-3.8 EXPLOSION PROTECTION
8-3.9 AUXILIARY FUEL
8-4 ROTOR, PROPELLER AND PROPROTOR SUBSYSTEM
QUALIFICATION
8-4.1 WHIRL TESTING
8-4.2 AEROELASTIC STABILITY AND FLUTTER
8-4.3 LIFT AND THRUST PERFORMANCE
8-4.4 ANTI-TORQUE SUBSYSTEM
8-4.4.1 OPEN TAIL ROTOR
8-4.4.2 DUCTED TAIL ROTOR
8-5 HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SUBSYSTEM QUALIFICATION
8-5.1 HYDRAULIC SUBSYSTEM DEMONSTRATION
8-5.2 PNEUMATIC SUBSYSTEM DEMONSTRATION
8-5.3 CABIN PRESSURIZATION
8-6 LANDING GEAR QUALIFICATION
8-6.1 DROP TESTING
8-6.2 LOW AND HIGH SPEED TESTING
8-6.3 BRAKING AND BRAKE LOCK TESTING
8-6.4 FLOATATION TESTING
8-6.5 SKI TESTING
8-6.6 RETRACTION AND EXTENSION TESTING
8-7 ELECTRICAL SUBSYSTEM
8-7.1 ELECTRICAL POWER TESTING
8-7.2 ELECTRICAL POWER ANALYSIS
8-7.3 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS COOLING
8-8 AVIONICS-COMMUNICATIONS
8-8.1 EXTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS
8-8.2 INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS
8-9 AVIONICS-NAVIGATION
8-9.1 INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
8-9.2 DOPPLER NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
8-9.3 BROADCAST NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
8-9.4 HYBRID NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
8-10 CREWSTATION DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS
8-10.1 FLIGHT DISPLAYS
8-10.2 FLIGHT CONTROLS
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

8-10.3 COCKPIT AND INSTRUMENT LIGHTING


8-10.4 ELECTRONIC NETWORKS
8-10.5 VOICE INTERACTIVE SUBSYSTEMS
8-10.6 MISSION EQUIPMENT PACKAGE COCKPIT
INTEGRATION
8-10.7 VISIBILITY
8-10.8 FLIGHT CREW VISIONICS
8-10.9 PROPULSION CONTROLS
8-11 CREWSTATION EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS
8-11.1 AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT (ALSE)
8-11.1.1 OXYGEN SYSTEM
8.11.1.2 HELMETS
8-11.2 HUMAN FACTORS
8-11.3 CREWSTATION CRASHWORTHINESS
8-11.4 FLIGHT DATA RECORDER
8-11.5 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL
B-11.6 TRANSPARENCY PROTECTION4
8-12 PASSENGER FURNISHINGS5
8-13 HOIST SUBSYSTEMS6
8-13.1 RESCUE HOIST6
8-13.2 CARGO HOIST7
8-14 CARGO PROVISIONS8
8-14.1 INTERNAL CARGO PROVISIONS8
8-14.2 EXTERNAL CARGO PROVISIONS1
8-15 LAVATORIES AND GALLEYS2
8-16 TARGETING, ARMAMENT AND FIRE CONTROL
SUBSYSTEMS3
8-16.1 SENSORS5
8-16.2 TRACKERS6
8-16.3 RANGEFINDERS6
8-16.4 ARMAMENT7
8-16.5 FIRE CONTROL1
8-16.6 SENSOR FUSION2
8-16.7 SUBSYSTEM COUNTERMEASURE RESISTANCE3
8-17 SPECIAL MISSION AND NEW SUBSYSTEMS4
8-17.1 ELECTRONIC/OPTICAL AREA SURVEILLANCE5
8-17.2 AERIAL DELIVERY SYSTEMS6
8-17.3 ADDITIONAL WEAPONS7
8-18 FAULT TOLERANT SYSTEMS8
8-19 SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION ITEMS AND EMBEDDED
SOFTWARE INTEGRATION9
8-19.1 SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION ITEMS0
8-19.1.1 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION2
8-19.1.2 SOFTWARE TEST DESCRIPTION2
8-19.1.3 SOFTWARE TEST REPORT3
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

8-19.2 EMBEDDED SOFTWARE INTEGRATION3


8-19.2.1 SOFTWARE - HARDWARE INTEGRATION4
8-19.2.2 INTEGRATION TEST REQUIREMENTS5
8-20 TEST-ANALYZE-FIX-TEST (TAFT)6

CHAPTER 9 - SYSTEM QUALIFICATION


9-1 INTRODUCTION
9-0 LIST OF SYMBOLS
9-2 STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY DEMONSTRATIONS
9-2.1 STATIC TEST PROGRAM
9-2.2 WATER TIGHTNESS
9-2.3 WEIGHT AND BALANCE
9-2.4 INFLIGHT LOADS
9-3 PROPULSION AND POWER DEMONSTRATIONS
9-3.1 ENGINE/AIRFRAME COMPATIBILITY TESTS
9-3.1.1 CONTROLS
9-3.1.2 VIBRATION
9-3.1.3 STARTING
9-3.2 PROPULSION SYSTEM TEMPERATURE TESTS
9-3.3 ENGINE AIR INDUCTION AND EXHAUST TESTS
9-3.4 HIGH ALTITUDE CONDITIONS
9-3.5 LUBRICATION
9-3.6 FIRE DETECTION AND SUPPRESSION TESTS
9-3.7 TIEDOWN TESTING
9-4 FLIGHT LOAD SURVEY
9-4.1 MANEUVERS
9-4.1.1 AIR-TO-GROUND SCOUT ATTACK
9-4.1.2 CARGO/UTILITY
9-4.1.3 NAP-OF-EARTH (NOE) FLIGHT
9-4.1.4 AIR-TO-AIR COMBAT
9-4.1.5 HIGH ALTITUDE SURVEILLANCE
9-4.2 TEST TECHNIQUES AND CONDITIONS
9-4.3 LOAD MEASUREMENT
9-4.4 USAGE OF RESULTS
9-5 DYNAMIC STABILITY
9-5.1 GROUND RESONANCE
9-5.2 BLADE FLUTTER
9-5.3 AEROELASTIC AND MECHANICAL STABILITY
9-5.4 WING AND CONTROL SURFACE
9-5 AERODYNAMIC DEMONSTRATION
9-5.1 FLIGHT PERFORMANCE TESTS
9-5.1.1 COMMON
9-5.1.2 FIXED WING
9-5.1.3 ROTARY WING
9-6.2 FLYING QUALITIES TESTS
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

9-6.2.1 COMMON
9-6.2.2 FIXED WING
9-6.2.3 ROTARY WING
9-6.3 TRANSITION FLIGHT QUALITIES TESTS
9-6.4 AUTOROTATION OR UNPOWERED GLIDE
9-6.4.1 COMMON
9-6.4.2 FIXED WING
9-6.4.3 ROTARY WING
9-6.5 SPIN AND STALL CHARACTERISTICS
9-6.6 TAKEOFF
9-6.6.1 COMMON
9-6.6.2 FIXED WING
9-6.6.3 ROTARY WING
9-6.7 LANDING
9-6.7.1 COMMON
9-6.7.2 FIXED WING
9-6.7.3 ROTARY WING
9-6.8 HOVER
9-7 TOTAL SYSTEM VIBRATION TESTS
9-7.1 GROUND VIBRATION TESTS1
9-7.2 FLIGHT VIBRATION TESTS4
9-8 ACOUSTIC NOISE TESTS7
9-8.1 INTERNAL NOISE TESTS8
9-8.2 EXTERNAL NOISE TESTS0
9-9 CLIMATIC LABORATORY TESTS3
9-10 ICING FLIGHT TESTS7
9-10.1 CLEAR, DRY AIR FLIGHT9
9-10.2 SIMULATED ICING FLIGHT0
9-10.3 NATURAL ICING FLIGHT1
9-11 ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS (E3)
9-11.1 ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY4
9-11.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC VULNERABILTY7
9-11.3 LIGHTNING8
9-11.3.1 DIRECT EFFECTS TESTING8
9-11.3.2 INDIRECT EFFECTS TESTING9
9-11.3.3 STREAMERING TESTING0
9-11.4 STATIC ELECTRICITY TESTING0
9-11.5 RADIATION HAZARDS (RADHAZ)0
9-11.5.1 HERO TESTING1
9-11.5.2 HERP TESTING1
9-11.5.3 HERF TESTING2
9-11.6 TEMPEST TESTING2
9-11.7 ANTENNA COUPLING3
9-12 WEAPON SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS TESTS4
9-12.1 GROUND TARGETS0
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

9-12.2 AIR TARGETS1


9-13 EXTERNAL STORES SEPARATION3
9-14 SURVIVABILITY8
9-14.1 BALLISTIC SURVIVABILITY1
9-14.1.1 ARMOR2
9-14.1.2 BALLISTIC TOLERANT STRUCTURE3
9-14.1.3 POSITIONING AND SEPARATION OF SUBSYSTEMS4
9-14.1.4 FUEL BALLISTIC PROTECTION6
9-14.2 LASER SURVIVABILITY6
9-14.2.1 OPTICAL COUNTERMEASURES7
9-14.2.2 HIGH ENERGY LASERS9
9-14.3 SIGNATURE CONTROL9
9-14.3.1 INFRARED0
9-14.3.2 RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS) AND SIGNATURE2
9-14.3.3 ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSION3
9-14.3.4 VISIBLE EMISSION4
9-14.3.5 ACOUSTIC EMISSION5
9-14.4 MANEUVERABILITY8
9-14.5 AIRCRAFT SURVIVABILITY EQUIPMENT (ASE)9
9-14.6 NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL (NBC)1
9-14.7 DIRECT NUCLEAR EFFECTS2
9-14.8 CRASHWORTHINESS3
9-15 AVIONICS - CONTROLS4
9-15.1 FLY-BY-WIRE/FLY-BY-LIGHT SYSTEMS7
9-15.2 STABILITY AUGMENTATION SYSTEMS9
9-15.3 AUTOPILOTS0
9-15.4 ENGINE CONTROLS2
9-15.5 INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEMS4
9-15.6 UNMANNED AIR VEHICLE (UAV) SYSTEMS7
9-16 TEST-ANALYZE-FIX-TEST0

CHAPTER 10 OPERATIONAL READINESS QUALIFICATION


10-0 LIST OF SYMBOLS
10-1 INTRODUCTION
10-2 RELIABILITY
10-2.1 RELIABILITY MEASURES
10-2.2 FAILURE MODE, EFFECTS, AND CRITICALITY
ANALYSIS (FMECA)
10-2.3 SAMPLE DATA COLLECTION
10-2.4 SCORING CONFERENCES
10-2.5 RELIABILITY TESTING
10-2.5.1 RELIABILITY GROWTH TEST (RGT)
10-2.5.2 RELIABILITY QUALIFICATION TEST (RQT)
10-2.5.3 SYSTEM ENDURANCE TESTS
10-3 OPERATIONAL READINESS/AVAILABILITY
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

10-4 MAINTAINABILITY
10-4.1 PHYSICAL TEARDOWN AND MAINTAINABILITY
DEMONSTRATION
10-4.2 TECHNICAL MANUAL VALIDATION
10-4.3 TESTABILITY
10-5 DURABILITY
10-6 WARRANTY
10-6.1 GENERAL PERFORMANCE WARRANTY
10-6.2 RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENT WARRANTY
10-7 TRAINING AND TRAINERS
10-7.1 TRAINING
10-7.2 SYNTHETIC FLIGHT TRAINERS
(FLIGHT SIMULATORS)
10-7.3 BUILT-IN TRAINER/TRAINING
10-7.4 INTELLIGENT TRAINERS
10-7.5 COMBAT EVALUATION TRAINERS
10-8 TRANSPORTABILITY
10-9 MANPRINT
10-9.1 MANPOWER
10-9.2 PERSONNEL
10-9.3 TRAINING
10-9.4 HUMAN FACTORS
10-9.5 SYSTEM SAFETY
10-9.6 HEALTH HAZARDS
10-9.7 SOLDIER SURVIVABILITY
10-10 LOGISTICS
10-11 BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT AND REPAIR (BDAR)
10-12 CORROSION PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROGRAM
10-13 STANDARDIZATION AND INTEROPERABILITY
10-13.1 STANDARDIZATION
10-13.2 INTEROPERABILITY
10-14 SHIP BASED OPERATION COMPATIBILITY
10-14.1 SHIP FACILITIES
10-14.2 DYNAMIC INTERFACE
10-15 GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
10-15.1 SPECIAL TOOLS AND TEST EQUIPMENT
10-15.2 BORESIGHT EQUIPMENT
10-15.3 GROUND POWER UNITS
10-15.4 AUTOMATIC TEST EQUIPMENT (ATE)
10-16 TIE DOWNS AND MOORINGS

CHAPTER 11 - GOVERNMENT TESTING


11.0 LIST OF SYMBOLS
11-1 INTRODUCTION
11-2 TEST AND EVALUATION MASTER PLAN (TEMP)
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

11-2.1 TEST INTEGRATION WORKING GROUP (TIWG)


11-2.2 TECHNOLOGY FLIGHT EVALUATIONS (TFE)
11-2.3 FLIGHT SIMULATION EVALUATIONS (FSE)
11-2.4 CONTRACTOR DEVELOPMENT, SPECIFICATION
COMPLIANCE, AND QUALIFICATION TESTS
11-2.5 ARMY EXPERIMENTAL FLIGHT TESTS
11-2.6 PRELIMINARY AIRWORTHINESS EVALUATION (PAE)
11-2.7 ENDURANCE TEST
11-2.8 AIRWORTHINESS AND FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS
(A&FC) TEST
11-2.9 CLIMATIC TESTS
11-2.10 SURVIVABILITY TESTS3
11-2.11 OPERATIONAL TESTS (OT)
11-2.12 FOLLOW-ON EVALUATIONS (FOE)
11-2.13 SOFTWARE TEST AND EVALUATION
11-3 PRELIMINARY AIRWORTHINESS EVALUATION (PAE)
11-3.1 PAE PREREQUISITE
11-3.2 FUNCTIONAL TESTS
11-3.3 HANDLING QUALITIES
11-3.4 NOVEL CONTROL SYSTEM EVALUATION
11-3.5 TRANSITION FLIGHT
11-3.6 PERFORMANCE
11-3.7 SUBSEQUENT PAE
11-3.8 PAE REPORTS
11-4 AIRWORTHINESS AND FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS
(A&FC) TEST
11-4.1 OBJECTIVE
11-4.2 FLIGHT PERFORMANCE
11-4.3 VIBRATION SURVEYS
11-4.4 STATIC LONGITUDINAL STABILITY
11-4.5 DYNAMIC LONGITUDINAL STABILITY
11-4.6 MANEUVERING STABILITY
11-4.7 STATIC LATERAL-DIRECTIONAL STABILITY
11-4.8 DYNAMIC LATERAL-DIRECTIONAL STABILITY
11-4.9 TRANSITION FLIGHT
11-4.10 CONTROLLABILITY
11-4.11 NOVEL CONTROL SYSTEMS
11-4.12 AIRWORTHINESS AND FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS
REPORT
11-5 CLIMATIC TESTS
11-6 SURVIVABILITY TESTS
11-6.1 LIVE FIRE
11-6.2 CRASHWORTHINESS
11-6.3 SPECIAL ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE (SEMI)
11-6.4 ELECTRONIC WARFARE
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

11-7 ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS


11-8 DEVELOPMENTAL TESTS (DT)
11-9 OPERATIONAL TESTS (OT)
11-9.1 ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES
11-9.2 RESOURCES AND TEST CONDUCT
11-9.3 REPORTS
11-10 FOLLOW-ON EVALUATIONS (FOE)
11-10.1 ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES
11-10.2 RESOURCES AND TEST CONDUCT
11-10.3 REPORTS
11-11 GOVERNMENT SOFTWARE TEST AND EVALUATION (T&E)
11-11.1 INTEGRATED PRODUCT TEAM (IPT)-SOFTWARE
11-11.2 CONTRACTOR SOFTWARE QUALIFICATION TESTS
11-11.3 GOVERNMENT WITNESS OF SOFTWARE VALIDATION
11-11.4 GOVERNMENT SOFTWARE QUALIFICATION
11-11.5 LIFE CYCLE SOFTWARE SUPPORT (LCSS) TESTS
11-12 SYSTEM CALIBRATIONS

APPENDIX A
THE ELEMENTS OF AN AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION PLAN
(AQP)
A-1 INTRODUCTION
A-2 AQP CONTENTS
A-2.1 SCOPE
A-2.2 REFERENCES
A-2.3 TEST ACCOMPLISHMENT
A-2.3.1 TEST SPECIFICATION
A-2.3.2 TEST ARTICLE AND AVAILABILITY
A-2.3.3 TEST FACILITIES
A-2.3.4 TEST EQUIPMENT
A-2.4 TEST MANAGEMENT
A-2.5 DOCUMENT GENERATION

APPENDIX B
THE ELEMENTS OF AN AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION
SPECIFICATION (AQS) AND THEIR CONTENTS
B-1 INTRODUCTION
B-2 OBJECTIVES OF THE MAJOR ELEMENTS
B-3 MAJOR AQS ELEMENTS
B-3.1 SCOPE
B-3.1.1 SYSTEM SAFETY
B-3.2 APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS
B-3.3 DEFINITIONS
B-3.4 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
B-3.4.1 TECHNICAL REVIEWS
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

B-3.4.2 DATA AND DOCUMENTATION


B-3.4.3 QUALIFICATION ASSURANCE
B-3.5 DETAIL REQUIREMENTS
B-3.5.1 MODELING
B-3.5.2 COMPONENT TESTS
B-3.5.3 SUBSYSTEM QUALIFICATION
B-3.5.4 SYSTEM QUALIFICATION
B-3.5.5 FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS QUALIFICATION
B-3.5.6 OPERATIONAL READINESS QUALIFICATION
B-3.5.7 PREPARATION FOR GOVERNMENT TEST
B-3.6 GUIDANCE INFORMATION
B-3.6.1 TEST INTEGRATION WORKING GROUP (TIWG)
B-3.6.2 COMPUTER RESOURCES WORKING GROUP (CRWG)
B-3.6.3 GOVERNMENT TESTING
B-3.6.4 USE OF GOVERNMENT TEST FACILITIES

APPENDIX C
ELEMENTS OF A CONTRACTOR FLIGHT RELEASE (CFR)
C-1 INTRODUCTION
C-2 CONTENTS
C-2.1 ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION
C-2.1.1 SUBJECT/SCOPE
C-2.1.4 TERMINATION
C-2.2 MAJOR ELEMENTS
C-2.2.1 REFERENCES
C-2.2.2 REVISIONS
C-2.2.3 CONFIGURATION
C-2.2.4 OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS, PROCEDURES,
LIMITATIONS, AND RESTRICTIONS
C-2.2.4.1 OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
C-2.2.4.2 PROCEDURES
C-2.2.4.3 LIMITATIONS
C-2.2.4.4 RESTRICTIONS
C-2.2.5 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES, INSPECTIONS,
AND FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION
C-2.2.5.1 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
C-2.2.5.2 INSPECTIONS
C-2.2.5.3 FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION
C-2.2.6 APPENDICES

APPENDIX D
ELEMENTS OF AN AIRWORTHINESS RELEASE (AWR)
D-1 INTRODUCTION
D-1 INTRODUCTION
D-2 CONTENTS
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

D-2.1 ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION


D-2.1.1 REVISION AND DATE
D-2.1.2 ADDRESSEE
D-2.1.3 SUBJECT
D-2.2 MAJOR ELEMENTS
D-2.2.1 REFERENCES
D-2.2.2 PURPOSE
D-2.2.3 CONFIGURATION
D-2.2.4 OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS, PROCEDURES,
LIMITATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS
D-2.2.4.1 OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
D-2.2.4.2 PROCEDURES
D-2.2.4.3 LIMITATIONS
D-2.2.4.4 RESTRICTIONS
D-2.2.5 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES, INSPECTIONS AND
FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION
D-2.2.5.1 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
D-2.2.5.2 INSPECTIONS
D-2.2.5.3 FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION
D-2.2.5.4 PARTS AVAILABILITY
D-2.2.5.5 WEIGHING
D-2.2.5.6 DESIGNATION PREFIX ASSIGNMENT
D-2.2.6 AIRCRAFT LOGBOOK ENTRIES
D-2.2.7 TERMINATION OF RELEASE
D-2.2.8 SIGNATURE OF ISSUE AUTHORITY
D-2.2.9 APPENDICES

APPENDIX E
ELEMENTS OF A STATEMENT OF AIRWORTHINESS
QUALIFICATION (SAQ)
E-1 INTRODUCTION
E-2 CONTENTS
E-2.1 ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION
E-2.1.1 EFFECTIVE DATE
E-2.1.2 ADDRESSEE
E-2.1.3 SUBJECT
E-2.2 MAJOR ELEMENTS
E-2.2.1 REFERENCES
E-2.2.2 PURPOSE
E-2.2.3 CONFIGURATION
E-2.2.4 AIRWORTHY OPERATION
E-2.2.4.1 OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS AND PROCEDURES
E-2.2.4.2 LIMITATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS
E-2.2.5 SUSTAINING AIRWORTHINESS
E-2.2.5.1 INSPECTIONS AND FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

E-2.2.5.2 LIMITED LIFE AND FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS


E-2.2.5.3 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
E-2.2.6 AIRCRAFT LOGBOOK ENTRIES
E-2.2.7 SIGNATURE OF ISSUE AUTHORITY
E-2.2.8 APPENDICES

APPENDIX F
ELEMENTS OF AN AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION
SUBSTANTIATION REPORT (AQSR)
F-1 INTRODUCTION
F-2 CONTENTS
F-2.1 ELEMENTS OF: VOLUME I - AIRWORTHINESS
QUALIFICATION FINAL REPORT
F-2.1.1 INTRODUCTION
F-2.1.1.1 PURPOSE
F-2.1.1.2 APPLICABLE CONTRACTS
F-2.1.1.3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
F-2.1.1.4 STATEMENT OF AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION F-4
F-2.1.2 DEFINITIONS
F-2.1.3 AIRCRAFT DESCRIPTION
F-2.1.4 AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION PROGRAM
F-2.1.4.1 PROGRAM SCHEDULE
F-2.1.4.2 TEST PROGRAM SUMMARY
F-2.1.5 STRUCTURAL DEMONSTRATION SUMMARY
F-2.1.5.1 DESIGN FLIGHT CONDITIONS
F-2.1.5.2 DESIGN GROUND CONDITIONS
F-2.1.5.3 DESIGN CRASH CONDITIONS
F-2.1.5.4 STRENGTH SUMMARY
F-2.1.6 COMPONENT LIVES
F-2.1.7 OPERATING RESTRICTIONS
F-2.1.8 QUALIFICATION DATA SUMMARY AND INDEX
F-2.1.8.1 CONTRACTOR DATA
F-2.1.8.2 GOVERNMENT DATA
F-2.2 ELEMENTS OF: VOLUME II - SPECIFICATION
COMPLIANCE BY PARAGRAPH
F-2.2.1 INTRODUCTION
F-2.2.2 PARAGRAPH COMPLIANCE LIST
15 AUG 96
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

CHAPTER 2
AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION PROGRAM

This chapter discusses the elements of airworthiness qualification programs. The Air-
worthiness Qualification Plan, Airworthiness Qualification Specification, and Airworthiness
Qualification Substantiation Report are discussed. In addition, discussions are included on air-
worthiness test management, standard and specification tailoring, survey versus demonstration
requirements, and the use of other airworthiness certification criteria.

2-1 INTRODUCTION TEMP form the basis for the test require-
Upon receipt of an approved Mission ments. Responsibility for the preparation of
Need Statement (MNS) a Test Integration a TEMP belongs to the program manager in
Working Group (TIWG) should be estab- cooperation with the members of the TIWG.
lished and chaired by a program manager The types of airworthiness tests that should
(PM). The composition and responsibilities be included in the TEMP, the test agency,
of the TIWG are described in subpar. 2- test hardware, and objective for each test are
5.2.1. Also the US Army Training and summarized in Tables 2-1 and 2-2. Chapter
Doctrine Command (TRADOC) should pre- 11 provides details for preparation of a
pare an Operational Requirements Docu- TEMP. Often the development of an Air-
ment (ORD). The ORD and System Threat worthiness Qualification Plan (AQP) paral-
Assessment Report (STAR), if any, should lels development of the TEMP. The AQP
be used to develop a system specification provides general guidance for required engi-
and a Test and Evaluation Master Plan neering analyses, formal inspections, design
(TEMP). Department of Defense Regula- reviews, safety assessments, contractor
tion (DoDR) 5000.2-R, Mandatory Proce- demonstrations, and all contractor and Gov-
dures for Defense Acquisition Programs ernmental qualification tests essential to de-
(MPDAPs) and Major Automated Informa- fining and implementing the procurement of
tion Systems (MAIS) Acquisition Program, an air vehicle.
(Ref. 1) establishes the requirement for a
TEMP. The TEMP is an iterative planning 2-2 AIRWORTHINESS
and scheduling document. The purpose of a QUALIFICATION PLAN (AQP)
TEMP is to serve as a management tool to An Airworthiness Qualification Plan
ensure that the necessary elements of a test is developed by the procuring activity and
program are defined, to ensure that adequate included in the request for proposal (RFP) to
coordination is effected among the agencies communicate the requirements of the Gov-
requiring test data, to ensure that adequate ernment for airworthiness qualification to
testing is planned for arriving at type classi- the contractor. The AQP is the basis upon
fication and production decisions, and to which the contractor prepares his Airworthi-
provide justification for test resources in- ness Qualification Specification (AQS) in
cluding the number of prototypes to be used response to the RFP. Appendix A, “The
during testing. The TEMP also provides the Elements of an Airworthiness Qualification
justification to combine tests, to conduct Plan”, describes the purpose, content, scope,
them concurrently, or to eliminate them in references, test accomplishment, test
order to avoid duplicate and unnecessary
testing. The critical technical parameters
and critical operational issues defined in the
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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

TABLE 2-1. SUMMARY OF TEMP TEST REQUIREMENTS--AIR VEHICLE SYSTEM

TEST TYPE TEST AGENCY TEST HARDWARE TEST OBJECTIVE


Contractor’s Contractor Models Development:
Airworthiness Mockups Prove out assemblies, components, and
Qualification Components the total air vehicle
Tests (AQT) Subsystems Qualification:
Allied Equipment Determine design limits and flight
Prototype System envelope
Demonstration of adequacy of air veh i-
cle to function safely within flight enve-
lope
Preliminary Materiel Developer Prototype System Verification of flight envelope and pre-
Airworthiness (TACOM) liminary contract compliance
Evaluation Provide quantitative and qualitative flight
test data
Detection of deficiencies and
evaluation of corrections
Provide preliminary operational use data
Airworthiness Materiel Developer Prototype System Final verification of flight envelope and
and Flight (TACOM) contract compliance
Characteristics Achievement of applicable military
specifications
Detailed stability, performance, and
handling characteristics
Operational characteristics for
technical manuals
Adequacy of the system, subsystems, and
allied equipment under extreme
environmental conditions
Endurance Contractor Prototype System Determination of endurance and
reliability of basic design
Determination of adequacy of design
changes to correct deficiencies r e-
vealed during prior tests
Operational Operational Evalu a- Prototype System Determination of the degree to which the
User Tests tion Command system meets the characteristics of the
requirements doc ument
Determination of inspection cycles
Development of operating and
maintenance costs
Determination of component service life
and quick change kits
Refinement of manpower, equipment,
skills, and training requirements

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

TABLE 2-2. SUMMARY OF TEMP TEST REQUIREMENTS--ALLIED EQUIPMENT

TEST TYPE TEST OBJECTIVES RELATION TO SYSTEM TEST


Engineering Determination of the inherent structural, Contractor development and airworthiness
Design Tests mechanical, electrical, and physical qualification tests
(EDT) properties
Determination of human and safety impli-
cations
Contractor Demonstration of performance against Contractor development and airworthiness quali
Demonstration contract specifications fication tests
(CD) Determination of human performance
requirements
Research and Determination that specifications of Preliminary airworthiness evaluation
Development development contract have been
Acceptance fulfilled
Tests (RDAT) Serves as basis for acceptance or rejec-
tion of prototypes
Developmental Determination of technical performance, Airworthiness and flight characteristic test
Tests reliability, maintainability, endurance,
and safety characteristics of the item
and its maintenance package
Determination of human factor implica-
tions of design and materials
Operational Determination of the military worth of Operational tests
Tests the item
Determination of the degree to which the
item meets the characteristics of the
requirements document

management, and documentation generation (AQS) and Their Contents”, provides a de-
of the AQP. tailed discussion of AQS requirements.

2-3 AIRWORTHINESS 2-4 SURVEY VERSUS


QUALIFICATION SPECIFICATION DEMONSTRATION TEST
(AQS) REQUIREMENTS
The Airworthiness Qualification Surveys and demonstrations are two
Specification defines the contractor’s obli- types of tests typically defined and required
gation to conduct specific analyses, reviews, in an AQS. The purpose of each is to estab-
tests, surveys, and demonstrations to fulfill lish system performance characteristics.
the requirements of the AQP. The function The difference is that surveys are performed
of the AQS is to establish the requirements to document physical characteristics or the
for test and evaluation of the system. In current performance status of the design,
turn, the data generated by the AQS re- whereas demonstrations establish whether or
quirements are the basis for issuance of air- not a system performs adequately against
worthiness releases and the Airworthiness stated requirements. Survey requirements
Qualification Substantiation Report should state clearly the intended purpose of
(AQSR). Appendix B, “The Elements of an the test and the expected use of the survey
Airworthiness Qualification Specification data. Demonstration requirements should

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15 AUG 96
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

define the pass-fail criteria against which the 2-4.1.2 Verification and Effect
system will be judged. Because of the sig- Verification and effect surveys are
nificant difference in the nature of surveys frequently conducted on modified systems
and demonstrations, the choice between the to determine the impact of the modification
two should be carefully weighed when es- and whether minimum performance charac-
tablishing the AQS requirements. teristics are still met. Such surveys are
usually partial samplings, not full and com-
2-4.1 SURVEYS prehensive tests. An example is to measure
A survey is the act of collecting in- baseline performance and any change in per-
formation, measuring, determining, and as- formance after a modification.
sembling data to define the characteristics or
capabilities of an item. A limited sampling 2-4.1.3 Survey for Analysis
of facts to indicate, extrapolate, or predict A survey for analysis is conducted to
what a complete collection of facts and collect data for analysis because there is no
analysis would reveal is also a survey. The practical method of directly measuring the
purpose of the survey is to determine the desired characteristic. A flight load survey
current state of the design with respect to is an example of a survey for analysis. The
established system performance require- survey provides data that may be compared
ments. The contractor’s obligation is to plan with design loads or stresses for flight con-
and conduct the test, to collect the data, and ditions in the maneuver spectrum defined for
to report the test results in accordance with the air vehicle. The load data may be used
the AQS. There is no obligation to correct to perform fatigue damage analysis and fa-
deficiencies by virtue of the survey require- tigue life calculations. The survey is correct
ments alone. A survey incurs an obligation and complete if valid data are acquired re-
to collect valid data but does not obligate gardless of the correlation with analytical
compliance with pass-fail criteria. Exam- results. The AQS may require the repeat of
ples of typical surveys are provided in Table certain surveys to support analytical re-
2-3. Three general categories of surveys are quirements when conditions
simple surveys, verification and effect sur- warrant. Such conditions may include
veys, and surveys for analysis. changes in the configuration or operating
conditions.
2-4.1.1 Simple Survey
A simple survey is a data collection 2-4.2 DEMONSTRATIONS
effort to establish baseline performance A demonstration is the act of proving
characteristics and the impact of the modifi- with measurements made during the actual
cation relative to this baseline. Simple sur- performance of the act or accepted analysis
veys are performed for specific reasons and that a requirement has been met. The dem-
collect limited amounts of data. The number onstrations are the proof required for ap-
of test runs and the amount of data collected proval of airworthiness qualification and the
are dependent upon the type of subsystem or basis for establishing safe operating limits
component being analyzed. A simple survey for rated, but not test rated, pilots in the ex-
would be a design support test to obtain en- pected operating environment. The obliga-
gineering design data. tion of the contractor is not only to conduct
the test and collect valid data but also to
meet contractually specified pass-fail
TABLE 2-3. EXAMPLES OF SYSTEM SURVEYS

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15 AUG 96
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION
Flight Load Loads data obtained throughout flight envelope for all critical components
Survey Provides data for preliminary estimate of fatigue lives
Determines whether resonant frequencies of critical components are tuned to the fre-
quencies of the primary exciting forces
Engine Vi- Flight and ground tests
bration Sur- Conducted to verify that engine vibrations do not exceed the allowable limit specified in the en-
vey gine model specification
Propulsion Flight and ground temperature monitoring
System Tem- Conducted to verify that engine(s) , engine accessories, engine fluids, airframe structure,
perature Sur- transmission system, gear brakes, heat exchangers, etc., do not exceed their allowable
vey temperature limits
Total System Flight and ground vibration monitoring
Vibration Conducted during accelerated and unaccelerated flight over the full range of the flight
Survey envelope and of the allowable rotor speeds
Provides data to substantiate compliance with vibratory comfort requirements and demonstrate air
vehicle is free from excessive vibrations affecting structural integrity or ability to perform its
mission
Crew Envi- Conducted to demonstrate compliance with new environmental requirements under all
ronment Sur- specified operating conditions and modes
vey Includes crew comfort considerations related to performance degradation and contamination
characteristics
Infrared (IR) Demonstrates that the IR signature is reduced to acceptable levels
Signature Documents its IR signature for use in countermeasure studies, tradeoffs, and require- ments
Survey

criteria per the AQS, system specification, air vehicle would be flown under specified
and statement of work. Inherent in that ob- conditions, data would be recorded, and a
ligation is that if initial demonstrations are determination would be made as to whether
unsuccessful, corrective actions must be the recorded vibration levels fall within the
implemented to eliminate the deficiencies, specified range of acceptability.
and the test must be fully or partially re-
peated, depending on circumstances. This 2-4.2.2 Action
cycle is referred to as “test, analyze, fix, Some specification requirements are
test”. It is important to state clearly the not quantitative in nature but require that a
contractual pass-fail and retest cycle criteria capability to perform a function be provided.
in the AQS to ensure that demonstration re- The adequacy of maintenance training and
quirements are fully delineated. procedures, as written in the manuals, is
demonstrated by having troops perform the
2-4.2.1 Testing procedures (by the book) on an actual air
Demonstration of system perform- vehicle. Qualitative maintainability re-
ance requirements may be accomplished by quirements are also demonstrated in this
direct measurement of a required character- manner. Demonstration of achievement of
istic. This method is appropriate for quanti- this requirement would be the accomplish-
tative requirements that are clearly measur- ment of the action or procedure under the
able. An example is demonstration of the specified conditions by a person or persons
achievement of specified vibration levels for representative—in terms of physical charac-
avionics equipment mounting points. The teristics, abilities, and training—of the crew
mounting points would be instrumented, the member populations.

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15 AUG 96
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

sure valid results. These factors are crucial


2-4.2.3 Analytical for both proper qualification assurance and
Some quantitative specification re- achieving qualification within schedule and
quirements either are not directly measur- cost.
able at all or are not directly measurable at a
specified design point or under a specified 2-5.1 PLANNING
set of conditions. An example of the first Preparing an Airworthiness Qualifi-
situation is the fatigue life of nonflight- cation Plan centers on test sequencing. An
critical components. It might be impractical AQP should account for test-analyze-fix-test
to attempt demonstrating the achievement of cycles and for the fact that test article and
such requirements through test because test facility availability may pace a program.
testing would be prohibitively long and be- Prudent test sequencing requires a progres-
cause failure could have catastrophic results. sive buildup of test objectives. Inappropri-
The alternative is to measure the loads and ate sequencing may increase program risk
stresses and compare them analytically with and lead to invalid results if configuration
the physical properties of the item to predict changes alter a critical performance charac-
fatigue life. An example of the second teristic. No specific sequence of analyses or
situation is the requirement to demonstrate tests for airworthiness qualification is given
the range performance requirements for a in this handbook because the definition and
target-sighting system under specified clima- scheduling of tests will be altered by new or
tological and atmospheric conditions. The novel features, by the risk to the perform-
specified conditions may seldom, if ever, ance of these features and equipment, by
occur concurrently, and waiting to test under economic considerations, and by delivery
those conditions would not be practicable. constraints.
The alternative is to make measurements at The contractor should propose a
conditions different from the specified schedule for the AQS that will result in a
conditions and to make the appropriate ad- logical sequence of analysis and test efforts
justments. In both situations analytical to minimize the risks. A minimum risk pro-
techniques must be used to determine the gram would require that all components be
achievement of requirements. It is essential well-developed prior to subsystem testing,
that the analytical technique used to demon- that critical subsystems be qualified prior to
strate requirements be validated. Also the total air vehicle system testing, and that all
AQS should specify the data collection ef- operational conditions for the air vehicle be
forts required to support the analysis. tested prior to first flight. Each of the test
phases would be preceded by sufficient
2-5 AIRWORTHINESS analyses to assure that design requirements
QUALIFICATION PROGRAM—TEST have been met and that successful comple-
MANAGEMENT tion of subsequent tests is probable. The
The successful conduct of an airwor- manufacture and assembly of preproduction
thiness qualification program requires both air vehicles should be undertaken concur-
flexible and vigilant control of the test pro- rently with the qualification program be-
gram. Flexibility allows for proper reaction cause this is practical and will prevent an
to unforeseen contingencies. Vigilance is unreasonably long and expensive program.
necessary to minimize the impact of unde- Given this discussion, certain mini-
sirable events through early detection and mum test precedence requirements normally
corrective action implementation and to en- apply. A test of the power and propulsion
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15 AUG 96
ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

system should be completed on the ground The extremely complex and interre-
prior to first flight. This test may be con- lated issues associated with the conduct of a
ducted with either a tied down air vehicle or development program require close coordi-
a simulated vehicle containing all required nation among numerous Government agen-
subsystems. In addition, the structural static cies. A Test Integration Working Group
test program should have demonstrated the should be established as a forum to effect
adequacy of the airframe for design limit coordination of and solve routine problems
loads. Included in this requirement is land- in the test and evaluation process. There are
ing gear drop testing. Further, sufficient members and associate participants. Also
component fatigue test data should be avail- there are many interface groups, such as the
able to assure that the service life of fatigue- Threat Coordinating Subgroup, Computer
critical components is adequate for initial Resources Working Group (CRWG), Man-
flight testing. power and Personnel Integration
Prior to initiation of ground tie-down (MANPRINT) Joint Working Group, Safety
test, the principal components of the drive Working Group, and Live-Fire Test and
system should have completed adequate Evaluation Working Group, that have a
testing including maximum rated torque and close tie with the TIWG. TIWG and the
speed and pertinent transient conditions. CRWG are described in the subparagraphs
Demonstration requirements for in- that follow.
dividual subsystems, as defined by pertinent
military specifications, may require an 2-5.2.1 Test Integration Working Group
analysis of system capability and perform- A TIWG is an integrated product
ance be submitted for approval together with team (See subpar. 4-6.9.) that is chartered to
appropriate subsystem drawings and de- structure the test and evaluation (T&E) pro-
scriptions prior to test initiation. Such gram and integrate the various T&E and
stipulations should not affect qualification milestone requirements. It is chaired by the
schedules. The analyses required are per- program manager or the materiel developer
formed during design of the system and (PM/MATDEV) and includes qualified rep-
must therefore be completed well in advance resentatives who have been entrusted to
of subsystem testing. speak for their parent organizations. The
The RFP for a specific model air purposes of a TIWG are to optimize the use
vehicle will typically indicate the number of of appropriate T&E expertise, instrumenta-
prototypes to be assigned to test and qualifi- tion, targets, facilities, simulations, and
cation programs. Should these RFP guide- models to implement test integration; to in-
lines not include specific assignments, such tegrate test requirements; to provide input to
as for structural testing, flying qualities and the PM/MATDEV to review and give pre-
flight performance testing, avionics and ar- liminary approval of the TEMP; to resolve
mament testing, the contractor should be cost and scheduling problems; and to ensure
required to define use of the assigned air T&E common goal planning, execution, and
vehicle in the proposed schedule. In addi- reporting. During the conduct of a devel-
tion to minimizing risk, proposal preparation opment program, the TIWG may conduct
for prototype use and test sequencing should risk assessments and may provide program
also consider cost and schedule impacts. modification recommendations because of
problem situations.
2-5.2 TEST INTEGRATION TIWG participants are selected to fill
the needs of the program they support. Gen-
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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

erally, the principal TIWG members are the


PM/MATDEV, the combat developer, the 2-5.2.2 Computer Resources Working
developmental and operational testers, the Group
developmental and operational independent The Computer Resources Working
evaluators, and a logistician. Other special- Group is established by the PM/MATDEV
ties that may be included as principal are a to assist in the management of system com-
trainer, a threat integrator, and a survivabil- puter resources. Membership of the CRWG
ity/lethality analyst. includes the PM/MATDEV, the combat de-
An associate member of a TIWG is a veloper, the developmental and operational
nonvoting member who provides a needed testers, the developmental independent
supportive role to address necessary T&E evaluator, the operational independent
requirements and to support subordinate evaluator, and the postdeployment software
working groups. The TIWG may require support activity. The function of the CRWG
subgroups to perform specialized tasks, de- is to review and resolve computer resource
fine the details of the T&E program, handle issues that may impact the acquisition, de-
the interfaces with other disciplines, prepare ployment, and support of a weapon system.
for testing, and develop supporting T&E Risks associated with computer resource de-
documentation. The TIWG will charter, as velopment are assessed, and recommenda-
necessary, a Reliability, Availability, and tions for program modifications to mitigate
Maintainability (RAM) Working Group those risks are activities of the CRWG.
(RAMWG) and a Supportability T&E Specifically, the objectives of the CRWG
Working Group (STEWG). The RAMWG are:
is co-chaired by the materiel developer and 1. To improve the acquisition man-
the combat developer to address RAM is- agement of computer resources in the sys-
sues, such as failure definition and scoring tem
criteria, RAM Rationale Annex, and data 2. To increase the visibility of com-
collection. Further details of this subgroup puter resources in the overall life cycle of
are contained in AR 702-3, Army Materiel the system
Systems Reliability, Availability, and Main- 3. To decrease the proliferation of
tainability, (Ref. 2). The STEWG is chaired unique computer resources in the Army in-
by the materiel developer’s Integrated Lo- ventory by requiring the use of standard
gistic Support (ILS) manager and coordi- hardware and portable software to the
nates the TIWG activities with the Inte- maximum extent possible
grated Logistic Support Management Team. 4. To promote the use of higher or-
Topics to be coordinated include support- der language (HOL), compilers, and other
ability test issues, test requirements, and lo- labor-saving and management of software
gistic demonstration requirements in the tools
TEMP. Further details of this subgroup are 5. To provide for early planning in
contained in AR 700-127, Integrated Logis- the development and test of the system to
tic Support, (Ref. 3). ensure compliance with policy, procedures,
Additional information regarding and plans and standards established for the
TIWG and test and evaluation is included in acquisition of computer resources
Department of the Army (DA) Pamphlet 6. To facilitate the preparation, re-
(PAM), Operational Testing and Evaluation view, and approval of a Computer Re-
Methodology and Procedures Guide, sources Management Plan (CRMP) for the
(Ref. 4). system
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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

7. To eliminate unnecessary redun- 2-5.4 GOVERNMENT PLANT


dancy in testing. Inherent in these functions ACTIVITY
is identification of the requirements for The Government plant activity func-
computer resource test facilities. tion is normally carried out by the Defense
Plant Representative Office (DPRO). The
2-5.3 TEST COORDINATOR DPRO is an extension of the procuring ac-
A test coordinator is a representative tivity located at the site of the contractor.
of the procuring activity who is located at a The authority of the DPRO is delegated by
test site—a Government or contractor test the procuring contracting officer (PCO) by
facility. The duties and responsibilities of making the DPRO the administrative con-
the test coordinator are tracting officer (ACO). This on-site repre-
1. To maintain liaison with the con- sentative of the procuring activity is respon-
tractor in order to determine start and com- sible for contract administration and quality
pletion dates and the duration of each test control and monitors the contractor to the
2. To develop and implement a pro- full extent of the capability of the DPRO.
cedure for rapid and timely witness or ob- Because it is impractical for the DPRO to
server notification of tests, cancellations, assemble engineering talent equal to the ex-
and rescheduling pertise available throughout the US Army
3. To design and distribute test- Materiel Command (AMC) commodity
witnessing forms commands, the DPRO relies heavily on the
4 . To provide witnesses or observers commodity commands for assistance. Engi-
with written data and information, such as neering data required to be developed and
plant procedures, and forms on which to re- submitted under the contract is submitted to
cord data and observations the procuring activity via the DPRO. The
5. To brief each witness or observer DPRO reviews the data submittals for com-
on the status of the test including preceding pleteness and for compliance with the appli-
and subsequent tests cable specifications and contractual re-
6. To forward completed witness quirement. The recent trend is toward re-
reports and comments to the procuring ac- duced Government oversight, which is to be
tivity replaced by more reliance on contractor
7. To witness or observe tests when verification of the completeness and accu-
an authorized witness or observer has not racy of submitted data. The program man-
been appointed or is absent. ager and the appropriate specialists should
review and approve the submitted data for
content and completeness.

2-5.5 TEST VERSUS SPECIFICATION


MATRICES
A useful method of portraying test
requirements is the test versus specification
matrix. One such matrix is the environ-
mental test method versus the specification.
Such matrices may be developed at the
component, subsystem, and system levels.
Another useful matrix shows the test proce-
dures and test reports cross-referenced to the
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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

AQS requirements. Also system perform- C provides a detailed discussion of the re-
ance specification requirements are cross- quirements for a contractor flight release.
referenced to the specific test procedures and
test reports, which substantiate the achieve- 2-5.7 AIRWORTHINESS RELEASES
ment of the requirement. Table 2-4, “Test An Airworthiness Release (AWR) is
vs Specification Matrix”, provides an ex- a technical document that provides interim
ample of the information to be included. operating and maintenance information nec-
essary for safe flight operation of an air ve-
2-5.6 CONTRACTOR FLIGHT hicle system, subsystem, and allied equip-
RELEASES ment. The significant difference between a
A Contractor Flight Release (CFR) is flight release for industry and an Airworthi-
a technical document and transmittal letter ness Release for Government operation of
signed by the appropriate PCO authorizing an Army air item is that of safety assurance.
an element of industry to operate an Army When an AWR is issued, the air vehicle is
air vehicle of an approved configuration known to be safe based on analyses, dem-
within prescribed limitations by using es- onstration of air vehicle and equipment, and
tablished procedures. The purpose of a CFR demonstration of limitations, or a determi-
is to control to a reasonable level the risk to nation has been made that the remaining
Government assets and the amount of liabil- risks are acceptable. An AWR is required
ity. A CFR is used when the Government prior to operation of a new air vehicle sys-
holds ground and flight risk and a contractor tem or a fielded air vehicle system that has
pilot is the pilot-in-command. When a CFR undergone a major modification. Also an
is issued, the air vehicle is believed to be AWR is required prior to operation of an air
safe, and it is believed that no undue risk is vehicle with Federal Aviation Administra-
being taken on the part of the flight crew, tion (FAA), US Air Force (USAF), National
the contractor’s management, or the Gov- Aeronautics and Space Administration
ernment. A CFR is usually required for ini- (NASA), or US Navy (USN) airworthiness
tial ground and flight testing, i.e., prior to approval if the air vehicle has been modified
initial engine run-up, rotors turning, ground without certifying agency approval. Finally,
resonance testing, etc., provided that the air an AWR is required anytime an Army pilot
vehicle and property are not covered by a is going to be the pilot-in-command of a
separate lease agreement. CFRs are not in- nonstandard configured air vehicle or an air
tended to be controlling configuration man- vehicle that has not been issued a Statement
agement documents, although they are re- of Airworthiness Qualification (SAQ). The
lated to approved configurations. As de- SAQ may be issued temporarily as an in-
scribed in AR 95-20, Volume 2, Govern- terim SAQ after qualification is essentially
ment Flight Representative Guidance, complete but pending final documentation
(Ref. 5), the Government Flight Representa- approval.
tive (GFR) is responsible for the surveil- Appendix D provides a detailed dis-
lance of all contractor flight operations in- cussion of the elements of an Airworthiness
volving Government air vehicles and other Release.
air vehicles for which the Government is
assuming some of the risk of loss or dam-
age. The GFR approves flight crew mem-
bers, qualification training, and the contrac-
tor’s flight operations procedures. Appendix
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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

TABLE 2-4. TEST VS SPECIFICATION MATRIX

SYSTEM TEST, SURVEY, AND PIDS


SPECIFICATION DEMONSTRATION SOW AQS DOCUMENT
PARAGRAPH REQUIREMENTS WBS PARAGRAPH PARAGRAPH NUMBER REMARKS
3.2.7.2.1 Shake Test 3322 C.3.14.B 2.8.5.2.4.1 N/A Requires MMA mass model dummy. IAW Section 5.1 of ADS-27.
3.2.7.2.2 ADS-1 IAW Ground Test Plan. Document Number MSIP000050-205,
3.2.11.5.1 Rev. B, Appendix N
3.2.7.2.1 Flight Vibration Survey 5321 C.3.19.A 3.8.5.2.4.2 N/A ADS-1, Section 4.0 of ADS-27
3.2.7.2.2 5333
3.2.1.1.5
3.2.11.5.1
3.2.7.1, 3.7.15 and Crew Environmental Survey 511A C.3.1.6 3.8.5.2.3 DRC-P-H101890 For additional information see ADS-1, ADS-9, and ADS-27. Also see
sub 5322 C.3.13.B MSIP00050-212P, MSIP000050-205, Rev. B, Appendix T.
5331 C.3.14.A
5334 C.3.14.D
534 C.3.15
3.7.15.4 Environmental Control Sys- 511A C.3.1.G 3.8.5.2.5 DRC-P-H101930
3.7.15.4.1 tem Test 5333 C.3.14.C 3.8.5.2.B
3.7.15.4.2
3.7.15.4 ECS Demonstration 511A C.3.1.G 3.8.5.3.8 DRC-P-H100030A LRU loss of cooling air aircraft IAW design curve
5332 DRC-P-H101930
5333
3.7.8.3 IPAS Demonstration 511A C.3.1.F 3.8.5.3.5 DRC-P-H100330A
3.7.8.3.2 5117 C.3.14.B 3.8.5.8.6 DRC-P-H101930
3.7.8.3.9 5332 C.3.14.C
5333
3.7.12 through Armament Fire Control and 5331 C.3.14.A 3.8.5.2.4 DRC-P-H106000A Survey with Hellfire missile, folding fin aerial rockets, and turreted
3.7.12.7 System Survey 5333 C.3.14.C DRC-P-H400030A gun.
53334 C.3.15
534
3.7.6.2 Flight Controls Handling 5333 C.3.14.C 2.8.5.2.8 DRC-P-H1000SQA Aircraft only, no FCR LRUs required
Qualities System Survey DRC-P-H1032SQA
3.7.10 to 3.7.11 Communications Subsystem 513 C.3.2 3.8.5.2.9 DRC-P-H300730A Survey as needed to characterize fully antenna subsystem perform-
Survey 5322 C.3.10.D ance.
5332 C.3.13.B
5333 C.3.14.B
C.3.14.C
3.7.10 to 3.7.11 Communications Subsystems 513 C.3.2 3.8.5.3.10 DRC-P-H300730A
Demonstration 5322 C.3.13.B
5332 C.3.14.B
5333 C.3.14.C

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

WBS = Work Breakdown Structure SOW = Statement of Work AQS = Airworthiness Qualification Specification PIDS = Prime Item Development Specifi-
cation

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

2-6 REQUIREMENTS TAILORING similar qualification, e.g., Federal Aviation


The subparagraphs that follow dis- Administration or foreign agency certifica-
cuss requirements tailoring concepts appli- tion. The questions to be answered are then
cable to design, development, and airworthi- 1. How similar are the qualification
ness qualification. The primary benefits of conditions to the new intended use of the
tailoring are the reduction in time and funds system (technical relevance)?
required for development and qualification. 2. What consequences result from
not performing certain qualification efforts
2-6.1 GENERAL PHILOSOPHY (risk assessment)?
“Tailoring” describes the selective 3. What are the cost and schedule
application of standards and specifications in requirements associated with the qualifica-
the design and development process. Selec- tion effort (resources)?
tive application includes use of only a por-
tion of the standard or specification, modifi- 2-6.2.1 Technical Relevance
cations of the standard or specification, or Technical relevance deals with the
use of an alternative standard or specifica- degree to which a specification requirement
tion. To ensure the suitability of an item or is applicable to the situation under consid-
process for a specific application and to es- eration. For example, a general specifica-
tablish feasible, cost-effective design re- tion requirement for new equipment may
quirements, all design attributes should be deal with conditions that may not be encoun-
considered. Tailoring is a method of con- tered by a limited use system. The require-
trolling the extent to which the specification ment could be modified or tailored on the
dictates design detail, which can inhibit in- basis of technical relevance. For modified
novation. The degree of tailoring is a func- equipment the requirement to comply fully
tion of the type of development. For a major with current standards may be waived
or minor new development program, tailor- (tailored) because these standards were not
ing may be minimal. For nondevelopmental in force at the time of the original design.
items or modification programs, tailoring Secondary and indirect effects must also be
could be extensive to take into account the considered. If, for example, it is decided to
previous qualification efforts and demon- tailor the requirement to delete shipboard
strated use. Tailoring may be applied to the compatibility because it is not currently
level (component, subsystem, or system) for applicable, it may later be necessary to pro-
which specific testing will be required. vide that capability due to changing circum-
Tailoring may also be applied to the extent stances in the future use of the system. Ac-
of data and documentation required to be cordingly, the design may be required to be
furnished to the Government as well as to compatible, but testing and qualification
the ownership of the design and data. may be deleted for the present program.

2-6.2 CONSIDERATIONS 2-6.2.2 Assessment of Risk


There are three primary considera- Whenever a tailoring decision is un-
tions that enter into all tailoring decisions. der consideration, there is a risk that the de-
These are technical relevance, assessment of cision may ultimately have a negative im-
risk, and resource requirements. An appli- pact. The decision maker’s judgment as to
cation of these considerations would be the the probability of occurrence of the undesir-
need for additional airworthiness qualifica- able event along with the impact (severity)
tion for an item that has already undergone of the event combine to form an assessment
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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

of risk. This technique of combining sever- seek to ensure that air vehicles operated un-
ity and probability is discussed further in der their cognizance are safe. They differ in
Chapter 3. A factor that enters into assess- that they serve different needs. In addition
ing severity is the ease with which corrective to safety the military agencies concern
actions for the undesirable event can be im- themselves with the military utility and ef-
plemented. Obviously, easy fixes have low fectiveness required by the various services.
severity. The amount of tailoring a decision AR 70-62, Research and Development Air-
maker allows should be related to the prob- worthiness Qualification of US Army Air-
ability and severity of risk. As the risk in- craft Systems, (Ref. 6) documents policy for
creases, the amount of allowed tailoring of airworthiness qualification of air vehicle
standards and specifications should de- systems, subsystems, and allied equipment
crease. undergoing development and for major
modifications to standard and nonstandard
2-6.2.3 Resources air vehicles. It also implements policy for
Achievement of full specification or issuance of airworthiness releases for flight
standard compliance may require an inordi- performance and operational flight evalua-
nate amount of resources. When a require- tion testing of domestic and foreign-made
ment is tailored on the basis of resource re- commercial air vehicles with potential mili-
quirements, it is necessary to determine the tary application, modified surrogate air ve-
value of the effort by means of economic hicles, and foreign military air vehicles.
analysis that considers the cost of test
specimens, facilities, and conducting tests. 2-7.1 CIVIL AGENCIES
This value must be compared with the cost The FAA or NASA certification
and benefit of other program activities to would be adopted for systems whose exist-
ensure that activity priorities are still valid. ing performance limits are similar in nature
Requirement specifications and standards to the military requirements because the air
are not generally tailored because of pro- vehicle was designed for a similar intended
gram funding constraints alone. However, use. Some Army rotorcraft were certified
tradeoffs should provide the most cost- under 14 CFR, Part 27, Airworthiness Stan-
effective system that meets the overall sys- dards: Normal Category Rotorcraft, (Ref.
tem performance requirements. If it is de- 7). Other aircraft were certified under 14
termined that tailoring to reduce cost by re- CFR, Part 23, Airworthiness Standards:
ducing resources is not prudent, the impact Normal Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter
of requesting additional funds or resources Category Airplanes, (Ref. 8) or 14 CFR,
must be assessed against negative impacts Part 25, Airworthiness Standards: Transport
on program viability if preestablished Category Airplanes, (Ref. 9). The extent to
thresholds would be breached. which the intended military use differs from
the previous certified flight envelope and
2-7 OTHER AIRWORTHINESS environment dictates the extent of partial or
CRITERIA ADOPTION complete requalification necessary.
In addition to the US Army, the US
Air Force, the US Navy, the Federal Avia-
tion Administration, and the National Aero-
nautics and Space Administration also pro-
vide airworthiness qualification and certifi-
cation. Their criteria are similar in that they
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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

TABLE 2-5. SELECTED FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS

PART TITLE APPLICATION


1 Definitions and Abbreviations General definition of terms
21 Certification Procedures for Products and Procedural requirements for type certificates,
Parts materials, parts, and processes
23 Airworthiness Standards: Normal, Utility, Performance, flight characteristics, controllability and
and Acrobatic Category Airplanes maneuverability, and stability
25 Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Performance, flight characteristics, controllability and
Airplanes maneuverability, and stability
27 Airworthiness Standards: Normal Category Performance, flight characteristics, controllability and
Rotorcraft maneuverability, and stability
29 Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Performance, flight characteristics, controllability and
Rotorcraft maneuverability, and stability
33 Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines Reciprocating and turbine engine design,
construction, durability, and safety
35 Airworthiness Standards: Propellers Propeller design, construction, and test
39 Airworthiness Directives Reporting of unsafe conditions in parts or products
91 General Operating Flight Rules Rules governing aircraft operations within the
United States
125 Certification and Operations: Airplanes Hav- Certification procedures, crew requirements,
ing a Seating Capacity of 20 or More Pas- and flight operations rules
sengers or a Maximum Payload Capacity of
6000 Pounds or More
133 Rotorcraft External--Load Operations Operation and certification rules for aircraft with
external loads in the United States

Table 2-5 presents those air vehicle charac- 2-7.3 FOREIGN


teristics that could be adopted based on FAA The circumstances under which for-
certification. It should be noted that the eign certification would be adopted are those
FAA, because it is a regulatory agency, cer- for systems similar enough in nature and
tifies to a minimum level of safety and does intended use and for which there exists a
not qualify performance utility for any in- foreign agency approval recognized by a US
tended use. Also FAA regulations are not agency or a US international agreement.
generally retroactive. Again, the extent to which the intended
military use and previous certification ef-
2-7.2 MILITARY forts differ dictates the extent of partial or
The circumstances under which other complete requalification necessary. The
US military certification would be adopted discussions of par. 2-6, “Tailoring”, apply
are those for systems similar enough in na- here.
ture and intended use. The extent to which
the intended US Army military use and 2-8 AIRWORTHINESS
previous certification efforts differ dictates QUALIFICATION SUBSTANTIATION
the extent of partial or complete requalifica- REPORT (AQSR)
tion necessary. The discussions of par. 2-6, An Airworthiness Qualification
“Tailoring”, apply here. Substantiation Report is prepared and pub-
lished upon successful completion of the
airworthiness qualification program. The
AQSR is the final report summarizing the

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

results of the airworthiness qualification ef- cation Standard A, if applicable, and nor-
fort and detailing specification compliance. mally completes the airworthiness qualifica-
Its purpose is to provide a single document tion program. The SAQ contains a descrip-
to trace the airworthiness qualification deci- tion of the configuration of the air vehicle,
sion. The report should be revised as needed operating instructions and procedures, limi-
to document subsequent modifications and tations and restrictions, and requirements for
airworthiness decisions. sustaining airworthiness. Appendix E con-
tains a detailed discussion of the SAQ.
2-8.1 VOLUME I—AIRWORTHINESS
QUALIFICATION FINAL REPORT
Volume I of the AQSR, Airworthi-
ness Qualification Final Report, summarizes
the qualification program and system per-
formance limits. It provides a description of
the air vehicle, a description of the airwor-
thiness qualification program including pro-
gram schedule and test program summary, a
structural demonstration summary, compo-
nent lives, operating restrictions, and a
qualification data summary and index for
both contractor data and Government data.
Appendix F, subpar. F-2.1, provides a de-
tailed discussion of the first volume of the
AQSR.

2-8.2 VOLUME II—SPECIFICATION


COMPLIANCE BY PARAGRAPH
Volume II of the AQSR, Specifica-
tion Compliance by Paragraph, documents
each system performance specification re-
sult. It provides a paragraph compliance list
with a reference to the proof of compliance.
Appendix F, subpar. F-2.2, provides a de-
tailed discussion of the second volume of
the AQSR.

2-9 STATEMENT OF
AIRWORTHINESS QUALIFICATION
(SAQ)
A Statement of Airworthiness
Qualification is a final AWR that is issued in
conjunction with the AQSR. The statement
is based on the final results of engineering
tests conducted on the air vehicle and its
subsystems or allied equipment. Issuance of
this statement coincides with type classifi-
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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

REFERENCES

1. DODR 5000.2-R, Mandatory Procedures for Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs) and
Major Automated Information Systems (MAIS) Acquisition Program, 15 March 1996.

2. AR 702-3, Army Material Systems Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability,


1 May 1982.

3. AR 700-127, Integrated Logistic Support, 16 December 1986.

4. DA PAM 73-1, Operational Testing and Evaluation Methodology and Procedures Guide, 15
October 1979.

5. AR 95-20, Contractor’s Flight Operations, 3 April 1979.

6. AR 70-62, Airworthiness Qualification of US Army Aircraft Systems, 15 July 1978.

7. 14 CFR, Part 27, Airworthiness Standards: Normal Category Rotorcraft, US Government


Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1 January 1994.

8. 14 CFR, Part 23, Airworthiness Standards: Normal Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter Cate-
gory Airplanes, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1 January 1994.

9. 14 CFR, Part 25, Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Airplanes, US Government


Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1 January 1994.

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

CHAPTER 3
SYSTEM SAFETY

This chapter presents the system safety aspects of air vehicle qualification. Top-
ics include the system safety process, safety and hazard analysis, and flight safety parts.
In addition, requirements are presented for the System Safety Program, System Safety
Management Plan, and System Safety Program Plan.

3-1 INTRODUCTION iterative manner as the program pro-


System safety is defined as “The gresses.
application of engineering and manage-
ment principles, criteria, and techniques 3-2 OBJECTIVES
to optimize safety within the constraints The objectives of an SSP are to
of operational effectiveness, time, and ensure that
cost throughout all phases of a system 1. Safety, consistent with mis-
life cycle.”, MIL-STD-882, System sion requirements, is designed into the
Safety Program Requirements, (Ref. 1). system in a timely, cost-effective man-
A System Safety Program (SSP) ner.
is a formal approach to elimination of 2. Hazards associated with each
hazards through engineering design and system are identified, evaluated, and
analysis, management, and supervisory eliminated, or the associated risk is re-
control of conditions and practices. The duced to a level acceptable to the manag-
SSP encompasses the accomplishment of ing activity (MA) throughout the entire
system safety management, research, life cycle of a system. Risk should be
and engineering tasks and is an essential described in risk assessment terms.
element of the airworthiness qualifica- 3. Historical safety data, includ-
tion of the system. ing lessons learned from other systems,
Typical air vehicle system safety are considered and used.
tasks during the development process are 4. Minimum risk is sought in
depicted in Fig. 3-1. Milestones or accepting and using new designs, mate-
checkpoints for system safety within the rials, and production and test techniques.
development process should be estab- 5. Actions taken to eliminate
lished at the outset of an air vehicle de- hazards or reduce risk to a level accept-
velopment program. Typical milestone able to the MA are documented.
tasks delineated in MIL-STD-882 6. Retrofit actions required to
(Ref.1) are shown in Fig. 3-1 opposite improve safety are minimized through
the equivalent tasks in the air vehicle the timely inclusion of safety features
development process. (These milestones during research and development and
are considered only typical and not nec- acquisition of a system.
essarily complete in number.) The sys- 7. Changes in design, configura-
tem safety activity starts early in the tion, or mission requirements are ac-
conceptual stage of air vehicle design complished in a manner that maintains a
and continues throughout the entire risk level acceptable to the MA.
process. The system safety process de-
scribed in this chapter is applied in an

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8. Consideration is given to
safety, ease of disposal, and demilitari- 3-3.2 SYSTEM DELINEATION
zation of any hazardous materials asso- (BLOCK B)
ciated with the system. The boundaries of the system
9. Significant safety data are under consideration and its constituent
documented as “lessons learned” and are elements are defined clearly as early as
submitted to data banks as proposed possible and revised as required during
changes to applicable design handbooks the system life cycle. Such delineation
and specifications. (Ref. 2) establishes the limits for succeeding
steps in the process and reduces complex
3-3 SYSTEM SAFETY PROCESS systems to manageable parts. Any entity
The system safety process is can be labeled a “system” provided it is
shown graphically in Fig. 3-2 and de- accurately defined.
scribed in the subparagraphs that follow.
This process shows a logical approach to 3-3.3 IDENTIFICATION OF
attaining the system safety objectives in FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS
par. 3-2. The process is repeated as nec- (BLOCK C)
essary in an iterative fashion at every Flight safety parts are parts
level of complexity in the design of a whose failure or malfunction could result
system until the requisite assurance of in an unsafe condition. The handling of
the system hazard level is attained. An flight safety parts is discussed in
integral part of the system safety process par. 3-13.
is hazard tracking, which is a closed loop
system used to identify, monitor, and 3-3.4 SYSTEM HAZARD
eliminate hazards. Hazard tracking is ANALYSIS (BLOCK D)
developed early in the system safety The heart of system safety is the
process and is used throughout the proc- analysis of a system and its elements in a
ess to document and track hazards and methodical manner. Beginning with
the progress made toward resolution of preliminary hazard analyses of design
the associated risk. concepts and continuing through an in-
tegrated hazard analysis of the complete
3-3.1 KNOWN PRECEDENT system, this analytical process distin-
(BLOCK A, FIG. 3-2) guishes system safety from other sepa-
From the beginning a System rate, but closely interfacing, disciplines.
Safety Program should be based on the The contractor should select the meth-
experience and knowledge gained from odology and techniques for hazard
previous operations in correcting design analysis best suited for the particular
deficiencies that have resulted in the ac- system element under consideration and
cidental loss of or damage to materiel or for the applicable level of detail design.
injuries or death to personnel. Those
design features categorized previously as
having hazards are also identified, and
the hazards corrected if required. It is
essential that designers of future air ve-
hicles benefit from all previous experi-
ence that affects safe operation.

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A Known Precedent
(Safety Experience
and Knowledge)

System
B Delineation

Identification of
C Flight Safety Parts

D System Hazard Analysis

E
(Iteration)

Hazard Identification

(As Required)
Hazard Categorization
F and Evaluation

Action(s) to Eliminate
G or Control Hazards

H Modification of
System Element(s)
(Within Program Conastraints) Accident or Incident
Analysis
J
Efectiveness Evaluation
I of Action Taken

K
L Increased Safety Assurance Component and/or System
Test and Demonstration

M Airworthiness Qualification

Figure 3-2 System Safety Process

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3-3.5 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION 3-3.7 ACTION(S) TO ELIMINATE


(BLOCK E) OR CONTROL HAZARD(S)
By using systematic hazard (BLOCK G)
analyses, the design engineer identifies The system safety process pro-
those features of a system that poten- duces no useful result until some action
tially may cause damage, loss, or injury. is taken to eliminate or control identified
Such identification assists the designer hazards. The effect of alternative
in his or her initial efforts by calling at- courses of action in the design process
tention to undesirable features or defi- and tradeoff studies to eliminate or con-
ciencies that can be either eliminated or trol identified hazards should be consid-
controlled efficiently early in the design ered. Thus management is presented
process. As the design proceeds, addi- with a tool with which decisions can be
tional hazards are identified through the made based on other program con-
system safety process. straints.

3-3.6 HAZARD 3-3.8 MODIFICATION OF SYSTEM


CATEGORIZATION AND ELEMENTS (BLOCK H)
EVALUATION (BLOCK F) Any action taken in Block G
It is impractical to eliminate all necessarily results in the modification of
hazards identified in a system. The ap- some element or elements of the air ve-
propriate action to be taken as a result of hicle system. As a result, the delineation
hazard identification depends on how of the system (Block B) should be re-
often the hazard occurs, i.e., frequency, vised accordingly. The system safety
and the impact of the consequences that process is then repeated as required until
result from the hazard occurring, i.e., no unacceptable additional hazards are
severity. The factors of hazard fre- generated by the system modification.
quency and severity establish the resid- This step ensures that a new hazard is
ual risk of the system. Categorization of not inadvertently introduced into the
hazards according to criteria specified by system while another hazard is being
the procuring activity serves to guide eliminated.
corrective action based upon assessment
of the potential residual risk. Evaluation 3-3.9 EFFECTIVENESS
of identified hazards and hazard risk EVALUATION OF ACTION TAKEN
management require relating a hazard to (BLOCK I)
its impact on mission effectiveness, sys- Actions taken to correct hazards
tem performance, and program success. as a result of the system safety process
This categorization and evaluation are are evaluated on how effectively they
essential parts of the decision-making achieve the system safety objective. A
process to determine appropriate correc- satisfactory evaluation results in in-
tive action. creased assurance in the level of safety
of the system (Block L).

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3-3.10 ACCIDENT OR INCIDENT scribed in the Airworthiness Qualifica-


ANALYSIS (BLOCK J) tion Specification (AQS).
The occurrence of an accident or
incident of course leads to an unsatisfac- 3-4 ANALYTICAL
tory evaluation. The analysis of such an METHODOLOGIES AND
accident or incident experience should TECHNIQUES
reveal any deficiencies in the conduct of Hazard analysis is the heart of
the system safety program and direct the system safety process and requires
corrective action to the appropriate step inductive thought as well as deductive
in the process. reasoning. An analysis may be either
qualitative or quantitative. A qualitative
3-3.11 COMPONENT AND/OR analysis is generally conducted first to
SYSTEM TEST AND provide a departure point for the quanti-
DEMONSTRATION (BLOCK K) tative analysis. A qualitative analysis
Analytical techniques alone are examines events to determine the possi-
not sufficient to identify system hazards ble existence of hazards, the accidents
adequately, and this inadequacy is de- that could result, possible effects, and
termined in Block I. Tests and demon- safeguards. A quantitative analysis
strations normally conducted as part of permits comparison of the changes in
an air vehicle development program are probabilities if safeguards or alternative
planned and conducted to reveal such designs are used in the system. Results
inadequacies. In addition, these tests of quantitative analysis may be probabil-
and demonstrations serve to verify the istic or relativistic, i.e., using compari-
results of the system safety process and sons based on judgment.
to contribute to the assurance desired. The ultimate purpose of hazard
Should system testing reveal additional analysis is to aid management in reach-
problems, corrective action is applied at ing the determination that the objectives
the appropriate step in the process. discussed in par. 3-2 have been achieved
within the constraints of the particular
3-3.12 INCREASED SAFETY air vehicle development program. In
ASSURANCE (BLOCK L) addition, these analyses form a baseline
The assurance that the objectives which can be evaluated objectively by
of system safety are being met is cumu- someone other than a system safety
latively increased as the program pro- analyst to measure the effective influ-
gresses and contributes increased knowl- ence of subsequent design changes.
edge to subsequent cycles of the process There are several types of widely
(Block A). used analyses for system safety. Selec-
tion of the analytical methodology or
3-3.13 AIRWORTHINESS technique to be used in a given program
QUALIFICATION (BLOCK M) is the responsibility of the contractor and
Ultimately, the system safety depends upon the level of detail required
process results in data and information by program phases, requirements for
that serve as an essential element of air- qualitative and quantitative results, and
worthiness qualification. The methods the particular capabilities developed by
and procedures to be followed are pre- the contractor. Methodology selection
should maximize use of the design detail

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available at the particular phase of the The system safety analyst must
program to ensure the analysis is as also be aware of those conditions that
comprehensive as possible, and is thor- have been proven by past experience to
ough and accurate. MIL-STD-882 (Ref. be hazardous for air vehicles. The con-
1) should be used as a guide for analy- sideration of hazards must not be limited
ses, methods, and techniques. Also to those conditions involving only hard-
MIL-HDBK-764, System Safety Design ware. Software is an important consid-
Guide for Army Materiel, (Ref. 2) may eration. Also the interactions of air ve-
be used as a guide. hicles with personnel who operate and
MIL-HDBK-764 describes tech- maintain them and those between per-
niques of analysis such as fault hazard sonnel and the environment in which the
analysis (FHA), fault tree analysis air vehicles are used provide potentially
(FTA), sneak circuit analysis (SCA), and hazardous conditions, which should be
failure, modes, effects, and criticality considered during design. Some exam-
analysis (FMECA) that have value for ples of possible interrelationships that
hazard analysis. In addition, Ref. 2 could lead to hazards are the height of
identifies analysis techniques, such as the main rotor above the ground and the
circuit logic analysis, interface analysis, location of the pilot with respect to the
mapping, Monte Carlo simulation, con- rotor path.
tingency analysis, environmental factors
analysis, critical incident technique, and 3-6 CLASSIFICATION OF
mock-ups, that can be used to support HAZARDS
these analyses. Since it is impossible to elimi-
nate or control all hazards, they are
3-5 KNOWLEDGE OF HAZARDS usually ranked by degree of severity, i.e.,
The system safety analyst should consequences in operation of the air ve-
have a thorough knowledge not only of hicle. Four hazard levels ranging from
air vehicle engineering but also of haz- negligible to catastrophic are defined and
ardous conditions. established in MIL-STD-882. These are
For example, major rotorcraft listed in Table 3-1 along with their effect
configurations—such as the type of ro- on personnel safety, examples of func-
tor, e.g., articulated or bearingless, the tional hazards, and definitions. Table 3-
method of directional control, and the 2 provides MIL-STD-882 probability
control system concept—have inherent levels along with an example of quanti-
safety implications. The tradeoffs used tative probabilities. Quantitative prob-
to reach a decision regarding these con- abilities should be developed for each
figurations should include system safety weapon system to meet specific program
considerations. In addition, hazards are requirements. For any given hazard a
more likely to be present at interfaces degree of severity and probability of oc-
between subsystems than within a single currence may be assigned. Table 3-3
subsystem. Some examples of possible shows how those two aspects of a hazard
interfaces that could lead to hazards are may be combined to arrive at a risk
fuel system to engine fuel lines, clear-
ance between components, and connec-
tors that can be improperly installed.
TABLE 3-1. HAZARD SEVERITY CATEGORIES

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EXAMPLES OF
FUNCTIONAL EFFECT ON
DESCRIPTION CATEGORY HAZARDS PERSONNEL DEFINITIONS
CATASTROPHIC I System nonfunctional; not Personnel suffer death or Death, system loss, or
economically salvageable. serious or multiple injuries severe environmental
Total loss. precluding return to current damage.
duties.
CRITICAL II Major subsystem(s) no n- Personnel suffer serious or Severe injury, severe
functional. Hazard requires multiple injuries requiring occupational illness,
immediate corrective a ction. extended rehabilitation major system or env i-
before return to current ronmental da mage.
duties.
MARGINAL III Flyable aircraft; mission Personnel suffer injury Minor injury, minor
equipment or one of redu n- requiring short-term rec u- occupational illness, or
dant subsystems nonfun c- peration before return to minor system or env i-
tional. Hazard can be cou n- current duties. ronmental da mage.
teracted or controlled.
NEGLIGIBLE IV Mission capable with minor Personnel suffer minor Less than minor i n-
performance loss or no injury that does not interrupt jury, occupational
immediate effect. Deferrable current duties. illness, or less than
mai ntenance. minor system or env i-
ronmental da mage.

TABLE 3-2. HAZARD PROBABILITY

EXAMPLE: MEAN
OPERATING EXAMPLE: EXPECTED
GENERIC DEFINITION HOURS NUMBER OF OCCURRENCES
DESCRIPTION LEVEL (MIL-STD-882) BETWEEN PER 100,000 FLIGHT HOURS
OCCURRENCES
FREQUENT A Likely to occur frequently < 10 > 10,000
PROBABLE B Will occur several times in life 10 - 100 1000 - 10,000
of item
OCCASIONAL C Likely to occur sometime 100 - 1000 100 - 1000
during life of item
REMOTE D Unlikely but possible to occur 1000 - 10,000 10 - 100
in life of item
IMPROBABLE E So unlikely, it can be assumed > 10,000 < 10
occurrence may not be exper i-
enced

severity category. The table also shows ard. For an Aviation-Program-


that for each risk severity category, a Executive-Office (PEO) (Table 3-3(B))-
level of Army management authority has developed system, the Army Acquisition
been assigned to accept the residual risk Executive (AAE) or his designee would
associated with the particular hazard in be the management authority level for
question. For example, a risk whose acceptance of a “HIGH”-risk hazard.
hazard severity is judged to be “critical” Similarly, for a hazard whose severity is
and whose hazard probability is considered “negligible” and whose haz-
“probable” would have a risk severity ard probability is frequent, the corre-
category of “HIGH” associated with it. sponding hazard risk assessment is
For an Army Materiel Command “LOW”. The program manager or
(AMC)- Aviation (Table 3-3(A))- equivalent is the management authority
developed system, the Commander for the acceptance of a “LOW” risk.
AMC would be the management author-
ity for acceptance of a “HIGH”-risk haz-

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TABLE 3-3. RISK SEVERITY CATEGORY MATRIX

(A) ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND -AVIATION


SYSTEM SAFETY MANAGMENT DECISION AUTHORITY MATRIX
LEVEL DECISION
AUTHORITY HAZARD PROBABILITY
HIGH CG AMC
MEDIUM MSC CDR*
FREQUENT PROBABLE OCCASIONAL REMOTE IMPROBABLE
LOW PMs/ITEM
MGRs

SEVERITY A B C D E

CATASTROPHIC I

CRITICAL HIGH
II

MARGINAL III MEDIUM

NEGLIGIBLE LOW
IV

*CG AMC if PMs report directly to HQ AMC

(B) AVIATION PROGRAM EXECUTIVE OFFICE


TAILORED SYSTEM SAFETY MANAGEMENT DECISION AUTHORITY MATRIX
LEVEL DECISION
AUTHORITY HAZARD PROBABILITY
HIGH AAE or DESIGNEE
MEDIUM PEO or EQ
FREQUENT PROBABLE OCCASIONA REMOTE IMPROBABL
LOW PM or EQ L E

SEVERITY A B C D E

CATASTROPHIC I

CRITICAL HIGH
II

MARGINAL III MEDIUM

NEGLIGIBLE LOW
IV

CGAMC = Commanding General, US Army Materiel Command


MSC = major subordinate command
CDR = commander
PM = program manager
MGR = manager
PEO = program executive office
EQ = equivalent

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The decision authority matrix can be closely with the human factors engineer-
tailored upon authorization from the ing function.
“HIGH” risk hazard authority. Both ex- The final and least desirable
amples in Table 3-3 are tailored for choice is to prepare, disseminate, and
aviation. The tables are identical except enforce special operating procedures for
for the decision level authorities. an identified hazardous condition. How-
ever, these procedures are a weak link in
3-7 RESOLUTION OF HAZARDS achievement of system safety because of
Hazards are resolved through the inability to verify communication of
elimination or control. Documentation the procedure to the person who must
of actions is by means of substantiation operate in accordance with such proce-
of hazard resolution. These two aspects dures.
of system safety—hazard control and
substantiation—are addressed in the 3-7.2 SUBSTANTIATION OF
subparagraphs that follow. HAZARD RESOLUTION
Once each possible hazard has
3-7.1 CONTROL METHODS been analyzed for its significance and
MIL-STD-882 discusses methods resolution of the hazard is determined,
of resolving hazards. The first and most there is need for assurance that proper
desirable method is to eliminate an iden- corrective action has been taken. This
tified hazard by selection of a design in can be accomplished by inspections,
which the hazard does not appear. If additional analyses, and design reviews.
elimination of a hazard is impossible or Catastrophic, critical, and other identi-
uneconomical, the next step is to make fied hazards should not rely solely on
the design tolerant of the hazard. warnings, cautions, or procedures for
Three ways of making a design control of risk.
tolerant of identified hazards are stipu- A particular type of design re-
lated in MIL-STD-882 in descending view that can be effective for system
order of desirability. The first alterna- safety is an electronic mock-up review.
tive is to reduce the significance of the Functional mock-ups can also become an
hazard through the use of appropriate excellent method of identifying addi-
safety devices. Ideally, such devices tional potential hazards. Also an elec-
should not require human intervention tronic mock-up brings the subsystems
but should operate automatically if the together at an early stage, i.e., before in-
specified hazardous condition arises. terface problems become too expensive
The next choice is to place to change.
warning devices in the system to make Fig. 3-3, taken from MIL-
known to the crew the existence of a HDBK-764(MI) (Ref. 2), provides a
hazardous condition. These devices sample format for documenting the
would require human intervention to re- identification, risk assessment, and cor-
spond to the warning produced. Audio rective action for hazards. There are also
or visual indicators are commonly used automated hazard-tracking systems that
in these instances, but there is a limit to can serve this purpose.
the number of such devices that can be
effectively used in one system design.
Also such features must be coordinated

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The System Safety Risk Assess- provides a comprehensive evaluation of


ment (SSRA), as defined by Army the safety risk being assumed for a sys-
Regulation (AR) 385-16, System Safety tem. It contains identification of the
Engineering and Management, (Ref. 3), item or system, and for each re

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sidual hazard, a description of the hazard system safety risks associated with re-
and its severity and frequency, a source sidual hazards.
document or reference, alternative ac-
tions that could reduce the hazard level, 3-8.1 PURPOSE
and a recommendation from the project The purpose of the SSMP is to
office regarding risk acceptance. Addi- define formally the responsibilities and
tionally, the SSRA includes recommen- authorities related to the system safety
dations from the appropriate safety man- aspects of a program.
ager, the combat developer, and the ma-
teriel developer as to acceptability of the 3-8.2 CONTENTS
residual risk. Finally, the decision of the Typically, the SSMP defines the
appropriate acquisition manager is also internal management responsibilities of
recorded in the SSRA. the Government, schedule, and proce-
The Health Hazard Assessment dures for accomplishment of the system
(HHA) is performed by applying bio- safety management functions that fol-
medical and psychological knowledge low:
and principles to identify, evaluate, and 1. Coordinate and execute pro-
control the risk to the health and effec- cedures to assure appropriate interface
tiveness of personnel who test, use, or with other management functions, e.g.,
service the system. The results of the quality assurance, maintenance, research,
HHA should be included as an adden- and development.
dum to another required analysis report, 2. Establish an audit program to
such as the System Hazard Analysis Re- ensure that the objectives and require-
port. The HHA task and format should ments of system safety are attained.
not be confused with the Health Hazard 3. Perform liaison with other
Assessment Report (HHAR), which is agencies and commands as needed to
prepared by the Government using data attain system safety objectives.
provided by the HHA. 4. Ensure that enough competent
Fig. 3-4, taken from Ref. 4, persons are assigned to the system safety
shows a sample Safety and Health Data engineering and management programs
Sheet which might be used as part of the to assure proper implementation of sys-
internal control process of an organiza- tem safety.
tion to record health and safety actions. 5. Evaluate, as part of source
The Safety and Health Data Sheet along selection evaluation, the ability of the
with System Safety Risk Assessments contractor to include system safety as-
are also documentation requirements pects in the final product.
supporting the materiel release process. 6. Establish the policy and re-
quirements to develop system safety in
3-8 SYSTEM SAFETY sufficient detail to identify the safety and
MANAGEMENT PLAN health hazards of a system and to remove
The System Safety Management or control them.
Plan (SSMP) is a description of the 7. Prescribe procedures for man-
planned methods to be used by the Gov- agement participation in system risk ac-
ernment to monitor the contractor's sys- ceptance for residual hazards.
tem safety program and to manage the

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

Item/System identification: ________________________________ _______________________________

1. Safety Evaluation Letter/Reports: ________________________________ ____________________

a. Safety Assessment Report: ________________________________ _______________________

b. Safety Analyses/Studies: ________________________________ ________________________

c. Development Test(s): ________________________________ ___________________________

d. Operational Test(s): ________________________________ ____________________________

e. Production Test(s): ________________________________ _____________________________

2. Item does (does not) contain radioactive materials and (if it does) is properly licensed by
(NRC #______________________and/or DA Authorization #_______________________as appropriate).

3. Item does (does not) contain explosives/hazardous materials and (if it does) has the following

hazard classifications:a. Quantity-Distance Class: ________________________________ ______

b. Storage Compatibility Group: ________________________________ ____________________

c. DOT Class: ________________________________ ________________________________ ___

d. DOT Marking: ________________________________ ________________________________

e. Conveyor Spacing Distance: ________________________________ _____________________

4. Item does (does not) contain munitions. If it does:

a. Compatibility of the following weapon/ammunition components has been established:

________________________________ ________________________________ _______________

________________________________ ________________________________ _______________

________________________________ ________________________________ _______________

________________________________ ________________________________ _______________

b. Range safety data (for inclusion in AR 385-62 or AR 385-63) was (will be) finalized

(date) ________________________________ ________________________________ _________

Sample format, contractor format or program tailored format may be used.

Figure 3-4 Safety and Health Data Sheet (Ref. 4)

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8. Provide system safety data The purpose of the SSPP is to


for inclusion in requirements documents. provide a basis of understanding be-
9. Review and approve System tween the contractor and the procuring
Safety Program Plans. activity as to how the System Safety
10. Provide a safety readiness Program will be incorporated into the
position for program milestone reviews development effort.
or documents associated with reviews,
such as Decision Coordinating Papers or 3-9.2 CONTENTS
Army program memoranda. The SSPP should define the
11. Review and approve safety System Safety Program scope and ob-
verification documents. jectives. As a minimum, each SSPP
12. Provide safety input to major should describe the four elements of an
review boards, such as the Level 1 Con- effective system safety program: a
figuration Control Board and the Mate- planned approach to task accomplish-
riel Release Review Board. ment, qualified people to accomplish
13. Assist in safety assessments tasks, authority to accomplish tasks
and other reviews for fielded systems. through all levels of management, and
14. Establish indicators to meas- appropriate resources—both manning
ure the effectiveness of the system safety and funding—to assure tasks are com-
effort. pleted. The scope is described, and a list
of tasks and activities is provided.
3-9 SYSTEM SAFETY PROGRAM The SSPP describes the system
PLAN (SSPP) safety organization or function within
System safety should be consid- the organization of the total program, the
ered early in any development process. responsibility and authority of system
Although concept evaluation becomes safety personnel, and the staffing of the
the primary focus early in the program, system safety organization. In addition,
system safety should be an important it should describe the procedures by
factor in evaluation of the design con- which the contractor will integrate and
cepts. Requirements and methods coordinate the system safety efforts and
needed to ensure safety should be con- the process through which contractor
sidered early. This can be accomplished management decisions will be made.
during all phases of development with a The SSPP should define System
well-defined SSPP. The contractor Safety Program milestones, provide a
should propose an SSPP for approval by program schedule of safety tasks, and to
the Government. The SSPP is a written preclude duplication, identify integrated
plan used to outline the steps required to system activities, i.e., design analyses,
ensure the activities of system safety tests, and demonstrations, applicable to
engineering, system safety management, the System Safety Program but specified
and other disciplines and functions are in other engineering studies.
used and coordinated to guarantee sys- The SSPP describes general en-
tem safety. The following subpara- gineering requirements and design crite-
graphs describe the purpose and content ria for safety, describes safety require-
of the SSPP. ments for support equipment, and opera-
tional safety requirements for all appro-
3-9.1 PURPOSE priate phases of the life cycle up to and

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including disposal. It describes the risk devices or other special safety features.
assessment procedures and the hazard It describes the procedures used to en-
severity categories, hazard probability sure test information is transmitted to the
levels, and system safety precedence that procuring activity for review and analy-
should be followed to satisfy the safety sis, and it provides procedures used to
requirements of MIL-STD-882. It states ensure safe conduct of all tests.
the quantitative and qualitative measures The SSPP describes the tech-
of safety to be used for risk assessment niques and procedures of an audit pro-
including a description of the acceptable gram to be used by the contractor to en-
risk level. It describes closed-loop pro- sure the objectives and requirements of
cedures used to take action to resolve the system safety program are being ac-
identified hazards. complished.
With respect to hazard analyses, The SSPP describes the safety
the SSPP describes the analysis tech- training for engineering, technical, op-
niques and formats to be used in qualita- erating, and maintenance personnel. It
tive or quantitative analysis to identify describes the mishap and hazardous mal-
hazards, their causes and effects, hazard function analysis process including
elimination, or risk reduction require- alerting the procuring activity to hazard-
ments and how those requirements are ous conditions.
met. It describes the depth within the The SSPP identifies in detail the
system to which each technique is used, interface between system safety and all
including hazard identification associ- other applicable safety disciplines such
ated with the system, subsystem, com- as nuclear safety, range safety, explosive
ponent, personnel, ground support and ordnance safety, chemical and bio-
equipment, Government-furnished logical safety, laser safety, nonionizing
equipment (GFE), facilities, and their radiation safety, and any others. In ad-
interrelationship in the logistic support, dition, it identifies the interface between
training, maintenance, and operational system safety and all other support dis-
environments. It also describes integra- ciplines such as maintenance, quality
tion of the subcontractor’s hazard analy- control, reliability, human factors engi-
ses with overall system hazard analyses. neering, medical support (health hazard
With respect to system safety assessments), and any others.
data, the SSPP describes the approach to The SSPP can be submitted as
be used to research, distribute, and ana- part of a contractor’s proposal, or it can
lyze pertinent historical hazard or mis- be submitted shortly after the start of the
hap data. It identifies deliverable data contract.
by title and number. It identifies nonde-
liverable system safety data and de- 3-10 SAFETY ANALYSES AND
scribes the procedures used for access by ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
the procuring activity and to retain data Safety analyses and analysis
of historical value. techniques, as described in MIL-STD-
The SSPP describes the verifica- 882 and MIL-HDBK-764, are the pre-
tion—test, analysis, inspection, etc.— liminary hazard analysis, the subsystem
requirements for ensuring that safety is hazard analysis, the system hazard
adequately demonstrated. It identifies analysis, and the operation and support
the certification requirements for safety hazard analysis. Although there are a

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number of other MIL-STD-882 (Ref. 1) ments in standards, specifications, or


tasks, such as preliminary hazard list, similar documents
health hazard assessment, test and 8. Notes on accidents, near
evaluation safety, safety verification, and misses, and other potential safety prob-
safety compliance assessment, these lems uncovered during experience with
tasks are not described in this handbook. predecessor systems
9. Potential hazards whose con-
3-10.1 PRELIMINARY HAZARD trol should be verified through specific
ANALYSIS safety testing.
The preliminary hazard analysis
(PHA) is the first of a series of safety 3-10.2 SUBSYSTEM HAZARD
analyses conducted during the life cycle ANALYSIS
of a system or item of equipment. The The subsystem hazard analysis
PHA is used to obtain an initial risk as- (SSHA) identifies hazards associated
sessment of a concept or system. PHA with the design of subsystems. The
effort should be started during the earli- analyses should include evaluation of
est phases of the program so that safety component failure modes, critical human
considerations are included in tradeoff error inputs, and hazards resulting from
studies and design alternatives. A care- functional relationships among compo-
fully executed PHA should provide the nents and equipment comprising each
following information: subsystem. The methods involved in the
1. Specific potential hazards in a SSHA are similar to the PHA but are
proposed system focused on at the subsystem level.
2. The probable magnitude and As a minimum, each subsystem
frequency of each adverse effect to a should be examined. If a subsystem has
proposed system with and without the been in use for some time, it may be un-
recommended safeguards. This infor- necessary for the analysis to go below
mation can be used in tradeoff studies of the subsystem level because the hazards
alternatives. of the subsystem have been identified
3. Proposed measures to elimi- and corrective action taken. If a subsys-
nate or control the potential hazards tem is new and has not had prior use, it
4. The safety-critical equipment may be necessary for the analysis to go
and situations upon which the designers to the component level.
must focus their hazard elimination or The SSHA report should provide
control efforts the following items:
5. Potential events (accidents) 1. A summary of the results
that should be subjected to detailed 2. A list of identified hazards
analysis when additional information that includes the information that fol-
becomes available lows:
6. Potential personnel errors that a. Component(s) Failure
can lead to accidents avoidable by de- Mode(s). All failure modes that can re-
sign features such as interlocks, warn- sult in a hazard are discussed. Gener-
ings, and procedural instructions ally, failure modes explain “how”
7. Identification of specific something fails.
safety essentials that satisfy require-

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b. System Event(s) Phase. The interfaces between subsystems and to


mission phase of the system when the identify possible safety hazards in the
hazard is encountered is addressed. overall system. Typically, it will de-
c. Hazard Description. A com- termine whether system hazards can be
plete description of the hazard is given. eliminated or controlled with design
d. Effect on Subsystem and/or safeguards. The need for procedural
System. The effect of the hazard on the safeguards, however, should be recom-
subsystem should be considered. Also mended only as a last resort. The SHA
the possible upstream and downstream is usually initiated during the early
effects should be considered. stages of development and updated as
e. Risk Assessment. A risk as- the system matures in order to reflect
sessment for each hazard, as defined in design changes and any new mission re-
MIL-STD-882 or other documents ap- quirements or procedures that might af-
plicable to the system, should be given. fect system safety.
f. Recommended Action. The The SHA analyzes the effect that
action that should be taken to eliminate each subsystem has on all of the others
the hazard is presented. Various courses during the normal and abnormal opera-
of action should be discussed, where ap- tion of each, but more importantly, it
propriate. The recommended actions analyzes the operation of the system as a
should be in sufficient detail to be of whole. The SHA should establish that
value to the design engineer. separate units and subsystems can be
g. Effect of Recommended Ac- integrated into a safe system. The op-
tion. The change in the risk assessment eration of one unit or subsystem should
that the recommended action will effect not impair the safe performance of, or
should be discussed. cause damage to, another unit or subsys-
h. Remarks. This block should tem within the system. Because the hu-
be used for any information, such as ref- man reactions required for normal sys-
erences, administrative information, or tem operation are considered part of the
data on previous similar systems, that system, “human error” should be consid-
has not been included in other parts of ered as a possible failure mode in the
the report. SHA. Lastly, the environment should
i. Status. The status of action(s) have an effect on the system and must be
taken to reduce or control the hazard considered in the SHA. The value of an
should be given. SHA lies in its identification of
Various methods of analysis have 1. Interface problems
been developed to obtain the data neces- 2. Dependent failure problems
sary for the SSHA. These include the 3. Synergistic hazards
failure modes effects and criticality 4. Additive hazards.
analysis, the fault hazard analysis, the When a safety level has been de-
fault tree analysis (FTA), and the sneak fined for a specific system, proof that the
circuit analysis. design satisfies that safety requirement
can be obtained only by preparing an
3-10.3 SYSTEM HAZARD SHA. Other safety analyses, studies, test
ANALYSIS reports, experience with related systems,
The system hazard analysis and program data, such as reliability re-
(SHA) is necessary to define the safety

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ports, provide useful support of the become involved in an accident. Even


SHA. minor items might be improved through
small design changes suggested by a
3-10.4 OPERATION AND SUPPORT contingency analysis. In addition to
HAZARD ANALYSIS equipment redesign, the contingency
Operation and support hazard analysis may also suggest changes to the
analyses (O&SHAs) are methods by operating procedures and the develop-
which designers and analysts can evalu- ment of emergency procedures.
ate the prescribed (and possible alterna-
tive) operation and maintenance proce- 3-11 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
dures, foresee potential problems, and IN NEW TECHNOLOGY
take corrective action. New technologies present unique
There are two types of O&SHA, system safety challenges because by
i.e., procedure analysis and contingency their very nature little experience in their
analysis. The procedure analysis is an use has been collected and analyzed.
evaluation of the adequacy of the various The historical database is therefore
types of operating procedures. The con- lacking in determining safety aspects of
tingency analysis is a study of opera- new technologies. This fact highlights
tional situations that could develop into the need for thorough analysis and test-
emergencies and ways to prevent these ing of new technologies prior to their
situations from happening. Each method incorporation into systems.
can be applied equally well to all types As a first example, consider the
of operation. situation of a new composite material
Most of the considerations in a used in an air vehicle. The curing proc-
procedure analysis O&SHA will gener- ess might result in the release of hazard-
ally review ous materials during the manufacturing
1. The procedures by which the process, during normal use, in the course
equipment will be used or could be mis- of maintaining or repairing the material,
used or during a postcrash fire. A subsystem
2. The consequences of material hazard analysis would identify the new
or procedural human failures material as presenting such a potential
3. The means by which the con- hazard and would lead to the develop-
sequences and failures can be mini- ment of corrective actions to minimize
mized. the hazard.
A contingency is considered to As another example, consider a
exist if a system is not in a normal op- software programmable bus network
erating state and conditions are such that controller that allows the transfer of data
an accident might occur unless correc- between electronic subsystems on an air
tive action is taken immediately. This vehicle. A latent “bug” in the control
definition assumes that software might cause the loss or delay of
1. There is some corrective ac- critical information needed by another
tion that can be taken. subsystem. An SHA would identify the
2. There is time to take correc- bus network as a critical interface be-
tive action before an accident occurs. tween subsystems and would underscore
The contingency analysis should the need for thorough analysis and
be conducted for any materiel that could

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evaluation of the proper functioning of 1. Safety, as defined in the re-


the bus software. quirements documents, is demonstrated
Finally, consider an artificial in- adequately.
telligence (AI) or expert system onboard 2. The testing will be carried out
an air vehicle. The system processes in a safe manner.
threat information from various sensors 3. All additional hazards intro-
and provides the pilot with recom- duced by testing procedures, instrumen-
mended course information to navigate tation, test hardware, etc., are properly
safely among the threat systems. Erro- identified and minimized.
neous advice from such a system due to
unforeseen contingencies could have 3-13 FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS
disastrous effects. A properly conducted (FSP) PROGRAM
O&SHA would provide the mechanism The Flight Safety Parts (FSP)
for formally assessing contingencies, Program is intended to provide enhanced
analyzing their impact on the system, life cycle management and control of
and providing recommendations for cor- parts critical to the safe operation of air
rective actions. vehicles. The governing document for
Software system safety deals flight safety parts policy is US Army
with developing safety requirements for Aviation Systems Command
the system and the software within the (AVSCOM) Regulation 702-7, Flight
system, ensuring accurate translation of Safety Parts Program Management,
safety specification requirements into the (Ref. 5).
design and code of the software, identi- The process of identifying and
fying software that controls or influences controlling FSPs should be a total life
safety-critical hardware functions, ensur- cycle activity. Because an FSP program
ing that the actual coded software does generally remains critical throughout its
not cause identified or unidentified haz- life cycle, a program should be estab-
ardous functions to occur or inhibit de- lished to address identification and con-
sired functions, and ensuring safety de- trol of FSPs from development through
sign requirements are thoroughly tested. procurement, production, and final dis-
The requirements for software system position. The procuring activity (PA)
safety are delineated in MIL-STD-882. should establish a program for FSPs.
Procedures for conducting safety analy- The PA should require that the air vehi-
ses of software are described in MIL- cle and engine contractors include man-
HDBK-764. agement and control of FSPs as part of
their overall program plan.
3-12 SAFETY TESTS In general, the process of identi-
Safety tests should be incorpo- fication of FSPs should be based pri-
rated into appropriate test plans. When marily on engineering judgment. Also
approved by the procuring activity, par- past experience on similar systems and
tial verification of safety characteristics hazard analyses should play a vital role
or procedures may be demonstrated by in the process. The intent is to identify
laboratory test, functional mock-ups, or each item that might create a critical
model simulation. The detailed test condition in terms of safety or loss of the
plans for all tests should be reviewed to end-item if the part breaks, malfunctions,
ensure that or is missing during use. Once an item

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is designated as an FSP, the appropriate quality inspected should be approved by


engineering drawings should be updated a “high-level” interdisciplinary board to
to identify all critical characteristics. ensure proper controls are in place to
FSPs should also be identified in all maintain the critical characteristics.
overhaul, repair, and maintenance publi- Once approved, the procedures should
cations. be “frozen” and should not be changed,
A critical characteristic is any varied, or waived. Only a formal
feature throughout the life cycle of an change, again approved by the board,
FSP, such as dimension, tolerance, fin- should constitute any change in proce-
ish, material or assembly, manufacturing dure.
or inspection process, operation, field 3. All critical characteristics of
maintenance, or depot overhaul require- the FSP that can be nondestructively in-
ment that if nonconforming, missing, or spected and tested should receive 100%
degraded, could cause the failure or mal- inspection by qualified inspectors for
function of the FSP. Critical character- every part manufactured. Parts having
istics determined during the manufactur- critical characteristics that require de-
ing process are termed “manufacturing- structive testing, i.e., strength of mate-
critical” characteristics. Critical charac- rial, heat treatment, etc., should be tested
teristics that are not introduced during on the basis of statistical samples taken
the manufacture of a part but are critical from every lot and every batch. A sam-
in terms of assembly and installation, ple should be tested from every lot and
e.g., proper torque, are termed batch without exception.
“installation-critical” characteristics. 4. Manuals, including depot
One of the most important as- maintenance work requirements
pects of the FSP program should be the (DMWRs) should be revised as needed
control of critical characteristics. Con- to include the critical characteristics. No
trol means those actions and techniques repair or overhaul action should be
that receive special consideration and permitted to deviate from the drawing
attention to detail, e.g., manufacturing specification for the critical characteris-
and assembly procedures, frozen plan- tics. These documents are typically pre-
ning, certification of special processes, pared by a contractor and submitted for
intensified inspection and verification Government approval.
procedures, recordkeeping and mainte- Acceptance of parts that do not
nance, traceability audits, vendor con- conform to the specified critical charac-
trol, and nonconformance control. Once teristics should not be authorized
a part has been identified as an FSP, through actions of the Materiel Review
there are several key elements that Board. If possible, parts may be re-
should be used for its control: worked to satisfy the specifications, or
1. All critical characteristics requirements, given on the drawing.
should be identified by the designers. Requests for waivers of and deviations
Technical drawings and data packages from critical characteristics should be
(if any) should be updated to show the classified as major or critical and should
FSP and highlight its critical character- be submitted for Government approval
istics. on a case-by-case basis. Any change of
2. The planning documents by the critical characteristics usually re-
which the part is manufactured and quires reexamination of the product,

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retest, or engineering analysis of the part bly, or installation containing a critical


and process before it is considered. characteristic whose failure, malfunc-
A description of the procedures tion, or absence could cause an undi-
to identify, qualify, maintain records, rected engine shutdown or a catastrophic
monitor, and dispose of FSPs may be engine failure resulting in loss or serious
found in the subparagraphs that follow. damage to an air vehicle or serious in-
jury or death to the occupants. Engine
3-13.1 IDENTIFICATION OF FSP identification should be based on
FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS assessment of potential associated risk
The process of identifying candi- using hazard severity and probability of
date flight safety parts should be primar- occurrence as discussed in MIL-STD-
ily one of risk management involving 882, System Safety Program Require-
engineering judgment and experience. ment, (Ref. 1).
This process should include review of
drawings, materials, loads, flight spec- 3-13.2 FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS
trum, fatigue analyses, reliability analy- QUALIFICATION
ses, form, fit, and function, installation To assure continuous availability
requirements, and failure data. The cri- of the product, FSP vendors should be
teria that follow should be used to iden- qualified in advance of procurement ac-
tify flight safety-critical aircraft parts: tions. Vendor qualification provides a
1. Airframe. Any part whose means for early completion of long,
failure or malfunction affects the safe complex, or expensive tests, such as fa-
operation of an air vehicle is a candidate tigue and flight tests, some of which
for an FSP. Final selection of an FSP would otherwise be required after each
should be considered if Item a and any award and without any insurance that the
other of Items b through e are affirma- vendor’s parts would be acceptable.
tive: Typically, a Qualified Product List
a. Primary failure or malfunction (QPL) is used to record all qualified
affects the safe operation of the air ve- vendors from whom FSPs can be pro-
hicle. cured. Vendors should qualify by
b. A part has a predicted or meeting the test requirements, such as
demonstrated finite life. fatigue, interchangeability, and endur-
c. A 10% reduction in laboratory ance, for each FSP. The requirements of
working strength would result in an un- establishing a QPL, testing, etc., are dis-
limited life becoming a finite life. cussed in DoD 4120.3-M, Defense Stan-
d. Loss of function could occur dardization Program Policies and Pro-
because of improper assembly or instal- cedures, (Ref. 6). Qualification of FSP
lation. vendors should include but not neces-
e. Fabrication of the part in- sarily be limited to the demonstration of
volves a manufacturing process that, if FSP critical characteristics. Engine FSP
performed improperly, has a high prob- vendors might not be required to dem-
ability of changing material properties onstrate full-life limits due to cost and
significantly, i.e., degrading the strength other constraints. Engine endurance
of the part. testing and low cycle fatigue testing plus
2. Engine. An FSP for engine- spin-pit testing could be used to demon-
type parts is defined as any part, assem- strate a portion of part life in lieu of

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demonstrating the full life. Also an in- and overhaul intervals are adequate and
creased level of quality assurance should safe relative to actual use
be required for all FSPs even if previ- 3. To assess new parts continu-
ously qualified. See par. 3-13 for 100% ally to ensure minor design and manu-
inspection requirements, waivers, and facturing changes do not affect FSPs in a
deviations. detrimental manner
4. To confirm degraded mode
3-13.3 FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS limits or effects due to wear, corrosion,
RECORDS fretting, and damage
All flight safety parts should be 5. To ensure that repair proce-
given a serial number whenever possi- dures do not degrade the critical charac-
ble. Otherwise, lot or bag and tag pro- teristics
cedures should be substituted. All 6. To determine the impact on
manufacturing or inspection process FSPs of any previously unknown or
control requirements relating to the known degraded conditions
flight safety part should be traceable to 7. To ensure that processes are
the time and location of production. Re- adequate to control time-related internal
cords should provide the traceability re- procedures of previously approved ven-
quired to enable after-the-fact verifica- dors (if any) and that new vendors are
tion of all aspects of material, manufac- not impacting the integrity of the FSPs
ture, special processing, assembly, and 8. To ensure that undefined
inspection of critical characteristics. changes in rotorcraft usage, new envi-
These special records allow the rapid ronments, or long-term effects do not
recall of fielded suspect flight safety impact the integrity of FSPs.
parts if a deficiency in manufacturing or
processing is encountered. Typically, 3-13.5 FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS
these records are required to be kept by DISPOSITION
the manufacturer or delivered to the Flight safety parts that have been
Government for retention until the last removed from service because they fail
part in the record is removed from serv- inspection criteria, fail in service, or
ice. whose life limit has been reached should
be destroyed to preclude the inadvertent
3-13.4 FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS reinstallation of the part or its remanu-
SURVEILLANCE facture. This extra effort is necessary
The FSPs Surveillance Program because the reuse of such parts could
should include a formal process for lead to failures resulting in unsafe op-
sampling all FSPs on a recurring basis. eration of the air vehicle. Air vehicle
The surveillance effort should use data development programs should have a
obtained from the FSP Program for the disposition clause to control flight safety
following purposes: parts and prevent installation of noncon-
1. To confirm the validity of re- forming FSPs on production units.
quirements used during the initial design
and qualification of FSPs
2. To monitor the effects of use
on parts to demonstrate that replacement

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REFERENCES

1. MIL-STD-882C, System Safety Program Requirement, 19 January 1993.

2. MIL-HDBK-764(MI), System Safety Engineering Design Guide for Army Materiel,


12 January 1990.

3. AR 385-16, System Safety Engineering and Management, 3 May 1990.

4. AMC Supplement to AR 385-16, System Safety Engineering and Management, US


Army Materiel Command, Alexandria, VA, 23 March 1992.

5. AVSCOM Regulation 702-7, Flight Safety Parts Program Management, US Army


Aviation Systems Command, St. Louis, MO, 13 August 1990.

6. DoD 4120.3-M, Defense Standardization Program Policies and Procedures,


July 1993.

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CHAPTER 4

This chapter presents typical requirements for technical reviews, data, and
documentation necessary to support the qualification of rotorcraft and other air vehicles.
Information on technical reviews include program progress reviews, preliminary and critical
design reviews, flight and firing readiness reviews, software reviews, special technical
reviews, and integrated product team reviews (IPTs). Data and documentation requirements
are provided for component, subsystem, and system qualification.

4-1 INTRODUCTION informative only, or for review, approval,


Technical reviews , data and or other action.
documentation form the basis for
presenting the status and results of the 4-2.1 REQUIREMENTS
airworthiness qualification process. They Proposed data requirements should be
are the means by which the contractor established by an Integrated product team
conveys to the Government the technical (IPT). Only the minimum data needed to
characteristics of the item under permit cost-effective support of research,
development or modification. By the same development, production, cataloging,
token, Government review and comments provisioning, training , operation, training,
to contractor reviews, data, and maintenance, and related logistics
documentation are the vehicle for the functions over the life cycle of the item
Government to present its assessment of should be acquired.
the contractor's qualification activities. TABLE 4-1 provides a
This chapter addresses the various types of representative sample of data items that
reviews that might be required; however, may be required to support a qualification
integrated product team (IPT ) reviews are effort. This table is a representation of a
preferred, see Department of Defense management tool only, and does not
Regulation No. 5000.2-R, Mandatory pertain to any specific program. The table
Procedures for Major Defense Acquisition shows the reference in the airworthiness
Program (MDAPs) and Major Automated qualification plan (AQP) which requires
Information System (MAIS) Acquisition the preparation of the data, a description of
Program, (Ref. 1). the data, a reference to the data item
description (DID) (subparagraph 4-2.2), the
4-2 CONTRACT DATA submittal requirements for the data, and the
Contract data include such things as form in which the data is to be presented.
test plans, test reports, technical analyses,
specifications, drawings, and other reports 4-2.2 DATA ITEM DESCRIPTIONS
that are generated during the development The DID is a redefined description
process and delivered to the Government as for a specific type of data, and it specifies
a contractual requirement. These data how the data is to be prepared and
serve several functions, including presented. DoD 5010.12.1, The
configuration control, documentation of Acquisition Management Systems and
test results, and provide the basis for Data Requirements Control List (AMSDL),
reprocurement. The data may be periodically updated, (Ref. 2) provides a
list of Office of Management and Budget

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(OMB) cleared current data item control number 0704-0188


descriptions that have been assigned OMB
TABLE 4-1

TASK-DATA MATRIX

AQP Para Data Description DID Submittal Form


Requirements
1.5.4.1 Airworthiness DI-CMAN- 60 MAC Hard copy and MS-Word
Qualification Spec 80008A Disk
(AQS)

1.5.5.2 Specifications DI-E-1104A 90 DAC Hard Copy

6.2.5.2 NBC Contamination DI-MISC- FF Hard Copy


Survivability Final 80711
Report

6.3.1.1 Test/Inspection DI-NDTI- 60 DAT Hard Copy


Reports 80809A
6.3.1.2. Scientific and DI-MISC- As Required Hard Copy
Technical Report 80711

6.3.8.2 Electromagnetic DI-EMCS- 120 DAC Hard Copy


Interference Test Plan 60201A

is the portion of contract that identifies the


MAC Months after contract award specific data that the contractor should
D With Draft Proposal
DAC Days after contract award
DAT Days after test
F With Final Proposal Flight
M Monthly

The AMSDL is used to find DIDs by


identification number, title, and subject
matter. Requests for individual DIDs or prepare and submit as part of its effort
the AMSDL will be honored from military under the contract. The CDRL contains
activities, Government agencies, private the reference number and title of the data
industry, and individuals. item being procured; the DID (paragraph 4-
2.2) number; and a reference to the portion
4-2.3 CONTRACT DATA of the contract (usually a statement of work
REQUIREMENTS or system specification) that requires the
generation of the data item. In addition,
The formal and contractual the CDRL includes administrative data
mechanism for the Government to require such as the Government office of primary
the preparation and submittal of data is technical responsibility of the submittal;
through the Contract Data Requirements location for performance of Government
List (CDRL), DD Form 1423. The CDRL inspection and approval; frequency of

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

submittal of the data; and the number of be detrimental to US security interests.


copies and required medium for submittal. Requirements for safeguarding classified
Continuous Acquisition and Life- data are described in paragraphs 4-3.1.1
cycle Support (CALS) (previously known and 4-3.1.2 for Army and contractor
as Computer-Aided Acquisition and activities, respectively.
Logistics Support) is the Department of
Defense (DoD) effort to migrate from a
manual, paper-intensive defense system
operation to an integrated highly automated
acquisition and support process. Based on
modeling efforts reflected in the current
CALS Architecture Study, the Director of
Defense Information created the DoD
Enterprise Model to depict the activities
and data needed to accomplish the defense
mission. CALS will expand the
architecture to include the bridge linking
DoD with industry and international
participants. CALS will also define the
infrastructure required to integrate DoD
and industry databases into one logical
weapon system database - referred to as the
Integrated Weapon System Database
(ISWDB). A key initiative supporting this
goal is optimization of information
technology and the construction of a
National Infrastructure - "Information
Superhighways." All new contracts should
require on-line access to, or delivery of,
their programmatic and technical data in
digital form, unless analysis shows that
life-cycle time or life-cycle cost would be
increased by doing so, DoDR 5000.2-R,
(Ref. 2).

4-3 CLASSIFIED AND


CONTROLLED DATA
Classified dat a and its’ related
requirements are discussed in the
subparagraphs which follow.

4-3.1 CLASSIFIED DATA


Classified data is data that the US
Government has determined to be of such a
nature that its uncontrolled release would

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4-3.1.1 Army Requirements activities required for classified


AR-380-5, Department of the Army information. In addition to the
Information Security Program, (Ref. 3) is requirements of these DoD publications,
the Army's implementation of the each organization that has classified
requirements for information security . It information safeguarding responsibilities is
establishes a system for classification, required to establish and follow its own
downgrading, and declassification of "standard practice procedures" (SPP) that
information requiring protection in the take into account the organization's
interest of National security. It contains specific situation. Further, organizations
policy and procedures for safeguarding that use computers for processing classified
such information and provides for program information are required to develop and
oversight and administrative sanctions for implement an Automated Information
violations. Specific topics addressed System (AIS) addendum to the SPP.
include classification, declassification and
downgrading, marking of information , 4-3.2 CONTROLLED DATA
safekeeping and storage, access, The Congress declared it to be the
dissemination, accountability, disposal and policy of the United States to use export
destruction, security education, foreign controls to the extent necessary to restrict
Government information, special access the export of goods and technology that
programs, program management, and could make a significant contribution to the
safeguarding Joint Chiefs of Staff papers. military potential of any other country or
Key to determining the classification of combination of countries that would prove
technical data of a program is the security detrimental to the national interests.
classification guide for that program. The Controlled data is that type of data whose
guide is a document issued by an distribution is limited and requires special
authorized original classifier that handling but yet whose content does not
prescribes the level of classification and warrant marking it as classified data.
appropriate declassification instructions for Sensitive test reports that may reveal
the information. critical characteristics of a weapon system
are an example of such controlled data.
4-3.1.2 Industrial Requirements Controlled data should have an appropriate
Executive Order 12829, National distribution statement as provided for in
Industrial Security Program, (Ref. 4) and DoD Directive 5230-24, Distribution
DoD 5220.22-M, National Industrial Statements on Technical Documents,
Security Program Operating Manual, (Ref. (Ref. 6) on such data.
5) establish the requirements for
safeguarding classified information 4-4 APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS
provided to industrial, commercial, and Documents that are included in a
educational institutions under the contract, specification, plan, or other
provisions of a DoD Security Agreement requirement's document by reference are
(DD Form 441). These documents provide referred to as applicable documents.
specific information as to whom will have Tiering from one specification or standard
access to classified information, how that to another is discouraged. All
information is to be shipped, stored, and requirements should be tailored to the
disposed of, and the record keeping performance needs and should be clearly

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

specified in the contract. The use of c. Reliability - a basis of


government specifications and standards understanding between the contractor and
should be minimized if not eliminated. the procuring activity as to how reliability
Use of widely available commercial performance requirements, reliability
standards , such as ASTM, ANSI, FARs, growth requirements, reliability tests, and
IEE, SAE, etc., should be encouraged. reliability data will be identified,
incorporated, accomplished or collected.
4-5 PROGRAM PLANS d. Human Factors - scope and
The purpose of program plans is to obligation of the contractor to meet human
provide a road map for determining how factors performance requirements and
the qualification effort is to be obtain human factors data.
accomplished. Program plans belong to e. Maintainability - a basis of
the Project, Program, or Weapons System understanding between the contractor and
Manager (PM) and are to be used by the the procuring activity as to how
PM to manage program execution maintainability performance requirements
throughout the life-cycle of the program. will be identified, and demonstrated.
Program plans are a description of the f. Other - a basis of understanding
detailed activities necessary to carry out between the contractor and the procuring
program strategies. The PM, in activity as to what other engineering
coordination with the PEO, determines the activities, such as configuration control,
type and number of program plans. Three producibility , transportability,
or more plans might be required, such as an weaponization, advanced quality system,
integrated program plan, airworthiness etc., are required for execution of the
qualification plan, and a test and evaluation contract.
master plan (TEMP). Data generated in 2. Airworthiness Qualification Plan
performance of the work required by these - An airworthiness qualification plan
plans is submitted in accordance with should be prepared by the procuring
CDRL requirements. A brief description activity and included in the request for
of each of the aforementioned plans proposal or request for quotation. An
follows: integrated product team approach should
1. Integrated Program Plan - The be used for preparing the plan. This plan
integrated program plan should provide a should provide general guidance on
road map for the entire project. It should engineering analyses, design reviews.
define the following: safety assessments, contractor
a. Integrated product team - demonstrations, and all contractor and
Intended use of product teams. Number of Government qualification tests considered
teams and their purpose. Contractor essential to defining and implementing the
support and participation in Government procurement of any major Army air
integrated teams. vehicle, major modification, and its allied
b. System Safety - a basis of equipment. This general information than
understanding between the contractor and will provide the basis for an airworthiness
the procuring activity as to how system qualification specification which should be
safety requirements will be incorporated prepared by the contractor.
into hardware, software, and operating 3. Test and Evaluation Master Plan
instructions and procedures. - planning document used to generate

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detailed test and evaluation plans to knowledge of the overall progress of the
ascertain schedule and resource contractor's activities. The contractor
implications. The TEMP should provide a should describe the status of his design
road map for integrated simulation, test, effort in terms of the number of drawings
and evaluation plans, schedules, and and specifications released versus a
resource requirements necessary to projected release schedule. The program
accomplish the test and evaluation progress review should include but not be
program. limited to a system requirements review
(SRR) where the system/segment
4-6 TECHNICAL REVIEWS AND specification (SSS), the proposed computer
AUDITS languages, and processing hardware
The PM decides how the program is architecture are reviewed; and also a
to be managed. The PM may choose to system design review (SDR) where the
have formal or informal periodic reviews, system/segment design document (SSDD)
or could rely on continuous integrated and a preliminary software requirements
product team reviews. Also, the PM could specification (SRS) are reviewed.
rely on the contractor to propose the type Estimates of software lines of code written
of reviews and audits to be used. The versus projections should also be
agenda for these reviews should be presented. The results of analysis work to
coordinated between contractor and substantiate that design requirements will
government representatives several weeks be met may be discussed. As the
prior to the meeting. Meetings should not development effort progresses, the
only provide for Government oversight; contractor would typically present test
but, should also provide insight. The results and planned testing activities. It is
objectives and typical requirements of the at these reviews that problems are
following type reviews will be discussed in identified either by the contractor or
this paragraph: Government representatives and that
Program Progress Reviews potential solutions are discussed and
Preliminary Design Reviews reviewed in subsequent meetings. The
Critical Design Reviews frequency of these reviews and the specific
Flight Readiness Reviews topics covered are strongly dependent on
Firing Readiness Reviews the stage of developments.
Special Technical Reviews
Software Reviews 4-6.2 PRELIMINARY DESIGN
Configuration Audits REVIEWS
Technical Interchange Reviews The preliminary design review
Integrated Product Team Reviews (PDR) is a formal review of the basic
design approach for a configuration item or
4-6.1 PROGRAM PROGRESS a functionally related group of
REVIEWS configuration items. It is conducted after
A Program Progress Review is a the development specifications are
periodic review conducted by the developed. During the PDR, special
contractor to present the status of the attention is directed toward interface
development program. It is at this review documentation, high risk areas, long lead
that Government representatives gain times, and system level trade studies that

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integrate preliminary design concepts. chemical as well as signatures and


Software and hardware PDRs have the crashworthiness) considerations
same objectives and are conducted in a 12. Design margins - cycle
similar manner, but may address different margins, memory margins,
issues related to the qualification process. 13. Preliminary lists of materials,
The objectives of these one time formal parts and processes
reviews could also be satisfied by 14. Built-In-Test
integrated product team reviews. 15. Reliability , availability, and
Qualification relevant data and issues to be maintainability
addressed at a hardware PDR include: data, including failure modes and effects
1. A preliminary design synthesis 16. Weight and balance status
that shows that the selected design will 17. Development test data
meet its development specification 18. Interface requirements
requirements 19. Instrumentation interfaces and
2. The results of tradeoff studies requirements for flight test telemetry
that show the alternatives considered for 20. Development schedule
the design and the basis for the selection of 21. Mock-ups, models,
the proposed approach breadboards, or prototype hardware when
3. Functional flows, requirements appropriate
allocation and tractability data, and 22. Producibility and
schematic diagrams manufacturing considerations
4. Layout drawings showing the 23. Value engineering
functional relationships between elements considerations
5. Analyses showing the results of 24. Transportability, packaging,
environmental and handling considerations
control and thermal design aspects 25. Human engineering and
6. Analyses showing proper biomedical considerations
consideration of 26. Standardization considerations
electromagnetic compatibility aspects of 27. Description and characteristics
the design of commercially available equipment
7. Power distribution and 28. Existing documentation for
grounding aspects of the preliminary commercially available equipment
design, including power regulation and 29. Data processing hardware , e.g.,
compatibility between power generation microprocessors, programmable array logic
and utilization equipment (PAL), programmable logic devices (PLD),
8. Preliminary mechanical and and gate arrays to be provided with the
packaging design of consoles, racks, system
drawers, printed circuit boards, and 30. Review considerations
connectors applicable to computer resource hardware
9. Safety engineering items as appropriate, e.g., microprocessor,
considerations non-volatile memory (NVM), and
10. Security engineering application specific integrated circuits
considerations (ASIC).
11. Survivability and vulnerability 31. Life cycle cost analysis
(including nuclear, biological, and 32. Armament compatibility

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33. Corrosion prevention/control hardware using memory devices such as


considerations read only memory (ROM), programmable
34. Status of Quality Assurance ROM (PROM), erasable PROM
Program (EPROM), and electrically erasable PROM
35. Support equipment (EEPROM). These devices, and other
requirements similar devices which are genetically
Typical issues to be addressed at a software referred to as integrated circuits, allow
critical design review (CDR) include: software to be permanently implemented
1. Functional flow and not easily changed.
2. Storage allocation data
3. Control function description 4-6.3 CRITICAL DESIGN REVIEWS
4. Computer Software The Critical Design Review is
Configuration Item structure conducted prior to the release for
5. Built-In-Test fabrication or production in the case of
6. Security considerations hardware or prior to the initiation of coding
7. Reentrance considerations in the case of software. During the CDR,
8. Computer software development the detailed design for each configuration
facilities item is disclosed in the form of a draft
9. Relationship between the product specification (Type C) and related
computer software engineering drawings. The approved
development facility and the operational detailed design from this review serves as a
system basis for final production planning and
10. Software development tools often initial fabrication. In the case of
11. Software test tools software, completion of the CDR initiates
12. Maintenance and upgrade the development of source and object code.
interfaces, requirements, and techniques A primary objective of the CDR should be
13. Description and characteristics to insure the qualification requirements
of commercially available computer will be met. The objectives of these one
resources time formal reviews could also be satisfied
14. Existing documentation for by integrated product team reviews. For a
commercially available computer resources hardware CDR, the following issues are
15. Software support resources typically addressed:
16. Operation and support 1. Adequacy of the detail design as
documents reflected in the draft hardware product
17. Software related CDRL items specifications in satisfying the hardware
18. Supplemental data (e.g.; development specification requirements.
software files, procedures) required for use 2. Adequacy of the detailed
with the “make-from” hardware device engineering drawings for the hardware
should be documented. configuration item, including schematic
Firmware has both hardware and diagrams .
software parts separately handled at the 3. Adequacy of the detailed design
applicable PDRS. The memory portion of in the following areas:
firmware is usually referred to an a. Electrical design
embedded memory. Firmware is defined b. Mechanical design
as software that has been implemented in

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c. Environmental control and Flight readiness reviews are


thermal design aspects conducted prior to first flight, prior to any
d. Electromagnetic compatibility subsequent flight for which the
e. Power generation and grounding configuration of the air vehicle or software
f. Electrical and mechanical has significantly changed, and prior to
interface compatibility conducting flight test activities which have
g. Mass properties not been covered in previous flight
h. Survivability and vulnerabili ty readiness reviews. The objective of the
(including nuclear, biological, and review is to ensure that all airworthiness
chemical, as well as signatures and and qualification relevant issues have been
crashworthiness considerations) addressed and that the hardware and
4. Interface control drawings software are sufficiently mature to warrant
5. Mock-ups, breadboards, and proceeding with flight testing. Data
prototype hardware required for presentation at flight readiness
6. System allocation document reviews includes (yet, is not limited to
7. Initial manufacturing readiness include) analysis data, results of design
8. Preliminary value engineering support test, component design and
change proposals qualification data, subsystem design and
9. Life cycle costs qualification data, and system design and
10. Detail design information on all qualification data, operating procedures,
firmware limitations and restrictions, software
11. Verification that corrosion version descriptions for flight critical
prevention and control considerations are processors, modeling complete, and
compatible with the operating environment remaining hazard analysis for software and
12. Status of quality assurance hardware. See integrated product team
program. reviews.
At the CDR for systems that The nature of the data and degree of
incorporate software, the following detail of data presented at the flight
deliverables would be reviewed for readiness review must be such that they
accuracy and suitability: will support the anticipated contractor
1. Software detailed design data, flight releases and/or airworthiness
data base design, and interface design releases. See integrated product team
documents reviews.
2. Supporting documentation
describing results of analyses and testing 4-6.5 FIRING READINESS REVIEWS
3. System allocation document Firing readiness reviews are
4. Progress on activities required conducted to ensure that the system
by the PDR hardware and software are sufficiently
5. Schedules for remaining mature to allow safe weapons firing.
milestones Included as a firing readiness review is the
6. Updates of software related pre-first-live-firing weapon firing review.
CDRL items. This review is conducted before the first
live firing. Qualification data to be
4-6.4 FLIGHT READINESS REVIEWS presented include missile or projectile
trajectory and structural clearance

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

information, weapon firing modes, firing and contractual issues and provide
inhibits for specific flight conditions, direction or guidance as necessary. As a
clearance, jettison analysis or jettison last example, a backlog of data may have
results, ripple firing effect on engine occurred which precludes the conduct of a
performance, firing impact zone safety test event until the data is reviewed. The
footprint, susceptibility to electromagnetic most efficient and expedient way to resolve
radiation emitters, ordnance compatibility the problem may be for the Government to
information, weapon system excursion review the backlogged data at a special
limits, primary and emergency weapon technical review. See integrated product
stores jettison information, provisions for team reviews.
protecting the crew from weapon gases,
and blast pressure distribution information. 4-6.7 SOFTWARE REVIEWS
The nature of the data and degree of detail In addition to the software PDRs
should be such that they will support the and CDRS, software also undergoes
anticipated weapon firing activities to be software specification reviews (SSRs),
authorized by the contractor flight releases SDRS, and software Test Readiness
and airworthiness releases. Additional Reviews (TRR). The SSR is a formal
firing readiness reviews should be review of computer software configuration
conducted when the proposed firing tests item (CSCI) requirements as specified in
differ significantly from those approved by the software specifications. The purpose of
previous firing readiness reviews. See the SSR is to review the software and
integrated product team reviews. interface requirements stated in the
software requirements specification (SRS)
4-6.6 SPECIAL TECHNICAL and the interface requirements
REVIEWS specification (IRS) for completeness and
Special technical reviews may be tractability to the system specification.
conducted any time that such reviews are The TRR is a formal review of readiness to
necessary for the proper progress of the begin formal CSCI testing. The purpose of
qualification program. For example, in the software TRR is to confirm that the
order to support his design activities, the computer software configuration item is
contractor may have decided to build a ready for formal qualification testing. See
mock-up for the purpose of identifying and integrated product team reviews.
demonstrating interface requirements
between subsystems. The most expedient 4-6.8 CONFIGURATION AUDITS
way for the Government to review the A configuration audit is an audit
results of the mock-up activities may be to conducted against a configuration item to
attend a special technical review convened ensure that it meets requirements. Two
for that purpose. As another example, a types of configuration audits could be
specific technical problem may arise which conducted, the functional configuration
would require a special technical review to audit (FCA) and the physical configuration
be conducted. The contractor would audit (PCA). The objective of the FCA is
present the problem and possible to verify that the configuration item's
alternative solutions. Government actual performance complies with its
reviewers would discuss the situation and hardware development or software
implications on technical, schedule, cost, requirement and interface requirements'

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specifications. Test data are reviewed to The objectives of the


verify that the hardware or computer aforementioned reviews could be satisfied
software performs as required by its on a continuous basis by IPTs . The
functional or allocated configuration Secretary of Defense has directed that as
identification. For configuration items many functions as possible, including
developed at Government expense, an FCA oversight and review, should be performed
is a prerequisite to acceptance of the using IPTs, DoDR 5000.2-R, (Ref. 1).
configuration item. For software, a IPTs are cross-functional teams that are
technical understanding is reached on the formed for the specific purpose of
validity and the degree of completeness of delivering a product for an external or
the software test reports, and, as internal customer. These IPTs should
appropriate, computer system operator’s function in a spirit of teamwork with
manual, software user’s manual, computer participants empowered and authorized, to
system diagnostic manual, computer the maximum extent possible, to make
resources integrated support document, commitments for the organization or the
upgraded operation and support documents, functional area they represent. IPTs are
software programmer’s manual, and composed of representatives from all
firmware support manual. appropriate functional disciplines. IPTs
The PCA is the formal examination operate under the following broad
of the as-built version of the configuration principals:
item against its design documentation in 1. Open discussions with no
order to establish the product baseline. As secrets.
a result of acquisition reforms, the 2. Qualified, empowere d team
contractor is totally responsible for the members
physical configuration. Except for 3. Consistent, success-oriented ,
validation of technical manuals , the proactive participation
procuring activity will not typically 4. Continuous “up-the-line”
perform a physical audit. The contractor communications
should be required to update the technical 5. Reasoned disagreement
manuals, anytime the physical 6. Issues raised and resolved early
configuration changes. For software, a
technical understanding is reached on the 4-7 COMPONENT DESIGN AND
validity and the degree of completeness of QUALIFICATION DATA
the software test reports, and, as This paragraph describes the design
appropriate, computer system operator's and qualification data applicable at the
manual, software user's manual, computer component level. The contractor is totally
system diagnostic manual, computer responsible for the physical design.
resources integrated support document, Normally, qualification involves a review
upgraded operation and support documents, of performance, interface, safety, and the
software programmer's manual, and various “Itities”, such as reliability and
firmware support manual. maintainability, via analysis and test
reports. Engineering drawings are also
4-6.9 INTEGRATED PRODUCT TEAM useful for this purpose but not always
(IPT) REVIEWS essential. Performance and interface
specifications are preferred for new

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procurement and for procurement of qualification criteria, the part may


commercially developed components, generally be used in the design without
reference chapter 5, subparagraph 5.11.1. additional qualification requirements. The
Widely available commercial PPSL becomes the governing document for
specifications and standards which satisfy part selection for the subject contract in
the government’s preference for order to control the scope of total parts
performance based specifications are also population, compress the variety of part
acceptable. In those cases where the types, and to direct contract and
Government must pay for development of subcontract designers to approved parts.
the design, the Government typically is The contractor could be required to submit
entitled to full rights in data; hence, their list for Government review.
procurement of engineering and
manufacturing drawings or computer aided 4-7.2 STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
design and manufacturing data should be DATA
considered. Contractor’s form and format Paragraph 4-7 d efines the type of
is usually acceptable. Also, the contractor data which should be required. Structural
could remain the repository for this data. performance criteria should be defined in
Except for reprocurement of an identical terms of mission, crashworthiness, and
component, performance and interface dynamic performance requirements. Also,
verification data should be required for all the PA should require demonstration of
components. The data should define all compliance by means of analysis and test
design specific performance requirements, reports. Structural analysis should include
all as integrated and as installed material composition, heat treatment
characteristics, and all key functional and characteristics, finish characteristics, and
physical attributes to be measured. geometric shape. Also, tensile strength,
Further, a software requirements modulus of elasticity, fatigue life, modulus
specification might be needed for of rupture, shear strength, endurance limit,
embedded software, etc. Logistics compressive strength and hardness should
considerations usually dictate the type of be included, as applicable. In contrast to
data and required rights in data. For the most metals, composite materials exhibit
case of contractor logistics support, only structural characteristics which are strongly
qualification data should be required. dependent on the direction of the applied
load. In describing composite material
4-7.1 STANDARD AND QUALIFIED characteristics, it is necessary to specify
PARTS DATA the direction of the applied load with
For standardization purposes, a respect to the directional characteristic of
program establishes its Program Part the material. Analysis may include
Selection List (PPSL). The PPSL is determination of the loadings that are
generally established and managed by the critical to the component, and
contractor, but may be approved by the substantiation of the structural adequacy.
government. Items on the list are approved Structural component testing may include
for use in the design provided that they fatigue testing, failure mode testing, and
meet the performance and interface ultimate strength testing.
requirements of the system. As long as the
part usage is consistent with its original

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4-7.3 ENGINE AND DRIVE TRAIN components typically include schematics


COMPONENTS DATA and diagrams, and test and analysis reports.
Paragraph 4-7 defines the type of Examples of information included as part
data which should be required. Engine and of the data are working pressure or vacuum
drive train components include as (the pressure or vacuum at which the
examples, gears, bearings, shafts, component is designed to operate), fluid
couplings, clutches, housings, turbine compatibility (the types of fluids which
blades, compressor blades, discs, nozzles, will come in contact with the component),
seals, combustors, ignitors, and fuel fire resistance (the temperature and
controls. Component qualification data pressure conditions at which the fluid will
describing these components may be in the ignite), ballistic tolerance (the degree to
form of performance specifications, which the component can withstand an
analyses, and reports. Examples of bearing impact from a projectile), and grounding
characteristics are static load carrying requirements (the necessity to electrically
capacity (radial and trust), dynamic load connect components to avoid electrical
capacity, life, efficiency, friction, and potential differences between components).
speed rating. Examples of gear Filters separate unwanted contaminants
characteristics are load capacity, mesh from a fluid. They are characterized by
ratio, contact ratio, backlash, surface flow rate (the amount of fluid which can
durability, lubrication requirements, and pass through the filter per unit time), clean
hardness. Shafts are characterized by their pressure drop (the pressure difference
ability to withstand combined bending and which the filter presents to fluid moving
torsional stresses which may either be through it), cold surge (pressure rise at start
steady, variable, or a combination of the up when cold), its contaminant
two. Lubrication characteristics, cooling effectiveness (the size and fraction of
and wear tests, gear patterns, and power particles in the case of particle
limits are all applicable to engine and drive contamination or the amount of
train components. contaminant such as water in the case of
non particle filtering which the filter can
4-7.4 HYDRAULIC-PNEUMATIC- separate from the fluid), the contaminant
FUEL SYSTEMS COMPONENTS load capacity, and the bypass
DATA characteristics.
Paragraph 4-7 defines the type of
data which should be required. Hydraulic , 4-7.5 ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS
pneumatic, and fuel systems share the DATA
common characteristics of pressurized Paragraph 4-7 defines the type of
fluids. Examples of components which data which should be required. Also,
comprise these systems include tubes, descriptions from manufacturers' data
pipes, hoses, fittings, valves, couplers, books along with industry and military
pumps, fans, accumulators, and filters. specifications and standards provide a
These components, as part of subsystems, description of the operation of the parts
are used to actuate controls, deliver fluids along with appropriate hints and warnings.
such as fuel and lubricants, and to provide Electronic and schematic diagrams show
environmental control. Component the logical layout. Timing diagrams show
qualification data used to describe these critical timing requirements. Truth tables

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

combined with the logic diagrams and 2. Thermal characteristics - power


timing diagrams describe the output states dissipation, junction to case thermal
of a logic device based on its input states. resistance, and ambient junction
MIL-HDBK-175, Microelectronics Device temperatures
Data Handbook, (Ref. 7) and 3. Packaging characteristics -
MIL-HDBK-978 , NASA Parts and hermeticity, thermal expansion, mounting,
Application Handbook, (Ref. 8) present size, weight, and strength
detailed information on the characteristics 4. Reliability characteristics -
of electronic devices. These handbooks failure rates, testing levels, and rating
address basic process and design requirements
considerations, system design 5. Handling - electrostatic
considerations, testing, specifications and discharge, storage, and soldering
procurement, along with the reliability and 6. Environmental requirements -
physics of failure. temperature range, cooling, electrical
Typical electronic components are loading, fanout, impedance, and timing.
as follows:
1. Linear passive components - 4-7.6 OPTICAL COMPONENTS DATA
resistors, capacitors, thermistors, inductors, Paragraph 4-7 defines the type of
crystals, delay lines, and electromagnetic data which should be required. Examples
interference (EMI) filters of optical components are lenses, mirrors,
2. Semiconductors - transistors, prisms, lasers, and detectors.
diodes, thrusters, and transorbs Lenses and mirrors are
3. Micro electronics - integrated characterized by their effective focal
circuits, microprocessors, memory devices, length, effective entrance and exit
comparators, and amplifiers apertures, aberration characteristics,
4. Interconnect hardware - wire, wavelength or wave band of interest, and
cable, terminal blocks, connectors, plugs, transmission percentage. Lenses depend
and sockets upon the index of refraction principle for
5. Electromechanical components - shaping and bending of rays. The lens
switches, relays, solenoids, and motors material, however, has absorption
6. Hybrid and printed circuit characteristics that are wavelength
assemblies . dependent. Mirrors and lenses usually
Examples of terms which are used have optical coating for minimizing light
to define these devices are as follows: reflections or transmission. In addition to
1. Electronic characteristics , e.g., diffraction effects, which broaden focused
voltage and current levels (power supply light to a defined blur circle in lenses and
requirements, input and output signal mirrors instead of a point, optical
levels, and switching thresholds), aberrations, such as spherical, coma,
impedances (resistance, capacitance, and astigmatism, and chromatic aberration,
inductance), frequency information cause degradation to image resolution and
(frequency response and frequencies of contrast. A lens designer will balance
operation), transient response times, time aberration reduction against satisfying
delays, signal distortions, and noise level design specifications. The terms used here
generation and suppression. are defined and pictorially represented in
any good lens design textbook.

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

Prisms are used to bend light into measured. For additional information see
specified angle but not focus it. Angles of Chapter 1, paragraph 1-5.2.5.
reflection and transmission in the prism are
controlled by the accuracy of angle 4-7.8 MATERIALS DATA
fabrication and quality of coatings.
Laser design uses optics - mirrors Relevant information for materials
and lenses to build cavity interferometers. and processes are usually used in the
Lasers can use crystal, diode, gas, or design and construction of Army air
organic liquids to produce stimulated vehicles can be found in ADS-13, Air
radiated emission. Terms used to define Vehicle Materials and Processes, (Ref. 9).
laser characteristics are wavelength, beam The design standard addresses the general
divergence, power output, pulsed or material data including: material
continuous wave, and pointing control of properties, corrosion protection
the beam. requirements, temperature effects,
Detectors convert optical radiation minimum gauge of materials, fracture
into electronic signals or images by the toughness, characteristics of steel,
pyroelectric, photo conductive or photo aluminum, magnesium alloys, organic
voltaic, etc., effect. Detectors are materials, fiber reinforced materials,
wavelength dependent and combinations of transparent materials, lubrication
detector systems can detect optical requirements, materials used for
radiation from the new ultra violet (0.3 survivability , radioactive materials, and
micron) through the long wave infrared process selection. The contractor should
(0.8 micron and longer). Characteristics of be totally responsible for design and for
detectors include signal to noise (SIN), satisfying the performance requirements of
noise equivalent power (NEP), or net the specification. For additional
equivalent temperature (NET), information concerning materials and
instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV), testing, see Chapter 7.
electrical bandwidth (BW), optical Relevant information pursuant to
responsitivity (R), and D-star performance. the establishment of data basis for
composite material properties and design
4-7.7 FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS DATA allowables can be in Chapter 7, paragraph
Detail specifications and 7-6, and also in ADS-35, Composite
engineering drawings might be required for Materials for Helicopters, (Ref. 10). The
flight safety parts. Critical characteristics design standard addresses material property
and the procedures necessary to ensure that requirements, generation of material
these critical characteristics have been allowables, design considerations, and
achieved should be identified. Commercial control of processing. Specific topics of
specifications and standards may be used discussion include:
in lieu of detailed military specifications 1. Physical properties : description,
and standards, unless no practical material content, density, glass transition
alternative exists to meet the user’s needs. temperature, moisture absorption,
The data should define all design specific flammability resistance
performance requirements, all as integrated 2. Mechanical properties : tensile
and as installed characteristics, and all key properties, compressive properties, flexural
functional and physical attributes to be properties, fatigue properties, creep

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

properties, damage tolerance, and bearing 2. Description of the rotor system -


strength rotor data, radial distribution of blade
3. Chemical properties : properties
environmental resistance, 3. Airfoil section data
solvents/cleaners/air vehicle fluids 4. Airframe aerodynamic data -
4. Thermal properties : thermal aerodynamics of the fuselage, drag
expansion coefficients, thermal buildup, stability and control derivatives
conductivities, heat capacity/specific heat, 5. Rotor structural dynamics data -
thermal/oxidative stability, thermal blade mode shapes, data for ground
mechanical stability, thermal transitions resonance model
5. Electrical properties : dielectric 6. Airframe structural dynamics
constant, dielectric strength, dissipation data- airframe modal data, description of
factor, surface resistivity/volume airframe mounted absorbers and isolators
resistivity. 7. Aerodynamic surface data -
Materials data is often required to surface 3-dimensional force and moment
support documentation requirements of a data, rotor wake aerodynamic interference
process specification (Chapter 5). 8. Control system data - system
description, control travel, cockpit to
4-8 SUBSYSTEM DESIGN AND swashplate linkages, swashplate to blade
QUALIFICATION linkages
Data required at the subsystem level 9. Propulsion and drive system
should be basically the same as that data- system performance losses.
described for components in paragraph 4.7.
These specifications, analyses, test plans, 4-8.1 ENGINE, TRANSMISSION, AND
and test reports should include diagrams, DRIVE SUBSYSTEMS,
etc. Subsystem survey data may be used as The type of data required for
the basis for analysis in qualitative and engines, transmissions, and drive
relational assessments and as the basis for subsystems should be basically the same as
derivation of pass/fail criteria that cannot that described for components in paragraph
be directly measured. Under specified 4.7, except that subsystem description and
conditions, formal demonstration of qualification data should include:
qualification characteristics provides a 1. Propulsion system schematic
basis for subsystem description data. drawings showing the functional
Relevant information needed for arrangement, location, and identification of
performing a detailed analysis of the all pertinent components of the subsystems
performance, handling qualities, rotor and elements: lubrication, fuel, air
dynamics, airframe dynamics, and induction, cooling, power transmission,
acoustics of a proposed new development auxiliary power, engine inlet anti-icing
or derivative air vehicle can be found in filtering or particle separator, accessory
ADS-10, Air Vehicle Technical Data, (Ref. drives, firewalls, infrared radiation
11). The design standard addresses the suppression, exhaust, controls, and smoke
following: abatement. For turbine engines, a report of
1. Air vehicle dimensional data - the calculation of duct losses should be
drawings, tabulated dimensions, and areas submitted with the induction system
schematic drawing. An analysis of the

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propulsion system cooling and exhaust torsional stability, and dynamic and
systems should be submitted, showing diagnostic system analysis.
temperature and pressure design limits for Relevant information pursuant to
fuselage and components, required airflow, defining the gas turbine engine
and heat generation. These analyses performance characteristics, ratings, and
should be submitted with schematic performance can be found in ADS-50-PRF,
drawings of these systems. Rotorcraft Propulsion Performance and
2. Propulsion system installation Qualification Requirements and Guideline
drawings , excluding fuel and oil tanks, (Ref. 14). Typical data requirements can
detailing the location, mounting, vibratory be found in ADS-25, Engine Performance
isolation, and access for inspection and Data,
maintenance of all systems and elements: (Ref. 15).
engine, auxiliary power plant, fuel,
lubrication, air induction, cooling, starting, 4-8.2 FUEL AND OIL SUBSYSTEMS 4-
propulsion controls, engine inlet anti-icing, 8.2 FUEL AND OIL SUBSYSTEMS
filtering or particle separator, accessory The type of datarequired for fuel
drives, infrared radiation suppression, and oil subsystems should be basically the
power transmission, and smoke abatement. same as that described for components in
For power transmission systems, including paragraph 4.7, except that installation and
gearboxes, drawings also will include schematic diagrams should also be
lubrication system, bearings, and gearing; required. Analyses for the fuel subsystem
typical views of transmission housing should include; but, not necessarily be
including mounting provisions; typical limited to include capacity, flow rates,
cross sections and details of clutch transfer rates, vulnerability, and fuel feed
mechanism, free-wheeling devices, rotor capabilities. Additional data for external
brake, shafting and shaft supports, and tanks should include analysis of transfer
torque-limiting devices. rates, and jettison capabilities. Data for the
Relevant information for propulsion oil subsystem and oil distribution
system ground and flight surveys and subsystem should include analyses of the
demonstration requirements can be found flow, filtering, cooling, and lubricating
in ADS-1B-PRF, Rotorcraft Propulsion capabilities. Maintenance data should be
System Airworthiness Qualification provided for the fuel and oil system. This
Requirements, Ground and Flight Test should include the requirements and
Surveys, (Ref. 12). Relevant information procedures for purging the fuel system
concerning the preparation and submittal of using nitrogen inerting systems.
test reports can be found in ADS-50-PRF Aerial refueling subsystem (as
(Ref. 14). tanker and/or receiver) data should include
Relevant information to assist in the refueling capability data such as aerial
definition of technical data required refueling envelope of altitude versus true
Propulsion System Technical Data for air airspeed, fuel transfer rate versus pressure
vehicle technical proposals can be found in at the reception coupling or receiver
ADS-9, , (Ref. 13). This document nozzle; weight and balance related
includes the requirements for system information, and tanker package and
analyses such as stress, fatigue, cooling, component descriptions.

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4-8.3 ROTOR, PROPELLER, AND


PROPROTOR SUBSYSTEMS 4-8.5 LANDING GEAR
The type of data required for rotor, The type of data required for
propeller, and proprotor subsystems should landing gear subsystems should be
be basically the same as that described for basically the same as that described for
components in paragraph 4.7, except that components in paragraph 4.7, except the
installation and schematic diagrams should following should also be required:
also be required. Relevant information on 1. A genera l arrangement drawing
describing rotor, propeller, and proprotor of the landing gear, showing the side view
subsystems can be found in ADS-10 (Ref. elevation relationship of landing gear to
11). Further, the reports required for fuselage structure, and to the most forward
qualification should include structural and most aft center of gravity (CG)
analyses, flutter and divergence analysis, locations.
aeroelasticity analysis, and performance 2. Three-view drawing(s) of the
analysis. Model, wind tunnel, and tower main and auxiliary gear showing principal
test data should be provided to support members. If the gear is retractable, it
these analyses. For alternative tail rotor should be shown in the fully extended and
equivalent thrust systems, special data may retracted positions, and the most critical
be required. This may include theory of clearance dimensions of the wheel well
operation, special limitations, wind tunnel between structural members and other
results, and flight test data. equipment should be identified. The
principal members of the gear should
4-8.4 HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC include outlines of the shock strut, drag
SUBSYSTEMS brace, tension strut, torque arms,
The type of data required for jackpoints, towing and tiedown fittings,
hydraulic and pneumatic subsystems wheels (and brackets, if used), retraction
should be basically the same as that and extension linkages, actuators, shrink
described for components in paragraph 4.7, linkages, steering and/or shimmy damper,
except that installation drawings , uplocks, and downlocks. Wheel and tire
schematic diagrams , and a detailed toe-in and/or camber angles in relation to
description of flow distribution, filtering, the axle or strut should be indicated.
pressure, and maintenance requirements Outline of door linkages should be shown
and capabilities may also be required. in relation to gear linkages and functions.
Hydraulic applications primarily include Type of material and heat treatment
flight control and utility functions. information should be listed or indicated
Pneumatic applications may include such for all principal members of the gear.
functions as engine starting, auxiliary 3. Nose steering , towing, and
utility systems, and emergency backup turnover angle drawing, consisting of a
systems. In addition, analyses should be plan view showing the tread and wheel
required to document safety, maintenance, base of landing gear and distance between
and vulnerability characteristics and dual wheels; maximum nose steering angle
performance. The data should be and corresponding minimum turning radius
sufficiently detailed to substantiate that about the main gear; maximum auxiliary
performance requirements have been gear swivel-angle for towing using towbar
achieved. and minimum turning radius about the

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main gear; and turnover angle with the Specific analyses that should be performed
most critical CG location. are:
4. Tiedown arrangement drawing, a. Preliminary load analysis , which
consisting of a plan view showing the should form the basis for selecting power
complete tiedown configuration; generation equipment and for design of
attachments to rotorcraft gear; fuselage, generation and distribution system
wing, and tail fittings; and angles b. Intermediate load analyses
extending to ground tiedown points incorporating significant load or power
5. Air vehicle jacking drawing, source changes subsequent to the submittal
showing location of jacks and air vehicle of the preliminary load analysis
jackpoints, including all fuselage and/or c. Final corrected load analysis ,
wing points, and wheel axle and/or strut which should be marked "Final Corrected"
points and will include all changes incorporated
6. Landing gear design report in the complete air vehicle. If no changes
7. Landing gear specification or have been made to data previously
specification control drawings, as submitted, a new cover sheet should be
applicable, for the wheel tire submitted stating no changes have been
a. Nose or tail wheel made. The values entered in this analysis
b. Nose or tail wheel tire should be measured values.
c. Nose shock strut 2. Wiring diagrams showing
d. Nose gear steering and shimmy sufficient equipment internal circuitry to
damper allow for understanding the system
e. Solid tail and/or bumper wheel function. A brief description of any system
f. Bumper wheel tire or equipment not having readily
g. Main wheel and brake assembly recognizable operating functions should be
h. Main wheel tire included with the following diagrams:
i. Main wheel shock strut a. Preliminary wiring diagrams ,
j. Anti-skid brake control system consisting of both elementary, single-line
k. Main and nose gear actuators functional diagrams and schematic
l Ski installations and/or functional diagrams of the power
emergency flotation gear distribution and lighting systems
m. Rotor brake b. Master wiring diagrams ,
n. Steering and damper. consisting of installation schematic wiring
diagrams giving information of
4-8.6 ELECTRICAL SUBSYSTEMS interconnection of components. This
The type of data required for should include identification of wires,
electrical subsystems should be basically connectors, junction points, terminal
the same as that described for components blocks, and equipment. Information
in paragraph 4.7, except that the following pursuant to the selection of wire and cable
data should also be required: is given in Appendix A of
1. AC and DC electrical load MIL-W-5088, Aerospace Vehicle Wiring,
analyses. Information pursuant to this (Ref. 17). Also, information pursuant to
purpose can be found in MIL-E-7016 , for assigning significant wire identification
Analysis of Aircraft Electrical Load and codes is provided in Appendix B of
Power Source Capability, (Ref. 16). MIL-W-5088.

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3. General arrangement drawings ESDD, the final ESDD should include test
of the electrical equipment installation data from the electrical hot bench testing.
showing the location of all major items of The testing should include, but not be
electrical equipment limited to, simulated fault conditions and
4. Exterior light installation measurements of the fault current
drawings showing location and visibility magnitude and duration for all possible
characteristics. Relevant information can fault conditions. Test results should verify
be found in MIL-L-6730, Aircraft Exterior the performance of all fault protection in
Lighting Equipment, (Ref. 18). the electrical subsystem including the
5. Nonstandard electrical source protection, bus feed, and bus-tie
equipment specifications and substantiating contractors. In addition, hot bench test
data. Relevant information can be found in data should verify that the power quality is
MIL-STD-7080 Selection and Installation in accordance with
of Aircraft Electronic Equipment, (Ref. MIL-STD-704, Aircraft Electrical Power
19). Characteristics, (Ref. 20) for all
6. Cooling requirements for operational conditions of electrical
electronic and avionics systems. subsystem (normal, abnormal, and
7. Specific information on the emergency). Basically this is a
electrical subsystem should be included in performance and interface standard;
the following electrical subsystem design however, a waiver is required to cite this
documents (ESDDs): standard.
a. Preliminary ESDD (prior to
electrical hot bench testing): 4-8.7 AVIONIC SUBSYSTEMS
(1) Complete descriptions and This category of equipment
diagrams that identify all source capacities includes electronics associated with
(under all conditions) and all possible communications, navigation, crewstation
distribution configurations. Automatic and controls and displays, aircraft survivability
manual electrical subsystem monitoring equipment, radar and visionics equipment,
and control of air vehicle and ground antennae, data buses and bus controllers,
power source. central processors, flight instruments, and
(2) Specific circuit identification the myriad of other air vehicle subsystems
and details including, normal and peak that have electronic boxes dedicated to
power consumption, wire size, all special functions, such as secure voice and
protective and switching devices between tempest controlled systems. Tempest is an
each load and its normal power bus, and unclassified short name referring to
the proposed grounding, types and ratings investigation and studies of compromising
of all protective and switching devices. emanations. This refers to unintentional,
(3) Fault current (magnitude and intelligence bearing signals that, if
duration) estimates for all sources and the intercepted or analyzed, will result in
current capacity of all bus feed and bus-tie disclosure of national security information
contractors in series with those sources. transmitted, received, handled, or
b. Final ESDD (subsequent to otherwise processed by any information
electrical subsystem hot bench testing): In processing system. It is sometimes used
addition to final revisions of the synonomously for the term compromising
information identified in the preliminary emanation, e.g., tempest tests and tempest

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inspections. The type of data required for changes to electrical characteristics


avionic subsystems should be should be resulting from radome heating
basically the same as that described for 12. Navigation engineering data to
components in paragraph 4.7, except that determine navigation equipment
the following may also be required: performance in terms of accuracy for both
1. General arrangement drawings piloting and weapon delivery functions.
of equipment installations showing the Also, data to describe overall navigation
location of all major items of electronic equipment architecture, interfaces with
equipment and their interconnections other air vehicle systems, expected
2. Drawings, schematics, interface accuracy for each navigation mode, error
control drawings, and performance data in budgets for various sensor inputs, and
sufficient detail to substantiate that the algorithms used to integrate the various
performance and interface requirements sensor inputs, (e.g., use of Kalman filter ).
have been achieved. Data might be classified or restricted.
3. Antenna system drawings , 13. Air data typically include total
schematics, interface control drawings, and pitot pressure, static pressure, air density,
performance data in sufficient detail to slip angles, and temperature to validate
substantiate that the design requirements accuracy of various equipment receiving
have been achieved pitot static directly or through an electronic
4. Test plans and test reports to air data conversion. These data may be for
substantiate the environmental analysis of atmospheric effects on overall
qualification of the electronic equipment. performance, i.e., navigation accuracy
Guidelines for environmental testing are
provided in MIL STD-810, Environmental 4-8.8 CREWSTATIONS DISPLAYS
Test Methods and Engineering, (Ref. 21) AND CONTROLS
5. Test plans and test reports to The type of data required for
substantiate the electromagnetic crewstation displays and controls should be
environmental effects (E3) qualification of basically the same as that described for
the electronic equipment components in paragraph 4.7 and avionic
6. Classified plans and test reports subsystems in subparagraph 4-8.7, except
as needed for qualification of secure voice that layout drawings, human engineering
and other tempest controlled systems analyses, subsystem modeling data, and
7. System safety and hazard subsystem functional descriptions should
analysis data also be required. Information pursuant to
8. Software data as applicable qualification can be found in MIL-STD-
9. General qualification assurance 250, Aircrew Station Controls and
and operational readiness data Displays for Rotary Wing Aircraft, (Ref.
10. Survivability data, as 22) and
applicable MIL-STD-1472, Human Engineering
11. Radome engineering data, Design Criteria for Military Systems,
defining the radome and its characteristics, Equipment, and Facilities, (Ref. 23). For
including overall transmissibility curves, multifunction displays , additional
boresight shaft characteristics, radar description characteristics include
tracking noise, effects of equipment character size, display modes, display
located in or affixed to the radome, and the brightness and contrast control data

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

necessary to substantiate that the displays and other components or subassemblies


will be visible in all specified lighting required for ejectable seats. The sequence
conditions. Virtual cockpit helmet data of emergency escape operations using the
should include display characteristics, mass ejectable seats should be indicated.
properties of the helmet, and helmet Further, the following additional data may
tracking system accuracy. Voice be required to support subsystem
interactive systems should include any qualification:
special learning requirements for the 1. Heating and venti lating system
system to adapt to the wide range of voice installation drawings and data
characteristics of potential users, and the 2. Thermal insulation installation
vocabulary range and resulting actions of drawings
the system. For pilot's associate systems, 3. Cabin pressurization installation
descriptions of functions and the basis for for pressurized
the system's decision making should be air vehicles, including heating, cooling,
described. Special training or learning and ventilating provisions
required by the system should also be 4. Engineering data for air-
provided. conditioning and pressurization systems
Air vehicle interior lighting which cover the air vehicle profile should
characteristics should be described in terms include an air supply for cooling and
of schematic and layout drawings, function demonstrate that moisture does not
descriptions of lighting switches and condense within electronic components. In
controls, and luminance and illuminance addition, the means used for eliminating
measurements. Information pursuant to entrapped moisture should be indicated
establishing performance and validation 5. Installation drawings and data of
requirements for air vehicle interior acoustical insulation
lighting can be found in MIL-L-85762, 6. Anti-icing and/or deicing,
Aircraft Interior Lighting, Night Vision defogging, and defrosting installation data
Imaging System (NVIS) Compatible, as follows: wing and empennage anti-icing
(Ref. 24). system, all transparencies requiring
protection, and systems for protection of
4-8.9 CREWSTATIONS EQUIPMENT periscope lenses, fuel vents, radomes,
The type of data required for antennas, and stores
crewstations equipment should be basically Crashworthiness characteristics
the same as that described for components should be described for the air vehicle.
in paragraph 4.7, except that the contractor Data will include design criteria and
should also furnish drawings of all seat features incorporated to achieve
assemblies and installation for crew and crashworthiness requirements along with
passengers, and litters for medical analyses and test plans and reports which
evacuees. If applicable, these drawings substantiate achievement of requirements.
should show range of adjustment and Information pursuant to an evaluation of
include all safety belt, shoulder harness, or crashworthiness can be found in Appendix
other restraint installations and controls; 1 of ADS-11, Survivability Program
parachute provision take-up mechanisms or Rotary Wing,
devices; tracks; catapults or rockets (Ref. 25).
motors, rails, operating gear, stabilizing,

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Flight recorder data should include application (cone angle), etc. Achievement
a description of the storage medium, of performance and interface requirements
storage capacity, parameters monitored, should be validated by means of analysis
and the equipment's ability to withstand and test reports. Data should be provided
crash conditions. as to any flight restrictions applicable to
Nuclear, biological, and chemical hoist operation.
(NBC) protection provisions should be
described by schematic and layout
drawings, and functional descriptions 4-8.12 CARGO PROVISIONS
which provide the specific design features Cargo provisions should be
incorporated to provide NBC protection. described in term of schematics and
Specific protection levels should be layouts showing the openings and location
addressed. of the cargo compartments, their
Aviation life support equipment capacities, tiedown limits and
data should include the capability, locations,.floor loading restrictions, and
operation, and limitations of such balance considerations. Reports and
equipment. analyses should be provided to show that
the design satisfies specification
4-8.10 PASSENGER FURNISHINGS requirements.
The type of data required for
passenger furnishings should be basically 4-8.13 LAVATORIES AND GALLEYS
the same as that described for components The type of data required for
in paragraph 4.7, except that schematics lavatories and galleys should be basically
and layout drawings and reports and the same as that described for components
analyses which describe the functional in paragraph 4.7, except that the data
characteristics of these items should also should include schematics and layout
be provided. Intercom data should include drawings detailing location and operation,
system capabilities and interfaces with storage capacities, disposal provisions, and
electrical and communication subsystems. special corrosion prevention
Fire retardant properties of materials used considerations. Lavatory data should
in passenger furnishings should be include, but not be limited to; portable
described in terms of their placement in the water and waste tank capacity, operation
air vehicle and capability to withstand procedures, maintenance requirements, and
temperature extremes. Soundproofing fill and dump provisions and restrictions.
materials' data should be provided to show Galley data should include maintenance
their location and acoustic attenuation and operation data, storage location and
characteristics. capacities, and human factors analysis.

4-8.11 HOISTS 4-8.14 TARGETING, ARMAMENT,


The type of data required for hoists AND FIRE CONTROL
should be basically the same as that The type of data required for
described for components in paragraph 4.7, targeting, armament, and fire control
except that cargo and rescue hoist subsystems should be basically the same as
qualification data should describe the load that described for components in paragraph
capacities of the equipment, angle of 4.7, except for the additional information

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needed to validate performance, such as MIL-STD-498, Software Development and


ground and flight test results for each Documentation, (Ref. 27). For additional
armament fire control subsystem. information concerning software and the
Information pursuant to this purpose can be use of the Ada programming language , see
found in ADS-20, Armament/Fire Control DoD Regulation 5000.2-R, (Ref. 1). DoD
System Survey, (Ref. 26). Typical ground Directive 3405.1, Computer Programming
and flight test data requirements that Language Policy, (Ref. 28), establishes the
should be submitted for qualification of DoD policy and prescribes procedures for
these subsystems are as follows: using the Ada programming language. The
1. Armament/fire control VDD is used by the contractor to release
operations computer software configuration items
2. Armament/fire control boresight (CSCI) versions to the Government. The
3. Arming procedures term "version" may be applicable to the
4. Display resolution initial release of a CSCI, to a subsequent
5. Display characteristics release of that CSCI, or to one of multiple
6. Sensor and field of view forms of the CSCI released at
switching approximately the same time (e.g., to
7. Target acquisition/designation different sites). The VDD is used by the
subsystem characteristics for: Government to track and control versions
a. Laser designation of software to be released to the
b. Laser range finding operational environment. The VDD is
c. Laser spot tracking used as part of the configuration
d. Cooling performance management applied to a CASI. Any
e. Weapons accuracy executable code regardless of the storage
f. Boresight retention medium should be considered as software
g. Environmental qual ification; see and documented as a CSCI. JIAWG
MIL-STD-810 (Ref. 21) for guidance categories should be considered. Also, any
h. Electromagnetic environmental data stored in nonvolatile memory and used
effects (E3); see subparagraph 4-9.11. by a CSCI is part of that CSCI and should
be included in the documentation of that
4-8.15 SOFTWARE DATA CSCI.
Typically, a software requirements Qualification testing for a CSCI is
specification (SRS), interface requirements defined in the software test description
specifications (IRS)(defines the (STD). Information pursuant to integration
relationship among two or more entities, or and testing of airborne processor hardware,
software unit, software unit in which the and software can be found in ADS-32,
entities share, provide, or exchange data, Airborne Processor Hardware, Software
version description document (VDD), and Interfacing Device Systems
software test descriptions (STDs) and Integration, (Ref. 29).
reports for validating performance and The Software Test Report (STR) is
determining airworthiness should be a permanent record of qualification testing
required. The SRS should be updated as performed on a CSCI. The STR
test and evaluation proceeds. Also, other summarizes test discrepancies and
data could be required. Information references their corresponding problem or
pursuant to this purpose can be found in change reports. Also, the STR may be

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used by the contractor as a basis for re- 4-9.1 CHARACTERISTIC AND


testing of a CSCI. PERFORMANCE DATA
Air vehicle system characteristics
4-9 SYSTEM DESIGN AND may be described by drawings, analyses,
QUALIFICATION DATA and reports. All basic aerodynamic data
The air vehicle taken as a whole used in the calculation of the air vehicle
should be considered the end item system. performance such as the geometric
Other portions of the air vehicle are characteristic data defining the air vehicle
subsystems or components of the end item configuration, and the documents and
air vehicle. Integrated subsystems are references showing the derivation of the
often tested as part of the end item system. data (drawings, analyses, substantiating
The procuring activity usually includes a calculations, tests) should be provided.
system specification and an airworthiness Refer to ADS-10 (Ref. 11) for typical
qualification plan as part of its request for requirements regarding the reporting of air
proposal. The contractor usually is vehicle dimensional data, description of
required to submit their proposed system rotor subsystems, airfoil section data,
specification, proposed airworthiness airframe structural dynamics data,
qualification specification (AQS), and aerodynamics surface data, control
other system design and qualification data. subsystem data, and propulsion and drive
System design and qualification data subsystem data. Air vehicle drawings,
includes the data which describes the air should show to a practical degree major
vehicle and its subsystems (such as structure; propulsion and power train and
diagrams and physical drawings), test plans gearboxes; equipment; armament; useful
and test reports, and analyses and load items; normal entrance ways,
integration data. This data is used to emergency exits, and escape hatches; and
substantiate airworthiness, and also that location of crew, passengers, and their
specified performance and interface equipment. System level analyses and
requirements have been satisfied. Data is reports should be sufficiently detailed to
typically derived from the results of design substantiate that performance and interface
analysis, sample tests, simulation models, requirements have been achieved, and
subsystem mock-ups and installed provide sufficient characteristic and
subsystems. Subsystem survey data may performance data for generation of charts
be used as the bases for analysis in required for flight performance and
qualification and relational assessments in limitations in the operators manual. This
determining system level characteristics. should include: lift and drag data;
Also, subsystem survey data may be used nondimensional hover and forward flight
as the bases for derivation of pass/fail performance curves; blade stall and
criteria that cannot be directly measured. compressibility limits; net thrust, power
Formal demonstrations of qualification available and fuel flow variation versus
characteristics are normally required by the appropriate altitudes, temperatures, and
airworthiness qualification specification speeds; and a complete aerodynamic
(AQS) to show the air vehicle complies description of the air vehicle. Information
with the requirements of the detailed pursuant to determining aerodynamic
specification. performance properties can be found in
subparagraph 4-9.5 and ADS-40, Air

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Vehicle Flight Performance Description, masts, stabilizing surfaces, booms, landing


(Ref. 30). gear, engine mount, and jacking and/or
hoisting sling attachment fittings and carry-
4-9.2 STRUCTURAL DATA through structures, and installation and
Structural qualification data assembly of fixed and movable sections of
includes drawings, design criteria, cockpit or cabin enclosures, including all
analysis and test results which operating and emergency controls. The
substantiate that the air vehicle meets the drawings should be in sufficient detail to
required structural performance and show the method and materials employed
interface requirements. Analyses data in reinforcing and mounting transparent
should be provided for structural strength, components and hinges, tracks, rollers,
vibration, fatigue, mechanical stability, guides, lift assemblies, and other
and static, dynamic, landing, and crash components of movable section
loads. Information pursuant to the mechanisms; the method of latching
establishment of structural design criteria movable sections in open, closed, and
for Army rotorcraft can be found in ADS- intermediate positions; and the method of
29, Structural Design Criteria for Rotary emergency operating of jettisonable
Wing Aircraft, movable sections. If power operation is
(Ref. 31). Vibration analysis and testing used, the drawing should be accompanied
is an important part of the structural data by calculations indicating the power and
qualification requirements. Relevant time required for both normal and
information for establishing vibration emergency actuation under critical loading
requirements for rotorcraft, rotorcraft conditions.
subsystems, and equipment requirements Information pursuant to the conduct
can be found in ADS-27 , Requirements of structural demonstrations can be found
for Rotorcraft Vibration Specifications, in ADS-24, Structural Demonstration,
Modeling and Testing, (Ref. 32). When (Ref. 34). The primary objectives of the
analytical models are used to substantiate test are to demonstrate the safe operation of
structural requirements, detailed the air vehicle to the maximum attainable
documentation of the analytical operating limits consistent with structural
methodology, the analytical model used, design, and to verify the loads used in the
and the analytical results should be structural analyses and static tests are not
delivered to the Government. exceeded at the structural design limits of
Information pursuant to establishing the V-n diagram.
crashload analysis and test data
requirements can be found in MIL-STD- 4-9.3 PROPULSION AND POWER
1290, Light Aircraft and Rotary Wing TRAIN DATA
Aircraft Crash Resistance, (Ref. 33). Paragraph 4-8.1 provides data
Structural drawings should include requirements for engines, transmissions
a plan and elevation view of the fuselage and drive subsystems. At the system level,
structure showing centerlines of all main data provided should include drawings,
members; general distribution of main analyses, and test to substantiate the
structural material with typical cross achievement of engine/airframe
sections of stringers, bulkheads, and compatibility, critical temperatures, inlet
frames; and typical views of rotor pylons, and exhaust characteristics, fuel flow and

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

consumption, lubrication, accessory drives, requirements for engine performance


and fire detection and fire suppression characteristics, ratings, and performance
subsystems requirements. data presentation. The performance data
Relevant information pursuant to should include flowrates, pressure,
preparation and submittal of propulsion frictional loads, power consumption and
subsystem analysis can be found in ADS-9 torque requirements.
(Ref. 13). Specific performance
capabilities such as drain/fill rates, 4-9.4 FATIGUE LIFE DATA
capacities, crash load factors, operating The contractor should be
limits, indicating subsystem accuracy’s, responsible for submitting data to
engine control rigging/hysteresis substantiate that it has met or exceeded
characteristics, and operating procedures specified fatigue lives. As measured flight
and capabilities should be determined by loads and full scale component fatigue
analysis and test. The torsional stability of strengths become available, lives should be
the rotorcraft drive subsystem should be computed using a mission spectrum. The
completely analyzed and the results of the usage spectrum should be provided by the
analysis showing both gain margin and procuring agency. Also, the minimum B-
phase margin throughout the operational 10 life of bearings should computed by the
envelope should be included. contractor. These computational analyses
Engine installation and interface should be submitted to the procuring
data should include the drawings, analyses, agency as part of a report. Also, the
and interface requirements necessary to procuring agency will usually require
ensure proper function, operation, and preparation and submittal of S-N curves,
control of the engine. Turboshaft engines test plans, and test reports. Typically, a
installed in rotorcraft, torsional stability is flight load survey is conducted to
a major concern. The damping or determine the component stress levels
attenuation of signals at the rotorcraft rotor (mean plus oscillatory) resulting from each
frequency is a stability requirement. flight condition in the operational
Additional information pursuant to maneuver spectrum and over the
establishing installation and interface data operational range of gross weight, airspeed,
requirements may be obtained in ADS-26, CG, and altitude. Thereafter, a report is
Engine Installation Data, (Ref. 35). The submitted to the procuring activity which
ADS-1B-PRF (Ref. 18) provides the compares flight load survey data to the S-N
qualification requirements which are curve data to determine component fatigue
needed to verify compliance with allocated life characteristics.
performance requirements. Included in the
engine/airframe interface tests are 4-9.5 AERODYNAMIC PROPERTIES
compatibility tests to evaluate the torsional Aerodynamic properties' data
stability and control response includes drawings, analyses, plans, and
characteristics of the engine, and surveys reports which should be submitted to the
pertinent to engine vibration, propulsion procuring agency as a means of validating
subsystem cooling, air induction, and the achievement of specified performance
exhaust subsystem. requirements. Data may be obtained from
The ADS-25 (Ref. 15) provides wind tunnels, models, and flight
information for establishing data simulators. A flight simulation

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mathematical model and documentation and occupancy time required; describe the
showing model inputs, outputs, flow logic, scale and type of models to be constructed
and equations used may be used to and tested; and present the ranges of test
characterize aerodynamic properties. Data variables to be investigated.
obtained from models and simulations 1. Interim Letter Reports . These
should be validated, and the mathematical should be submitted immediately following
models should be delivered-as data. other completion of testing at each test facility.
reports include aerodynamic flutter, They should cover items, such as tests
aeroelastic stability, aerodynamic stability conducted, scope, contractor's observations
and control (natural frequencies, damping, of the tests, including any difficulties
and response of both aircraft and control encountered, significant results, and any
system), flying qualities, and ground conclusions or recommendations based on
resonance. Compound, tilt rotor, and other inspection of the available preliminary test
multimedia air vehicles require unique data results.
and description of the air vehicle's 2. Aerodynamic Test Data Reports .
transition mode characteristics. These should present the basic
Aerodynamic component drawings aerodynamic data and test results obtained
should include data on airfoil from the investigations conducted in
characteristics, aerodynamic center, plan contractor-furnished and private test
form area, span, aspect ratio, chord (tip to facilities. Aerodynamic test data obtained
root), sweep angle of quarter chord, from Governmental facilities will be
orientation with respect to fuselage provided by the facility. The reports
reference system, thickness (tip and root), should identify the configurations tested,
and control surface data. any differences from the configuration
Handling Qualities data is required tested and reported on previously, and from
for assuring that no limitations on flight the current air vehicle configuration.
safety or on the capability to perform Graphic presentation is desired with
intended mission will result from reference (if possible) to axes consistent
deficiencies in flying qualities. Relevant with the stability and control and estimated
information can be found in flying quality report.
ADS-33, Handling Qualities Requirements 3. Flutter Analysis Reports . These
for Military Rotorcraft, (Ref. 36). The data reports should compare the flutter and
provided should include response time, divergence limit speeds for the rotor blades
hover and low speed data, forward flight and for the fixed lifting and control
data, transition between rotor-borne and surfaces of the rotorcraft. Flutter analysis
wing-borne flight, controller reports for other air vehicles should include
characteristics, failures, transfer between the flutter and divergence limit speeds for
response types, and ground handling and all lifting and control surfaces.
ditching characteristics.
An aerodynamic data report should 4-9.6 WEIGHT AND BALANCE DATA
show the planned aerodynamic and flutter The contractor should establish a
investigation program and schedule. This system of weight control and reporting.
report should outline the purpose and scope Information pursuant to this purpose can be
of each proposed investigation; indicate the found in MIL-W-25140, Weight and
test facilities to be employed and test dates Balance Control System (for Aircraft and

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Rotorcraft), (Ref. 37). Weight and balance problems will exist, or submit sufficient
control and management generally includes data to enable full system modeling by the
data on intent, approach, and methods to be procuring activity. Modeling data includes
used to insure minimal weight and balance rotor and airframe compatibility, engine
variations within constraints of and airframe compatibility, and stores and
specification design requirements, program airframe compatibility. Compatibility data
cost and schedule. The MIL-STD-1374, includes data to show vibratory loads do
Weight and Balance Data Reporting Forms not exceed limits specified, resonant
for Aircraft (Including Rotorcraft), (Ref. amplifications are not present, and all
38) describes standard weight statements components and subsystems will meet their
and forms, Parts I, II, and III, for functional and reliability requirements
procurement of weight and balance data, when subjected to the vibration levels as
and for instructions for uniform installed on the air vehicle.
compilation of the required weight and Vibration test data includes
descriptive data. The ADS-16, Weight and airframe shake tests data, rotor blade and
Balance Substantiation Report Format and hub properties' determination data,
Technical Content, (Ref. 39) describes the component shake table tests data, flight
type of weight and balance data reporting vibration survey data, and production
typically required with the submission of a acceptance test data.
proposal. In general, weight and balance
data required for a proposal are the data 4-9.8 ACOUSTICAL NOISE DATA
describing the contractor's weight and Acoustical noise data include
balance management plan. The results of surveys of the internal and
ADS-19, Weight and Balance Status external acoustical environment
Report-Reason for Change (SRFC) Format indicating measurement locations and
and Technical Content, (Ref. 40) describes measured levels in terms of amplitude
the basic requirements for MIL-STD-1374, and frequency. The data should be
Part III, (Ref. 38) standard reasons for sufficiently detailed to substantiate
change to be used with the achievement of design requirements.
“Government/Contractor Responsibility Information pursuant to the determination
Changes Since Last Report" pages of the that an acoustical environment that will
Weight and Balance Status Reports. These not cause personnel injury, interference
reports of changes provides the with voice or other communication,
Government a means to monitor the weight cause fatigue, or in any other way
and balance management of the program. degrade way degrade overall system
4-9.7 SYSTEM VIBRATION DATA effectiveness can be found in MIL-STD-
Information pursuant to establishing 1472 (Ref. 23).
vibrational related requirements for
development and qualification of 4-9.9 CLIMATIC DATA
rotorcraft, subsystems and equipment to be Climatic tests are performed under
installed on rotorcraft, including external simulated conditions and in actual climatic
stores can be found in ADS-27 (Ref. 32). zones. Climatic data is used to
Early during the development, the demonstrate adequate safety of operation
contractor should submit modeling data and compliance with applicable
sufficient to show that no vibrational specifications, and formulate

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recommendations for design changes, if 4-9.11 ELECTROMAGNETIC


required. Climatic data reports should ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS DATA
describe the conditions under which the ADS-37-PRF, Electromagnetic
system has been subjected, as well as the Environmental Effects (E3) Performance
operating modes tested. All anomalies and Verification Requirements, (Ref. 41)
should be described. establishes E3 performance and
verification test criteria for implementation
4-9.10 ICING DATA at all stages in the life cycle of the air
Icing data should include vehicle, subsystems, and components. The
descriptions of surfaces with anti-icing or E3 control plan is a planning document
de-icing provisions, as well as the level of used to describe the E3 program, document
protection provided. Test data should the design criteria and testing
include descriptions of test conditions, test requirements. The purpose of the E3
set ups, and results. Data should control plan is to define E3 activities. It
substantiate the capability of the addresses the following content
windshield subsystem to maintain required requirements:
visibility, power is adequate to maintain 1. Responsibility and authority for
flight, adequacy of the electrical and de-ice E3 implementation and management
subsystems, air vehicle controllablity, and 2. Personnel
that vibration and ice shed characteristic 3. Methods for ensuring
are acceptable. compliance with requirements
4. Predicted problem areas
5. Radiation characteristics
6. Approach to cable design
7. Impact of corrosion control
requirements
8. Design criteria for lighting
protection
9. Design criteria for electrification
10. Implementation of design
changes
11. Special requirements, test
methods, and limits
12. Facilities to be used for testing
13. Vendor design review and
coordination
14. Spike protection requirements
15. Bonding criteria
16. Grounding criteria
17. off the shelf equipment
18. Interference control
specifications
19. Electromagnetic compatibility
board

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20. Criticality category and concerning tests and parameters to be


degradation criteria measured before, during, and after the test.
21. Spectrum utilization
22. Schedule and milestones 4-9.12 WEAPON SYSTEM
Test data should substantiate the (SUBSYSTEM)
performance and interface conformance of Air vehicle weapon subsystem and
all electrical and electronic subsystems to installation data required for qualification
the requirements indicated in includes error budgets, boresighting,
ADS-37-PRF (Ref. 41); MIL-STD-461, acquisition, tracker lock-on and tracking,
Requirements for the Control of man-in-the-loop control, weather and
Electromagnetic Interference, Emissions, obscurant effects, stabilization, test targets,
and Susceptibility, (Ref. 42); and and scene clutter. The data should
MIL-STD-462, Measurement of substantiate achievement of performance
Electromagnetic Interference and interface requirements. Typical data
Characteristics, (Ref. 43). A waiver is requirements are as follows:
required to cite the later two documents. 1. Functional diagrams showing all
Qualification data for electromagnetic items of the entire armament subsystem.
interference and electromagnetic These diagrams should identify each item
compatibility should include test and should include the functional
conditions tested and the results to relationships and purposes of the items.
document the radiated emissions, radiated 2. Equipment installation and
susceptibilities, and their system effects.. arrangement drawings showing the location
Also, lightning strike test data should of all major items of armament equipment
include structural, as well as for which provision has been made, and the
electromagnetic, effects data to location of exterior equipment. The
substantiate that critical components interconnection to subsystems, such as
including rotor blades, fuel subsystem hydraulic, pneumatic, and electrical should
components, and weapon subsystems be shown. Drawings of the console mount
remain flight worthy during and after the and control panel in relation to all other
strike. control panels in each compartment.
Special analysis and tests may 3. Air vehicle armament
include hazards of electromagnetic characteristic report.
radiation to ordnance (HERO), hazards of 4. Contractor furnished equipment
electromagnetic radiation to fuel (HERF), (CFE) armament performance and
and hazards of electromagnetic radiation to interface data.
personnel (HERP). Data should
demonstrate that the levels of 4-9.13 EXTERNAL STORES DATA
electromagnetic radiation is not hazardous Air vehicle external stores
to personnel, nor cause hazards to fuel or qualification data should include analyses,
ordnance through inadvertent ignition or tests, and reports to substantiate
duding. performance and safe operation of the air
Nuclear electromagnetic pulse data vehicle with the stores. Data should
includes a listing of piece parts, materials, include impact on performance (i.e., climb
components, assemblies, and subsystems to rate, power required, air speed restrictions,
be tested with detailed information etc.), handling qualities, and allowable

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jettison flight envelopes. External stores Information pursuant to establishing


data should also include descriptions of minimum crash resistance criteria can be
asymmetrical loading, weight and balance found in MIL-STD-1290 (Ref. 33).
effects, fuel disconnects, forced ejection, Addressed are crash resistance, design
and hang-fire effects data. Simulations of impact conditions, general crash
stores separation characteristics may be survivability design factors, and testing.
used.
4-9.15 ENGINE AND FLIGHT
4-9.14 SURVIVABILITY CONTROL ELECTRONICS DATA
Air vehicle survivability data, Data that should be submitted
including analysis, test results, and reports include drawings, engineering data, and
should be provided to substantiate that the calculations for the engine and flight
air vehicle meets the survivability control subsystems. Also, drawings should
requirements of the system specification. be submitted that include an engineering
Data should be provided that describes and layout showing location of subsystem
documents the effectiveness of armor components, range of movement of
panels, Air vehicle Survivability controls and control surfaces, diagrams and
Equipment (ASE)(such as radar detectors other engineering data as appropriate. Test
and jammers, flares, etc.), nuclear plans and test reports should substantiate
hardening, and crash resistance. the environmental qualification of the
Installation drawings showing extent, engine and flight control systems.
shape, thickness, and type of armor Relevant information can be found in MIL-
equipment and other protective features, STD-810 (Ref. 21). Also, test plans and
and structure in the vicinity; and test reports should be submitted to
installation and removal features for substantiate the electromagnetic
removable armor and other features should environmental effects (E3) qualification of
be provided. Ballistic capability of the the engine and flight control systems in
armor in terms of caliber, velocity, and accordance with subparagraph
obliquity should be indicated. 4-9.11.
The contractor’s proposal should A control subsystem can be
explain the means which they will use to configured as either "feed forward” or
define the survivability characteristics of "feedback.” A feed forward subsystem
the air vehicle and also satisfy survivability commands the item under control without
performance requirements of the contract. watching what the item does. On the other
The contractor should submit analyses, hand, a feedback servo mechanism senses
plans, and reports which are sufficient to the states of the item under control and
demonstrate that the survivability takes appropriate action to minimize the
performance requirements of both the difference between the sensed states and
system specification and airworthiness the desired states.
qualification specification have been Sufficient data should be submitted
satisfied. Data to be provided include for all control subsystems that are
ballistic hardening, directed energy, configured as feedback servo mechanisms
nuclear hardening, NBC hardening, and to substantiate the following:
crashworthiness. 1. Stability

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2. Algorithm reliability. The e. Tuning out wind-up effects, the


substantiation effort should incorporate sensitivities, and reliability
both theoretical and application specific f. Inaccuracies
analysis, making use of mathematical g. Smoothness of various control
derivation, established figures of merit, and function transitions (e.g., on/off and mode
simulation. Areas of concern include the changes)
following as applicable: h. Effect of control implementation
a. Adaptive limiter adjustments and modeling fudge factor gains, biases,
b. Adaptive gain adjustments and functions; their relative contributions,
c. Adaptive filter (e.g., notch) sensitivities, and reliability
adjustments i. Effect of 50ms bus switching
d. Adaptive control law power interruptions (Relevant information
configurations can be found in MIL-STD-704 (Ref. 20).)
e. State estimators and system j. In-flight power interruption from
identifiers other causes, such as a nuclear event
f. New, non-classical control 5. The pilot's sense of
methodologies controllability and predictability. This
3. Fault tolerances subject combines the repeatability of
4. Transient response . transient responses, the gradual change of a
The substantiation effort should transient response with respect to a
incorporate theory of operation, simulation, gradually changing input command of load
and hardware mock-ups (if practical). All distribution profile, and the pilot's sense of
simulation models should contain any an expected and appropriate response to an
existing nonlinear hardware traits, such as input command or load disturbance.
hysteresis, deadbands, limiters, nonlinear In addition to the above data,
forces, and static friction. The special data may be required for stability
substantiation should analyze the following augmentation subsystems, autopilots,
response topics as applicable: engine controls, instrument landing
1. Command input subsystems, and totally unmanned air
2. Load perturbation and vehicles. In particular, all failure modes of
disturbance these subsystems should be analyzed and
3. Parameter changes (force, tested (either in the air vehicle or
damper, mass, or spring) simulator) to determine any impact to
4. Effects of actuator limiting handling qualities or safe operation of the
(position or rate) air vehicle. Also, data should be provided
a. Control state "wind-up" to demonstrate proper integration of the
b. Methods used to alleviate subsystems. For example, flight control
adverse responses from wind-up providing inputs made by the autopilot should not
for acceptable performance throughout a generate an unacceptable engine response.
transient event
c. Measuring the amount of wind- 4-9.16 SYSTEM ENDURANCE DATA
up Air vehicle qualification data
d. Calculating the amount of wind- should include analyses showing
up, the assumptions, sensitivities, and achievement of endurance requirements, a
reliability description of the test conditions, and

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results in terms of flight time or operating Memorandums and Interface Agreements


time before it becomes necessary for major are used to define the responsibilities and
subsystem overhaul or replacement. methods for implementing interface
Because endurance requirements are often changes. Airframe-Engine Integration
stated in terms of very long periods of Plans are used to develop and define the
operation, actual testing is usually not engine to airframe interfaces and test
practicable. requirements. Interface control documents
provide the formal documentation of the
4-9.17 SYSTEM SAFETY DATA design requirements that allow effective
Typically the air vehicle system integration of components and subsystems
safety data to be submitted include: from separate procurements.
1. Hazard analyses which defines
the safety interfaces between subsystems
and to identify possible safety hazards in
the overall system. Relevant information
can be found in MIL-STD-882, System
Safety Program Requirements, (Ref. 44).
2. A system safety program plan
(SSPP) (paragraph 3-9) or the applicable
portion of an overall integrated plan which
defines the SSPP scope and objective and
provides a basis of understanding between
the contractor and the procuring activity as
to how the system safety program will be
incorporated into the development effort.
3. System specification - defines
the safety performance requirements for
the air vehicle and each contract end item.
4. Flight Safety Parts -
identification of all safety of flight parts,
their critical characteristics, and
serialization records (paragraph 3-13).

4-9.18 INTERFACE CONTROL


DOCUMENTS
Formal interface documentation
should be required as part of the systems
engineering process to provide an exact
definition of every interface by medium
and by function. The interface control
document (ICD) should include
descriptions of the following interfaces:
physical, environmental, sensitivities,
signal characteristics, logic interfaces, and
special data requirements. Interface

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4-9.19 MISCELLANEOUS 4-10 GENERAL QUALIFICATION


Miscellaneous data includes ASSURANCE AND OPERATIONAL
descriptions of: READINESS DATA
1. Cartridge-actuated devices used The qualification process should
in any system, such as canopy jettisoning, include the data required to demonstrate
hoist cable guillotine, flight refueling, hose the quality of data collected, and should
guillotine, and emergency escape door include data to substantiate the operational
actuation. The list should show clearly the readiness of the system. This paragraph
type, quantity, and subsystem in which the discusses general qualification assurance
devices are used. Relevant information can data requirements; testability,
be found in ADS-31, Cartridge and standardization, and producibility;
Propellant Actuated Devices, (Ref. 45). reliability and related data requirements;
2. Commercial specifications, training and trainers data; transport data;
source control drawing, or performance MANPRINT data; logistics data; battle
and interface specifications for each damage,corrosion and interoperability data;
mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic and ship compatibility data.
nonstandard part such as bearings, bolts,
cable connecting fittings, power 4-10.1 GENERAL QUALIFICATION
transmission chains, loop clamps, eyelets, ASSURANCE
fasteners, etc. General qualification assurance data
3. Special material part lists such includes the collection-of test plans and
as structural adhesive bonding list, specific test reports which comprise the
adhesives and adherents used, and the qualification process. The test plans
facing and core materials of sandwich describe how, and under what conditions
construction (needed for maintenance and the tests were to be conducted; what data
repair). were to be collected; and what
4. Finish specifications (needed for instrumentation were required. The test
maintenance and repair). report describes the results of the test and
5. Report of material and processes any deviations that were made to the test
development and evaluation, consisting of plan. Instrumentation and calibration data
a summary technical description of should be included in the test report, and
materials and processes research, should contain the accuracy levels required
development and evaluation work which of the instrumentation and calibration
has been conducted or planned under the equipment. If special test facilities are
development contract. required, a description of the test facilities
6. If a component containing a and its unique capabilities should be
radioactive element requiring a license provided. Simulations validation data (par.
from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission 6-8) should also be provided if the
(NRC) is used in the air vehicle, the simulation is to be used to generate
procuring activity should be notified of the qualification data..
need for a license as soon as the design has
been sufficiently defined. 4-10.2 TESTABILITY,
7. Nomenclature and nameplate STANDARDIZATION, AND
data. PRODUCIBILITY

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System testability data should Warranty data should include


include testability criteria, testability warranty provisions, length of warranty,
analyses, fault insertion procedures (and exclusions, and methods for obtaining
rationale for selected faults) and results of repairs under the warranty.
fault detection and isolation tests. The test
method (on-board automatic testing, built-
in test, common test equipment and
troubleshooting procedures) should be
described. Standardization data includes
standard parts lists, and standard
maintenance tools and procedures, as
applicable. Producibility data will include
specific design provisions incorporated for
ease of production, as well as the expected
benefits to be gained from those
provisions.

4-10.3 RELIABILITY AND RELATED


DATA
Reliability and related data
establish the reliability, availability, and
maintainability (RAM) characteristics of
the system. Reliability allocations are the
means of apportioning reliability
requirements to subsystems and
components. Reliability predictions allow
the designer to determine the design's
potential for meeting requirements. Failure
data collection provides a means for
quantitatively assessing the degree of
achievement of reliability requirements and
form the basis for tracking corrective
actions to eliminate or reduce the
frequency of occurrence of failure modes
encountered. The FMECA summarizes the
failure modes and evaluates their effects on
the performance of the system. It presents
the results in a manner useful for severity
level assessments and testability analyses.
Reliability growth curves are useful as
management tools for establishing
reliability test requirements necessary to
achieve reliability goals and to assess the
effectiveness of failure corrections.

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4-10.4 TRAINING AND TRAINERS 4-10.6.2 PERSONNEL


Training and trainers data include Personnel data in terms of grade
system descriptions, trainee prerequisites, and skill levels necessary to operate and
skills to be acquired, and the significance support the equipment should be provided.
of the training to the qualification process. 4-10.6.3 TRAINING
A description of training required to
4-10-5 TRANSPORT DATA impart the requisite knowledge, skills, and
The transportability report describes abilities that are required to operate and
the transportability characteristics of the maintain the system should be provided.
system in terms of transportation modes, This data should include identification of
preparation requirements (time, support critical tasks and the prescribed training
equipment, tools), special procedures, and standard.
requirements for restoring the system to an
operational condition. 4-10.6.4 HUMAN FACTORS
Human Factors data should be
4-10.6 MANPRINT provided to address the people-equipment
The manpower and personnel interface. This data supports the
integration (MANPRINT ) data requirement for the human capability to
compendium is descibed in the following operate and maintain the system be
subparagraphs. MANPRINT is an included in the design of the air vehicle.
engineering analysis and management The data includes the measurements to
process to identify and articulate demonstrate the capabilities to reach, lift,
requirements and constraints of human see, communicate, comprehend, and to act
resources, human performance, and to the functions and circumstances
hazards to personnel so these matters will required.
influence system design. The contractor is
responsible for selecting the engineering 4-10.6.5 SYSTEM SAFETY
and management process needed to satisfy System safety concerns encompass
associated performance and interface all personnel and equipment which may be
requirements. However, relevant affected by program plans and operations.
information for measurement of operator Pertinent data from all testing should be
workload can be found in ADS-30 , Human provided to form a basis to evaluate safety
Engineering Requirements for characteristics. Safety critical items and
Measurement of Operator Workload, (Ref. operations should be identified, and
46). documentation should be provided to show
these issues have been controlled to reduce
4-10.6.1 MANPOWER the hazards to an acceptable level of risk.
Manpower refers to required human System safety is addressed in detail in
resources. Data on manpower necessary to Chapter 3.
operate and maintain the system should be
provided. This data should include the 4-10.6.6 HEALTH HAZARDS
determination of the organization, skills, Health hazard data in terms of the
and personnel numbers required to operate application of biomedical knowledge and
and support the equipment. principles to identify, evaluate, eliminate,
or control risks to the health and

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effectiveness of personnel requirements necessary for expedient repair of battle


should be provided. Health hazard damaged air vehicle. These data include
considerations relevant to the operation and reparability criteria based on extent and
maintenance of the system should be type of damage, inspection procedures, and
provided. These data should include the necessary materials and tools.
identification and evaluation of health Corrosion prevention data include a
hazards presented by radioactive materials, description of the techniques used to
radio frequency emitters, toxic gases, laser prevent corrosion. In addition, any data
devices, toxic and carcinogenic materials, required to ensure the integrity of the
gaseous emissions, blast overpressure, and corrosion preventive procedures should be
harmful noise sources. provided for inclusion in the technical
manuals. Design and operating features
4-10.7 LOGISTICS incorporated to meet international
The Logistic Support Analysis standardization requirements should be
Record (LSAR) documents the results of described and included in the international
the Logistic Support Analysis (LSA). standardization report.
LSAR data are comprised of: operation and
maintenance requirements, reliability and 4-10.9 SHIP COMPATIBILITY
maintainability characteristics, failure Ship compatibility features should
mode and effects analysis, criticality and be described. Included will be
maintainability analysis, operation and electromagnetic compatibility
maintenance task summary, operation and consideration as well as physical
maintenance task analysis, personnel and characteristics, such as the air vehicle
support requirements, support equipment or dimensions, air vehicle tie down
training material description and provisions, and blade folding provisions.
justification, unit under test and automatic This data should be in sufficient detail to
programs, facility description and determine the capabilities to operate the air
justification, skill evaluation and vehicle from a given ship.
justification, support item identification,
and transportability engineering 4-11 TECHNICAL DATA PACKAGE
characteristics.. one of the main purposes The TDP is a technical description
of the LSAR is to document the extent to required to define and document an
which the contractor has satisfied in the engineering design or product
design for maintainer requirements as configuration (sufficient to allow
depicted in MIL-STD-1472 duplication of the original items), and is
(Ref. 23). In addition, the detailed design used to support production, engineering,
of the maintainer and maintainer and logistics activities. The Government
equipment interface should be analyzed typically requires the right during the term
and included in the LSAR. of the contract, to purchase from time to
time, “Technical Data Packages” (TDPs).
4-10.8 BATTLE DAMAGE, Upon written notice of the Government’s
CORROSION, AND intent to purchase TDPs or technical
INTEROPERABILITY assistance, the contractor is normally given
Battle damage repair data should be 60 calendar days after receipt of such
provided in the-form of field procedures notice, which proposal should include the

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costs of preparation and reproduction of Contractor format , development


such TDPs, and the amount to be paid as design drawings are the minimum
compensation for the data/software/patent requirements for a developmental project.
rights included the TDPs and/or the cost of Minimum TDP requirements
providing technical assistance. The scope consist of all applicable technical data,
of these additional data rights to be such as plans, drawings, and associated
acquired pursuant to this clause cover only lists, specifications, standards, performance
the uses of the contractor’s data consistent requirements, quality assurance provisions,
with Government Purpose Rights under packaging data, manufacturing data,
DFARS 252.227-7013 with conversion to manufacturing operation/process sheets,
unlimited rights. Information pursuant to and corresponding equipment/tooling
this purpose can be found in MIL-T-31000, requirements.
Technical Data Packages, General
Specification For, (Ref. 47). 4-11.2 PERFORMANCE
SPECIFICATIONS
4-11.1 ENGINEERING DRAWINGS A performance specification states
AND ASSOCIATED LISTS requirements in terms of the required
Conceptual design drawings, results with criteria for verifying
development design drawings, and product compliance, but without stating the
drawings are all part of the technical data methods for achieving the required results.
package (TDP). Conceptual design A performance specification defines the
drawings and associated lists define design functional requirements for the item, the
concepts in graphic form, and include environment in which it must operate, and
appropriate textual information required for interface and interchangeability
analysis and evaluation of those concepts. characteristics. Relevant information
Developmental design drawings and concerning the format and contents of a
associated lists provide sufficient data to performance specification can be found in
support the analysis of a specific design MIL-STD-961, Standard Practice for
approach and the fabrication of prototype Defense Specifications,
hardware for test or experimentation. (Ref. 48)
Drawings and lists required to present a
design approach may vary from simple 4-11.3 MANUFACTURING AND
sketches to complex drawings, or a PROCESS SPECIFICATIONS
combination of both product drawings and Manufacturing and process
associated lists provide the necessary specifications are applicable to a service
design, engineering, manufacturing, and which is performed on a product or
quality assurance requirements information material. Examples of processes are: heat
necessary to enable the procurement or treatment, welding, plating, packing,
manufacture of an interchangeable item microfilming, marking, etc. Process
that duplicates the physical and specifications cover manufacturing
performance characteristics of the original techniques which require a specific
design activity. Product drawings reflect procedure in order that a satisfactory result
the level of design maturity that the item may be achieved. Contractor’s should use
has attained. commercial products, processes and
practices to reduce development,

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production and operational costs. 4-11.4 TOOLING DRAWINGS


However, performance requirements Performance specifications,
should still be satisfied. The DoD strongly commercial specifications, or source
discourages the development of control drawings which describe all
manufacturing and process specifications; performance and interface requirements
except, where the DoD alone has the will usually be acceptable. Additional
technological expertise to specify a information on tooling drawings may be
military unique process. obtained in
MIL-T-31000 (Ref. 47).

4-12 DATA MANAGEMENT


Technical data are recorded
information used to define a design and to
produce, support, maintain, or operate
items of defense materiel. These data may
be recorded as graphic or pictorial
delineation's in media, such as drawings or
photographs; text in specifications or
related performance or design type
documents; in machine forms, such as
punched cards, magnetic tape, computer
memory printouts; or may be retained in
computer memory. Examples of recorded
information include engineering drawings
and associated lists, specifications,
standards, process sheets, manuals,
technical reports, catalog item
identifications, and related information..
The objectives of the DoD program
for the management of technical data are to
assure optimum effectiveness and economy
in the support of systems and equipment
within the Defense establishment. The
management of these data is not an end in
itself, but is supportive in nature.

4-12.1 TAILORING DATA


REQUIREMENTS
Tailoring of data refers to the
selective application of data requirements
so that only the minimum necessary data is
procured. Only the minimum data needed
to permit cost effective support of research,
development, production, cataloging,
provisioning, training , operation,

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maintenance, and related logistics the specification of deliverable data. In


functions over the life cycle of the item TABLE 4-2, it can be seen that appropriate
will be acquired. Paragraph 2-6 provides category selection can be used in
additional discussion of tailoring application of specification requirements.
principles. TABLE 4-1 illustrates that the
requirements can be selectively applied in

TABLE 4-2

EXAMPLE DOCUMENT SUMMARY LIST

Document Title Specifica Date Category


tion
Reference

SAE ARP 1281B Actuators: Aircraft 3.5.2.1 1993 Guidance


Flight Controls,
Power Operated,
Hydraulic, General
Specification For
ASTM-D-1655A Aviation Turbine 3.5.2.2 1995 Guidance
Fuels
STANAG 3294, Aircraft Fuel Caps 3.1.2.3 1973 Mandatory
ED3, AMD 5 and Fuel Cap Access
Covers
DoDD 3405.2 Use of Ada on 3.5.2.4 Mandatory
Weapons Systems
FAR 27.610 Lightning 3.3.1.3 1 January Mandatory
Protection 1991
FAR 27.303 Factor of Safety 6.2.7 1 January Mandatory
1991
4-12.3 DATA SUBMITTAL
4-12.2 REPORTS AND DATA The CDRL DD Form 1423 provides
Reports and data can be submitted the specific data submittal requirements.
in the form most appropriate for its Data are normally distributed directly to
intended usage. The CDRL specifies the those Government offices having technical
form, format, and copy quality of cognizance of the data with transmittal
deliverable data. CALS data, for example, letter provided to the Contracting Office
is typically submitted in digital format. In and/or the Data Management Office. Data
addition to paper and digital data, may be submitted in a digital form and
qualification data may be submitted in the may be available on floppy disk, compact
form of still photograph, video tape, or disk, or by direct access to the contractor's
motion picture, as appropriate. Data computer. The procuring activity must
developed for purposes other than ensure that the delivered digital data can be
qualification assurance can still provide received, stored, retrieved, and used by the
valuable qualification assurance Government. CALS implementation
information. In the preparation of data, it (paragraph 4-2) will result in more and
should always be remembered that data more data being submitted or accessed by
content is significantly more important electronic means.
than data format.
4-12.4 RECORDS AND MANUALS

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An air vehicle inventory record basis for developing maintenance manual


provides the means for documenting the air information.
vehicle’s configuration in terms of installed
equipment and location of the installed 4-13 CONFIGURATION
equipment. MANAGEMENT
The flight log book is used for The contractor should be required to
tracking the operation of the air vehicle in maintain configuration control and status
terms of who flew the air vehicle, when accounting through best commercial
and where it was flown, and the purpose of practices and throughout the length of the
the flight. It is also used to track the contract, except that the procuring activity
operating time of the air vehicle, to record should maintain control of all performance,
faults encountered, and to track deferred interface, and flight safety parts
maintenance actions. specifications. The contractor’s means for
Maintenance performed, inspection satisfying configuration control, such as
requirements, and component time-change Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
requirements are recorded in the Standard IS-649 , Configuration
maintenance log books. Management (Ref. 51) should be described
The Operator’s Manual contains a in their response to a request for proposal.
description of the operation of the air The configuration management effort
vehicle, its configuration, operating limits should include identifying, documenting,
and restrictions; weight, balance, and and verifying the functional and physical
loading information; flight performance characteristics of an item; recording the
data, and normal and emergency configuration of an item; and controlling
procedures. The Operator’s Manual also changes to an item and its documentation.
contains the operator’s and crew members It should provide a complete audit trail of
normal and emergency amplified decisions and design modifications,
checklists. The Operator’s checklist reference DoD Regulation 5000.2-R (Ref.
contains a condensed version of the applied 1). See paragraph 4-11 for additional
checklists. Relevant information for air information.
vehicle manuals and checklists can be In those cases where the procuring
found in MIL-M-63029, Manuals, activity maintains control, an engineering
Technical: Requirements for Operator's change proposal should be used to change
Manuals and Checklists for Aircraft, (Ref. the specification.
49) provides air vehicle manual data An engineering change proposal
requirements. (ECP) is a proposed engineering change
Maintenance manuals provide and documentation by which the change is
detailed troubleshooting and repair described, justified, and submitted to the
procedures for the air vehicle, as well as procuring activity for approval or
detailed part information necessary to disapproval. The ECP may be in
perform the repair. contractor format; however, there should
The repair parts and special tool list be two class of ECPs:
(RPSTL) documents the repair parts and An ECP should be classified as a
special tools required for all maintenance Class I ECP if:
actions on the air vehicle, and provides the 1. the functional configuration
identification, allocated configuration

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identification, or product configuration h. interchangeability,


identification, once established, is affected substitutability, or replaceability as applied
to the extent that any of the following to configuration items and to all
requirements would be outside specified subassemblies and parts except the pieces
limits or specified tolerances: and parts of non-reparable subassemblies;
a. performance; or as applied to computer software
b. reliability , maintainability, or configuration items and to all computer
survivability ; software components and computer
c. weight, balance, moment of software units;
inertia; i. sources of configuration items or
d. interface characteristics; reparable items at any level defined by
e. electromagnetic characteristics; source control drawings; or
or j. skills, manning, training ,
f. other technical requirements biomedical factors, or human engineering
specified in the functional configuration design.
identification or allocated configuration k. Any of the following contractual
identification or product configuration factors are affected:
identification. (1). cost to the Government,
2. a change to the product including incentives and fees;
configuration identification, once (2). contract guarantees or
established, impacts one or more of the warranties;
following: (3). contractual deliveries; or
a. government furnished equipment (4). scheduled contract milestones.
(GFE); An ECP should be classified as a
b. safety; Class II ECP if the change identifies a
c. deliverable operational, test, or minor change to a configuration item or its
maintenance computer software associated documentation that can be effected entirely
with the configuration item or computer by a contractor within the scope of the
software configuration item being changed; current contract effort without changing the
d. compatibility or specified Government approved configuration
interoperability with interfacing identification other than to incorporate the
configuration items or computer software Class II change into the product
configuration items, support configuration identification. Examples of
equipment/software, spares, trainers, or Class II changes are:
training devices/equipment/software; 1. changes that do not affect
e. configuration to the extent that interchangeability, substitutability, or
retrofit action is required; replaceability of configuration items, or
f. delivered operation and when reparable, their subassemblies and
maintenance manuals for which adequate parts;
change/revision funding is not provided in 2. substitution of parts or material
existing contracts; which do not have a functional, logistic, or
g. preset adjustments or schedules reliability impact;
affecting operating limits or performance 3. changes in documentation only
to such extent as to require assignment of a (e.g., correction of errors, addition of
new identification number; clarifying notes or views, addition, deletion

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or correction of non-executable comment design constraints, and the verification


lines-of code to software). required to demonstrate the achievement of
Prior to manufacture of an item, if a those specified functional and interface
contractor considers it necessary to depart characteristics. Typically, prime item
from the mandatory requirements of a development specification (PIDS) and
performance or interface specification, the interface control document (ICD) are used
contractor may request that a deviation be to describe the allocated baseline. These
authorized. As an example, if a component are also prepared early in the development
will no longer be capable of performing its cycle. For software, the allocated baseline
intended function or satisfying specified is documented by the approved SRS and
interface requirements, contractual IRS following SSR.
authorization in the form of an approved
waiver is required prior to the delivery of 4-13.3 ALLOCATED BASELINE
items incorporating known departure from EXPANSION
documentation. As additional requirements become
An item which through error during allocated to lower level configuration
manufacture does not conform to the items, the allocated baseline is expanded to
configuration identification should not be cover these additions. Changes to the
delivered unless a waiver has been baseline are approved and documented
processed and approved by the procuring through SCNs and the Change Control
activity. Board (CCB).

4-13.1 FUNCTIONAL BASELINE 4-13.4 PRODUCT BASELINE


The functional baseline The product baseline configuration
configuration is established with the is established with the initially approved
initially approved documentation documentation describing all of the
describing a system's or item's functional necessary functional and physical
characteristics and the verification required characteristics of the configuration item,
to demonstrate the achievement of those any required joint and combined
functional characteristics. Typically, a operation's interoperability characteristics
system specification developed at the of a configuration item (including a
initiation of a development program would comprehensive summary of the other
constitute a functional baseline. The service(s) and allied interfacing
contracting agency will usually retain configuration items or systems and
control of the functional baseline. equipment), and the selected functional and
physical characteristics designated for
4-13.2 ALLOCATED BASELINE production acceptance testing and tests
The allocated baseline necessary for the support of the
configuration is established with the configuration item. Typically, the product
initially approved documentation baseline is established at the end of
describing an item's functional and development (following successful FCA
interface characteristics that are allocated and PCA) when the design has matured
from those of a higher level configuration sufficiently to enter production.
item, interface requirements with
interfacing configuration items, additional

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4-14 GOVERNMENT INDUSTRY contractors and Government agencies


DATA EXCHANGE PROGRAM participating in GIDEP.
(GIDEP) TABLE 4-3, "DATA AVAILABLE IN
The Government-Industry Data GIDEP," provides details of the GIDEP.
Exchange Program (GIDEP) is a
cooperative data interchange among 4-15 LESSONS LEARNED
Government and Industry participants 4-15.1 THE SAFETY DATA BASE.
seeking to reduce or eliminate expenditures The safety database provides
of time and money by making maximum mechanism for recording safety related
use of existing knowledge. Relevant incidents. Data is maintained concerning
information can be found in MIL-STD- the cause and corrective actions taken to
1556, Government Industry Data Exchange preclude recurrence. Review of the
Program (GIDEP) Contractor database information provides insight on
Participation Requirements, (Ref. 50). avoiding similar incidents in future designs
GIDEP provides a means to exchange and operations.
certain types of data essential during the
life cycle of systems and equipment. 4-15.2 THE COMBAT DATABASE
GIDEP was initially established to The combat database is means of
minimize duplicate testing of parts and storing and retrieving operational combat
materials through the interchange of deficiencies. Its value lies in the fact that
environmental test data and technical operational combat situations often cannot
information among contractors and be simulated, no matter how realistic the
Government agencies involved in design, test scenario. Lessons learned from
development, and fabrication of combat situations are valuable
Government-funded equipment. considerations for future design.
Information contained within the GIDEP
storage and retrieval system includes 4-15.3 THE LOGISTIC DATABASE
environmental test reports and procedures, The logistic database provides a
reliability specifications, failure analysis means of collecting and disseminating
data, failure rate data, calibration logistics related lessons learned. It
procedures, and other technical information contains information on repair problems,
related to the application, reliability, supply, support equipment, manuals, and
quality assurance, and testing of parts and other documentation. Again, examining
related materials. To enable immediate lessons from the past will help preclude
data access, all information is computer their future occurrence.
indexed and recorded on microfilm.
Unclassified and non-proprietary test
reports and other technical information
generated by a participant are submitted to
the GIDEP Operations Center. This
information is reviewed for program
applicability, indexed for computer
retrieval, processed for microfilming, and
automatically distributed to qualified

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TABLE 4-3

DATA AVAILABLE IN GIDEP

DATA INTERCHANGE CONTENTS

Engineering Data Interchange Engineering studies, testing,


(EDI) specification preparation, data
processing and analysis, manufacturing
processes planning and selection, quality
assurance, non-stand parts justification
data

Failure Experience Data ALERTs/SAFE-ALERTs (actual or potential


Interchange (FEDI) problems with parts, components,
materials, manufacturing processes,
equipment or safety conditions),
diminishing manufacturing sources and
material shortages

Reliability and mathematical modeling and reliability,


Maintainability Data maintainability/logistics data and
Interchange (RMDI) methods

Metrology Data Interchange calibration procedures, plans, and


(MDI) methods

Bibliography
None

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REFERENCES

1. DoDR 5000.2-R, Mandatory 11. ADS-10B, Air Vehicle Technical Data,


Procedures for Major Defense Acquisition US Army Aviation Research and
Programs (MDAPs) and Major Automated Development Command, St. Louis, Mo.
Information System (MAIS) Acquisition October 1985.
Program, March 1996.
12. ADS-1B-PRF, Rotorcraft Propulsion
2. DoD 5010.12-1, Acquisition System Airworthiness Qualification
Management System and Data Requirements, Ground and Flight Test
Requirements List, periodically updated. Surveys and Demonstrations, US Army
Aviation and Troop Command, St. Louis,
3. AR-380-5, Department of the Army MO, 24 April 1996.
Information Security Program, 15 January
1991. 13. ADS-9C, Propulsion System Technical
Data, US Army Aviation Systems
4. Executive Order 12829, National Command, St. Louis, MO, April 1990.
Industrial Security Program, 6 January
1993. 14. ADS-50-PRF, Rotorcraft Propulsion
Performance and Qualification
5. DoD 5220.22-M, National Industrial Requirements and Guidelines, US Army
Security Program Operating Manual, Aviation and Troop Command, St. Louis,
January 1995. Mo. 24 April 1996.

6. DoD Directive 5230-24, Distribution 15. ADS-25, Engine Performance Data,


Statements on Technical Documents., 18 US Army Aviation Systems Command,
March 1987. St. Louis, MO, October 1984.

7. MIL-HDBK-175, Microelectronic 16. MIL-E-7016F, Analysis of Aircraft


Device Data Handbook, 1 May 1968 . Electrical Load and Power Capability,
15 April 1988.
8. MIL-HDBK-978, NASA Parts
Application Handbook, 1 March 1988. 17. MIL-W-5088L, Aerospace Vehicle
Wiring, 9 December 1992.
9. ADS-13D, Air Vehicle Materials and
Processes, US Army Aviation Systems 18. MIL-L-6730C, Aircraft Exterior
Command, St. Louis, MO., December Lighting Equipment, 14 May 1971.
1987.
19. MIL-STD-7080, Selection and
10. ADS-35, Composite Materials for Installation of Aircraft Electronic
Helicopters, US Army Aviation Systems Equipment 31 May 1994 .
Command, St. Louis, MO, May 1990.
20. MIL-STD-704E, Aircraft Electrical
Power Characteristics, 1 May 1991.

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21. MIL-STD-810E, Environmental Test 31. ADS-29, Structural Design Criteria


Methods and Engineering Guidelines, 1 for Rotary Wing Aircraft, September 1986 .
September 1993 .

22. MIL-STD-250D, Aircrew Station


Controls and Displays for Rotary Wing
Aircraft, 30 September 1988 .

23. MIL-STD-1472D, Human Engineering


Design Criteria for Military-Systems,
Equipment, and Facilities, 10 February
1994.

24. MIL-L-85762A, Aircraft Interior


Lighting--Night Vision Imaging System
(NVIS) Compatible, 26 August 1988.

25. ADS-11B, Survivability Program


Rotary Wing, US Army Aviation Systems
Command, St. Louis, MO, May 1987.

26. ADS-20A, Armament/Fire Control


System Survey,. US Army Aviation
Systems Command, St. Louis, MO, 30
August 1989.

27. MIL-STD-498, Software Development


and Documentation, 5 December 1994.

28. DoD Directive 3405.1, Computer


Programming Language Policy, 2 April
1987.

29. ADS-32, Airborne Processor


Hardware, Software, and Interfacing
Device Systems Integration, US Army
Aviation Systems Command, St. Louis,
MO, 17 November 1988.

30. ADS-40, Air Vehicle Flight


Performance Description, US Army
Aviation Systems Command, St. Louis,
MO, April 1990.

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

32. ADS-27, Requirements for Rotorcraft


Vibration Specifications, Modeling, and 41. ADS-37A-PRF, Electromagnetic
Testing, US Army Aviation Systems Environmental Effects (E3) Performance
Command, St. Louis, MO, 17 November and Verification Requirements, US Army
1986. Aviation and Troop Command, St. Louis,
MO, 28 May 1996.
33. MIL-STD-1290A, Light Fixed and
Rotary Wing Aircraft Crash Resistance, 26 42. MIL-STD-461D, Requirements for the
September 1988. Control of Electromagnetic Interference,
Emissions, and Susceptibility, 11 January
34. ADS-24, Structural Demonstration, 1993.
US Army Aviation Systems Command,
St. Louis, MO, November 1985. 43. MIL-STD-462D, Measurement of
Electromagnetic Interference
35. ADS-26, Engine Installation Data, US Characteristics, 11 January 1993 .
Army Aviation Systems Command, St.
Louis, MO, November 1986. 44. MIL-STD-882C, System Safety
Program Requirements, 19 January 1993.
36. ADS-33D, Handling Qualities
Requirements for Military Rotorcraft, US 45. ADS-31, Cartridge and Propellant
Army Aviation Systems Command, St. Actuated Devices, US Army Aviation
Louis, MO, July 1994. Systems Command, St. Louis, MO, 17
November 1986.
37. MIL-W-25140B , Weight and Balance
Control System (for Aircraft and 46. ADS-30, Human Engineering
Rotorcraft)-, 31 October 1977. Requirements for Measurement of
Operator Workload, US Army Aviation
38. MIL-STD-1374A, Weight and Balance Systems Command, St. Louis, MO,
Data Reporting Forms 17 November 1986 .

39. ADS-16A , Weight and Balance 47. MIL-T-31000, General Specification


Substantiation Report Format and for Technical Data Packages, 15
Technical Content, US Army Aviation December 1989.
Systems Command, St. Louis, MO, 12
November 1975. 48. MIL-STD-961D, Standard Practice
for Defense Specifications,
40. ADS-19, Weight and Balance Status 22 March 1995.
Report Standard -Reasons for Change
(SRFC) Format and Technical Content, US 49. MIL-M-63029, Manuals, Technical:
Army Aviation Systems Command, St. Requirements for Operator's Manuals and
Louis, MO, 6 November 1975. Checklists for Aircraft, 20 March 1991.

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50. MIL-STD-1556, Government Industry 51. Electronic Industries Association (EIA)


Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) Standard IS-649, Configuration
Contractor Participation Requirements, 24 Management, March 1996.
February 1986.

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

ABL = Allocated baseline

AIS = automated information system

AJPO = ada joint program office

AMSDL = acquisition management systems and data requirements control


list

ANSI = american national standards institute

AQP = airworthiness qualification plan

ASIC = application specific integrated circuit

ASTM = american society for testing & materials

BW = bandwidth

CALS = continuous acquisition and life-cycle support

CCB = change control board

CDR = critical design review

CDRL = contract data requirements list

CFE = contractor furnished equipment

CG = center of gravity

CI = configuration item

CID = commercial item description

CSCI = computer software configuration item

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D = with draft proposal

DAC = days after contract award

CID = commercial item description

DoD = department of defense

DODISS = department of defense (dod) index of specifications and


standards

DSSE = developmental software support environment

E3 = electromagnetic environmental effects

ECP = engineering change proposal

EDI = engineering data interchange

EEPROM = electrically erasable prom

EIA = electronic industries association

EMI = electromagnetic interference

EPROM = erasable prom

ESDD = electrical subsystem design documents

F = with final proposal

FAA = federal aviation administration

FAR = federal aviation regulation

FBL = functional baseline

FCA = functional configuration audit

FEDI = failure experience data interchage

FF = before first flight

FMECA = failure mode, effect, and criticality analysis

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GFE = government furnished equipment

GIDEP = government-industry data exchange program

HERF = hazards of elctromagnetic radiation to fuel

HERO = hazards of electomagnetic radiation to ordnance

HERP = hazards of electromagnetic radiation to personnel

HWCI = hardware configuration item

ICD = interface control document

IEE = institute of electrical and electronic engineers

IFOV = instantaneous field-of view

IPT = integrated product team

IRS = interface requirements specification

ISWDB = integrated weapon system database

LCSSE = life cycle software support environment

LSA = logistic support analsis

LSAR = logistic support analysis record

M = monthly

MAC = months after contract award

MANPRINT = manpower and personnel integration

MDI = metrology data interchange

NATO = north atlantic treaty organization

NBC = nuclear, bilogical, and chemical

NEP = noise equivalent power

NET = net equivalent temperature

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NRC = nuclear regulatory commission

NVIS = night vision imaging system

NVM = nonvolatile memory

OMB = office of management and budget

PAL = programmable logic devices

PBL = product baseline

PCA = physical configuration audit

PDL = program design language

PDR = preliminary design review

PIDS = prime item development specification

PLD = programmable logic devices

PPSL = program part selection list

PROM = programmable rom

R = responsitivity

RAM = reliability, availability, and maintainability

RMDI = reliability and maintainability data interchange

ROM = read only memory

RPSTL = repair parts and special tool list

SAE = society of automotive engineers

S/N = signal to noise

SDDD = software detailed design document

SDR = system design review

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SIE = special inspection equipment

SMD = standardized military drawings

SPP = standard practice procedure

SQPP = software quality program plan

SRFC = status report-reason for change

SRR = system requirements review

SRS = software requirements specification

SSDD = system segment design document

SSPP = system safety program plan

SSR = software specification review

SSS = system/segment specification

STANAG = standardization agreement

STD = software test description

STLDD = software top level design document

STR = software test report

TDP = technical data package

TRR = test readiness review

UUT = unit under test

VDD = version description document

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CHAPTER 5
QUALIFICATION ASSURANCE
The qualification assurance topics of hardware and software quality assurance, instru-
mentation and calibration, plans and reports approval, test witnessing, test facility validation,
simulation validation, testability, test-analyze-and-fix, procurement specifications, make or buy
planning, special tooling, standardization program, and producibility are addressed.

5-1 INTRODUCTION qualification is dependent on the ability of


This chapter introduces and explains hardware quality assurance to duplicate the
the aspects of hardware and software quality critical characteristics of the qualified article
assurance and their relationships to the air- in production units. The program should be
worthiness qualification process. Common conducted in a manner that assures adequate
elements of the quality assurance program quality throughout all areas of contract per-
are the tasks of determining, ensuring, formance, such as manufacturing, process-
documenting, and maintaining contractual ing, assembly, inspection, test, packaging
*
specification compliance. The objectives of and shipping. All supplies and services un-
qualification assurance are to provide a true der the contract, whether manufactured or
and factual assessment confirming critical performed in the contractor’s plant or at any
system characteristics and to provide ade- other location, should be controlled by the
quate information and controls in order to contractor by means to be defined by the
duplicate the items in the required quantities contractor. In general, management stan-
and have each possess the same critical dards should not be specified in Government
characteristics as the items that underwent solicitations.
the original qualification process. Proper The quality program, including pro-
application of these considerations allows cedures, processes, and product, should be
smooth transition from development to pro- documented by the contractor and subject to
duction with minimal effort or duplication of review by the Government.
activities.
5-2.1 QUALITY ASSURANCE
5-2 HARDWARE QUALITY PROGRAM ELEMENTS
ASSURANCE PROGRAM Table 5-1 provides a list and de-
The objectives of a hardware quality scription of typical elements of quality
assurance program are to ensure that con-
tractor-developed and -produced hardware
items meet specification requirements. The
*
program applies to all activities conducted American Society of Quality Control (ASQC)
under the contract. The Hardware Quality Q9000 series standards (Refs. 1 through 5) and sta-
tistical process control rather than inspection and test
Assurance Program (HQAP) complements
are favored for future contracts. An advanced quality
the objectives of the airworthiness qualifica- system (AQS), such as “Design for Six-Sigma
tion program. Determination of safe per- Manufacturability”, should be considered. There-
formance capability and operating limits for fore, ASQC Q9000 series standards (Refs. 1 through
production air vehicles by airworthiness 5) and other advanced quality systems may be substi-
tuted for the quality system described in this chapter.
Six-Sigma Manufacturability is an advanced quality
system, which differs from a traditional quality sys-
tem by emphasizing prevention of defects rather than
after-the-fact detection of defects.

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TABLE 5-1. TYPICAL QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM ELEMENTS

ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
Quality Program Management Organization
Initial quality planning
Work instructions
Records
Corrective action
Costs related to quality
Facilities and Standards Drawings, documentation, and changes
Measuring and testing equipment
Production tooling
Inspection equipment
Advanced metrology and requirements
Control of Purchases Responsibility
Supplier control
Purchasing Data
Manufacturing Control Materials and materials control
Production processing and fabrication
Completed item inspection and testing
Handling, storage, and delivery
Nonconforming material
Statistical quality control and analysis
Indication of inspection status
Coordinated Government and Government inspection at subcontractor or vendor facilities
Contractor Actions Government property

assurance. Contractors should be encour- are usually used to document the results of
aged to propose commercial means to satisfy inspections and tests and indicate the ac-
these elements. ceptability of work or products and the ac-
The quality program management tion taken in connection with deficiencies.
element prescribes typical means for effec- Corrective actions result from the discovery
tive management of the quality function. of situations that could result in delivery of
The organization and methods used for the defective supplies, services, technical data,
quality function are prescribed by the con- standards, or other elements of contract per-
tractor. Typically these are determined formance and could create excessive losses,
through initial quality planning. Early in the delays, or cost. The final aspect of quality
contract, the contractor conducts a complete management could include maintenance and
review of contract requirements to determine use of quality cost data.
the needs for special controls, processes, test The facilities and standards element
equipment, fixtures, tooling, and skills re- typically deals with establishing and main-
quired to assure product quality. Work in- taining baseline information against which
structions often provide the criteria needed product performance can be compared. Pro-
to perform the work functions and to super- cedures should be established to assure the
vise, inspect, and manage work. Records adequacy, completeness, and currentness of

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

drawings and related technical data. Inspec-


tion and test equipment should be calibrated 5-2.2 QUALITY ASSURANCE
routinely to ensure that it meets the require- PROGRAM INCORPORATION
ments for accuracy, repeatability, and trace- The contractors should be required to
ability. Accuracy standards and inspection identify in their proposals the applicable
criteria should also be established for pro- hardware quality assurance program and
duction tooling that is used as inspection standards. The same requirements should be
media. included in the Airworthiness Qualification
The control of purchases element Specification (AQS). Any unique require-
typically addresses the need to ensure that ments applicable to the program may also be
supplies and services procured by a contrac- addressed in the contract or AQS. If no re-
tor from his vendors and suppliers conform quirement for a Quality Assurance Program
to contract requirements. It should be the exists in the contract, critical elements of the
contractor's responsibility to ensure that program should be specified in the AQS.
qualified suppliers are selected, that quality These requirements should be sufficiently
requirements are transmitted to the suppli- detailed to identify the required tasks
ers, that adequacy of procured items is clearly.
evaluated, and that provisions for early in-
formation feedback and correction of non- 5-3 SOFTWARE QUALITY
conformances are established. In the pro- The objectives Of a Software Quality
posal the contractor should be required to Assurance Program should be to ensure that
identify the means by which these respon- all software developed and produced by the
sibilities will be satisfied. contractor satisfy critical characteristics and
The manufacturing control element meet performance requirements. The scope
deals with incoming inspection of material, of the Software Quality Assurance Program
production processing and fabrication, applies to all activities performed under the
handling, storage and delivery, control of contract and includes deliverable and non-
nonconforming material, statistical quality deliverable software, embedded software,
control, and indication of inspection status. and software support. The Software Quality
Receiving inspections assess the acceptabil- Assurance Program complements the objec-
ity of incoming material. In the proposal the tives of the airworthiness qualification pro-
contractor should be required to identify the gram. Determination of the safe perform-
means by which the needed controls will be ance capability and operating limits for pro-
satisfied. duction air vehicles by airworthiness qualifi-
The coordinated Government and cation is dependent on the ability of software
contractor actions element addresses Gov- quality assurance to duplicate the critical
ernment inspection at subcontractor or ven- characteristics of the qualified article in the
dor facilities and the procedures for Gov- production units. The critical characteristics
ernment-furnished material. To assist the of software include functions, logic, timing,
Government representative at the contrac- and both human/software and hard-
tor's facility, the Government may inspect ware/software interfaces that influence op-
supplies or services at their source. When erational control. Airworthiness degrades if
material is furnished by the Government, the operational control causes improper re-
contract should establish procedures to ex- sponse to inputs, does not respond to inputs,
amine, inspect, test, and identify the mate- or allows hazardous conditions to exist. The
rial.

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contractor’s software quality program quired format and that each document
should ensure the quality of complies with the contract.
1. Deliverable software and its The Evaluation of the Processes
documentation Used in Software Development element
2. The processes used to produce could include an ongoing evaluation of
deliverable software software management, evaluation of soft-
3. Nondeliverable software. ware engineering, evaluation of software
Contractors should be required to define in system safety, evaluation of software quali-
their proposals and specifications the means fication, evaluation of software configura-
by which they will satisfy these objectives. tion management, evaluation of software
Ultimately, the contractor should be respon- corrective actions, evaluation of documenta-
sible for quality and performance. Several tion and media distribution, evaluation of
related commercial standardization docu- storage, handling, and delivery, and evalua-
ments are ASQC Q9001, Quality Systems— tion of other processes used in software de-
Model for Quality Assurance in Design, De- velopment.
velopment, Production, and Servicing, (Ref. The Evaluation of the Software De-
2) and IEEE STD 1298/SAA 3563.1, Soft- velopment Library element could be ac-
ware Quality Management System, (Ref. 6). complished by ensuring that
1. The library and its operation
5-3.1 SOFTWARE QUALITY comply with the contract and adhere to the
ASSURANCE PROGRAM ELEMENTS software plans
Table 5-2 identifies and describes 2. The most recent authorized ver-
typical elements of a Software Quality As- sion of materials under configuration control
surance Program. The contractor(s) should is clearly identified and is the one routinely
be encouraged to propose commercial means available from the library
to satisfy these elements. 3. The previous version of materials
The first element of a Software under configuration control is clearly identi-
Quality Assurance Program relates to fied and controlled to provide an audit trail
Evaluation of Software. This could be that permits reconstruction of all changes
achieved through ongoing evaluations of all made to each configuration item.
software to assure that The Evaluation of Nondevelopmen-
1. The software complies with the tal Software element could be accomplished
contract requirements, and emphasis is by assuring that
placed on reliability and software system 1. Objective evidence exists prior to
safety. its incorporation that it performs its required
2. The software adheres to the functions reliably and safely.
overall integrated plan. 2. It was placed under internal con-
The Evaluation of Software Docu- figuration control prior to its incorporation.
mentation element could entail an evaluation 3. The data rights provisions are
of the software portion of the integrated plan consistent with the contract.
to ensure it complies with the contract, with The Evaluation of Nondeliverable
other software plans, and with system-level Software element could be accomplished by
requirements. It could include the evalua-
tion of other software documentation to en-
sure that each document adheres to the re-

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TABLE 5-2. TYPICAL SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM ELEMENTS

ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
Evaluation of Software Assurance that
Software bears no adverse sy stem safety impact.
Software complies with co ntract.
Software adheres to software plans.
Evaluation of Software Documentation Evaluation of software plans
Software plan compliance with contract
Software plan consistency with other software plans and
with system-level plans
Evaluation of Processes Used in Software Evaluation of
Development Software management
Software engineering
Software system safety
Software qualification
Software configuration manag ement
Software corrective actions
Documentation and media distr ibution
Storage, handling, and delivery
Other processes used in sof tware development
Evaluation of the Sof tware Development Assurance that
Library Library and operation comply with the contract and plans.
Most recent authorized version of materials under con-
figuration control are identified and avai lable.
Previous versions of materials under configuration control are
identified for audit trail pu rposes.
Evaluation of Nondevelo pmental Software Assurance that
Nondevelopmental software performs required func-tions r e-
liably and safely.
Nondevelopmental software was placed under internal co n-
figur ation control prior to use.
Data rights provis ions are co nsistent with contract.
Evaluation of Nondelive rable Software Assurance that
Software performs required functions.
Software was placed under internal configuration con-trol
prior to use.
Evaluation of Deliverable Elements of the Assurance that deliverable el ements
Software Engineering and Test Environ- Comply with contract and sof tware plans
ments Perform required functions r eliably and safely
Place under configuration co ntrol prior to use
Data right provisions are co nsistent with contract
Evaluation of Subcontra ctor Management Assurance that
Subcontractor-developed software and documentation satisfy
prime contract requirement.
Baseline requirements for subcontractor are estab-lished and
maintained.
Software quality program requirements are imposed on su b-
contractor.
Access for contractor review at subcontractor’s facility.
Contracting agency has right to review subcontractor.

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TABLE 5-2. (Cont’d)

ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
Evaluations Associated With Acce ptance Assurance that
Inspection and Preparat ion for D elivery All required software products are available for review.
All required procedures have been performed.
All deliverables have been updated to reflect all ap-proved
changes.
Participation in Formal Reviews and Audits Assurance that all review products are available and that all
required preparations have been made.
Presentation of evaluation of status and quality of each
development product.
Assurance that all action items resulting from review have been
performed.

evaluation of each nondeliverable software able to the contracting agency satisfy the
item used in the automated manufacturing of prime contract requirements.
deliverable hardware or in the qualification 2. A set of baseline requirements is
or acceptance of deliverable software, or established and maintained for the software
hardware could be evaluated to ensure that to be developed by the subcontractor.
1. Objective evidence exists prior to 3. Applicable software quality pro-
its intended use that it performs the required gram requirements are included or refer-
functions. enced in the subcontract or purchase docu-
2. It was placed under internal con- ments for the subcontractor.
figuration control prior to its use. 4. Access is available for contractor
The Evaluation of Deliverable Ele- reviews at subcontractor and vendor facili-
ments of the Software Engineering and Test ties.
Environments element could be accom- 5. The contracting agency has the
plished by the contractor's evaluation of right to review all software products and ac-
each deliverable element of the software tivities required by the subcontract at the
engineering and test environment to assure subcontractor facilities to determine compli-
that ance with the subcontract.
1. It complies with the contract and The Evaluations Associated With
adheres to the software plans. Acceptance Inspection and Preparation for
2. Objective evidence exists prior to Delivery element could be accomplished by
its use that it performs required functions. the contractor to assure that
3. It was placed under internal con- 1. All required software products are
figuration control prior to its use. available and ready for contracting agency
4. The data rights provisions are inspection.
consistent with the contract. 2. All required procedures have been
The Evaluation of Subcontractor performed and evidence of satisfactory
Management element could entail the con- completion of these procedures is available
tractor's evaluation of all subcontractor ac- for contracting agency inspection.
tivity to assure that 3. All deliverable software and
1. All subcontractor-developed documentation have been updated to reflect
software and related documentation deliver all changes approved by the contracting
agency and scheduled for inclusion.

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The final element, Participation in fied conditions. The presence of this value
Formal Reviews and Audits, could require provides the basis for determining that a
that specification requirement has been met and
1. Prior to each review and audit, the therefore forms a basis for airworthiness
contractor assures that all required products qualification.
will be available and ready for contracting
agency review and that all required prepara- 5-4.1 INSTRUMENTATION PLANS
tions have been made. AND REVIEWS
2. At each formal review and audit A separate instrumentation plan
the contractor presents an evaluation of the should not be required by the PA; however,
status and quality of each of the develop- instrumentation requirements should be in-
ment products reviewed. cluded in the contract and Airworthiness
3. Following each formal review and Qualification Specification. The contractor
audit, the contractor assures that all soft- should be responsible for data reduction and
ware-related action items assigned to the analysis, which the PA should review and
contractor have been performed. approve. The criteria for instrumentation
selection includes tradeoffs between instru-
5-3.2 SOFTWARE QUALITY mentation cost, required accuracy, facility
ASSURANCE PROGRAM use and availability, and data reduction and
INCORPORATION processing requirements. The contractor’s
Just as with Hardware Quality As- proposal should detail its data collection
surance Program requirements, Software methods, proposed flight instrumentation
Quality Assurance Program requirements equipment, data reduction and processing
may be specified by reference in the con- requirements, and the proposed data reduc-
tract, system specification, or AQS. Any tion facilities equipment. Also the proposal
unique requirements applicable to the pro- and system specification should address the
gram may also be addressed in the contract, extent to which built-in test equipment
system specification, or AQS. If no re- (BITE) onboard the air vehicle will be used
quirement for a Quality Assurance Program as well as the requirements for external in-
exists in the contract, critical elements of the strumentation. Differences in instrumenta-
program should be specified in the AQS tion requirements during various test phases
should also be addressed.
5-4 INSTRUMENTATION AND Instrumentation reviews should be
CALIBRATION FOR TESTING conducted when instrumentation issues are
Instrumentation is the means by sufficiently complex to warrant direct inter-
which physical variables are measured. It is face between Government and contractor
comprised of sensors and data transmitting, personnel. Such issues might involve the
receiving, displaying and recording equip- use of Government facilities or the require-
ment. Calibration procedures involve a ment for highly specialized instrumentation.
comparison of the particular instrument with A thorough review of demonstration re-
(1) a primary standard, (2) a secondary stan- quirements is necessary to identify the pa-
dard with a higher accuracy than the instru- rameters to be measured and the instrumen-
ment being calibrated, or (3) a known input tation methods to be used for measurement.
source. The objective of instrumentation An integral part of this review is identifica-
and calibration is to collect evidence that a tion of the accuracy requirements for meas-
characteristic value is present under speci- urements since these will drive the com-

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plexity, sophistication, and cost of the in- as the data is being gathered, or it may be
strumentation system. performed after the test. Real-time data
processing has the advantage of providing
5-4.2 FLIGHT TEST immediate feedback on test progress and
INSTRUMENTATION results and allows for a quick reaction to test
Air vehicle flight test instrumenta- progress. This advantage can greatly reduce
tion typically records air vehicle attitudes, the need for test time and facilities by allow-
rates, accelerations, pitot-static data, tem- ing on-the-spot correction of problems or
peratures, flow rates, and human-factors- other intervention by test personnel during
related parameters. Typical instrumentation the test. Certain data reduction processing
sensors include accelerometers, strain gages, requirements may be so computationally
temperature and pressure sensors, flow sen- intensive that they can be performed only
sors, position sensors, vibration sensors, and after completion of the test.
audio- and video-sensing devices. In addi- It is essential that prior to the test the
tion, instrumentation may be provided to data collection and processing system be
record cockpit switch settings and flight validated to ensure that valid results are gen-
crew activity. Output of electronic displays erated. Validity of data is determined by
may be recorded for analysis of system per- comparing data processing results with in-
formance. For onboard digital communica- dependently generated or determined data.
tion busses, bus monitoring devices monitor
and record bus traffic. The monitoring may 5-4.3 RANGE INSTRUMENTATION
be selective, in which case only specific Range instrumentation includes
types of bus messages are monitored, or it time-, space-, and position-information sen-
may capture all bus activity. sors; transponders; and range-time receivers.
Signals from sensors are passed Specialized range instruments are also used
through signal-conditioning circuits, such as to determine air vehicle acoustic, optical,
amplifiers and filters, prior to recording. infrared, and radar signatures. Instrumented
Recording may be performed onboard the targets, both moving and stationary, are re-
air vehicle or on the ground with telemetry quired to perform weapon system effective-
devices used to communicate the data from ness testing. The instrumentation system
the air vehicle to the ground. Often, a com- should be able to provide time-tagged in-
bination of both recording methods is used. formation relative to target position, veloc-
The recording medium may be either mag- ity, and acceleration. Meteorological condi-
netic (tape or disk), solid-state (flash mem- tions at the target area, such as visibility
ory, random access memory (SRAM), eras- conditions (which include both naturally oc-
able programmable read-only memory curring and man-made obscurants), tempera-
(EPROM)), or optical. Data may be re- ture, precipitation conditions, and atmos-
corded in either analog or digital formats. pheric attenuation at the specific wavelength
Digital recording allows the application of of the sensors under test should be recorded.
digital signal processing techniques, which Instrumentation should also be provided that
greatly enhance the capability for later data will allow determination of weapon impact
reduction. or weapon miss distances in both the cross-
Data processing is the activity that range and downrange directions. For tests
turns raw data into results, which may be involving missiles, the missiles may also be
compared with performance requirements. instrumented.
Processing may take place in real time, i.e.,

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5-4.4 CALIBRATION 5-5 APPROVAL OF PLANS AND


REQUIREMENTS REPORTS
Calibration should be performed to Plans and reports undergo approval
ensure the accuracy of the instrumentation. cycles internally within both the contractor's
The contractor should be required to estab- organization and the Government.
lish and maintain a system to calibrate all Internally the plan or report is pre-
measuring and test equipment used in the pared by the originating organization and
fulfillment of contractual requirements. The signed off by those organizations or indi-
contractor should identify in its proposal the viduals having review or approval respon-
calibration standards to be used for perform- sibility.
ance of the contract. ISO 10012-1, Quality The contract data requirements list
Assurance Requirements for Measuring, (CDRL) specifies the nature of the approval
(Ref. 7) and ANSI Z540-1, Laboratories, required for all data submittals including
Calibration, and Measuring Test Equip- plans and reports. The objectives of the ap-
ment, (Ref. 8) are considered satisfactory proval of the plans and reports are to
commercial standards, and there could be 1. Ensure that the contractor submits
others. Measurement standards used by the those documents in accordance with the re-
contractor to calibrate measurement and test quirements of the contract
equipment should be traceable to a specific 2. Ensure that the appropriate Gov-
standard and have the accuracy, stability, ernment personnel can determine and docu-
range, and resolution required for its in- ment the contractor’s accomplishment of
tended use. If targets are used for weapon contractual requirements.
system effectiveness testing and their spe- Generically, plans and reports submitted to
cific condition at the time of the test is sig- the Government for approval are distributed
nificant to the test outcome, these targets within the Government to the appropriate
should be calibrated also. For example, if engineering and program management per-
thermal bar pattern targets are used to test sonnel. They prepare their comments and
thermal imaging system performance char- submit them to the individual with primary
acteristics, they should be calibrated so that technical responsibility for the subject mat-
target conditions at the time of the test are ter covered by the plan or report. That in-
well understood. Similarly, if the test in- dividual collects Government inputs and
volves electromagnetic measurements, it is consolidates them after resolving any poten-
necessary to calibrate the test equipment to tial conflicting comments. Plans and reports
the electromagnetic environment at the time may be approved as submitted, approved
of the test in order to understand properly subject to the incorporation of Government
the environmental effects on test results. comments, or rejected if the document is not
responsive to Government requirements.
Government comments to plans and reports
are forwarded to the contractor via the con-
tractual channel. If the contractor is required
to correct deficiencies identified in the plans
and reports, the procuring agency typically
will specify a required response time for
their correction.
Usually, test plan and report prepa-
ration, coordination, and approval generate

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many draft versions with errors and omis- vey, or demonstration and prior to compo-
sions. Thus controlled release of test plans nent or subsystem disassembly following
and reports by a document control activity same, the test coordinator designated by the
provides a source of known version(s) of the procuring activity shall be notified in suffi-
documents approved for use. This proce- cient time to witness the test or disassembly.
dure assures that the correct tests are per- If the test interpretation requires specific
formed and that an accurate record of the engineering knowledge, the test coordinator
test conducted and its results are available to shall be notified by the contractor a mini-
document the qualification. mum of five (5) working days prior to the
test. No designated test will be conducted
5-6 TEST WITNESSING without the test coordinator or his represen-
The test witness is responsible for tative being present. Deviation from these
reviewing the plans of test(s) and the con- procedures is subject to case-by-case ap-
tract requirements (system specifications, proval of the procuring activity.
etc.) and for being familiar all aspects of the The test coordinator should be re-
test(s) to be witnessed. As a Government sponsible for ensuring that a qualified wit-
representative, the test witness is responsible ness is present during the important phases
for verifying the contractor's test report. As of a test program. For tests that are consid-
early as possible, the witness should inform ered a significant part of the qualification
the test coordinator of any special require- program, the test witness(es) generally
ments in the areas that follow (if applicable): should be provided by the procuring activ-
1. Specific documentation and data, ity.
e.g., plans, reports, and drawings, that will
be used in witnessing activities 5-7 TEST FACILITY VALIDATION
2. Special briefings unique to his The objective of test facility valida-
areas of interest tion is to assure that the contractor's test fa-
3. Portion of the test to be wit- cility is adequate for achieving its airworthi-
nessed. ness qualification functions. The criteria
The test witness should review and counter- used to establish a requirement for test facil-
sign the test report prepared by the contrac- ity validation depends on the extent to which
tor. This constitutes verification of the the airworthiness qualification objectives are
scope and details of the test and that the test dependent on the adequacy of the test facil-
was conducted with or without deviations ity and the degree of previous use of the
from the Government-approved test plans. facility by the contractor for similar pur-
It does not necessarily indicate concurrence poses.
in the conclusions presented. The witness or Generally, a test facility may be vali-
observer should provide an evaluation of the dated by defining its intended function and
test to the test coordinator and should also showing evidence that it is properly
discuss any requirements for special witness- equipped and staffed for that intended func-
ing reports with the coordinator. tion. Equipment considerations should in-
A generic AQS requirement for test clude test fixtures, stimulus capabilities,
witnessing follows: measurement capabilities, data pro-cessing
Based on the contractor's master test capabilities, tools, support equipment, inter-
schedule, the procuring agency will desig- face equipment, and suitability of the facility
nate those tests that require Government to conduct flight-test operations.
witnessing. Prior to any required test, sur-

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Staffing considerations should in- tion or model is intended to be used for or to


clude appropriate engineering and technical replace qualification data.
personnel to set up, perform, and analyze Simulation validation requirements
test activities. are also dependent on the degree of abstrac-
An example of a typical Airworthi- tion between the real-world item being
ness Qualification Specification (AQS) re- modeled and the simulation. The greater the
quirement for test facility validation follows: degree of abstraction, the greater the number
“The contractor shall conduct a test and types of simplifying assumptions are
facility validation for [name of test facility] made about the real world in order to con-
for the purpose of providing objective evi- sider only the most fundamental variables
dence that the facility is suitable for achiev- and their interactions.
ing the airworthiness qualification objectives Simulation validation requires exer-
of [name of test]. The validation shall in- cising the simulation over as wide a range of
clude a complete description of the facility possible conditions and the confirmation
to include intended uses, test fixture de- from independent data and analysis that the
scriptions and capacities, stimulus capabili- simulation yields valid results. Simulations
ties, measurement capability, data process- used to predict design performance and used
ing capabilities, and interfacing equipment. for qualification purposes may also require
The validation will also describe specific verification of model data versus measured
tests conducted to demonstrate that the fa- data and may require accreditation by a third
cility is capable of producing valid results.” party.
Types of facilities that may require Several different methods may be
validation include whirl towers, engine test used to validate simulations. They include
facilities, wind tunnels, dynamic component expert consensus, comparison with test data,
integration facilities, electronic component peer review, and independent review.
integration facilities, and hardware/software A general simulation validation re-
integration facilities. quirement for incorporation into an AQS is
as follows:
5-8 SIMULATION VALIDATION “The contractor shall prepare a
Simulations and their role in the air- simulation validation for [name of simula-
worthiness qualification process are dis- tion]. The validation shall describe the air-
cussed in detail in Chapter 6. The objective worthiness objective to be accomplished by
of simulation validation is to show that the the simulation. It shall also describe the
simulation adequately represents the system simplifying assumptions inherent in the
being modeled with respect to the critical simulation and their impact on results. The
characteristics under consideration by the contractor shall provide a comparison of
simulation. The criteria used to establish simulation data and independently obtained
simulation validation requirements depend data to demonstrate that the simulation
on the extent to which the contractor intends yields valid results.”
to use simulation activities to fulfill airwor-
thiness qualification objectives. For exam-
ple, a simulation intended to be used to pre-
dict performance during the concept explo-
ration phase will generally require less data
to substantiate validation than if the simula-

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5-9 TESTABILITY accessibility of test points. If the specific


Testability is a characteristic of de- system components that provide a function
sign that allows the status—operable, inop- are grouped together, the loss of that func-
erable, or degraded—of an item to be de- tion should be readily attributed to the fail-
termined and the isolation of faults within ure of the grouping providing that function.
the item to be performed in a timely manner. Generally, if the components providing the
Testability may be achieved through the function are widely distributed throughout
combination of external resources, such as the system, isolation of the fault becomes
automatic test equipment (ATE), and inter- much more complicated and ambiguous. If
nal capability, such as self-diagnostics and functions are separated, a component failure
built-in test (BIT). is likely to affect only one function rather
MIL-STD-2165, Testability Program than multiple functions. Again, this ap-
for Systems and Equipments, (Ref. 9) or an proach yields a more testable design. Ample
equivalent handbook, may be used as a test points should be provided throughout a
guide to testability requirements (including system. These testability features provide
BIT), testability analysis, prediction and benefits in both an operational environment
evaluation, and preparation of testability and the course of the airworthiness qualifi-
documentation; however, the standard cation process by providing a means to
should not be specified or referenced in so- identify system mission performance capa-
licitations. Tasks described in this standard bility.
are intended to be tailored to the particular
needs of the system or equipment acquisi- 5-9.2 AUTOMATIC TEST
tion program. Testability requirements EQUIPMENT (ATE)
should be based on mission needs and sys- The concept of ATE is to permit
tem performance requirements. Also test- automatic test and diagnostic of equipment
ability requirements should be closely linked while minimizing manual test requirements.
to logistic and maintainability performance The objective of ATE testability is to ensure
requirements. The contractor should be re- that an item (usually electronic in nature)
quired to identify in the proposal the means can be tested outside the system in which it
to be used to satisfy the testability require- is installed by automatic test equipment. To
ments. accomplish this, the item should be able to
DARCOM-P 34-1, Built-in-Test De- accept stimulus from an outside source and
sign Guide, (Ref. 10) presents the fundamen- provide the necessary response. By provid-
tals of BIT, provides an overview of the dif- ing appropriate stimulus and analyzing the
ferent approaches and requirements avail- response, the ATE is able to determine the
able to the designer and the acquisition man- status of the item and, if the item is degraded
ager, and discusses standardized methods or failed, isolate the failure to permit repair.
used to evaluate these different approaches. The advantages of ATE testability over BIT
are that it usually allows a greater number of
5-9.1 GENERAL TESTABILITY parameters to be tested and results in a lower
FEATURES initial hardware cost because the test cir-
Testability should be achieved cuitry does not have to be included in every
through incorporation of appropriate design item produced. An ATE testability capabil-
features to allow for fault detection and iso- ity furthers the airworthiness qualification
lation. Such features should include func- objectives by allowing determination that an
tional grouping, separation of functions, and item meets performance requirements at all

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

stages of development and use—during the electromagnetic (eddy current) testing to in-
development stage, when it is produced, af- spect welds, measure coating thickness, and
ter storage, and after repair. determine electrical conductivity; ultrasonic
testing; ultrasonic contact inspection of
5-9.3 SELF-DIAGNOSTICS AND weldments; radiographic inspections; ultra-
BUILT-IN TEST (BIT) sonic adhesive bond testing; temper etch in-
Self-diagnostics and built-in test re- spection; fluorescent penetrant methods;
fer to the capability to determine the opera- magnetic particle methods; and halogen leak
tional status of an item while installed in the detection methods.
system. BIT may be of a continuous nature The use of NDTE should be inte-
or initiated by the operator or maintainer. grated into the design process to ensure that
Continuous, or on-line, BIT places demands the materials, manufacturing techniques, and
on the system and should therefore be lim- other design characteristics are compatible
ited to immediate detection of critical func- with the NDTE techniques used to monitor
tions. Operator- or maintainer-initiated, off- the integrity of flight-critical parts.
line, BIT is usually used for fault isolation
purposes. Advantages of BIT capability 5-10 TEST-ANALYZE-FIX-TEST
over ATE testability include the fact that (TAFT)
BIT allows instantaneous performance The test-analyze-fix-test (TAFT)
monitoring; eases the burden on the opera- sometimes also referred to as “test-analyze-
tor; reduces the requirements for shop fa- and-fix” (TAAF), is central to the qualifica-
cilities, equipment, and personnel; and gen- tion process. Airworthiness qualification is
erally reduces life cycle cost. more than just testing and reporting the re-
Properly designed and functioning sults, good or bad. The TAFT principles
BIT contributes to the objectives of the air- ensure that the qualification program not
worthiness qualification process by assuring only uncovers deficiencies in a system but
that the system is performing acceptably also provides a mechanism for identification
during development, during operation, and and incorporation of fixes required to com-
after repair. plete and pass qualification. TAFT require-
ments should be included in Airworthiness
5-9.4 NONDESTRUCTIVE TEST AND Qualification Plans (AQP) and Airworthi-
EVALUATION (NDTE) ness Qualification Specifications.
The objective of nondestructive test A TAFT program identifies and cor-
and evaluation is to determine the integrity rects performance-related problems or defi-
of parts by measurement or inspection with- ciencies and reliability problems. Integral to
out damage or destruction. The test is in- TAFT is a closed-loop data collection sys-
tended to reveal conditions at or beneath the tem that captures the circumstances of oc-
exterior surface of a part or material that currence of the problem or deficiency. The
cannot be evaluated solely by visual exami- appropriate contractor organization is as-
nation with or without magnification or by signed the responsibility to identify the
dimensional measurement. In general, cause of the problem or deficiency and to
NDTE should be used to determine the develop the necessary corrective action.
condition of materials, whereas BIT and Upon incorporation of the corrective action,
ATE should be used to determine the condi- the performance of the system is monitored
tion and functionality of electronics. NDTE to ensure that the problem does not recur.
techniques include but are not limited to

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION HANDBOOK

Periodic reporting to the Government The Department of Defense (DoD)


provides the procuring activity with visibil- no longer specifies detailed military process
ity of development status and potential specifications and standards in its contracts
problem areas. TAFT is applicable through- and solicitations without an appropriate
out all phases of the airworthiness qualifica- waiver. It is DoD policy to use international
tion effort from initial design model activi- and domestic non-Government specifica-
ties through component and subsystem tions and standards to the maximum extent
qualification to system-level qualification possible instead of federal and military
efforts. The effectiveness of TAFT is en- specifications and standards. Perfor-mance
hanced by ensuring that test conditions and specifications should be developed in pref-
operating profiles reflect intended operating erence to detailed specifications. For any
conditions to the maximum extent possible. pro-cess, practice, or method that is de-
Ideally, corrective actions should be scribed by a non-Government standard used
incorporated as soon as they are developed by commercial firms, DoD activities should
and available. This should allow the best use the non-Government standard instead of
opportunity to determine that the corrective developing or revising a DoD standard. If a
action has (1) fixed the problem that necessi- suitable non-Government standard is not
tated the action and (2) not introduced any available, DoD activities should consider
unintended problems or deficiencies. working with industry on a technical com-
Schedule constraints, however, often dictate mittee to develop a new standard or revise
that test activities continue even though an existing non-Government standard.
known fixes have not yet been incorporated. Handbooks have replaced a number of stan-
This is usually the result of insufficient test dards, but they should be used only as
hardware or other test resources. From a guides. Additional information concerning
cost and management standpoint it may be specifications, standards, and handbooks is
desirable to incorporate fixes in blocks as in the subparagraphs that follow.
opposed to one at a time. This, however,
could lead to a significant lag between fix 5-11.1 SPECIFICATIONS
identification and fix incorporation. Too MIL-STD-961, Department of De-
long a lag could greatly reduce the effec- fense Standard Practice for Defense Specifi-
tiveness and benefits of the TAFT. Specific cations, (Ref. 12) establishes the format,
contractual requirements should be estab- content, and procedure for the preparation of
lished to limit the amount of lag in fix in- performance specifications and associated
corporation. The criteria used to determine documents prepared either by Government
how quickly a fix should be incorporated activities or under contract.
include the severity or criticality of the Requirements in performance speci-
problem, the extent of effort required to fications should describe what is required
identify the cause, the extent of effort re- and the form, fit, or function of the item.
quired to develop the corrective action, the Interface requirements that are not ade-
extent of effort required to incorporate the quately defined by form, fit, and function
corrective action, and the impact of incorpo- should also be included. Performance
rating the corrective action into other ongo- specifications should not describe how a re-
ing test activities. quirement is to be achieved, require the use
of specific materials or parts, or give de-
5-11 DEFENSE SPECIFICATIONS, tailed design or construction requirements
STANDARDS, AND HANDBOOKS beyond those needed to ensure interchange-

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

ability with existing items. For a general ing a design criteria standard should be con-
specification to be designated a sidered.
“performance specification”, the require- DoD design criteria standards should
ments in its associated specification, specifi- be developed to specify military-unique de-
cation sheets, or MS sheets should also be sign or functional criteria that must be ad-
stated as performance requirements. hered to during development of systems,
“Detailed specifications” may consist subsystems, equipments, assemblies, com-
of all detailed requirements or a blend of ponents, items, or parts. These design crite-
perfor-mance and detailed requirements. To ria are not primarily related to requirements
the greatest extent possible, detailed specifi- that affect interchangeability, interoperabil-
cations should be in terms of performance. ity, interconnection, compatibility, or com-
They should specify materials, design or munications. Adherence to these design
construction requirements, or “how to” re- criteria standards, however, will affect the
quirements only to the extent necessary to manufacturing of a product. Some examples
ensure the adequacy, safety, and inter- include military-unique design selection,
changeability of the item being acquired. nuclear blast protection, safety requirements,
and human factors requirements.
5-11.2 STANDARDS DoD standard practices should be
MIL-STD-962, Department of De- developed when it is necessary to specify
fense Standard Practice for Defense Stan- procedures on how to conduct nonmanufac-
dards and Handbooks, (Ref. 11) provides turing functions. Standard practices should
definitions and format and content direction. be developed only for services that, at least
DoD standards should be prepared only some of the time, are obtained via contract
when it is necessary to capture military- from private sector firms. Standard prac-
unique requirements. Non-Government tices should not be used if non-Government
standards should be used to describe com- standards are the typical commercial vehicle
mercial or industry practices, processes, and used to procure a particular type of service.
methods. There are five types of DoD- Test method standards should be de-
prepared standards: interface standards, veloped to specify specific test methods,
standard practices, test method standards, procedures, or protocols. Military test
manufacturing process standards, and design method standards should reflect test meth-
criteria standards. ods that are unique to the DoD such as tests
DoD interface standards should be for the high levels of shock encountered in
developed to specify the physical, func- the landing of an air vehicle on an aircraft
tional, or military operational environment carrier. A DoD test method standard should
interface characteristics of systems, subsys- be developed only if it reflects a military-
tems, equipments, assemblies, components, unique requirement.
items, or parts to permit interchangeability, The DoD strongly discourages de-
interconnection, interoperability, compati- velopment of manufacturing process stan-
bility, or communications. Many, if not dards. The role for DoD process standards
most, standards have interface elements. To is limited to situations in which the DoD
be designated an interface standard, estab- alone has the technological expertise to
lishing mandatory interface requirements specify a military-unique process.
should be the primary function of the docu- The DoD also strongly discourages
ment. If interface criteria are just one of development of management process stan-
many design criteria requirements, develop- dards. It is not the policy of the DoD to

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION HANDBOOK

create standard management approaches decisions are primarily affordability and cost
across all programs and all contractors. related. As such, make or buy plans and
Contractors should be allowed the flexibility decisions do not affect airworthiness qualifi-
to manage programs in innovative ways that cation decisions. It is primarily a program
can improve quality, reduce costs, and intro- issue. See FAR Subpart 15.7, Make or Buy
duce the latest technological advances. Programs, (Ref. 14) and DFAR Subpart
215.7, Make or Buy Programs, (Ref. 15).
5-11.3 HANDBOOKS
MIL-STD-962, Department of De- 5-13 SPECIAL TOOLING
fense Standard Practice for Defense Stan- One of the critical functions in assur-
dards and Handbooks, (Ref. 11) provides ing repeatability in the manufacturing and
definitions and format and content direction assembly cycle is tool control. The tools
for handbooks prepared either by Govern- used in the manufacturing and fabrication
ment activities or under contract. Hand- cycle must have the capacity to reproduce
books are developed following the processes each detail, subassembly, and assembly in
described for standardization documents in accordance with the accepted design con-
DoD 4120.3-M, Defense Standardization figuration. As engineering design changes
Program, Policies, and Procedures, (Ref. are proposed, they should be reviewed for
13) except there will not be any interim their impact on applicable tooling. The
handbooks. The procuring activity (PA) quality assurance function should be inti-
should not cite handbooks as requirements mately involved in establishing the need for,
in solicitations, contracts, or any type of proofing, and controlling special tooling.
technical document. Rather than develop Detailed specifications covering the
mandatory standards that require a single fabrication of tools to be employed in the
approach when other approaches may also manufacture and assembly of an air vehicle
be acceptable, a handbook offers an oppor- should be provided. In addition, detailed
tunity to preserve institutional memory and process instructions for the use of the tools
offer solutions that have worked without in production, for recheck and/or recalibra-
mandating those solutions. Handbooks are tion, and for inspection of the parts produced
good for providing lessons learned; classify- by the tool should be developed.
ing items, materials, or processes; defining Master tool control normally is the
terms; listing abbreviations or acronyms; only practical method of coordinating tool-
providing interpretation; offering different ing and ensuring interchangeability. The
technical options; and any other type of accuracy and ease with which mating as-
guidance information. If a handbook is cited semblies fit or are individually interchange-
as a requirement, contractors may disregard able are dependent on the control of size,
the requirement and interpret the contents as shape, and matching interface conditions at
guidance only. attachment points.
A program of inspection and tool
5-12 MAKE OR BUY PLAN verification to be used in the manufacture of
Make or buy plans are not required the contract end-item should be developed.
during research and development. Also
these plans are not required if prototypes or 5-14 STANDARDIZATION PROGRAM
hardware is involved, but no significant A properly conducted standardiza-
follow-on production under the same con- tion program facilitates the achievement of
tract is anticipated. Further, make or buy airworthiness qualification and quality as-

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

surance program by imposing a structured manufacturing engineering to create a func-


method for minimizing the variety of parts tional design that can be easily and eco-
used in a new design. The objectives of the nomically fabricated. This activity requires
program are to tradeoffs among life cycle costs, perform-
1. Maximize use of standard parts, ance, reliability, and producibility. The
materials, and processes in order to lower scope of producibility is variable and evolu-
cost, to reduce downtime, and to facilitate tionary based on the stage of the qualifica-
interchangeability tion program. A major program in the con-
2. Maximize repetitive use of fea- ceptual stage should consider system per-
tures and items formance requirements while contemplating
3. Maximize use of common publi- broad areas of producibility on a general
cations, manuals, training aids, and materials scale, i.e., basically envisioning global
4. Provide the documentation for manufacturing capabilities. During the next
future reuse of the innovations initially used phase, integrated design and producibility
under the current contract considerations should be narrower in scope
5. Provide for common usage of and greater in number than during the pre-
equipment, parts, and materials in order to ceding phase and should create opportunities
promote commonality among weapon sys- to achieve significant cost and schedule
tems. benefits as the hardware design evolves and
MIL-HDBK-402, Guidelines for the before the design becomes too fixed to be
Implementation of the DoD Parts Control altered economically. Finally, a major pro-
Program, (Ref. 16) is a guide intended for gram in the full-scale development phase
use by military departments and agencies will emphasize specific producibility studies
and associated contractors. However, unless in far greater depth and basically build on
otherwise specified in the contract, parts the studies, decisions, and concurrent design
control and parts standardization should be and producibility activities that have gone
conducted by using best commercial prac- before. Proper and early consideration of
tices, industry standards, and the contrac- producibility principles reduce the risks as-
tor’s policies and procedures. This should sociated with the transition from develop-
apply to mechanical, electrical, and elec- ment to production. Addressing producibil-
tronic parts. The contractor should be re- ity as an integral part of the design process
quired to identify in the proposal and speci- minimizes the chances of introducing prob-
fication the applicable commercial practices, lems associated with the transition from a
standards, policies, and procedures that will prototype manufacturing environment to a
be followed to accomplish these objectives. production environment and thereby ensures
a qualified prototype design can be built in
5-15 PRODUCIBILITY production quantities using production
Producibility is defined as the re- methods. The contractor should be required
peatability and relative ease of producing an to define in the proposal and specifications
item or system. It is governed by the charac- the means by which specified levels of pro-
teristics and features of a design that enable ducibility will be assured and demonstrated.
economical fabrication, assembly, inspec- A separate plan should not be required. The
tion, and testing using available production procuring activity should include produci-
techniques. The basic concept of produci- bility performance requirements in the con-
bility is to ensure that there is a coordinated tract. The air vehicle contractor (AC)
effort between design engineering and should be required to define in the proposal

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION HANDBOOK

the means by which producibility will be


assured. MIL-HDBK-727, Design Guid-
ance for Producibility,(Ref. 17) provides an
exposition of the factors that determine
whether or not an item is acceptable from a
producibility point of view. Actual exam-
ples of good and bad producibility practices
are provided. The interrelationships of the
producibility functions with the design proc-
ess and development process functions are
discussed. Tools and techniques useful in
the producibility function and used by the
producibility engineer are described and il-
lustrated. Common producibility considera-
tions are discussed. Specific considerations
for metal components, plastic components,
composite components, mechanical assem-
blies, electronics, and other items are dis-
cussed.

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

REFERENCES
1. ASQC Q9000.1, Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards—Guidelines for
Selection and Use, American Society for Quality Control, Milwaukee, WI, 1 August 1994.
2. ASQC Q9001, Quality Systems—Model for Quality Assurance in Design, Development, Pro-
duction, Installation, and Servicing, American Society for Quality Control, Milwaukee, WI,
1 August 1994.
3. ASQC Q9002, Quality Systems—Model for Quality Assurance in Production, Installation,
and Servicing, American Society of Quality Control, Milwaukee, WI, 18 July 1994.
4. ASQC Q9003, Quality Systems—Model for Quality Assurance in Final Inspection and Test,
American Society of Quality Control, Milwaukee, WI, 18 July 1994.
5. ASQC Q9004, Quality Management and Quality System Elements—Guidelines, American
Society of Quality Control, Milwaukee, WI, 18 July 1994.
6. IEEE STD 1298/SAA 3563.1, Software Quality Management System, The Institute of Elec-
trical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY, 1992.
7. ISO 10012.1, Quality Assurance Requirements for Measuring, International Organization for
Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 15 January 1992.
8. ANSI Z540-1, Laboratories, Calibration, and Measuring Test Equipment, American Na-
tional Standards Institute, New York, NY, 27 July 1994.
9. MIL-STD-2165A, Testability Program for Systems and Equipments, 1 February 1993.
10. DARCOM-P 34-1, Built-in Test Design Guide, 19 March 1981.
11. MIL-STD-962C, Department of Defense Standard Practice for Defense Standards and
Handbooks, 20 October 1995.
12. MIL-STD-961D, Department of Defense Standard Practice for Defense Specifications, 22
March 1995.
13. DoD 4120.3-M, Defense Standardization Program Policies and Procedures, July 1993.
14. FAR, Subpart 15.7, Make or Buy Programs, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC,
1991.
15. DFAR, Subpart 215.7, Make or Buy Programs, Government Printing Office, Washington,
DC, 1991.
16. MIL-HDBK-402A, Guidelines for the Implementation of the DoD Parts Control Program,
14 May 1993.
17. MIL-HDBK-727, Design Guidance for Producibility, 13 February 1990.

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

CHAPTER 6
MODELING

This chapter describes various modeling techniques applicable to the airworthiness


qualification process. Section I discusses physical models used to represent system
characteristics of interest including aerodynamic models, inert physical mock-ups, functional
subsystem mock-ups, and ground test vehicles. Section II addresses simulations, including
simulation bases, emulators, simulators, and simulations, as software environments.

SECTION I
PHYSICAL MODELS

6-0 LIST OF SYMBOLS


D = characteristic length, m (ft)
Rn = Reynolds number, dimensionless
v = air velocity, m/s (ft/s)
µ = absolute viscosity, Pa·s (lbf·s/ft2)
ρ = air density, kg/m3 (slug/ft3)

6-1 INTRODUCTION
Models and mock-ups are used extensively during air vehicle design and development.
Scale models are generally used early in the design to investigate aerodynamic effects and
interactions using wind tunnels and flow tanks. Results of scale model testing provide the
designer insights into the aerodynamic characteristics of the air vehicle being developed. The data
obtained from models may be used to predict flight limitations, performance, and handling quality
characteristics. For example, a powered force model (PFM) could be used to determine whether
the horizontal stabilizer design is adequate to provide positive longitudinal stability.
At an early stage in the development cycle, a full-scale air vehicle mock-up or computer-
aided engineering substitute should be fabricated to function as a design tool to determine the
optimum air vehicle configuration. Computer-aided substitutes are capable of a degree of
functional realism that is comparable to a physical mock-up.
This mock-up should be capable of demonstrating the compatibility of the ground handling,
maintaining, loading, and operating requirements of the air vehicle and its equipment. Particular
regard should be given to crew and passenger stations, cargo and weapon provisions, equipment
arrangement, and propulsion system installations. Visibility for the flight crew, lighting, effective
clearances, and personnel safety also should be considered. Individual subsidiary mock-ups may
be required for specific areas such as crew stations and lighting. Also functional mock-ups should
be fabricated for most subsystems.
The full-scale mock-up may be used to assist in packaging and in arrangement tradeoff
studies for selected components. Such a mock-up offers a three-dimensional presentation for
other engineering disciplines, such as maintainability, reliability, producibility, and system safety,
to evaluate and plan subsequent test demonstrations. Mock-ups are routinely used as design tools
to establish effective arrangements or to resolve subsystem interface problems as they affect form,
fit, and function.

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

6-2 AERODYNAMIC MODELS


Aerodynamic models are scale models intended to allow investigation of the interactions
between the air vehicle or air vehicle section and the fluid (air) through which it travels.
Aerodynamic models should conform to the shape of the actual object being modeled. These
scale models are important for flight limit investigations because they give designers an early
insight into the aerodynamic characteristics of the air vehicle long before full-scale hardware is
built. Deficiencies found through this early investigative work can be corrected with much less
effort than if discovered later in the development. This paragraph describes airfoils and two-
dimensional aerodynamic shapes, flow tanks, wind tunnels, force models, powered force models,
and icing tunnels and icing mock-ups. Fig. 6-1 provides a pictorial example of each of these types
of models.

Figure 6-1. Aerodynamic System and Environment Models

6-2.1 AIRFOILS AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL AERODYNAMIC SHAPES


An airfoil or aerodynamic shape is a structure, piece, or body designed to obtain a useful
reaction upon itself in its motion through the air. Airfoil and two-dimensional aerodynamic
shapes are used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a particular shape, namely, the
drag coefficient, the lift coefficient, and the moment coefficient for an infinite aspect ratio. These
coefficients are functions of the angle of attack of the airfoil section. From these coefficients the
lift, drag, and moment generated by an airfoil may be determined and used to make early
predictions of performance characteristics.

6-2.2 FLOW TANKS


Flow tanks (usually water tanks) are used to provide a visualization of the aerodynamic
flow about an object. They consist of a chamber, a means (pump) of producing a fluid flow
around the object being modeled, and a means of seeding the fluid flow with a visible tracer, such
as smoke or dye. In most cases the tracer is introduced upstream of the object being tested and
thus set up a series of parallel streams in the fluid flow. The tracer may also be introduced in the
flow stream through holes in the aerodynamic model. As the fluid flows around the model, these
parallel streams become disturbed by the object, and this disturbance provides a visualization of

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

the flow around the object. When properly scaled for fluid differences, flow tanks can be used to
visualize the airflow around the object. They can also be used to visualize the airflow
aerodynamics of wingtip vortices around a wing and flow about the main rotor and tail rotor.
These types of preflight data are useful for predicting flight characteristics, such as separation
turbulence and interference, prior to actual flight experience. The objective is to detect any defect
or design deficiency and to evaluate fixes.

6-2.3 WIND TUNNELS


Wind tunnels provide a means of simulating air vehicle flight by moving air over a
stationary scale model of the air vehicle. This allows the measurement of aerodynamic data and
evaluation of aerodynamic design. The tunnel typically consists of a large closed circuit tube.
The tube contains a propeller (usually shaft driven), which creates the flow of air. Corner vanes
minimize turbulence where the airflow must turn a corner. The chamber in which the model is
mounted (the throat) has a reduced cross-sectional area and corresponds to the throat of a
venturi; thus a local increase in air velocity is created. The model is mounted on scales or other
force measurement devices. Wind tunnel facilities often have unique characteristics that require
testing to be performed at specific sites. Principal characteristics that affect tunnel
results are air density, pressure at the throat, free-stream pressure, cross-sectional area
atthe
throat, and cross-sectional area at the settling chamber. The critical parameter that must be
matched between the model situation and the actual physical (full-scale) conditions of flight is the
dimensionless Reynolds number Rn, which is defined as

Dvρ
Rn = , dimensionl ess (6-1)
µ
where
Rn = Reynolds number, dimensionless
D = characteristic length, m (ft)
v = air velocity, m/s (ft/s)
ρ = air density, kg/m (slug/ft )
3 3

µ = absolute viscosity, Pa·s (lbf·s/ft ).


2

Matching Reynolds numbers is no guarantee of perfect similarity; however, since the wind tunnel
conditions are not completely uniform and include wall effects not encountered in the free air,
model and actual air vehicle matching is seldom achieved. Examples of measured parameters
obtainable from wind tunnel testing include lift and drag characteristics, flow pressures and
separation characteristics over control surfaces, and general pressure/velocity distributions.
Tunnel characteristics that could affect results must be considered during test design. Examples
of typical tunnel characteristics that should be considered include test section size, maximum
velocity capability, inherent tunnel turbulence, and temperature/humidity control. Some of these
facility-dependent characteristics enable valid measurements only at specific facilities. Table 6-1
lists several major facilities and their capabilities. Additional information on wind tunnel

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

TABLE 6-1. WIND TUNNELS

FACILITY TEST MAXIMUM SPECIAL CAPABILITY


SECTION, VELOCITY,
m (ft) m/s (mi/h)
NASA Ames Moffett Field, CA 12.2 ´24.4 116 Full-scale, high-speed
(40 ´80) (260)
NASA Ames Moffett Field, CA 12.2 ´36.6 39 Full-scale, low-speed
(40 ´120) (87)
NASA Langley 16-ft Transonic 4.9 ´4.9 0.7 to 1.2 Transonic flow
Langley, VA (16 ´16) Mach
NASA Langley LAL 20-ft Spin 6.1 (20) 23 Spin testing
Langley, VA 12-sided (52)
polygon
Boeing Research Wind Tunnel 1.5 ´2.4 58 Low turbulence
Seattle, WA (5 ´8) (130)
Boeing BVWT 6.1 ´6.1 97 VSTOL
Philadelphia, PA (20 ´20) (217)
WP 10- ´7-ft 3.0 ´2.1 156 High-speed, low-turbulence flow visualization
Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (10 ´7) (348)
DTNSRDC Anechoic 24. ´2.4 52 Sound studies
Carderock, MD (8 ´8) (117)
University of Notre Dame, 0.6 ´0.6 24 Smoke tunnels
Notre Dame, IN (2 ´2) (53)

locations and capabilities may be obtained from Ref. 1. The aerodynamic data collected from
wind tunnel tests provide another significant building block in the substantiation of qualification
characteristics by providing essential aerodynamic information. With the advancing capabilities of
computational fluid dynamics (CFD), it appears possible to reduce the amount of wind tunnel test
time required for future development programs.

6-2.4 FORCE MODELS


Reduced-scale air vehicles and three-dimensional sections, such as wings and fuselage, are
the types of physical models subjected to wind tunnel testing. The types of aerodynamic data that
can be validly measured from these models include lift, drag, and moment characteristics.
Precautions are required in mounting the model and conducting the test so the results of the test
are not affected. Examples of these precautions are ensure the natural frequency and structural
strength of the mount are adequate for the intended purposes, ensure proper calibration of
balances, and ensure proper use of available correction factors, ensure model is properly sized to
avoid excessive air blockage. The measured aerodynamic data form a basis for flight simulation
and subsequent qualification.

6-2.5 POWERED FORCE MODELS


Powered force models are reduced-scale models that include powered rotors, control
surfaces, and other moving parts. These models often are 15 to 30% scale and/or dynamically
similar models of the air vehicle. With these models, rotor/body, rotor/rotor, and rotor/tail mutual
aerodynamic interference effects can be investigated. With dynamically scaled models, aeroelastic
stability problems can be determined and investigated early in the acquisition process. The special

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

types of data that can be measured from these models include air inlet and exhaust area pressures
at all flight attitudes and velocities, flow pressures and separation characteristics over control
surfaces, and weapon exhaust gas flow.

6-2.5.1 Aerointerference Models


Aerointerference models are used to determine the aerodynamic impact of one
aerodynamic surface on another. Examples
include the impact of main rotors on tail rotors and the impact of wings on tail surfaces.
Aerointerference models may be force models or powered force models and thus require the same
types of precautions to ensure accurate data. Further, more elaborate instrumentation to measure
aero-interferences may require special precautions to prevent distortion of the test results by
instrumentation intrusion in critical airflow areas.

6-2.5.2 Aeroelastic Models


Aeroelastic models are used to determine the interactions of aerodynamic forces, elastic
forces, and inertial forces in order to establish the aerodynamic characteristics of air vehicles.
Aeroelastic models are used for dynamic stability tests to investigate dynamic behavior dominated
by rigid body modes of motion and during flutter tests to investigate dynamic instabilities caused
by the elasticity of the structure. Aeroelastic models are generally excited during dynamic stability
tests and flutter tests through the use of jerk wires that permit a rapid change in attitude and/or
oscillations in attitude of the model relative to the airstream. Just as in the case of wind tunnel
testing, a dimensional analysis must be performed for the aeroelastic model to determine the
critical parameters linking the real world and the model. Factors entering into aeroelastic model
similarity include mass, frequency, length, modulus of elasticity, and area moment of inertia. As
airloads and flutter enter the model considerations, the complexity of the dimensional analysis
grows.

6-2.6 ICING TUNNELS AND ICING MOCK-UPS


Icing tunnel tests allow evaluation of systems under icing conditions and permit
optimization of the design prior to flight. Icing conditions can be simulated in the tunnel at the
desired flight or ground operating conditions. During these tests, electrical power density, hot
airflow, hot air temperature requirements, bleed air requirements, and anti-icing fluid requirements
for ice protection of various aerodynamic shapes, such as airfoils, air induction systems, and
windshields
Test conditions on air vehicle engine air induction systems should reflect the downwash
characteristics and effects obtainable with the particular air vehicle configuration. Tests on
components (in the laboratory or in flight) are conducted over the full spectrum of icing condition
parameters (particularly temperature and liquid water content) to ensure that (1) engine
performance requirements are met, (2) downwash impingement does not introduce special
problems, and (3) no hot spots exist that could cause system failure. Cold spots that may permit
ice accretions, which detach and cause engine damage, also are evaluated.
Generally, an acceptance test duration of 30 min with full performance compliance is
required at each condition. To minimize the possibility of damage, preliminary, short-duration
tests usually are conducted to perform visual checkout prior to the acceptance test.

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

Heat transfer characteristics of the windshield or canopy can be established at simulated


flight conditions. Complete systems can be evaluated, and windshield wiping, washing, and
defogging operations can be developed or demonstrated in the icing tunnel. Tests are conducted
to evaluate whether or not visibility requirements across the airspeed and icing spectrum are met.
In addition, tunnel tests can identify hot spots that can result from airflow stagnation and cause
system failure. Table 6-2 provides a list of icing test facilities and their capabilities.

6-3 INERT PHYSICAL MOCK-UPS


Inert physical mock-ups include general reduced-scale models; fuselage mock-ups; flight
crew stations mock-ups; and mission crew, passenger, and cargo area mock-ups. These models
may be constructed from substitute materials, black boxes may be empty, and equipment shells or
housing may be used. In addition, computer-aided engineering may be used to assess the physical
interrelationships among system components. The impacts of layout on design evaluation and
qualification include accessibility (for maintainability considerations), human factors, and entry
and exit considerations. Fig. 6-2 shows typical physical models. Additional information for the
construction of air vehicle and related system mock-ups for formal evaluation is contained in
MIL-M-8650, Mock-Ups, Aircraft, General Specification for, (Ref. 2).

6-3.1 GENERAL REDUCED-SCALE MODEL


A general reduced-scale model is a system model built to a reduced scale for use as an
adjunct to general arrangement drawings. It facilitates the visualization of the physical
arrangements and allows for early detection and correction of physical interference problems. In
addition, it functions as a three-dimensional visual aid to assess general compartment
arrangement, access, space and shape, and payload potential layout. In addition, the reduced-
scale model can be used with other models and layouts to demonstrate its air and sea
transportability. It provides an early answer to the question, “How does everything fit together?”.

Figure 6-2. Inert Physical Models

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TABLE 6-2. ICING TEST FACILITIES

FACILITY SIZE, m (ft) SPEED MINIMUM LIQUID WATER DROPLET SIZE, TYPE*
TEMPERATURE, °C (°F) CONTENT, g/m3 µ m (µ in.)
NASA Lewis Research Center 1.83 × 2.74 0-240 kt –28.9 0 to 2 10 to 30 1
Cleveland, OH (6 × 9) (–20) (394 to 1181)
Naval Air Propulsion Test Center 7.01 × 7.01 0 to Mach 0.9 –20 1 to 2 15 to 25 1
Trenton, NJ (23 × 23) (–4) (591 to 984)
Naval Air Propulsion Test Center 5.18 0 to Mach 2.4 –20 1 to 2 15 to 25 1
Trenton, NJ (17) diameter (–4) (591 to 984)
Naval Air Propulsion Test Center 4.42 0 to Mach 2.4 –20 1 to 2 15 to 25 1
Trenton, NJ (14.5) diameter (–4) (591 to 984)
Naval Air Propulsion Test Center 0.61 70 to 75 mph –30 0.1 to 3 15 to 50 1
Philadelphia, PA (2) diameter (–22) (591 to 1968)
Lockheed, California 0.76 × 1.22 50 to 186 kt –21 0.7 to 4 7 to 35 1
Burbank, CA (2.5 × 4.0) (–5) (276 to 1378)
Lockheed, CA 0.76 × 0.76 50 to 210 kt –18.9 0.7 to 4 7 to 35 1
Burbank, CA (2.5 × 2.5) (–2) (276 to 1378)
The Boeing Company 4.57 × 6.10 0 to 200 kt –34.4 down to 5 15 to 25 1
Seattle, WA (15 × 20) (–30) (591 to 984)
National Research Council of Ottawa 0.30 × 0.30 0 to Mach 0.9 –40 0 to 3 15 to 60 1
Ontario, Canada (1 × 1) (–40) (591 to 2362)
National Research Council of Ottawa 1.37 ×1.37 0 to 200 mph –25 0 to 3 15 to 60 1
Ontario, Canada (4.5 × 4.5) (–13) (591 to 2362)
National Research Council of Ottawa 1.56 × 2.44 0 to 500 mph –25 0 to 3 30 to 60 1
Ontario, Canada (5 × 8) (–13) (1181 to 2362)
National Research Council of Ottawa 16.75 × 3.05 hover ambient 0 to 0.9 30 to 60 2
Ontario, Canada (55 × 10) (1181 to 2362)
Eglin Air Force Base, FL 9.14 × 9.14 0 17.8 0.5 to 20 15 to 90 4
(30 × 30) (0) (591 to 3543)
C-130 Tanker, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base N/A up to 150 kt ambient 0.1 to 1.1 80 to 100 3
Dayton, OH (3150 to 3937)
KC-135 Tanker, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base N/A up to 500 kt ambient 0.1 to 1.1 80 to 100 3
Dayton, OH (3150 to 3937)
US Army Helicopter Icing Spray System (HISS), CH-47 N/A up to 120 kt ambient 0.1 to 1.1 80 to 100 3
Edwards Air Force Base, CA (3150 to 3937)

*1 = icing tunnels and engine icing chambers


2 = natural icing spray rig
3 = tanker aircraft
4 = climatic hangar and icing spray rig

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6-3.2 FUSELAGE MOCK-UP


The internal and external shape and size of the air vehicle mock-up duplicates the
dimensions of the engineering design to permit assessment of general configuration suitability for
loading and unloading of crew, troops, cargo, weapons, ammunition, and fuel; for vision
obscurations; for performance of crew functions; and forpostcrash escape. The maintainability
features of the air vehicle with respect to component accessibility, adequacy of built-in work
platforms, and ground crew requirements to perform scheduled and unscheduled maintenance can
be demonstrated.
Other design features that can be demonstrated on the mock-up include accessibility to
doors, the cargo compartment, and fueling locations. The operation of doors, windows, hatches,
emergency exits, controls, and functional equipment such as retractable landing gear or retractable
steps can also be demonstrated.
The mock-up is configured to allow actual installation of any equipment that will alter its
exterior shape or size. Control surfaces, turrets, flexibly mounted equipment hoists, external
auxiliary fuel stores, weapon racks, and battlefield illumination devices should be capable of
traversing their full range of movement to allow for demonstration of clearance limits, weapon fire
angle limits, and weapon handling clearance limits.
The mock-up incorporates all of the steps, ladders, handholds, access hatches,and work
platforms defined in the air vehicle design. Environmental devices, such as windshield wipers and
deicer boots, which may affect the external configuration of the air vehicle, are also part of the
mock-up.
The fuselage mock-up includes the crew stations, passenger and/or cargo compartments,
and equipment compartments. Doors, hatches, windows, escape areas, access ways,handgrips,
steps, tie-downprovisions, and jacking provisions are mocked up. The fuselage mock-up may be
used to determine routing of items such as cables and lines. Access points for maintenance and
repair of air vehicle equipment should be included in the mock-up.
The size and location of escape hatches and emergency provisions for crew and
passengers can be mocked up. Photographs and motion films of a simulated emergency
evacuation may be provided for a slow-speed evaluation of potential hazards to the occupants
from controls, equipment, or structure. The mock-up should be flexible enough to allow
evaluation of proposed and/or alternate installations prior to building the air vehicle.

6-3.3 CREW STATIONS


Crew station modeling includes flight crew station mock-up and the modular
reconfigurable flight crew station simulator. These are used to determine theacceptability of the
design with respect to provisions necessary to perform the mission. The mission crew station and
the passenger and cargo areas are described insubpar. 6-3.4.

6-3.3.1 Crew Station Mock-Up


Cockpit(s) should include flight controls, propulsion controls, controls for retractable
landing gear, rotor brake controls, electrical consoles and controls, armament equipment and
electronic controls, instruments and displays, navigation equipment, the oxygen subsystem,
normal and emergency controls for canopy and/or door actuation (including jettisoning), and
cockpit furnishings and equipment that includes mirrors, microphones, headphones, etc.
Furnishings and equipment should duplicate the production articles as closely as possible in size,

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shape, and location. Actual safety belts, shoulder harnesses, parachutes, emergency kits, life rafts,
seat pads, and back pads should be installed, when applicable. The eye position, seat reference
point, and measurement techniques related to vision, controls, and displacements designed for the
crew should be identified. Flight controls should be operable through their normal envelope,
although they need not operate their respective rotors or surfaces. Control friction devices should
be mocked up, and stops installed to limit all control movements to those anticipated for the
actual air vehicle. The neutral positions of the cyclic control should be simulated. Control locks,
when applicable, and means for adjusting the directional control and brake pedals should be
included in the mock-up. Cockpit canopies (including framing), hatches, windows, etc., should be
mocked up in sufficient detail that the overall field of view from the cockpit is depicted accurately.
Provisions should be made for evaluators and test observers to stand outside the mock-up on each
side of the cockpit on removable platforms and walkways.
To the extent possible, transparencies provided within the mock-up should be within the
optical quality limits established for the air vehicle. Radii of curvature, thickness of panels, and
framing widths for windshields and other transparencies in the cockpit should simulate those of
the actual air vehicle. Adverse weather and/or night vision aids should be mocked up. Individual
paper, cardboard, plastic, or metal dials representing all required instruments should be mocked
up. The individual dials and panels as a whole should be capable of easy relocation. Extra panels
with dials that also can be relocated easily should be provided apart from the mock-up. All
furnishings and equipment essential to performing crew station tasks should be available in the
mock-up for demonstration purposes.

6-3.3.2 Modular Reconfigurable Crew Station Simulator


This simulator provides a modular and readily reconfigurable physical layout for the
purpose of evaluating various configurations. Physical layout is the emphasis for use of this
simulator. Operational mock-ups provide additional insight into the crew/crew station interfaces
through the evaluation of accessibility, operability, and often, functionality. Aitoff's equal area
projection vision plots defined in MIL-STD-850,Aircrew Station Vision Requirements for
Military Aircraft, (Ref. 3) provide a method of depicting the crew member's vision around the air
vehicle from the normal eye position. Crew station simulators provide the initial basis for the
preparation of the Aitoff plots. Section II of this chapter discusses crew station simulation
further.

6-3.4 MISSION CREW, PASSENGER AND CARGO AREA


The mission crew, passenger, and cargo area mock-ups could be constructed to provide a
representation of the physical layout of those areas. However, a computer-aided engineering
(CAE) system or virtual prototype might be a more cost-effective substitute. Whatever approach
is used should provide the means by which to determine available space, loading methods, and
ease of ingress and egress.

6-3.5 COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING SUBSTITUTION FOR MOCK-UPS


Computer-aided engineering systems enable a three-dimensional, solid geometry computer
representation of a system. It offers the advantage of rapidly changing the viewing angle so the
visual representations of the layout may be easily assessed. In addition, design changes can also
be evaluated rapidly. It is essential that the CAE system be part of the configurationmanagement

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system in order to represent the latest approved configuration. The present state of CAE systems
allows a reduced need for physical mock-ups. CAE can be effectively used as a substitute for
subsystem form and fit. Design information from CAE can be shared by all disciplines from
conceptual design through production. Physical mock-ups may still be required when operational
maintenance procedures have to be established and demonstrated or as otherwise determined
during the design, development, and qualification process. Physical mock-ups are also used for
functional subsystem mock-ups, which are discussed in par. 6-4.

6-4 FUNCTIONAL SUBSYSTEM MOCK-UPS


For the purpose of this handbook a functional subsystem mock-up is a dynamic test fixture
or rig capable of performing bench-level development and preflight qualification testing. These
mock-ups (test rigs) approximate many of the operational parameters, such as loads,
temperatures, pressures, voltages, motions, and vibrations.This paragraph discusses the electrical
system; pressure system; engine and drivetrain; rotor system; electronic system manager
networks; targeting, fire control, armamentand stores stations; landing gear; and lighting system
mock-ups. Their use in the development, evaluation, and qualification process is that they are
part of the incremental, step-by-step buildup of experience relative to the characteristics of the
system. They provide substantiation of characteristics that are properties of the subsystem alone
and can be used for subsystem integration verification. It is often necessary to include partial
mock-up of structure and other interfacing system parts that represent critical limitations to
overall system performance. Because of limitations on the functional subsystem mock-up, system
integration verification and qualification of many subsystems can often be completed only on a
ground test vehicle and during flight tests on the air vehicle. Additional information on mock-ups
can be obtained in MIL-M-8650 (Ref. 2).

6-4.1 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


The electrical system functional mock-up should be used for checking out electrical
components, interfaces, software, and firmware and for conducting preliminary electromagnetic
interference and compatibility checks. Types of data typically obtained from hot bench testing are
listed in subpar. 4-8.6. A mock-up of the electrical system of an air vehicle should include the
following:
1. Power generation and storage devices and associated equipment to include generators,
alternators, batteries, voltage regulators, transformers, and inverters. Any cooling and/or
lubricating systems to be used with these components should be included in the mock-up to
include ducts, piping, tanks, and valves.
2. Electrical distribution and control including wiring, cabling, contactors, switches,
circuit breakers, fuses, and meters. Critical wire runs (power feeders, electrically unprotected
wires, and congested area wiring) should also be included in the mock-up. Wiring should be
representative of the final unit so installation techniques and hardware can be evaluated.
3. All items of electronic equipment to include communication and navigation systems,
data bus, bus controllers, processors, panels and console structure, antennas, masts, and lead-ins.
Fig. 6-3 provides an example of an electrical system functional mock-up.
The electrical system functional mock-up is usually limited for qualification purposes by its
inability to simulate fully environmental considerations, shielding effects, etc. Algorithms

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may not fully duplicate operational characteristics, etc. In addition, cost is often a major
limitation.

6-4.2 PRESSURE SYSTEMS


Pressure systems include hydraulic systems, high-pressure pneumatic systems, and low-
pressure pneumatic and vacuum systems. Pressure system mock-ups are intended to provide data
and measurements leading to the determination that thepressure systems meet specification
requirements. Qualification data that can be obtained from pressure system mock-ups include
preflight data, pressure strength capabilities of vessels, fittings andtubings, and control logic.

6-4.2.1 Hydraulic System


A functional hydraulic system mock-up that is sufficient for dynamic test and preflight
qualification of the system and its components should be fabricated. Majoritems of the hydraulic
systems should be subjected to preflight qualification to demonstrate compliance with design and

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operational criteria. Functional mock-ups should be fabricated for all hydraulic subsystems, such
as rotor and propeller controls, turrets, door actuators, landing gear, and weapons subsystems.
The mock-ups should incorporate actual hydraulic system components with associated
plumbing including main and emergency pumps, reservoirs, accumulators, filters, controls, and
sufficient piping to show clearances. The hydraulic plumbing should approximate actual air
vehicle requirements in terms of lengths, diameters, bends, and fittings, i.e., “production-type”
lines and hoses. Also hydraulic mock-ups should include the actuator controller and software (if
any).
Limitations of the hydraulic subsystem mock-up for substantiation of qualification
requirements include the inability to simulate all environmental factors, actual air vehicle hardware
may not always be available, prototype hardware may not exactly duplicate performance
characteristics, and cost of fabrication might limit exact duplication of physical characteristics.
For example, seals might function very well on a test stand yet deteriorate rapidly in a dusty
environment, and/or a simulated pressure source may not duplicate pressure fluctuations found in
flight.

6-4.2.2 High-Pressure Pneumatic Systems


High-pressure pneumatic subsystems requiring qualification tests are of the airborne
compressor-charged and ground-charged storage bottle types. Hot gas subsystems normally are
not reusable (at least not without refurbishment) and are considered a “one-shot” operation. Thus
verification is accomplished through qualification and acceptance testing on a component basis.
Another high-pressure pneumatic source is a sealed gas storage bottle, which can be used as an
emergency
backup system, but this is also a “one-shot” operation.
Ground-charged air bottle subsystems are tested in the same manner as the airborne
compressor-charged subsystem. To make the ground tests as realistic as possible, the test stand
or apparatus should approximate actual air vehicle requirements in terms of lengths, diameters,
bends, and fittings. The pneumatic subsystems should be properly lubricated, and all system
components and attached linkages and mechanisms should be properly adjusted.
The mock-up should be adequate to determine whether
1. The various functions are accomplished satisfactorily.
2. The movement of all components is smooth and positive.
3. Relief valves, automatic devices used to terminate an operation, pressure controls,
switches and signals, audible or other warning devices, and similar installations function as
intended.
4. All indicating devices function and synchronize with the movement of the respective
component, as specified.
5. The specified functioning pressures are controlled and not exceeded.Pressures may be
obtained by normal system pressure gages, or electronic equipment, as applicable.
6. All tubing and fitting joints and component external seals are free from leaks.
7. All lines, fittings, and components are free from excessive movement and chafing.
8. There is full engagement of mechanical locks and catches.
9. The clearance for all moving parts throughout the entire range of movement is such
that fouling of adjacent parts cannot occur.

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10. All pneumatically operated doors and closures are flush with surrounding surfaces
within limits specified.
11. Simulated normal flight operating conditions or any possible inadvertent operations
will not cause system malfunctions.
12. Subsystems normally operated by the pneumatic system can be operated during an
emergency.
A major limitation of the mock-up for qualification purposes is its inability to simulate
environmental considerations such as vibrations and various climatic conditions. Also pressure
spikes and fluctuations might vary considerably from actual airborne conditions.

6-4.2.3 Low-Pressure Pneumatic and Vacuum Systems


Low-pressure pneumatic and vacuum subsystems commonly are supplied by regulated
bleed air from the engine compressor; however, this source could be simulated by some other
means. The bleed air is normally at a very high temperature and pressure, and by necessity the
ducting is insulated. If a high-pressure source is regulated to a lower pressure, the system should
be capable of withstanding the higher pressure.
Extreme caution should be exercised by personnel handling these subsystems. Safety
precautions should be outlined by the contractor.
A typical low-pressure pneumatic subsystem supplies pressure for an air-conditioning
system, pressurizing a hydraulic reservoir, or any desired low-pressure pneumatic system. The
bleed air pressure of the engine of the air vehicle should be regulated to the desired operating
pressure with a pressure regulator. External electrical power and hydraulic power (for hydraulic-
related subsystems) are required.
The functional mock-up is useful for checking for leakage, pressure drops, relief valve
cracking, reset pressures, etc. A major limitation of the mock-up for qualification purposes is its
inability to simulate environmental considerations such as vibrations and various climatic
conditions. Also pressure spike and fluctuations can vary considerably from actual airborne
operations.
A typical vacuum subsystem test procedure and apparatus similar to that described for the
low-pressure pneumatic subsystem may be used. Vacuum subsystem mock-ups are typically used
to calibrate and qualify instruments and instrumentation subsystems. It is useful for checking for
leaks. Also it is useful for checking proper operation of the directional gyros and attitude
indicators. Mock-ups of this type are prone to leak and usually limited in their ability to simulate
actual environmental conditions. Vacuum characteristics might vary considerably from the actual
air vehicle operational characteristics. Operational characteristics might not be well-defined.

6-4.3 ENGINES AND DRIVETRAIN, FLUIDS, AND ACCESSORIES

6-4.3.1 Engine
A functional subsystem mock-up for an engine is a facility and test bed (rig) that includes
all that is needed for development and preflight qualification of the engine and its components.
An engine mock-up of this type usually consists of a concrete enclosure— called a cell or a
blockhouse— for operating personnel and controls, engine mounting rig, engine controls,
instrumentation, data recorders, fuel system and source, exhaust duct, noisesuppressors or
equivalent, power absorber, and safety devices. The test setup should be assembled so that all of

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the components are arranged inthe proper spatial relationship. Accessories, such as particle
separators (if any), should be installed to determine component arrangement and effects on the
engine, external configuration, and performance. Instrumentation should be installed to measure
pertinent parameters, such as compressor revolutions per minute (rpm), turbine rpm, pressures,
lubricant temperature, flow rates, and torque. Components, such as reduction gearboxes, starters,
starter generators, chip detectors, sensors, and oil coolers, also require unique test rigs and
fixtures. These test rigs and fixtures are usually the property of the engine manufacturer or
vendor furnishing the component. Typically, they may include a motor, pump, variable drive
gearbox, fuel source, heat exchanger, load simulator, test instrumentation, gages, data recorders,
and means for mounting the test article.

6-4.3.2 Drivetrain Assemblies and Components


A typical test bed (rig) for development and preflight qualification ofdrivetrain
(transmission, gearboxes, bearings, couplings, shafts, etc.), fluids, and accessories may be either a
regenerative-loop arrangement or an open-loop system. These test rigs are usually unique for
every gearbox and transmission assembly. An open-loop rig requires full input power and a full
power load absorber. The power absorber might be a water brake, dynamometer, or electric
motor with suitable load banks, etc. The test rig is driven at normal operating speed by anelectric
motor, hydraulic motor(s), or other suitable prime mover. The regenerative loop captures part of
the output power and feeds it back to the prime mover. Components, such as clutches, oil pumps,
oil filters, and chip detectors, require unique test rigs and fixtures. These rigs and fixtures are
usually the property of the vendor furnishing the component.

6-4.3.3 Engines and Drivetrain


Iron bird testing typically follows bench test. An iron bird, or propulsion system test bed,
is used to concomitant testing of engines anddrivetrain components. It is also used to evaluate
the engine airframe interface, validate the control(s) design and installation(s), optimize the
control functions, and evaluate maintainability. This test bed should include the entire propulsion
and drive subsystem, such as rotor(s) or propeller(s), engine(s), auxiliary power units,
transmission, and gearboxes. Also see par. 6-5 concerning the ground test vehicle.
The engine and drivetrain functional mock-up is useful for preflight qualification of
engines, the drivetrain, bearings, gearboxes, couplings, etc. It is also useful for preflight
qualification of engine components, fuel and oil systems, and other components. A secondary
purpose could be maintainability and human factors evaluation if there were sufficient attention to
detail. There are limitations. Typically, these types of mock-ups are not capable of simulating air
inlet and exhaust pressures at all flight attitudes and velocities. Oscillatory and transient loads and
vibrations cannot be exactly duplicated. Weapon exhaust flow is not easily duplicated on the
ground and could affect both the engine anddrivetrain.

6-4.4 ROTOR SYSTEM The functional subsystem mock-up requirements for rotor system
mechanical rotor and controls, rotor and electronic controls, and whirl test articles are discussed
in this subparagraph. Many modern-day air vehicles use some form ofhydromechanical or
electrohydraulic controls. Hydromechanical systems are discussed in subpar. 6-4.4.1, and
electrohydraulic systems are included in subpar. 6-4.4.2.

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6-4.4.1 Mechanical Rotor and Controls


Except for maintainability, human factors, and accessibility-related functions, which should
be accomplished on a full-scale mock-up or preferably a computer-aided engineering substitute
for mock-ups, other functional tests of rotor and controls should be accomplished on component-,
assembly-, and/or system-level functional mock-ups. Rotor forces could be approximated by
means of cams, electromagnetic devices, hydraulic force generators, and solenoids. Complex
loading can be approximated via computer-controlled devices. Fatigue testing typically includes
some form of the previously mentioned devices, yet seldom (if ever) is it accomplished on a total
system basis. Representative portions of the control system often are tested on a subsystem basis
with simulated loads and rates. Integrated hub and mechanical control system testing should be
done on a control system test bed, whirl stand, power system integration test stand, or ground test
vehicle, which is discussed in par. 6-5.
The control system test bed should include a complete rotor hub and control system. It
should also include all provisions for controlling the rotor, i.e., theswash plate, control rods, pitch
horns, mixing levers, bell cranks, hydraulic actuators, and other hydraulic components, as
applicable. Gearboxes with appropriate shafting should be provided for mounting; however, the
rotor does not have to turn during control system testing. Rotor blade root sections typically are
used in lieu of the complete blade assembly; but the blades could be attached.
This functional mock-up could be used to check for adequate clearance throughout the full
range of travel while under load. Proof loading, stick loading, and leak checking could be
accomplished. Rotational testing is typically accomplished on a whirl stand; seesubpar. 6-4-4.3.
For those rotorcrafts requiring blade folding, either this mock-up or the whirl stand should be
capable of demonstrating compatibility of rotor and hub components during the complex
geometric manipulations generally associated with folding. Blade folding might be manual or
might be powered by one of the available secondary power systems. The folding operation,
security of locks, and functioning of the “SAFE-UNSAFE” indicator should be demonstrated with
a mock-up that duplicates the exact motions of the blades. Actual components should be used in
the power system.
A secondary purpose of the functional mock-up could be to check the adequacy of the
design for visual inspection and maintenance accessibility. For example, oil-level sight gages and
appropriate access doors should be located so that the doors are accessible and the gages can be
seen when the doors are open.
Complexity and cost of the subsystem integration test stand, ground tes t vehicle, and
power system integration test stands are major limitations. Simulated masses, forces, rates,
displacements, etc., only approximate the actual operating environment. Power system
integration test stands or tie-down testing is the best form of ground testing; however, these too
only approximate the actual operating environments. Aerodynamic andaeroelastic characteristics
cannot be fully duplicated and evaluated on the ground.

6-4.4.2 Rotor and Electronic Controls


The rotor and electronic control functional mock-up should incorporate many of the
physical features of the mechanical and hydromechanical subsystem; however, it should also
include electrical control devices, such as wires, sensors, motors, processors, and computers.
Also see subpar. 6-4.5 for information on electronic system manager network mock-ups. A
hydromechanical functional mock-up includes most of the required features that are addressed in

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subpar. 6-4.4.1. Rotors are rarely positioned directly by electric motors. Because of the large
forces involved, such motors would be too large and heavy. For this reason, hydraulic actuators
remain the preferred method to position rotor blades. Typically, they position the blades by
placing forces on a swash-plate assembly that in turn moves pitch change links, blades, and rotor
path. Gyroscopic effects are considered in the geometry. To set the position of the swash plate
precisely, the hydraulic actuators are incorporated into a servomechanism containing an electronic
(sometimes digital) compensation network, which steers the actuators to the correct position.
Actuator position is measured by means of electronic sensors, such as linear variable differential
transformers (LVDTs). The rotor and electronic control functional mock-up should incorporate
these features.
Rotor forces, etc., can be simulated via the same means used for mechanical and
hydromechanical subsystem functional mock-ups. This mock-up is useful for preflight
qualification. In addition to the functions accomplished by rotor and mechanical mock-ups,
limited software qualification is possible, although its effectiveness is limited by environmental
effects. Also gains, rates, and loading can be approximated only during ground test controlling
the movement of a hydraulic actuator assembly; see subpar. 6-4.5.
Flight control integration testing should be accomplished first and followed by power
system integration testing. Computer and related software and firmware are tested by electronic
simulation and bench test. Air vehicle tie-down testing or powered system integration test stands
are the most complete means of ground testing. A power system integration test stand is
sometimes called an iron bird. It duplicates most of the dynamic systems of the air vehicle, but it
will not fly. Software can be verified during power system integration testing and flight testing.
Actual operating conditions are approximated by this stand; however, aerodynamic and
aeroelastic characteristics cannot be fully evaluated on the ground. The aforementioned testing is
useful for preflight qualification. However, its effectiveness is limited by environmental effects.
Gains, rates, feedback loops, resonance conditions, etc., canonly be estimated and
approximated during ground testing. Optimization of gains, rates, and constants usually requires
flight testing. Also electromagnetic vulnerability testing requires use of very specialized facilities.
Subpar. 6-4.5 provides additional information concerning electronic control system functional
mock-up requirements.

6-4.4.3 Whirl Test Article


Whirl testing subjects rotating aerodynamic components to their inertial and rotational
forces. Although the operating conditions of rotors and propellers are similar in some respects,
significant differences exist. Typically, whirl testing includes a tower approximately one rotor
diameter in height, rotor hub and controls, electric motor, reduction gearbox, strain gages, load
cells, track and balance devices, tachometer, means to measure deflection and angle of attack,
hydraulic pump, actuators, safety barrier, and operations room. Whirl test rigs should be used for
endurance testing, hover performance,aeroelastic stability testing, validation of nondimensional
coefficients, and overspeed testing and to obtain data to update analytical models. Transition to
hover and flight test is often based on good correlation between analytic predictions and wind
tunnel and whirl test results. The test rig is limited to open-loop testing at low-wind conditions.
Generally, only hover and in-ground-effect performance and stability testing can be accomplished.
In both rotors and propellers, a large amount of kinetic energy is in the assembly when it is
rotating at operating speed. This makes a complete failure catastrophic. While this emphasizes

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the importance of qualification tests, it also makes these tests difficult and possibly hazardous to
perform.
Rotor system whirl tests are conducted prior to the first flight of the rotorcraft. As a
minimum, the aerodynamic calibration of main rotor static thrust performance and the stress and
motion surveys over the design range of combinations of collective and cyclic pitch and rotor
speed should be obtained. Fig. 6-4 shows a typical whirl test rig.

6-4.5 ELECTRONIC SYSTEM MANAGER NETWORKS


Electronic system manager network mock-ups consist of the processor hardware and
software, memory, and input/output (I/O) devices. Since a functional mock-up of the electronic
system manager must function with the same algorithms (coded into the software) and the same
processor, the mock-up typically uses engineering development model hardware and
preproduction software. As a result, functional mock-up tests approximate the same level of
testing as test of the actual hardware. The data bus for functional mock-ups should satisfy the air

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vehicle system specification for data communication to the maximum extent possible. Information
concerning typical requirements and concepts of operation may be found in Society of
Automotive Engineers Standard AS 15531, Digital Time Division Command/Response Multiplex
Data Bus, (Ref. 4).
The use of “clean” laboratory power and grounds, different physical arrangement of the
component, shielding differences, and differences in cable lengths between the mock-up and the
actual hardware may affect the validity of the mock-up results. Therefore, the mock-up should
be as production representative as possible to reduce the impact of these variables.

6-4.5.1 General Control and Data Bus Networks


General control and data bus networks of mock-ups consist of the busi.e.,
( the cable), the
bus controller, remote terminals with their associated subsystem, and/or subsystems with
embedded remote terminals, each with its associated software. Cable stubs are coupled to the bus
through a coupling transformer or by direct connection to the bus and are coupled to the
transmitter/receiver through an isolation transformer. The extent to which the mock-up hardware
and software represent the actual system determines the applicability and limitations of the mock-
up to provide valid qualification data. Control and data bus network hardware components, as
well as component software, require qualification. A production representative control and data
bus network may be used to provide qualification data. However, cost is a limiting factor to
providing an adequate mock-up. Fig. 6-5 depicts a typical control and data bus network.

6-4.5.2 Electronic Flight Controls


Electronic flight control functional mock-ups could be of the analog, digital, or fly-by-light
types. Older air vehicles typically used analog. Anytime a system is linear, i.e., it can be
expressed in its entirety in the LaPlace “S” domain, analog construction is practical. However,
the system might be more susceptible to noise. Fly-by-light systems are less susceptible to
electromagnetic fields but more susceptible to temperature variations. Electronic flight control
system mock-ups consist of position-sensing devices, actuators, the data/signal transfer medium
(wire or fiber-optic cable), and processors. Except for system-specific hardware and possibly
software, the functional mock-up is similar. The mock-up is used to determine that the system
provides the appropriate controlactuations for the given set of input conditions. Also seesubpar.
6-4.4.2. The fact that the load forces on the system are simulated and not the actual loads

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produced on the air vehicle limits the utility of such a mock-up. All systems require some form of
shielding. Digital and fly-by-light systems require qualification of software and hardware. Cost is
a major limitation, especially with fly-by-light systems and mock-ups.

6-4.5.3 Integrated Cockpit Avionics Networks


An integrated cockpit avionics network mock-up consists of the system control, displays,
processors, interconnecting cabling, and associated software. It is used to evaluate the integration
of subsystem and system hardware and software. The mock-up should include as much
production representative equipment and wiring as possible. In addition, human interface
considerations and data entry procedures may be assessed. Cockpit avionics integration requires
qualification of software as well as hardware and requires in-flight evaluations in addition to the
mock-up assessments. Flight evaluations are required because the laboratory environment only
approximates the real world. Also initial cost is a major limitation of avionics network mock-ups.

6-4.5.4 Electronic Engine Controls


The electronic engine controls mock-up allows assessment of performance characteristics
of analog and digital engine controls ranging from supervisory to full authority electronic control
systems. Engine control mock-ups may assign mechanical and sensor functions to the hardware
mock-up or simulate them on a computer, which substitutes a mathematical model for actual
hardware. The computer interfaces with the mock-up by means of mechanical, electronic, and
fiber-optic signals whose characteristics are similar to those received and generated by the
hardware being substituted. As a minimum, the mathematical model should encompass both the
engine and the rotor drivetrain. It can vary in complexity and accuracy (even considering air
vehicle free body influences during maneuvers), the degree of which depends on the amount of
fidelity required to substantiate the control methodology for performance and behavior before
proceeding to flight test.

6-4.6 TARGETING, FIRE CONTROL, ARMAMENT, AND STORES STATIONS


Target acquisition and fire control systems are typically modeled by computer simulation
and then tested on a hot bench that includes all of the essential electronic components. Models
should also be developed for safe separation, jettison, and gravity drop of weapons and stores.
Also the targeting, fire control, armament, and stores station installation should be completely
mocked up, including fixed and movable weapons and accessories; turrets; rockets, guided
missiles, and accessories; fire control subsystems; internal or external stores as applicable
(including racks, supports, shackles, sway bracing, ejectors, etc.); dummy armor plate and bullet-
resistant glass; and hoisting provisions, as applicable. The target acquisition and weapons sighting
systems should be fully functional. The fixed and movable weapons, turrets, and fire control
equipment should permit the full range of movement. Particular attention should be given to
showing all armament installations in such detail that clearances (both ground and structural) and
physical arrangement can be readily checked. The arrangement should be such that loading and
unloading of missiles, rockets, and gun ammunition and removal and installation of guns may be
demonstrated. Missile- or rocket-launching mechanisms should be completely mocked up and
capable of movement through the normal operating travel. The mock-up should provide field of
fire mechanical stops and safety interlocks.

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If armor protection is specified, the mock-up should include the armor protection of the
engine(s), auxiliary power unit(s) (APU), controls, wiring, and liquid-carrying lines, as well as
flight crew stations. These mock-ups may also be used for operational testingtraining and
maintenance demonstrations.
The targeting, fire control, armament and stores functional mock-up should be used for
checking out electrical components interface, software, firmware, human factors, and for
preliminary electromagnetic and compatibility checks. Typically, the mock-up might be limited by
its limited ability to duplicate operational environments. Algorithms and weapons simulators
might not duplicate actual performance. Target simulation is only an approximation. Clean
laboratory power and less than exact physical arrangement of wires, cables, etc., might influence
the results.

6-4.7 LANDING GEAR


Many air vehicles use skid-type landing gear in lieu of wheel-type systems. The choice of
skid- or wheel-type landing gear is based on operational needs, which include but are not limited
to low observable requirements. Typically, skid-type landing gear is developed and tested by the
airframe manufacturer. It is essential that skid drop-test fixtures duplicate (as nearly as possible)
the mass properties and stiffness of the airframe. Wheel-type landing gear, especially the
retractable type, is normally developed by specialty companies. These companies usually have
extensive facilities and functional mock-ups, such as drop, braking, hydraulic, and dynamic test
rigs. Functional mock-ups of this type should be capable of simulating loads, spring rates, mass
properties, and stiffness at various lateral and longitudinal contact angles The mock-up of a fixed
landing gear— including brakes, swiveling features, and accessories, such as floats and bear
paws— should permit evaluation of accessibility to the air vehicle for personnel and cargo loading
and unloading and of the effect of the gear on the maintainability of the air vehicle. Skid-type
systems should include oleo struts, tow wheeling, etc. Several mock-ups may be needed to
demonstrate high- and low-type gear, flotation gear, and ski-type systems.
Retractable landing gear mock-ups should demonstrate operation of the retraction
mechanism (normal and emergency extension), fairing doors, and the positive lock provisions.
Hydraulic and electrical retraction mechanisms should be fully functional. The kinematics of the
retraction linkages should be operative in order to allow evaluation of possible interference with
doors, hatches, or special exterior equipment while in any of the intermediate landing gear
positions during the retraction or extension cycle. The mock-up should include representation of
all equipment in the wheel well in order to determine possibleinterferences and environmental
problems. The flexure of the lines and hoses for landing gear retraction, brakes, and drive power
should be demonstrated in the mock-up. The addition of transparent panels to the mock-up
structure aids in determination of the suitability of the wheels-stowed configuration and assist in
determination of possible design faults.
An alternate means of supporting the mock-up at the static gross weight of ground
position should be employed for air vehicles incorporating retractable landing gear. The size and
shape of shock absorption devices are important in the evaluation of landing gear clearance and
operation. However, simulation of the landing gear spring rate or load deflection characteristics
may not be warranted or desired. Nevertheless, the mock-up has limited value for qualification
(except for accessibility and maintainability) unless landing gear spring rates and load deflection

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characteristics can be approximated. Clearance under load cannot be evaluated, and aerodynamic
and other environmental factors cannot be inexpensively duplicated.

6-4.8 LIGHTING MOCK-UP


A full-scale functional mock-up of the interior and exterior lighting should be constructed.
All modern air vehicles having moving maps and flight instrumentation on processor-driven
cockpit displays or multifunction displays should have these displays included in the lighting
mock-up. Lighting and reflections should be compatible with light-amplifying devices.
A full-scale mock-up should be used for lighting inspection and may be employed for crew
stations, passenger stations, cargo compartments, and equipment compartments. An actual air
vehicle cockpit or cockpit section should be provided, when practical, for inspection of cockpit
lighting. If an actual cockpit or cockpit section cannot be employed for the cockpit lighting
mock-up, the cockpit may be simulated. The framing, windows, windshields, bulkheads, and
other cockpit sections that are visible to the pilot and/or copilot should duplicate those of the
production air vehicle. Soft metals, plastics, and wood suitably coated to represent the
production article may be used. The contractor should develop an interior and exterior lighting
system mock-up checklist. Particular attention should be paid to the electrical power provided to
ensure that the power available to the mock-up does not exceed that of an actual air vehicle.
Light-amplifying devices, such as night vision goggles, laser protection glasses and visors,
and optical sighting devices, should be available for evaluation of lighting. This functional mock-
up should be used for preliminary human factors and night vision evaluations; therefore, it
contributes to preflight qualification. Seesubpars. 6-4.8.1 and 6-4.8.2 for the qualification
limitations of lighting mock-ups. Early detection of problems is essential.

6-4.8.1 Interior Lighting


Complete interior lighting, with glare shields, should be mocked up. Moving, processor
driven, and other multifunction displays should be included so that evaluation of compatibility in
terms of glare, reflections, night vision, etc., can be performed. These should be functional
displays. Provisions should be made for viewing the mock-up in a completely darkened room or
by simulating complete darkness in the mock-up. Either a darkened room or red goggles should
be provided for at least a 30-min dark adaptation. Passage from the cockpit lighting mock-up to
any other lighting mock-up station or compartment in the should not require readapting observers
to darkness. The mock-up should be illuminated with all instrument lights operative and should
be provided with equipment identical to that to be installed in the operational air vehicle. In the
case of instruments and console controls, the equipment to be installed or similar equipment (not
pasteups) should be used. If controls that energize indicator lights cannot be actuated in the
mock-up, the indicator lights should be energized by switches external to the mock-up or by
internal switches not normally used for mock-up inspection. Adjustable dimming should be
provided for all lights to allow the light intensity to be varied for the evaluation of night
operations and the effects of glare. An actual blade assemblyor blade section movable through its
normal arc of rotation may be used to permit representative rotor reflections to be evaluated.
Provision should be made for inspection of the actual air vehicle cockpit or cockpit
mockup section in daylight (bright sunlight) to determine the adequacy of warning lights, caution
lights, etc.

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The mock-up should be used for preliminary qualification of lighting, instruments, and
displays. Preliminary qualification should include an evaluation of night vision compatibility
characteristics. Early detection of problems is important. The use of prototype hardware,
simulated displays, nonfunctional displays, and simulated cockpit arrangements and the
nonavailability of the various light-amplifying devices for evaluation purposes limit the use of the
mock-up for preflight qualification. Environmental effects and reflection of the airframe are not
easy to duplicate. Reflections from a simulated disk in lieu of a rotating hub and blade assembly
will not produce the modulated reflections of a rotating system. Also a simulated disk or a
simulated hub and rotor system is not apt to have the same reflective properties. Typically,
reflections and the modulating effects of a turning hub and blade assembly have not resulted in
significant lighting problems.

6-4.8.2 Exterior Lighting


The location of exterior lighting should be duplicated in the mock-up. Provision should be
made by the contractor to view the exterior lighting mock-up in a reasonably darkened area.
Provisions should also be made to view the effects of external lighting on cockpit interiors (glare,
etc.). Navigation lights, formation lights, landing and taxi lights, anticollision beacons, and high-
intensity strobe lights should be demonstrated for visibility, light intensity, and flash frequency at
the required azimuths and elevation angles. Structural, antennae, and external storesinterferences
with lighting patterns may be determined and corrective measures taken either by relocating the
light or moving the obstructing appendage on the airframe. (Seesubpar. 6-4.8.)

6-5 GROUND TEST VEHICLE


A typical ground test vehicle is a nonairworthy air vehicle, airframe, or major portion of an
airframe, which is used as a functional mock-up and test rig. Figure 6-6 shows examples of a
ground test vehicle. Also a fully operational air vehicle could be tied down and used as a ground
test vehicle. CAUTION: The ground test vehicle should be analyzed and tested to ensure
nonexistence of aeromechanical instabilities (ground resonance) and whirl mode instabilities.
In addition, tie down of the air vehicle for this type of testing typically requires use of more
than the normal parking tie down loads and hard points, and may require analysis of
permissible tension loads on normally compression loaded fittings such as jacking points to
react the projected force generated by the test conditions. Cargo hooks have been used as both
a supplemental tie down fitting and for tethered hover testing in lieu of rigid tie down. The
ground test vehicle integrates propulsion, engine airframe interface units, software, and the rotor
mechanical, electrical, electronic, hydraulic, and pneumatic systems needed for flight. This
functional mock-up might incorporate all of these parts. It is used for airframe structural testing
and dynamic component and rotor system evaluations. It provides confidence in the mechanical
and structural integrity of the design necessary prior to the first flight. It may also be used to test
the endurance of the propulsion and drive system in a manner less costly than flight testing. The
ground test vehicle is a part of the progression from handmade component and subsystem
mock-ups to early prototype hardware built from computer-aided engineering and computer-aided
manufacturing proof articles integrated into a production representative system.

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6-6 MOCK-UP REVIEW AND APPROVAL


Mock-ups can be used to obtain an early determination of an actual air vehicle for service
use. These mock-ups should provide a full representation of the physical arrangement with
sufficient detail to permit checking compatibility with handling, maintaining, loading, and
operating requirements for the air vehicle and its equipment. Also these mock-ups should be
sufficient for checking crew and passenger stations, cargo and weapons provision, equipment
arrangements, propulsion system installations, vision, clearance, lighting, personnel safety, etc.
MIL-M-8650 (Ref. 2) provides additional information on planning mock-ups, mock-up reviews,
scheduling and content of evaluations, and evaluators. Mock-up inspections are often
accompanied by other visual data such as compartment layout drawings and air vehicle subsystem
and hardware drawings, photographs, illustrations, an external vision plot illustrating the field of
vision around the air vehicle from the crew's normal eye position per theAitoff Equal Area
projection vision plots defined in MIL-STD-850 (Ref. 3), and tabular photometric data from the
lighting mock-up. Specific evaluation procedures should be established prior to an official mock-
up demonstration to include definition of any objective scoring techniques and necessary tools or
devices such as stopwatches, motion picture photographs, special lighting, and evaluation check
sheets. For additional information relevant to evaluation, see MIL-H-46855,Human Engineering
Requirements for Military Systems, Equipment, and Facilities , (Ref. 5).
Standardized design and mission suitability checklists are typically used to augment and/or
provide guidelines for the evaluation of the mock-up. The inspection team should have sufficient
time to review the mock-up, take measurements, review necessary criteria documents, and
prepare comments prior to the critique. Mock-up review may include observing personnel
representing the 5th percentile female through the 95th percentile malewho are wearing Army
flight clothing, arctic clothing, and survival equipment and performing mission functions,
including ingress and egress, under night lighting conditions. Measurementof seat, panel, control,
and other spatial relationships within the crew and passenger compartmentsmay be evaluated.
An evaluation of the alternate uses of certain areas of the fuselage for various operational
functions may be desirable, e.g., the operation of weapons from the doors or elsewhere through
blisters or cutouts in the passenger compartment. The size of the hatches, particularly for the
crew, may be strongly influenced by the access routes to the hatches within the crew
compartment. Internal equipment obstruction should be evaluated together with the possibility of
using the console, instrument panel, and seat bottoms or seat backs as steps to facilitate rapid
egress from the compartment. Evaluation of the mock-up will identify any changes needed to

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assure that the emergency escape paths are not compromised by external fuselage projections,
such as pitot heads or antennas, which might injure the personnel or impede their exit from the air
vehicle.
A crashworthiness inspection should be conducted using the checklist in USAAVSCOM
TR 89-D-22, Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide, Vol. I, DesignCriteria and Check Bits,
(Ref. 6). The specifications, standards, and other documents referenced in the aircraft detail
specification should be the criteria upon which judgments of contractual compliance are made.
Design areas that do not comply with the detail specification or system description and other
problem areas should be documented as either deficiencies or shortcomings on the form
prescribed by the procuring activity. If it is practical, recommended design solutions to mock-up
problem areas should be incorporated into the mock-up during the inspection.
If required, mock-up approval should be granted upon the contractor's compliance with
the required changes and/or approved deviations, as specified by the procuring activity. The
contractor should provide photographs of the approved mock-up. Table 6-3 provides a sample
checklist for a seats and furnishings mock-up review.

TABLE 6-3. SAMPLE BASELINE CHECKLIST FOR SEATS AND FURNISHINGS

1. Are the vertical and fore and aft adjustments accomplished


separately (versus integrated operation)?
2. In what increments can the adjustment be made?
Crew 3. Where is the adjustment control located?
Seats 4. Is the location satisfactory?
5. Is the seat designed for the proper equipment?
6. Is the seat equipped with a correctly mounted inertial reel with a
“stalock” feature?
7. Is there an indicator or reference point provided so that the crew can
determine the correct eye level?
1. Are the passenger seats provided appropriate to the passengers to be
carried?
2. Is adjustment provided for the seats?
Passenger 3. Are satisfactory safety belts provided?
Accommodations 4. Are shoulder harnesses and inertial reels provided?
5. Are seats designed for the appropriate mission equipment?
6. If litters are provided, are the following satisfactory?
a. Vertical distance between litters
b. Height of topmost litter above an in-flight stable
surface
c. Aisle space between litters?

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SECTION II

SIMULATIONS

6-7 INTRODUCTION
Simulations are the physical or mathematical emulation of characteristics of the physical
equipment, its environment, events related to the equipment, or intelligence. The objective of a
simulation is to reproduce certain aspects of the real world as part of the airworthiness
qualification process. Qualification by simulation is desirable when the achievement of real-world
situations is either prohibitively expensive, requires obsolescent time frames, or is dependent on
remote or unpredictable natural occurrences. The qualification that is feasible to be performed
through simulation is dependent upon how representative the simulation is of the actual system
and its environment.

6-7.1 ABSTRACT EMULATION


Abstract emulation is used for concept exploration, design optimization, and tradeoff
studies. It is necessary when economic and technological considerations render real-life
measurements impractical, especially when prototype and test equipment do not exist and the
technology to build it is not yet available. For example, air vehicle performance characteristic
models allow assessment of a system over a wide variety of conditions for which actual
measurements at each condition would not be practical.
Abstract emulation is the description, in mathematical terms, of the characteristics of a
system. These system characteristics are described by means of equations (algebraic, geometric,
statistical, and differential), logical rules, constraints, tabular data, graphs, and charts. The
finished product, a model encompassingthese characteristics, is verified by using critical test cases
strategically chosen to assess the ability of the model to predict the behavioral response of a
system across all its different modes of operation, such as rolling, yawing, and pitching of an air
vehicle. The model is considered satisfactory when its predictions are reasonable and agree with
test data within tolerances proportional to the criticality of the prediction. Typical applications
include preflight envelope exploration, test data analysis, and development of subsystem models
that will be incorporated into larger models, such as battle engagement models.

6-7.2 PHYSICAL EMULATION


A physical emulation consists of a digital model adapted to output a specific response
signal, equivalent control driver, or generate video to emulate an actual system, subsystem, or
environmental characteristic. Physical emulations can be individual black boxes to emulate a
specific subsystem interface or a computer that emulates the response and control signals of
several components or subsystems simultaneously. These techniques are useful for assessing
interface characteristics in the absence of the actual hardware. For example, in the course of
developing a targeting and fire control system, the actual air vehicle electrical and control
interfaces might be emulated using computer-generated signals until the actual air vehicle is
available for interface and integration tests. Physical emulation “substitute parts” are also
appropriate for functional subsystem mock-ups, flight simulators, and mission simulators. These
physical emulations are used in those circumstances to save cost and make the simulation or
mockup more effective or realistic.

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6-8 SIMULATION BASES AND VALIDATION CRITERIA


This paragraph discusses various forms of simulations and representations of the physical
characteristics that may be modeled mathematically. Simulations may be based on many different
types of models, including tabular data, characteristic function, transfer function, statistical
function or characteristic, and artificial intelligence. When all of these models are used, it is
imperative that the underlying information and analysis techniques used to create the models are
understood. Failure to do so will potentially result in the misapplication of the model and
consequent invalid conclusions. Not only must these issues be thoroughly understood, but the
models must have undergone thorough validation prior to their use. The criteria used to
demonstrate validation should be established based on the type of model and the use of the model
or simulation output.

6-8.1 TABULAR DATA MODELS


Tabular data models are simple models in which data are presented in a tabular manner.
Standard atmosphere data are usually presented as a tabular data model. Given an altitude value,
a simple table lookup provides information such as temperature, air pressure, density, speed of
sound, and coefficient of kinematic viscosity. Tabular data models are generally used where
mathematical representation of that data is extremely complicated and/or requires large amounts
of calculating capacity and time. This type of model is applicable in situations in which frequent
and ready access to the data is required without the need to perform lengthy or difficult
calculations. Engine performance data used in many flight simulators are examples of the uses for
a tabular data model. This method of modeling is limited by the fact that the data are readily
available only at the specific table values and data for intermediate values not tabulated must be
obtained through interpolation. These models must be validated through systematic comparison
of measured values at known points with the modeled values throughout the entire range of the
model.

6-8.2 CHARACTERISTIC FUNCTION MODELS


Characteristic function models are developed through a process of fitting experimental
data to a postulated mathematical representation of the data. Given a set of observations, it is
sometimes convenient to reduce the amount of data to a model that depends on the values of
observed parameters. An example of such an application might be the modeling of the pitching
moment coefficient as a function of angle of attack. This is accomplished by “best fitting” the
model to the data. The least squares method is most often used and can be applied to numerous
models including straight-line, polynomial, and nonlinear models. It is also possible to develop
confidence limits on the estimated model parameters. The validation process is further
complicated if the calculated data are functions of multiple variables and the experimental process
does not allow direct control of all variables simultaneously.

6-8.3 TRANSFER FUNCTION MODELS


Transfer function models are a subset of differential equation models used to model
nonlinear physical devices. Complex devices tend to be described by nonlinear differential
equations. Items in this category include aerodynamic, structural, thermodynamic, and electronic
devices. Many nonlinear dynamic equation models must be solved by numerical computer

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simulation because exact closed form solution equations for them do not exist. When
nonlinearities are insignificant, a system may be described by using linear differential equations.
These can also be organized into dynamic equations; however, they can also be left in the order in
which they appear in the system being modeled. Doing this, the particular elements (or equations)
described by differential equations are organized into transfer functions. Transfer function models
are used to analyze dynamic system characteristics. The transfer function of a continuous system
is described in the S-plane by Laplace transforms. The transfer function of a system is the ratio of
the Laplace transform of the time-varying input to the system and theLaplace transform of the
time-varying output of the system. Thus, by applying the method used to find the inverseLaplace
transform, system characteristics can be determined based on the transfer function and theLaplace
transform of the input function. Transfer functions have the characteristic that for a system in
series (The output of the first component becomes the input to the second component.), the
transfer function of the system is the product of the transfer functions of the components. Since
the process of taking theLaplace transform is a mathematical integration process and the inverse
Laplace transform is a contour integral in the complex plane, these transformations can be readily
performed digitally or by use of electronic analogs. Usually outputs from transfer function models
include frequency response characteristics.
Sampled data systems (usually digital) use Z-plane analysis techniques, which are similar
to (because they are derived from)Laplace transform techniques. These analysis methods apply
to linear systems, and any significant deviation from the linear assumption by the real-world
system negates the use of this approach.

6-8.4 STATISTICAL FUNCTION MODELS


Statistical function models are used to model data results that are stochastic (random) in
nature. Random variables are variables whose value cannot be determined beforehand but whose
behavior can be described in terms of statistical functions. The basic steps necessary to develop a
statistical function model are to (1) gather data representing the random variable, (2) make a
graphical representation of the data in terms of either their frequency distribution or their
cumulative density function, (3) postulate a model that represents the data, (4) calculate the
parameters of the postulated model, and (5) perform a goodness-of-fit test to determine how well
the data fit the postulated model and calculated parameters. Statistical functions include the
normal distribution, the exponential distribution, the uniform distribution, the gamma distribution,
the beta distribution, the Weibull distribution, and the bivariate normal distribution. Special
probability paper has been developed to assist in the graphical interpretation of statistical data.
Data fitting a normal distribution, for example, would appear as a straight line on normal
probability paper. Methods used to estimate function parameters include maximum likelihood
estimators and method of moment estimators. Methods used to determine goodness of fit (which
forms the basis for model validation) include the chi-square test and theKolmogorov-Smirnov
test.

6-8.4.1 Statistical Results


Statistical results are often assumed to follow a normal distribution (sometimes referred to
as the bell-shaped curve). The two parameters defining this distribution are its mean and its

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standard deviation, which is sometimes referred to as sigma. These two parameters may be
estimated from a sample by calculating the sample mean and sample standard deviation. The
mean is a measure of the central tendency of the data, i.e., what is the most likely value of a
random variable drawn from that population. The standard deviation is a measure of the
dispersion of the data about their most likely or mean value. For a random variable drawn from a
normal distribution, there is a 0.50 probability that it will fall below the mean, a 0.1587 probability
that it will fall below the mean minus one sigma, and a 0.0013 probability that it will fall below the
mean minus three times sigma. These are usually referred to as the average, expected minimum,
and three-sigma values. Sometimes a five-sigma value (referred to as “Murphy's Law”) may be
calculated. This corresponds to a 0.0000002867 probability of occurrence. These values must be
used with caution, especially at the extreme three- and five-sigma points because their validity
depends on how well the true physical characteristics correspond to a normal distribution.

6-8.4.2 Monte Carlo Results


A Monte Carlo analysis shows how a system performs as configurations, topologies, and
other parameters vary. It is necessary when a sensitivity analysis is impractical or when too many
parameters (usually more than five) exist to sweep them, such that all combinations are
represented (multidimensional sweep), while tabulating or plotting performance. The Monte
Carlo analysis is useful for both measurements and optimization efforts. Because of its flexibility,
it is a powerful tool useful to many disciplines. When the ultimate value or outcome of a
parameter is a function of multiple stochastic variables combined in some form— additive,
multiplicative, etc.— it is useful to develop a MonteCarlo simulation of the outcome. This may
be necessary because the probability distribution of the combined variables cannot be derived in
mathematical functional form. Generically, the Monte Carlo simulation method is based on using
an algorithm that produces a pseudorandom number. A pseudorandom number is a number
generated by a deterministic program that produces an apparently random sequence of numbers.
This pseudorandom number, usually from a uniform distribution between 0 and 1, may then be
converted to the desired distribution with appropriate parameters by using either transformation
or rejection methods. Similarly produced random variables may then be combined according to
the physical situation being modeled to produce a simulated result. This process is repeated a
large number of times, and a statistical distribution of the system parameter may be determined.
The number of simulation runs required to obtain valid data is a function of the variability of final
result and the desired precision or confidence required of the simulation. As the scale of the
simulation increases, the number of required simulation runs grows correspondingly. An example
of the use of a MonteCarlo simulation would be to model the total error of a system based on the
knowledge of the contribution of individual error sources.

6-8.5 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) MODELS


There are different classifications of artificial intelligence (AI) systems. One of the main
applications is machine learning. An expert system makes use of machine learning. However, AI
does not always involve machine learning. Hybrid systems use traditional procedures in
conjunction with AI. See subpar. 6-8.7. AI expert systems are computer-based systems that use
knowledge, facts, and reasoning techniques to solve problems that would normally require the
abilities of human experts. These systems are usually based on rules or experience information
about the behavior of a real-world situation. A rule might be of the form, “If conditionx exists,

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condition y exists, and condition z exists, a likely result of these conditions is situationb.”. A
large body of such rules can be very quickly evaluated for a specific situation, and the expert
system then arrives at likely conclusions concerning the situation. Expert systems are useful to
state these rules formally and develop an experience base. As the number of rules to be processed
becomes large, the processing time increases. This aspect may limit the applicability of the
method when time-critical situations are involved. A properly developed expert system might be
useful as a replacement for a human expert or to arrive at conclusions much more rapidly than a
human. Rule-based expert system applications applicable to the airworthiness qualification
include performance data analysis, event result prediction, and diagnostic aids.
Logical inference engines are subsets of an expert system. A logical inference engine
attempts to find a pattern in cause and effect data. A patient teacher is a system that is initially
tolerant of faulty output. Skillful opponent is an application from game theory. Artificial
intelligence has not yet been applied to qualification at the system level. However, AI can and
should be used for other work, such as battlefield and threat simulations, vulnerability analysis,
survivability analysis, and logical modeling. See subpars. 6-10.5 and 6-11-3. An expert system is
limited by the expertise built into the system; therefore, it should not be used for life or death
decisions. More advanced computers should make more difficult and complex modeling possible.

6-8.6 NEURAL NETWORK MODELS


Neural network models are based on the principle that they gain knowledge through
experience and develop a set of hidden rules, whereas expert systems operate on a set of formally
stated rules. The neural network absorbs its experience as part of a training or learning process.
These networks have been applied to speech recognition, pattern recognition (including target
detection), and perception (color, brightness, and three-dimensional form). Validation is
performed by comparison of model outputs with known real-world data. Performance may be
quantified in terms of percent confidence or accuracy in the predicted results. The validation
effort should include the search for inadequate or incorrect branches within this tree. A neural
network is programmed by forcing the network to reproduce the response from some reference
system. Both the neural network and the reference system are exercised at certain data points (or
experiments) during which time the internal parameters of the network are tuned so that its
outputs respond identically to the output of the reference system. The programming process
scans and rescans the various data points until the neural network reproduces everything without
further tuning. Hopefully, the tuning effort inherently captures (within the set of internal
parameters) every degree of freedom of the reference system. If so, the neural network can
accurately predict all responses of the reference system, even experiments not used during
programming. However, if the network does not inherently contain a complete description of the
reference system, the predicted responses will become less accurate as experiments deviate farther
from the calibrating (programming) points. To be useful, a neural network must be able to
respond accurately to signals that are “between” the programmed data points. Doing this, the
network covers the complete range of interest, i.e., all of the relevant degrees of freedom.
Examining between the data points (over the relevant degrees of freedom) should be a part of the
validation effort. To achieve this goal, three issues should be considered. They are
1. All of the relevant character traits (degrees of freedom) of the reference system must
be contained within the set of data points used for programming. A trait can be explicitly

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demonstrated by a specific experiment (like an individual equation) or implied by the behavior


across many data points (like a system of equations).
2. The neural network must have the topology (layout) and capacity to describe, store,
and reproduce the degrees of freedom of the reference system.
3. The neural network must have the ability to extract implied information across many
data points— similar to solving a system of equations. Also the neural network must contain all of
the relevant degrees of freedom, even if they were not explicitly described in any one experiment.
By doing this, the network absorbs the general rules of the reference system as it looks across the
data points; therefore, it can respond accurately to data points that were not programmed
explicitly.

6-8.7 COMPOSITE AND HYBRID BASES


The modeling tools of par. 6-8 may be combined to form composite or hybrid models of
bases of data. For example, system characteristics may be measured in order to arrive at a
statistical description of a system, which could then be used as the basis for a MonteCarlo
simulation to model situations not measured in the original data collection process. As another
example, the formally stated rules of an expert system could be combined with the learned rules of
a neural network to arrive at a hybrid system that applies both techniques. This additional degree
of abstraction compounds the validation process in that it presents a wider array of situations and
conditions that must be assessed prior to concluding that the model yields valid results.

6-9 EMULATORS

6-9.1 INTRODUCTION
Emulators are designed to duplicate the behavior, properties, or performance of another
system and are often used to generate inputs for other models and simulations. The aspect being
emulated may be the system equipment, an environment, an event, or intelligence, as discussed in
the subparagraphs that follow. A physical emulator tangibly interacts with the remainder of the
system and effectively replaces the subsystem it emulates. Abstract emulators provide the
information to assess what the interaction would be under specific conditions in order to allow
system designers to predict what the interaction would be if the emulated situation were present.
As discussed in subpars. 6-7.1 and 6-7.2, emulators may be either abstract or physical.

6-9.2 SYSTEM EQUIPMENT


As introduced in subpar. 6-7.2, system equipment emulation is used during development
of a subsystem or component when it would not be practical or possible to duplicate all system
interfaces. For example, during the course of temperature and vibration testing of a piece of
electronic equipment, it may be necessary to emulate the signal inputs to and outputs of the
system under test by using system equipment emulators for items such as controls and displays.
The rationale for the use of equipment emulators at this stage of the qualification process is the
impracticability of testing the entire system.

6-9.3 ENVIRONMENTS
Some environmental parameters may be critical to the qualification process, yet due to the
nature of the environment, the qualification process may require the use of emulations.

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Determination of qualification-critical environments should be done early in the development


process. Table 6-4 provides a matrix of environments that may be emulated. Emulation of these
environments is often necessary to evaluate performance in a controlled setting. The natural
occurrence of these environments is often unpredictable and uncontrollable and therefore
necessitates their emulation. In addition, environmental emulations are sometimes required due to
cost limitations of conducting tests at remote sites.

6-9.4 EVENTS
As with emulation of environments, emulation of events is useful when the natural
occurrence of an event is random and it is not practical to wait for its occurrence or when the
occurrence of the event must be carefully timed in order to monitor the system response. For
example, in order to assess the testability of a system, a failure event must occur that exercises the
capabilities of the system. To wait for the natural occurrence of all possible failure events in order
to determine testability, real-time performance would not be practical. The occurrence of failure
events may be emulated through a process of fault insertion either physically or through
appropriate stimulus of the system. Determination of the number and types of events to be
emulated could be derived from a statistical modeling of the failure frequency of the emulated
faulty component or through a MonteCarlo simulation. Use of statistical versus MonteCarlo
models is discussed in subpars. 6-8.4.1 and 6-8.4.2. Event emulations must be validated for use in
meeting qualification requirements. Validation issues include ensuring the correct statistical
model is being used to represent the system being qualified. In addition, event emulations may
not be totally satisfactory to meet all qualification requirements because certain events, which
might actually occur naturally, would be avoided in an emulation environment. These would
include events that could cause damaging secondary failures or would create a hazardous
situation. Other simulated events include the occurrence of emergency conditions or actions by
the enemy.

6-9.5 INTELLIGENCE
Intelligence emulation involves emulation of skills, judgment, knowledge, and applied
doctrine. This type of emulation is one of the more complex types of emulations because of the
difficulties involved in modeling human behavior.
This type of emulation may be used to represent the actions of a friendly or adversarial
person in a larger simulated environment. This could be achieved using prerecorded scenarios,
artificial intelligence, or neural networks. It would be useful in a qualification effort when
assessments require consistent emulation of human activities. (Seesubpar. 6-8.5.) Validation of
these emulations requires determination of the extent to which the emulation accuratelyrepresents
the real world in relation to how it is intended to be used.

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TABLE 6-4. EMULATED ENVIRONMENTS

ENVIRONMENT PARAMETERS MODEL BASIS APPLICATIONS


Climate— Ambient Altitude System specifications, table of Abstract or physical
Temperature standard values for atmosphere emulations, such as
Pressure and altitude, geodetic surveys, algorithms and software for
Humidity and climatic tables use of aerodynamic
performance
Climate— Local Temperature System specification Abstract or physical
(within a system) Pressure requirements and table of emulations for
Humidity measured values thermodynamic analysis
Operational Signal Voltage Interface control specifications Physical emulations of input
Interface Frequency and measured values (input and and output commands to and
Waveform output) by means of various from sensors and actuators,
Phase shift sensors and actuators along with sensor and actuator
Impedance dynamic response, accuracy,
Protocol and authority
Physical qualities
(Temperatures, Pressures,
Rates, etc.)
Operational Measures of accuracy plus Signal definitions as determined Abstract or physical
Tolerance Inter-face or minus, percent, from interface control emulations, such as error
amplitude, volts, amps, specifications and measured assessments and firm-ware for
etc. values subsystem testing
Operational Control Position From physical plant, available Abstract or physical
Interface Speed and measurable data as emulations of system to
Temperature integrated into signal flow calculate stability and control
Pressure graphs, state diagrams, and margins, transient response,
Accelerations block diagrams etc., for use in simulated
On and off commands, etc. performance testing
Spatial Location Latitude Geographic surveys, digital Abstract or physical
Longitude mapping, global positioning emulations for use in
Altitude data, and coordinate system navigation and targeting
Orientation models
Atmosphere— Wind System specification Abstract or physical
Ambient Turbulence requirements and table of emulations for use in transient
Ice measured values, meteorological response calculations and
Fog statistics simulated performance testing
Atmosphere— Temperature System specifications, table of Abstract or physical
Aerodynamic Pressure standard values for atmosphere emulations such as algorithms
Density and altitude, geodetic surveys, and software for use of
and climatic tables aerodynamic performance
Terrain Obstacles Woods System specifications, geodetic Abstract or physical
Mountains surveys, digital mapping, emulations for use in
Swamps, etc. photographic maps simulated performance testing
Electromagnetic Frequency System specifications, intended Abstract or physical
Field and Noise Bandwidth operational environment, table emulations for use in design
Peak power of measured values analysis and simu lated
Mean power, etc. performance testing
Smoke and Density System specifications, Abstract or physical
Obscurants Drift rate experimental results, tables of emulations for use in
Type and length measured values simulated system performance

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testing

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6-10 SIMULATORS

6-10.1 INTRODUCTION
A simulator is a physical model and simulation of a weapons system or piece of equipment
that is not a prototype but which replicates some major aspects of the operation of the equipment.
It may include elements of imbedded computer hardware and software associated with these
operations or the environment immediately impacted by the equipment itself, but which is reactive
only to the manipulation of the single piece of equipment. Simulators are intended to expose
equipment developers, operators, and maintainers to specific aspects of system operation without
the necessity of the actual system. Simulators may be used to evaluate and assess system
characteristics as well as training.

6-10.2 MISSION EQUIPMENT


A mission equipment simulator is used to assess the operation and integration of the
mission equipment of the air vehicle. For example, a mission simulator might include controls and
displays, a target detection system, communication andavionic equipment, weapons, and
navigation components. Such simulations are implemented by combining and integrating system
equipment simulations with environmental simulations. As part of a qualification program, they
provide the confidence that mission equipment integration issues have been properly addressed.
Fig. 6-7 provides an example of a mission equipment simulator.

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6-10.3 FLIGHT SIMULATORS


Flight simulations provide the flight crew with a moving platform and displays that react
to their air vehicle control inputs in a manner similar to the actual air vehicle. The simulators
incorporate system equipment simulation, environment simulation, and event simulation. Flight
training simulators are used to provide procedural and flight training to pilots and therefore
should replicate the total system to the maximum extent possible. Flight simulators may be used
to evaluate the design of air vehicle handling qualities and system integration issues prior to
building an actual airframe. It is important to understand the impact and limitations of motion and
visual representations in these “fly-before-build” simulators. In addition, flight simulators may be
used to evaluate flight envelope expansion impacts. In the qualification process they provide early
indication of man-machine interface issues and thus provide another important element in the
step-by-step buildup of confidence in the design. An example of a flight simulator is presented in
Fig. 6-8.

Figure 6-8. Flight Simulator

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6-10.4 MISSION FLIGHT SIMULATORS


Mission flight simulators provide integration of air vehicle flight functions with mission
equipment operation. As such, mission flight simulators should include accurate modeling and
emulation of all subsystems in order to allow assessment of the proper achievement of mission
functions, such as target engagement, in a fully simulated flight environment. Mission flight
simulators should include the capability to conduct both air-to-ground and air-to-air missions.
From such simulations early assessment of the impact of air vehicle handling and control
characteristics on mission equipment performance, such as probability of hit or probability of kill,
may be determined. Validation of a mission flight simulator is an extensive and time-consuming
effort, which requires validation of all subsystem models including engine performance models,
flight control law models, armament system fly-out models, etc.

6-10.5 BATTLE ENGAGEMENT SIMULATORS


Battle engagement simulators provide the added level of integration that comes from
simulating the interactions of one or more friendly systems against one or more enemy systems.
Such engagements might include air-to-ground, air-to-air, or ground-to-air situations. These
engagements may occur simultaneously and with multiple air vehicle and ground force players. It
is, therefore, important to assess the impact of parallel and sequential computations on the
simulated results. Sequential computations can generally be accomplished more easily and at the
least cost but may provide incorrect responses when multiple engagements are allowed. This
combined arms battle may be controlled either semiautomatically or automatically by instructor
personnel. Battle engagement simulators may include a network of several distributed mission
simulators, as depicted in Fig. 6-9. High-level system parameters that go beyond traditional
specification requirements may be assessed in this manner. These include loss exchange ratios and
system exchange ratios.
Also the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) of the Advanced Research
Projects Agency (ARPA) and the military services are in the processing of expanding the use of
virtual prototypes. The battlefield distribution simulation-development (BDS-D) is an example of
one development, which focuses on providing a war fighting assessment capability network using
a soldier-in-the-loop virtual reality approach. See Virtual Prototyping: Concept to Production
(Ref. 7) and The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office(DMSO)web site (Ref. 8).

6-11 SIMULATIONS AS SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENTS


Simulations can be used as part of the software engineering and test environments both
without and in conjunction with actual system hardware. This paragraph describes simulation of
the host, the host environment, the system environment, and embedded simulations. These
simulations are often implemented using discrete event models.

6-11.1 HOST
The host is the processor that executes the subsystem or system software program. ften
O
the host processor is simulated on a mainframe computer, which allows software development
and system performance assessment prior to availability of the host processor hardware. The
mainframe computer is programmed to simulate the planned host processor, and the simulation

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should allow assessment of throughput capacity, timing, and memory requirements. It also is
useful because it provides interface compatibility with the host environment emulator. The
simulation allows the user to display and modify simulation parameters, set breakpoints and
control tracing, display simulation reports, perform simulation output analysis, and generate
graphic displays at execution time. Queuing analysis techniques are often used in the simulation
for the analysis of the host processor. The development of high-detail, large-scale simulation
models can become very time-consuming to construct and maintain. When funds and schedule
are limited, it may be more useful to develop small-scale models that allow high-level design
decisions and would thus provide only preliminary preflight software qualification data.

6-11.2 HOST ENVIRONMENT


In addition to simulating the host processor, simulating the host environment may also be
a useful development tool. The host environment includes all interface inputs and outputs, and
the host environment simulation should replicate these interfaces and signal responses. These
environment simulations may be used to test more than one host processor. The discussion in
subpar. 6-11.1 concerning techniques, applicability, and qualification issues applies here as well.

6-11.3 SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT


System environment simulations are built from host simulations, host environment
simulations, and operational environment simulations. (The intended host is the actual hardware
that will ultimately execute the software in the air vehicle.) They allow assessment of the
execution of software for the target architectures other than that of the host machines and thus

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allow testing of software design implementation. When properly implemented and validated, they
can provide information that supports preflight software qualification. However, full qualification
requires flight test.

6-11.4 EMBEDDED SIMULATIONS


Simulations may also be embedded in an operational system to provide unique capabilities
to the operator and maintainer. Simulations that provide a training capability for exercising
system functions, such as weapons firing without actually doing so, enable economical
maintenance of proficiency. Embedded simulations may also include trajectory predictors, heads-
up display (HUD) images, and virtual cockpit displays. With these, based on artificial intelligence
or neural network techniques, a pilot’s associate could provide recommendations that allow the
pilot to perform rapid simulation assessments in a high-threat environment. Special care must be
taken during validation and qualification of embedded simulations to ensure system performance
is not degraded with the addition of training simulations. Another consideration is to provide
positive indications and safety interlocks to prevent inadvertent weapons activation while in the
training mode.

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REFERENCES
1. W. H. Rae, Jr., and A. Pope,Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., New York, NY, 1984.
2. MIL-M-8650C, Mock-Ups, Aircraft, General Specifications for, 24 September 1991.
3. MIL-STD-850B, Aircrew Station Vision Requirements for Military Aircraft , 23 November
1984.
4. AS 15531, Digital Time Division Command/Response Multiplex Data Bus , Society of
Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, November 1995.
5. MIL-STD-46855, Human Engineering Requirements for Military Systems , Equipment, and
Facilities, 26 May 1994.
6. Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide, Vol. I, Design Criteria and Check Bits
,
USAAVSCOM TR-89-D-22A, US Army Aviation Systems Command, St. Louis, MO, 1989.
7. Virtual Prototyping: Concept to Production, Defense Systems Management College Press,
Fort Belvoir, VA, March 1994.
8. The Defense Modeling and SimulationOffice (DMSO), Web site URL http://www.dmso.mil/

LIST OF ACRONYMS

AI = Artificial Intelligence
APU(s) = Auxiliary Power Units
CAE = Computer-Aided Engineering
CAM = Computer-Aided Manufacturing
CFD = Computational Fluid Dynamics
FOD = Foreign Object Damage
HISS = Helicopter Icing Spray System
HUD = Heads Up Display
IO = Input-Output
PFD = Powered Force Models
PFM = Powered Force Models
TDT = Transonic Dynamics Tunnel
DMSC = Defense Modeling and Simulation Office
ARPA = Advanced Research Agency
BDSD = Battlefield Distribution Simulation Development

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CHAPTER 7
COMPONENT QUALIFICATION

Component qualification requirements and procedures for specific component


qualification tests are identified. Also identified are the component types that normally undergo
component qualification.

7-1 INTRODUCTION types of component qualification tests that


The objective of component may be performed on these components are
qualification is to ensure within reason that addressed in the subparagraphs that follow.
the components meet or exceed the specified
performance. A component can be 7-2.1 TYPES OF COMPONENTS
airworthy but not necessarily qualified. Components are usually grouped
More often than not, components are not according to the general function of the
qualified prior to first flight. Early components, the subsystem to which the
identification of operational suitability and components belong, or the functional
performance deficiencies allows time for the application of the component. Table 7-1
development process to correct the presents typical functional-application-
deficiencies. Qualification tests should be component-type groupingsalong with
performed on production or near production examples of components belonging to those
hardware. Performing component groups. Components can be one piece or an
qualification at the component level may be assembly. For example, an oil pump
the only practical level at which a certain assembly, bearing assembly, shaft assembly,
performance characteristic can be gear assembly, and filter assembly are all
demonstrated. This is particularly true for components of a transmission assembly. A
tests requiring the use of laboratory transmission assembly is a component of the
equipment that could not practically transmission and drivetrain assembly.
accommodate a subsystem or system.
Except for flight safety parts (FSPs), 7-2.2 TYPES OF TESTS
component qualification facilitates parts The types of component qualification
standardization in that a qualified component tests to be discussed later in this chapter are
may be used in other applications if it can be functional tests, structural tests, endurance
shown that the new application is sufficiently tests, and environmental tests. An
similar or equivalent to the application for introduction to these tests follows:
which the part has been qualified. 1. Functional Tests. Functional tests
. involve the demonstration of specified
7-2 QUALIFICATION performance requirements and operational
REQUIREMENTS characteristics. Form, fit, and function
Component qualification should be validated.
requirements are based on the criticality of 2. Structural Tests. Structural tests
their application in a specific air vehicle demonstrate the structural integrity of a
design and on the anticipated environmental component prior to its installation in the air
conditions to which the component will be
subjected. The types of components and the

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TABLE 7-1. QUALIFICATION COMPONENT TYPES

COMPONENT EXAMPLES
Structural (including dynamic Rotor blades
components) Driveshafts
Castings
Crew seats
Electromechanical Generator (alternator)
Fuel boost pump
Oil cooler fan
Rocket or missile launcher
Hydromechanical Landing gear Oleo strut
Flight control actuator
Rotor brake
Landing gear retraction cylinder
Mechanical Rotor hub
Transmission
Overrunning clutch
Electrical Voltage regulator
Anti-icing and deicing element
Generator
Transformer-rectifier
Circuit breaker
Avionic Radio
Intercom
Mission computer
Navigation equipment
Control or display unit
Stability or flight control system
Weapons processor
Armament interface unit
environmental conditions, including the
vehicle. Included are such items as castings electromagnetic environment.
that form part of the primary structure,
armor components, fuel and oil tanks, and 7-2.3 COMPONENT QUALIFICATION
transparent areas. For critical dynamic MATRIX
components, determination of the service life The component qualification matrix
based on fatigue loads is the basis for provides a way to depict the components
qualification. that will undergo component qualification
3. Endurance Tests. Endurance and the specific qualification tests to which
tests show the life adequacy of components these components will be subjected. This
subject to wear and/or deterioration with matrix may be in two parts, one to show
use. preinstallation qualification requirements and
4. Environmental Tests. one to show preflight qualification
Environmental tests demonstrate that the requirements. Table 7-2 depicts the
equipment can be properly stored, operated, combinations of test types for the listed
and maintained in the anticipated component types.

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TABLE 7-2. MATRIX OF COMPONENT AND QUALIFICATION TYPES

FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURAL ENDURANCE ENVIRONMENTAL


QUALIFICATION QUALIFICATION AND QUALIFICATION
TESTS* TESTS SCREENING
Structural 1 1 2
Electromechanical 1 1 2 2
Hydromechanical 1 1 2
Mechanical 2 1 2
Electrical 1 2 2
Avionic 2 2 2

*1 = preinstallation requirement
2 = preflight requirement

7-3 QUALIFICATION PROCEDURES recorded. Once a final configuration is


This paragraph describes the general obtained, a rerun of some of the tests may be
procedures used for component qualification required by the PA. This is discussed further
by discussing test specimens, test plans, test in par. 7-13.
reports, qualification by similarity, and the If it is necessary to remove or replace
special procedures applicable to flight safety any hardware on the test specimens during
parts. any of the tests, the reason for removal
should be recorded with an accurate
7-3.1 TEST SPECIMENS determination of the type of testing the
Each component to be tested should replaced item has undergone. If the item
be of the production design and should meet replaced was a normal maintenance or
design and acceptance criteria. The number overhaul item that was not expected to last
of qualification specimens required is the life of the test component, the
determined by the procuring activity (PA) qualification should proceed as planned. On
based on the test or tests to be performed. the other hand, if the item replaced was one
For example, fatigue tests may require more that normally should not fail in service, the
test specimens than an environmental design of the item should be reviewed and
qualification. Use of a component in the analysis made to determine whether redesign
qualification test that is not identical to the and retesting are necessary. When retesting
proposed production design should be is necessary to qualify a redesigned item, the
approved by the PA. amount of testing is dependent on the
In some cases preproduction tests reasons of the original failure. If a complete
will be required. The component retest is to be conducted using the same
configuration should be recorded, including basic test component upon which the failure
all deviations from the proposed production occurred, the chances for failure of some
configuration, in terms of material, process, other item in the component undergoing
or dimensions. If it is acceptable to the PA, qualification testing are increased, and this
significant changes may be incorporated into fact will be considered if other component
component design during the qualification part failures are encountered. Throughout
test program as deficiencies are discovered. development it is important to monitor
In these cases the component configuration component configuration and assess the
used for each of the test specimens in each impact of configuration changes on
portion of the qualification test should be previously conducted qualification tests. If

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the changes are significant, it may be application, its performance requirements,


necessary to repeat certain portions of the and the basis for the determination that the
qualification. In other instances it may be component has been successfully qualified.
more practical to assess the impact of the Qualification report formats are generally
changes during the course of subsystem- or specified in a data item description (DID).
system-level tests.
Validated models may be used as 7-3.4 QUALIFICATION BY
qualification specimens when it can be shown SIMILARITY
that they provide suitable representation of In some cases it is possible to use
the actual component. An example of a components in an air vehicle system that
potential application of a validated model is have been used on a previously qualified air
to replace expensive electronic equipment vehicle. These systems or components may
with ballast if the test requires only a correct be used in their off-the-shelf configuration or
weight and center of gravity for those items. with some minor modifications to make them
compatible with the new model.
7-3.2 TEST PLANS If an off-the-shelf product is used on
Test plans are prepared and the new air vehicle and the design
submitted in accordance with the contract requirements are the same as or less severe
data requirements list (CDRL) for the than the previous installation, the component
components requiring qualification testing. is considered qualified, and no new tests are
These plans should state specifically the necessary. If the design requirements and/or
component design parameters to be operating conditions are more severe,
monitored during the test, the number of requalification of the component is required.
specimens to be tested, the test to be When required, requalification should
conducted on each specimen, the duration address only those tests necessary to show
and severity of each test, the procedure used that the component will perform adequately
to accomplish each test, and a test setup under the new requirements. Similarity alone
description and identification of the success cannot be used to qualify flight safety parts.
or failure criteria should be included as Category I similarity consists of those
appropriate. When environmental tests are a components used in a new design that are
part of the qualification procedure, a identical to components used in a previous
functional test should be performed before, design and have identical operational and
during, and after the environmental test to environmental requirements. Category II
determine whether there has been any similarity refers to components in a new
significant degradation in performance. design that have minor modifications to
components used in previous designs and/or
7-3.3 QUALIFICATION REPORTS have similar operational and environmental
Qualification reports, submitted in requirements. Category III similarity applies
accordance with the requirements of the to components that have been used in similar
CDRL, describe the procedures used to design applications by other contractors.
conduct component qualification and the The method of qualification proposed
conclusions of the component qualification. by the contractor is subject to the approval
The reports are prepared for both of the procuring activity.
qualification tests and qualification analyses.
They describe the component and its

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7-3.5 SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR to reduce the proliferation of parts within the
FLIGHT SAFETY PARTS Department of Defense (DoD) by ensuring a
It is the policy of the US Army to new part is not designed if one already exists
acquire high-quality, proven, reliable, and in the inventory that will meet the
safe flight safety parts. Flight safety parts requirements. MIL-HDBK-402, Guidelines
that require engineering testing (fatigue, for the Implementation of the DoD Parts
endurance, interchangeability, etc.) are Control Program, (Ref. 1) provides
procured only from sources whose part has assistance for implementation of a parts
met the engineering test requirements. In control program and contains the
addition, a flight safety part must undergo an information considered necessary to tailor or
acceptable inspection, as indicated in streamline effectively the PCP requirements
Chapter 3. The processes used to identify to suit specific acquisitions.
and qualify FSPs are also described in One of the advantages of using
Chapter 3. All inspection records should parts from a Qualified Products List (QPL) is
identify the specific FSPs and critical that the testing for that part or component
characteristics inspected and record the has already been performed; thus that cost
results of measurements and/or inspections, need not be incurred again. However, it is
the date of inspection, the identity of the necessary to determine the qualification level
inspector, and the required inspection of the standard part and assess the degree to
certification. When FSPs are required to be which the previously performed qualification
serialized, all operations and inspections testing satisfies the new requirements for the
affecting a critical characteristic should be part. Partial requalification may be required
traceable to the serialized item. to ensure that the part is fully compatible
with the new application.
7-4 PARTS CONTROL PROGRAM
A parts control program (PCP) 7-5 FUNCTIONAL QUALIFICATION
provides a means TESTS
Functional qualification tests are
discussed in this paragraph. Table 7-3 shows
examples of functional tests and
specifications for various component types.

TABLE 7-3. FUNCTIONAL QUALIFICATION TESTS

COMPONENT FUNCTIONAL QUALIFICATION EXAMPLE* SPECIFICATION OR


TEST STANDARD
Fuel Pump Flow rates, pressures MIL-F-8615
Hydraulic Tubing Strength, fittings MIL-H-8775
Pneumatic Valves Proper actuation at specified pressures MIL-V-38398
Electrical Connectors Insulation resistance, contact resistance MIL-STD-1344
and retention, EMI shielding, etc.

*Commercial standards and specifications suitable for the intended purpose should be used in lieu of the military
standards and specifications. Otherwise, a waiver is required from the Milestone Decision Authority.

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

7-5.1 PURPOSE structural design criteria (which include


The purpose of a functional materials and processes), analysis and test of
qualification test is to demonstrate that the design (fatigue integrity), structural integrity
component complies with specification verification, and operational data acquisition
performance requirements. Functional and data management requirements
qualification tests are performed to permit (structural integrity maintenance) for
measurement of component performance rotorcraft. MIL-STD-1530, Aircraft
parameters. The tests are conducted and Structural Integrity Program, Airplane
documented so that each performance Requirements, (Ref. 3) describes an
parameter or combination of parameters, as equivalent structural integrity program for
required, is exercised to its maximum Air Force systems (called Aircraft Structural
capability. Program (ASIP)), with the addition of sonic
effects.
7-5.2 DETAILED REQUIREMENTS Most contractors have a similar,
Detailed functional qualification test although not identical, program to achieve
requirements are stated in the general structural integrity throughout the life cycle.
specifications for the type of component Also the contractor should be encouraged to
being considered or are defined by the establish the philosophy for structural design
contractor based on subsystem specification of each load component as either a “fail-
requirements. Functional testing should be safe” or “safe-life” component. Neither the
conducted under conditions that duplicate Army nor any contractors for the Army have
service conditions as closely as possible ever qualified a component, subsystem, or
system using the “total-life” concept. For
7-6 STRUCTURAL QUALIFICATION additional information, see Foundations of
TESTS an Army Helicopter Structural Integrity
Structural integrity qualification Program (Ref. 4). For additional
requirements, static and fatigue loading information concerning composite materials,
requirements, special requirements of see subpar. 7-6.4 and ADS-35, Composite
composite material structural testing, and Materials for Helicopters(Ref. 5).
crash resistance requirements are discussed
in the subparagraphs that follow. 7-6.1.1 Structural Design
Detailed structural design criteria for
7-6.1 STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY the specific rotorcraft and components
PROGRAM should be established by the contractor in
The contractor should be required to accordance with the requirements of the
describe the program used to ensure that specification. The specification typically
structural integrity receives attention from contains design criteria for strength, damage
concept definition through design, testing, tolerance, durability, flutter, vibration,
and operation of rotorcraft systems. . weapons effects, etc. The contractor should
approach to achieving structural integrity convert these detail design criteria into actual
throughout the life cycle is the Helicopter limit load conditions. For additional
Structural Integrity Program (HSIP). The information, see ADS-29, Structural Design
elements of the Helicopter Structural Criteria for Rotary Wing Aircraft(Ref. 6)
Integrity Program (HSIP), Vol. I,Structural and MIL-STD-1530 (Ref. 3). Normally, the
Test Requirements Specification, (Ref. 2) are loads are related to structural design gross

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

weight (SDGW) or maximum alternate gross Analyses should show that structural
weight (MAGW). These terms are defined components have been designed so that
in Ref. 4. Definitions of structural failure for natural frequencies wn are not coincident
metallic and nonmetallic components for with forcing frequencies wf (Ref. 10).
both limit load and ultimate load tests are in Generally, a 10 percent frequency margin is
HSIP, Vol. I. Material strengths should be required. As a minimum, flutter analyses for
based on MIL-HDBK-5, Metallic Materials all lifting surfaces should be performed by
and Elements for Aerospace Vehicle the contractor to verify these tolerances, and
Structures, (Ref. 7) MIL-HDBK-17, Plastic stability testing should also be performed as
for Aerospace Vehicles, Part 1, Reinforced required.
Plastics, (Ref. 8) or other sources approved The contractor should analyze the
in advance by the PA. Typical other sources effects of vibration on structural integrity.
include coupon tests of composite materials Vibration transmitted to the structure from
for which no strength data are available. the rotor systems should be treated as a
Damage tolerance is defined by superimposed load since Ref. 10 cites these
HSIP, Vol. I, (Ref. 2) and MIL-STD-1530 vibrations as the cause of many structural
(Ref. 3) as the ability of a structure to resist cracks. Preliminary analyses are used later
failure due to the presence of flaws, cracks, to compare with actual rotorcraft vibration
or other damage for a specified period of to validate those analyses and update them as
unrepaired usage. Damage tolerance is necessary.
typically achieved by means of redundant Weapons effects as the result of
load paths, low stress levels, good fatigue operation of armament and blast loads
characteristics, and slow crack propagation should also be considered superimposed
rates. Additional information on damage loads. These effects should be considered for
tolerance is included in The Fundamentals of loads imposed on the ground and in flight
Aircraft Combat Survivability and Design when weapons effects excitations could
(Ref. 9). impact aeroelastic stability margins.
Durability of the rotorcraft structure
is defined by HSIP, Vol. I, as the ability of a 7-6.1.2 Fatigue Integrity
structure to resist cracking (including stress Detailed fatigue integrity criteria and
corrosion and hydrogen-induced cracking), procedures should be established by the
corrosion, thermal degradation, contractor based on predicted component
delamination, wear, and the effects of foreign loadings. Typical methods of prediction may
object damage for a specified period of time. involve cumulative fatigue damage by
The rotorcraft system specification Palmgren-Miner cycle-ratio summation
and structural design criteria should address theory or Manson's method, (Ref. 11) or
prevention of static and dynamic aeroelastic other methods proposed by the contractor
instabilities. However, static and dynamic and approved by the procuring activity.
aeroelastic instabilities cannot be addressed Regardless of the methods used, the
at the component level. contractor should clearly quantify all
Detail structural criteria should assumptions used in fatigue life predictions
include as a performance requirement that and should submit the fatigue testing plans,
component natural frequencies wn (as procedures, and reports to the procuring
installed) should not be coincident with the activity for approval. These plans and
forcing frequencies wf of the rotorcraft.

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

procedures should include provisions for strength summary and operating restrictions
requalification of modified components. report. As the development flight tests
The contractor should continuously continue, actual flight load spectrum
monitor the status of fatigue-critical information may require revision of analyses
components to ensure that structural and restrictions.
integrity is maintained. Ideally, this process Following entry into service,
should continue from design through the additional flight load surveys may be
service life of all air vehicles until disposal. performed as missions and tactics change.
As a minimum, this continuous monitoring This situation is discussed in the following
should take the form of failure analyses of subparagraph.
defective fatigue critical components,
comparison of assumed and actual flight 7-6.1.4 Structural Integrity Maintenance
spectrum loads, and updates to fatigue life The contractor should define the
predictions required by changes in service means to ensure that the structural integrity
use (Ref. 10). Changes in service use are of the rotorcraft can be maintained during its
common for rotorcraft since military tactics, intended useful life. The methods used to
operational tempos, and missions may accomplish this should include individual
change drastically from development to rotorcraft tracking, updates to flight loads,
operation of the systems. and failure analyses. Individual rotorcraft
This element of HSIP is similar to tracking can provide information useful to
structural integrity maintenance with the the prediction of structural flaws,
exception of inspection intervals and determination of inspection intervals, and
procedures and individual rotorcraft economic repair criteria. This tracking
tracking. The development of these topics is requires a data collection program that
described in subpar. 7-6.1.4. monitors rotorcraft individually throughout
their lives. These data management systems
7-6.1.3 Structural Integrity Verification should allow the procuring activity to
The contractor should ensure that identify flight safety parts (defined and
structural integrity of the rotorcraft is explained in subpar. 3-13), and support
verified through tests and analyses prior to surveillance testing of those parts, schedule
first flight and continuously throughout overhauls, and manage the fleet; the data
development. Component qualification tests provided to the contractor should allow a
and analyses include but are not limited to designer to verify and substantiate the design
determining dynamic frequencies and modes, (See Ref. 5.). As a minimum, the history of
static strength, fatigue life, and damage FSP should be tracked by their serial
tolerance. As mentioned previously, tests number. Tracking for each serially
and/or analyses should be repeated for numbered component should involve the
components modified as a result of following information as a minimum:
unsuccessful testing. 1. Process, specifications, and
Typically, first-flight structural materials used
integrity requirements include but are not 2. Manufacturing inspection
limited to a static test to limit load for critical procedures
airframe components, landing gear drop test, 3. Service history
ground modal survey and ground resonance 4. Failure data
shake tests, stress analyses, and a preliminary 5. Disposition information.

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

Additionally, fatigue lives, retirement or other details of failure or knowledge of


lives, frequency of inspection, and inspection the growth potential of the component is
procedures may need revision once actual desired. Because a test to limit load is
flight spectrum loads are identified and/or inherent in the other loading conditions, it is
military tactics, operational tempos, and usually not specified for qualification unless
rotorcraft missions change. The contractor it is important that the test specimen not be
should identify to the procuring activity the destroyed or unless a check for yielding is all
significant changes in tactics, operational that is desired. The static test of many
tempos, and rotorcraft missions that components is conducted in conjunction with
necessitate additional structural analyses the static test of the airframe.
and/or flight load surveys. The main and tail rotor blades are
Failure and damage reports, such as tested for flapwise buckling or bending.
Quality Deficiency Reports (QDRs), should Spar, nose cap, trailing edge, and box section
be used to refine inspection intervals and components should be tested individually so
procedures. To ensure that maintenance that the strength properties and methods of
procedures are maintaining the required level failure can be determined.
of safety, the contractor should also maintain Although fatigue is a critical aspect
an active failure analysis and investigation for rotor system dynamic components, static
program subject to approval by the load tests furnish useful information on
procuring activity. This analysis and strength properties and load distribution.
investigation program should allow the Examples of dynamic components that
contractor to determine would undergo static loading tests are pitch
1. The probable location of fatigue links and arms, swash plates, drive links,
cracks fixed links, rotor hubs, masts, and pitch
2. The rate of growth of fatigue housings.
cracks (rate of crack propagationda/dN) The basic test for flight control
3. The length of the crack at which components is the proof load and operation
the residual strength is no longer greater than test, which demonstrates that the systems
expected loads (Ref. 12). will not deflect excessively, bind, or
These data can be used to revise inspection otherwise interfere with each other, with
procedures and intervals as needed. other components, or with the airframe while
operated throughout the full range of travel
7-6.2 STATIC LOADING and under design limit loads. The test also
Static load testing should be applies to the hydromechanical portions of
performed to determine the load-carrying the fly-by-wire systems. Both the pilot's and
capacity of a structural member in a static copilot's controls should be loaded and
condition. Static tests may be conducted to applied loads reacted at the blades and
limit loads, ultimate loads, or failing loads. control surfaces. The controls should be
Limit load is the load or load factor that cycled through their full range of travel with
establishes a strength level for design of the the limit loads applied, and the number of
rotorcraft; ultimate load is the limit load times cycled should be kept to a minimum
multiplied by the specified ultimate factor of because of the danger of low-cycle fatigue.
safety, and failing load is the load at which Rotor and control actuating cylinders
failure of the structure occurs. A failing load should be subjected to proof pressure tests
test is advantageous when the location, type, for leaks, loosening of components, and

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

permanent deformation. In addition, limit been conducted to give reasonable assurance


and ultimate column loads, tension loads, of test completion.
and compression loads should be applied to ADS-29 provides useful information
the actuating cylinder at the output and inlet about establishing structural design criteria in
ports. Column load tests are accomplished terms of providing general design
with the cylinders in the most critical requirements, flight load conditions, ground
position. The actuators should be inspected loading conditions, and control system loads.
for static and dynamic leakage after the limit The design criteria include maneuver
load test. conditions and flight procedures that may be
Static testing of the transmission and used during the structural demonstration as
gearbox housing should include ultimate load part of the qualification process.
for critical nonflight (e.g., crash) conditions
and failing load for the critical flight 7-6.3 FATIGUE LOADING
condition. A large number of rotorcraft
Class 1A castings, i.e., castings in components are fatigue critical. This means
which a single failure would cause loss of the that their structural adequacy is based on a
rotorcraft, should be static tested to failure stated service life when subjected to
for critical loading conditions for which a repeating cycles of alternating load rather
casting factor of safety less than 1.33 is than on a positive margin of safety under
shown. Due to the unreliability of castings critical static loads. Qualification of a
and the inherent scatter of casting test fatigue-critical component requires
results, three casting specimens should be determination of its service life, either finite
tested (usually the least acceptable ones), or infinite, or demonstration of adequate fail-
and a minimum casting factor of safety of safe characteristics.
1.25 should be demonstrated at the ultimate Fatigue testing should be performed
load. on all critical, primary, structural, load-
The performance requirements for carrying components. The required testing
crashworthy components (which include should be sufficient to provide data adequate
fluid system components) should be for service life determination or to
validated by statically and dynamically using demonstrate acceptable characteristics.
the test methods of MIL-STD-1290,Light Components to be tested include these:
Fixed and Rotary Wing Aircraft Crash 1. Main Rotor System. In the main
Resistance, (Ref. 13). rotor system the components are obtained
ADS-24, Structural Demonstration, from the critical areas, the number of which
(Ref. 14) provides useful information is dependent on the rotor configuration.
concerning demonstrating the structural Critical-area components include the hub-to-
performance requirements of the rotorcraft. mast attachment, actuators,swash plates,
The primary objective of the structural hub-to-blade root attachment, centrifugal
demonstration is to demonstrate the safe tension-torsion strap, and a basic blade
operation of the rotorcraft to the maximum section. Additional areas of testing in the
attainable operating limits consistent with the main rotor blade may be required due to
structural design, i.e., a static test in the air. concentrated mass areas, such as tip weights
The demonstration is conducted after or antinode weights, which provide rapid
sufficient checkout and buildup flying has change in section properties with resultant
local stress concentrations. Each area of the

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

main rotor system should be considered at 125% of the normal rated torque while
thoroughly in the design stages and analyzed installed in the gearbox assembly. Usually,
and identified to ensure the critical areas are 10 million cycles at overload torque are
included in the test program. accomplished.
2. Antitorque Rotor System. This 7. Engine Mount. Any portions of
system is similar to the main rotor system, the engine mounting system, including
and the components selected for fatigue airframe-mounted attachments determined to
testing should be based on the identified be fatigue critical during the flight load
critical areas. Fatigue testing should be survey, should be fatigue tested.
conducted on the hub, blade root end, 8. Other Components. Fatigue tests
tension-torsion reaction system, and basic should be conducted on any other structural
blade section. component for which fatigue loads are found
3. Main Rotor Control System. to be critical. Attachments and mountings,
Fatigue testing of the control system such as those for horizontal and vertical
components forward of the boost system (if stabilizers, landing gear, and armament,
installed) usually is not required because should be investigated during the flight load
such a system isolates the oscillatory loads survey to determine the need for additional
that originate in the rotor system. Fatigue fatigue tests. Particular attention must be
testing should be performed on all given to analytically identifying the
components from the boosters up to and mountings located in the antinode vicinity of
including the pitch control arm. In the the fundamental fuselage modes. Location
absence of a control boost system, all control of such mountings should then be confirmed
system components subject to critical fatigue by vibration test.
loading should be fatigue tested. The laboratory fatigue test of
4. Antitorque Rotor Control System. rotorcraft components can be accomplished
This system is similar to the main rotor in various ways. The methods used most
control system; fatigue testing should be often are spectrum and S-N testing, i.e.,
performed on all components from the testing that results in curves of stress versus
booster system to the pitch control arm or on number of cycles to failure. In spectrum
all components subject to critical fatigue fatigue testing, in-flight load conditions are
loading. reproduced as closely as possible. The
5. Power Drive Systems. Fatigue relative magnitude and distribution of test
testing of the power train system loads should be based on measured flight
components should be accomplished and loads. Because the flight load survey may
should include the main rotor mast, not be completed when the fatigue test
transmission input shaft, antitorque rotor program is initiated, the first tests may be
driveshaft, miscellaneous power takeoff started with loading conditions based on
shafts, and gear flanges. computed loads or the flight loads measured
6. Transmission, Gearbox, and on prototype hardware.
Associated Components. Fatigue testing of The test parts should beinstrumented
the basic gearbox case, other critical gearbox with strain gage locations identical to those
housings, and their local supporting structure used in flight test. Strain gages are not
should be accomplished. Also qualification required if the test loads applied to the
testing of gears, shafts, etc., typically components can be verified with acceptable
includes but is not limited to fatigue testing accuracy by other means. Oscillatory loads

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15 Aug 96
Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

should be applied to each specimen in from 4 to 8 Hz. The tail rotor frequency
increments of the measured flight loads; the (also one per rev) usually is in the range of
load distribution should be representative of 15 to 30 Hz.
all flight conditions. In some cases it may be Each fatigue test setup has unique
necessary to superimpose gust loads on the features based on the design of the air
fatigue loading spectrum. vehicle. For example, rotor system
The preferred method of fatigue components may be subjected to four loads
testing is the S-N technique because service simultaneously: centrifugal force, flapwise
lives can be determined from S-N data for bending, chordwise bending, and torsion.
any load condition. Variables that Loadings should be verified by analysis and
significantly influence the test results, such as by use of strain gages installed on the
number of specimens, methods of applying component, as appropriate. Force and
loads, and data scatter limits, should be moment distributions should be verified
approved by the procuring activity. during testing and compared with design and
Because spectrum testing involves flight distributions.
reproducing in the laboratory load amplitude Most critical areas are located at
and frequency distributions directly joints or transitions. Strain gages, however,
proportional to those encountered in flight, it should be located in relatively uniform
may be considered a more exact basis for the sections. Installations adjacent to joints
initial determination of service life. and/or rapid transitions should be avoided
However, it is not possible to determine because these local stress concentrations will
whether alteration of mission profiles or the influence the strain gage output and result in
frequency of alternate missions, or any other improper readout.
change in the air vehicle flight spectrum has Use of stress analysis techniques such
an effect on the component service life as stress coat, photo stress, and plastic
without retesting in the altered spectrum. models should be encouraged. These
Therefore, spectrum testing, should be used techniques are not used for detailed analysis
only when specifically approved by the but to determine rapidly the critical areas and
procuring activity. approximate strain magnitudes. These
Fatigue test specimens should be of critical areas can then be checked with
production configuration and quality. The appropriately located strain gages.
number of specimens to be tested should be ADS-24 (Ref. 14) provides
proposed by the contractor and approved by information useful to determining the
the procuring activity. structural demonstration criteria, and ADS-
Comparison of available fatigue test 29 (Ref. 6) provides information useful to
data with the effect of loading frequency on determining structural performance criteria
metallic materials indicates that tests for rotorcraft. The data obtained during this
conducted within a frequency range factor of demonstration are used to verify that loads
10 gives similar results. Test load frequency used in the structural analysis and static tests
of application, therefore, should be kept are not exceeded during flight and to
within a factor of 10 of the normal operating substantiate fatigue life calculations.
frequency of application.
For the main rotor normal operating 7-6.4 COMPOSITE STRUCTURES
frequency (one per rev) is dependent on the Structural testing of composite
rotor rotational speed and usually ranges components is essentially the same as for

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15 Aug 96
Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

metallic structures, except environmental 4. Litter supports


factors and filament direction are of greater 5. Landing gears
significance. Also, for each composite 6. Flammability tests of selected
material to be used, the contractor should be airframe and interior materials.
required to determine the designallowables Tests and test methods include such
necessary to support the design and items as static and dynamic tests on frangible
performance requirements of the contract. devices, instrumented drop tests on landing
The contractor should be required to submit gears to verify attenuation and loading
the properties data along with a summary of strength characteristics, and rotorcraft
qualification test procedures, number of system testing to verify analysis and
specimens, etc. If these properties are not substantiate system capability to prevent
known, the contractor should perform tests fatalities and minimize injuries.
to determine the physical, mechanical,
chemical, thermal, and electrical properties. 7-7 FAA STRUCTURAL
Susceptibility to nuclear, biological, and QUALIFICATION
chemical (NBC) agents and decontaminates This paragraph addresses the Federal
should be part of chemical properties testing. Aviation Administration requirements for
ADS-35 (Ref. 5) provides additional component structural testing and design of
information relevant to qualification testing air vehicles. The agents of the FAA certify
of composite materials. Also see par. 7-14 only that requirements have been satisfied.
through subpar. 7-14.4.
In fatigue testing of composite 7-7.1 STRUCTURE
structures special care should be taken to The airworthiness standards of the
select load application frequencies for FAA for aircraft, which are Parts 23 and 25
laminated and bonded structures that ensure of Title 14 of the Code of Federal
there is no excessive buildup of temperature Regulations, (Refs. 15 and 16) establish
leading to premature bond line failures. strength requirements in terms of limit load
(the maximum loads to be expected in
7-6.5 CRASH RESISTANCE service) and ultimate loads (limit loads
Crash resistance tests are performed multiplied by a prescribed factor of safety).
to demonstrate that systems are designed to These regulations require that compliance
prevent occupant fatalities and to minimize with the strength requirements be shown for
the number and severity of injuries during each critical load condition. Structural
crash impacts. The procuring activity should analysis may be used only if the structure
define the performance and validation conforms to those for which experience has
requirements for crashworthiness. MIL- shown this method to be reliable. In other
STD-1290 (Ref. 13) provides relevant cases, substantiating load tests must be
information. These criteria are usually performed. Dynamic tests, including
specified for military rotorcraft but not for structural flight tests, are acceptable if the
Federal-Aviation-Administration (FAA) - design load conditions have been simulated.
certified air vehicle. Crashworthiness of the
systems that follow is validated by test:
1. Fluid fuel systems
2. Crew seats
3. Troop and passenger seats

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15 Aug 96
Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

7-7.2 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 7-8 ENDURANCE AND SCREENING


Federal Aviation Administration QUALIFICATION TESTS
airworthiness standards for design and Endurance tests and screening tests
construction of several categories of aircraft are discussed in the subparagraphs that
are included in Parts 23 and 25 of Title 14, follow.
Code of Federal Regulations (Refs. 15 and
16). These standards provide proof of 7-8.1 ENDURANCE TESTING
strength requirements for various Endurance tests are performed to
components. For wings, proof of strength demonstrate that wear resulting from normal
must be accomplished by load tests or by use will not result in unacceptable
combined structural analysis and load tests. performance degradation during a reasonable
For control surfaces, limit load tests are period of air vehicle operation. For this
required. These tests must include the horn reason, formal qualification of the
or fitting to which the control system is components of a new design is not begun
attached. For control systems, compliance until extensive prequalification tests have
with limit load requirements must be shown been completed satisfactorily.
by tests in which Prequalification tests include
1. The direction of the test loads investigation of abnormal operating
produces the most severe loading in the conditions: overspeed, overtorque, oil out,
control system. and overpressure. Failure or excessive wear
2. Each fitting, pulley, and bracket of shafts, bearings, seals, gears, impellers,
used in attaching the system to the main armatures, and similar items during these
structure is included. tests is cause for design improvements and
Compliance must be shown by analyses or further testing. Prequalification testing of
individual load tests with the special factor gearbox assemblies usually includes but is
requirements for control system joints not limited to 200 hours of overstress testing
subject to angular motion. For the landing at 125% of normal rated torque, during
gear, it must be shown that the limit load which time transient limits, overspeed, high
factors selected for design for takeoff and temperature, and single-engine capabilities
landing weights, respectively, will not be are typically demonstrated. See subpar. 7-
exceeded. Compliance must be shown by 6.3 for fatigue testing of gearboxes and
energy-absorption tests except that analysis related components.
based on tests conducted on a landing gear Endurance testing for purposes of
system with identical energy absorption qualification usually includes 200 hours of
characteristics may be used for increases in operation while applying a loading profile
previously approved takeoff and landing representing a typical mission. This cycling
weights. The landing gear may not fail but is repeated throughout the course of the
may yield in a test showing its reserved endurance test. Although it provides a good
energy-absorption capacity simulating a indication of component endurance
descent velocity of 1.2 times the limit characteristics, this test may not be able to
descent velocity if wing lift is equal to the duplicate adequately the types of interface
weight of the air vehicle. problems that often cause failures at the
system level. Therefore, special care should
be used to evaluate such things as structural
loads and deflections at critical interfaces.

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15 Aug 96
Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

Environmental Test Methods and


7-8.2 SCREENING TESTS Engineering Guidelines, (Ref. 17) provides a
Environmental stress screening description of specific environmental test
(ESS) is conducted in order to precipitate requirements and procedures. Specific test
and expose latent defects that may have been criteria contained in the standard may be
introduced in the manufacturing and cited as needed to validate performance.
assembly process. These tests are usually However, the contractor should not be
conducted on electrical and electronic parts, required to comply with this standard in its
assemblies, and components in entirety.
environmental chambers. The test items are
subjected to temperature cycling and random 7-9.1 VIBRATION
vibration cycling. Specific test levels are Vibration testing is performed to
established in order to provide the most identify the structural dynamic properties and
effective screens within the design limits of to determine the resistance of a component
the test item. The rationale for inducing to vibrational stresses expected in its
failures is that if a failure of an item is shipment and operational environments.
impending, it is far less costly to uncover the Vibrations can cause wire chaffing, loosening
failure in the laboratory environment at the of fasteners, intermittent electrical contacts,
part or component level than to incur a touching and shorting of electrical parts, seal
failure with the faulty component after deformation, component fatigue, optical
installation in a higher level assembly or after misalignment, cracking and rupturing,
fielding of the system. Because ESS is loosening of particles or parts that may
performed at environmental stress levels become lodged in circuits or mechanisms,
higher than those normally encountered, it is and excessive electrical noise. Vibration
important that these stress levels be testing consists of mounting the test item to
judiciously selected based on experience with equipment that produces the required
similar components. Too low a level may vibrational environment, exposing the item to
not produce the desired screening level, a predetermined test level and duration and
whereas too high a level may cause of operating the item as if it were in
adequately manufactured and assembled operational usage and verifying the ability of
hardware to fail. the item to function both during and after the
test. This procedure is repeated for each of
7-9 GENERAL PHYSICAL three orthogonal axes.
ENVIRONMENTS ADS-27, Requirements for
Environmental qualification testing at Rotorcraft Vibration Specifications,
the component level is discussed in the Modeling, and Testing, (Ref. 18) and MIL-
subparagraphs that follow. Environmental STD-810 (Ref. 17) provide methods for
tests are usually performed in test chambers specifying, analyzing, and measuring air
that expose the test item to a simulated vehicle vibration environments. Applicable
environment singly or to a number of criteria can be used in a solicitation. Also
environments simultaneously. Table 7-4 the contractor could be required to propose
presents the environments normally used for a test that both duplicates the operational
environmental testing and provides a brief environment and demonstrates satisfactory
purpose of each test. MIL-STD-810, performance of the component before and

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

TABLE 7-4. QUALIFICATION ENVIRONMENTS

ENVIRONMENT PURPOSE
Temperature Determine the ability of the component to be operated and stored under hot and cold
High temperature temperature conditions.
Low temperature
Temperature shock
Acceleration Assure that equipment can structurally withstand the expected forces due to accelera-
tion without degradation during and following exposure.
Shock Determine the ability of the component to withstand the infrequent, nonrepetitive
shock of handling, transportation, and service.
Sand and Dust Determine the ability of the component to be operated and stored in blowing sand and
dust.
Gunfire Determine the ability of the component to withstand and operate under gunfire vibra-
tion conditions.
Rain Determine the effectiveness of protective covers or cases, the ability to perform in the
rain. Determine equipment damage or performance degradation caused by the rain.
Humidity Determine the resistance of the component to a warm, humid atmosphere.
Salt Fog Determine the resistance of the component to an aqueous salt atmosphere.
Fungus Assess the extent to which the component will support fungal growth or how fungal
growth affects performance.
Icing and Freezing Rain Demonstrate the ability of the component to operate properly in freezing rain, mist, or
sea spray.
Low Pressure (Altitude) Determine whether components can withstand and operate in a low-pressure environ-
ment, such as storage at high altitude, air shipment, and rapid decompression.
Solar Radiation Determine the effects of solar radiation on equipment, such as component expansion
(Sunshine) and contraction, and changes in strength and elasticity.
Vibration Determine the ability of the component to function within the steady vibration envi-
ronment to which it will be subjected during its operational life.
Explosive Atmosphere Demonstrate the ability of equipment to operate in a flammable atmosphere without
causing an explosion or to contain such a reaction.
Leakage (Immersion) Determine whether an item designed to be watertight can be immersed without
leaking into its container; determine other possible effects of immersion in water.
Temperature, Humidity, Identify the failures that temperature, humidity, vibration, and altitude in combination
Vibration, and Altitude can induce in electronic equipment.

after exposure. The test duration, amplitude, experiencing physical damage or


or both parameters (coincident) could be performance deterioration.
modified to accommodate reasonable test The purpose of low-temperature tests
duration, but actual operational environment is to determine whether components can be
and component life must correlate. stored, manipulated, and operated under
low-temperature conditions without
7-9.2 TEMPERATURE experiencing physical damage or
The purpose of high-temperature performance deterioration.
chamber tests is to determine whether Temperature shock tests are
components can be stored and operated performed to determine whether materiel can
under hot climatic conditions without withstand sudden changes in the temperature
of the surrounding atmosphere without

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

experiencing physical damage or and reduced strength of materials; static


performance deterioration. fatigue of restrained glass; condensation and
High temperatures may temporarily freezing of water; decrease in dexterity,
or permanently impair the performance of hearing and vision impairment of personnel
components by changing the physical wearing protective clothing; and change in
properties or dimensions of the material(s) burning rates.
composing them. Examples of problems that Sudden temperature changes can
could occur as a result of high-temperature cause shattering of glass vials and optical
exposure are parts binding from differential equipment, binding or slackening of moving
expansion of dissimilar materials; lubricants parts, changes in electronic components,
becoming less viscous and joints losing electronic or mechanical failures due to rapid
lubrication; materials changing dimension water or frost formation, cracking of solid
either totally or selectively; packing, gaskets, pellets or grains in explosives, differential
seals, bearings, and shafts becoming contraction or expansion of dissimilar metals,
distorted, binding, and failing causing deformation or fracture of components,
mechanical or integrity failures; gaskets cracking of surface coatings, and leaking of
displaying permanent set; closure and sealing sealed components.
strips deteriorating; fixed-resistance resistors Procedures for high-temperature
changing in value; electronic circuit stability storage tests consist of installing temperature
varying with differences in temperature sensors on, in, and around the test item and
gradients and differential expansion of chamber; adjusting the temperature of the
dissimilar materials; transformers and chamber to the initial test conditions;
electromechanical components overheating; exposing the item to the specified
altering of operating and release margins of temperature, time, and cycles; stabilizing the
relays and magnetic or thermally activated temperature after the last cycle; and
devices; shortened operating life; solid conducting a visual and functional checkout
pellets or grains separating; high internal of the item.
pressures created within sealed cases; and Procedures for low-temperature
discoloration, cracking, or crazing of organic storage tests are similar to those described
materials. for high-temperature tests.
Examples of problems that could Procedures for high-temperature
occur as the result of exposure to cold are operational tests consist of placing the test
hardening and embrittlement of materials; item in the chamber in its operational
binding of parts due to differential configuration, exposing the item either at a
contraction of dissimilar materials and the constant temperature or a temperature cycle,
different rates of expansion of different parts operating the test item at the high-
in response to temperature transients; loss of temperature level, and determining proper
lubrication and lubrication flow due to operation during and after exposure.
increased viscosity; changes in electrical Procedures for low-temperature
characteristics of electronic components, operational tests are similar to those
such as resistors and capacitors; changes in described for the high-temperature tests
performance of transformers and except that they include tests of low-
electromechanical components; stiffening of temperature manipulation (handling,
shock mounts; cracking and crazing, disassembly, reassembly, and packing) by
embrittlement, change in impact strength, personnel clothed and equipped as they

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

would be in a low-temperature tactical subjected to crash loads. Mechanical shocks


environment. excite equipment items to respond at both
7-9.3 ACCELERATION forced and natural frequencies. Among
The purpose of acceleration tests is other things this response can cause failures
to assure that equipment can withstand the due to increased or decreased friction or
forces due to acceleration that are expected interference between parts, changes in
in the service environment and function dielectric strength, loss of insulation
without degradation during and following resistance, variations in magnetic and
exposure to these forces. Forces induced by electrostatic field strength, permanent
acceleration can cause structural deflections deformation due to overstress, and more
that interfere with equipment operation; rapid fatiguing of materials (low-cycle
permanent deformations and fractures that fatigue).
disable or destroy the equipment; broken Shock tests may be classed as
fasteners and mounting hardware, which can functional shock, equipment packaging
then cause equipment to become loose shock, critical acceleration fragility shock,
projectiles, electronic circuit boards to short transit drop, crash hazard, bench handling,
out and circuits to open up; inductances and pyrotechnic shock, rail impact, and catapult
capacitances to change values; relays to open launch and arrested landing. In each case the
or close; actuators and other mechanisms to component is subjected to a series of shocks
bind; seals to leak; pressure and flow that represent the intended conditions.
regulators to change value; pumps to These tests are repeated for each of the three
cavitate; spools in servo valves to be axes, and the ability of the equipment to
displaced and cause erratic and dangerous withstand the test is recorded.
control system response.
Acceleration tests are performed by 7-9.5 SAND AND DUST
placing the test item in either a centrifuge or The purpose of sand and dust testing
on a powered sled on a track and subjecting is to
it to the specified level of acceleration, 1. Ascertain the ability of equipment
operating it, and inspecting it after the to resist the effects of dust particles that may
exposure. The test is repeated so that item penetrate into cracks, crevices, bearings, and
has been exposed in all six test directions— joints
positive and negative direction of the three 2. Determine whether materiel can
mutually perpendicular axes. be stored and operated under blowing sand
conditions without experiencing degradation
7-9.4 SHOCK of its performance, effectiveness, reliability,
The purpose of shock testing is to and maintainability due to the abrasion
assure that components can withstand the (erosion) or clogging effects of sand
relatively infrequent, nonrepetitive shocks or particles.
transient vibrations encountered in handling, Examples of problems that could
transportation, and service environments. occur as a result of exposure of materiel to
Shock tests are also used to measure the blowing sand and dust are abrasion of
fragility of a component so that packaging surfaces, penetration of seals, erosion of
may be designed to protect it, if necessary, surfaces, degradation of electrical circuits,
and to test the strength of devices that attach clogging of openings and filters, physical
equipment to platforms which may be interference with mating parts, fouling of

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

moving parts, exothermal reaction (thermite this process for each of three orthogonal
effect) of clay particles (with aluminum axes.
oxide) at high temperatures that produces
heat which could cause high-temperature 7-9.7 RAIN
corrosion and produce extremely hard, The purpose of rain (water intrusion)
erosive particles. testing is to determine
Blowing sand and dust tests consist 1. The effectiveness of protective
of mounting the component in an appropriate covers or cases in preventing the penetration
chamber; adjusting air velocity, temperature, of rain
and particle concentrations to specified 2. The capability of the test item to
levels; operating the items for the specified satisfy its performance requirements during
time period; and inspecting its condition after and after rain exposure
the test. Areas requiring careful inspection 3. The physical deterioration of the
include bearings, grease seals, and lubricants. test item caused by rain water.
In the atmosphere, rain interferes
7-9.6 GUNFIRE with or degrades radio communications,
The purpose of gunfire tests is to limits radar effectiveness, limits air vehicle
assure that the equipment mounted in an air operations by restricting visibility, damages
vehicle with onboard guns can withstand the air vehicles in flight, affects artillery and
vibration environment caused by the missile launching, degrades or negates
overpressure pulses emitting from the gun optical surveillance, decreases the
muzzle as well as reactive recoil forces. effectiveness of personnel in exposed
Also the potential for corrosive damage to activities, causes some fuzes to function
airframe and engine surfaces attributable to prematurely, and inhibits visibility through
weapon emissions should be investigated. optical devices. On impact, rain erodes
The vibration resulting from repetitive gun surfaces. After deposition, water degrades
blast pulses might be as large as two orders the strength of some materials, promotes
of magnitude above normal flight vibration corrosion of metals, deteriorates surface
levels. Gunfire vibration might cause the coatings, and can render electrical or
structure and equipment to respond in a electronic apparatus inoperative or
violent manner, and emissions might be dangerous. After penetration into
ingested directly into the cockpit and engine. containers, water causes malfunction of
This response can cause intermittent electrical equipment; may freeze inside
electrical contact, catastrophic electrical equipment, which may cause delayed
failures, hydraulic malfunctions, structural deterioration and malfunction by swelling or
fatigue failures, and a possibility of engine cracking of parts; causes high humidity,
failure. which can in time encourage corrosion and
Gunfire tests consist of mounting the fungal growth; and causes slower burning of
test item on a vibration shaker, operating the propellants.
test item in accordance with its Rain tests may be conducted in
specifications, applying the vibration blowing rain conditions, drip conditions, or
exposure in accordance with specified levels water tightness conditions. In each case the
and durations, operating the item under the item is placed in an appropriate chamber,
vibration exposure conditions, and repeating exposed to the specified test condition for
the appropriate time, and operational checks

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

and visual inspections are conducted during (products of natural origin are most
and after exposure. susceptible to this attack) or indirect attack
on materials. Damage from indirect attack
7-9.8 HUMIDITY includes
The purpose of humidity tests is to 1. Fungal growth on surface deposits
determine the resistance of components to of dust, grease, perspiration, and other
the effect of a warm, humid atmosphere. contaminants causes damage to the
Typical problems that can result from such underlying material even though that material
exposure are swelling of materials due to may be resistant to direct attack.
moisture absorption, loss of physical 2. Metabolic waste products, i.e.,
strength, changes in mechanical properties, organic acids, excreted by fungi, cause
degradation of electrical and thermal corrosion of metals, etching of glass, or
properties in insulating materials, electrical staining or degrading of plastics and other
short circuits due to condensation, binding of materials.
moving parts due to corrosion or fouling of 3. The products of fungal growth or
lubricants, oxidation and/or galvanic adjacent materials that are susceptible to
corrosion of metals, loss of plasticity, direct attack come in contact with the
accelerated chemical reactions, chemical or resistant material.
electrochemical breakdown of organic In addition, fungal growth can cause
surface coatings, deterioration of electrical physical interference with
components, degradation of image 1. Electronic and electrical systems
transmission through glass or plastic optical by creating undesirable electrical conducting
elements, absorption of moisture by paths across insulation materials or may
explosives and propellants, accelerated affect the electrical characteristics of
biological activity, deterioration of critically adjusted electronic circuits
hygroscopic materials. 2. Optical systems by adversely
Humidity tests involve placing the affecting light transmission through the
test item in an appropriate test chamber, optical system, blocking delicate moving
adjusting the chamber to specified parts, and changing nonwetting surfaces to
temperature and relative humidity conditions, wetting surfaces with resulting loss in
cycling the chamber conditions through performance.
specified values, and conducting operational Lastly, fungal growth on equipment
checkouts of the component both during and can cause physiological problems, e.g.,
after the exposure. allergies, or be so aesthetically unpleasant
that users will be reluctant to use the
7-9.9 FUNGUS equipment.
The purpose of fungus tests is to Fungus test procedures involve
assess the extent to which the component preparing fungi cultures, applying them to
will support fungal growth or how the fungal the test specimens and control specimens,
growth may affect performance or use of the incubating the test items for specified time
component. Fungal growth impairs the periods, and inspecting them to determine
functioning or use of equipment by changing the extent of fungus growth, if any.
its physical characteristics. This may be in
the form of direct attack as the fungi break
the material down and use it as food

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

7-9.10 ICING procedures while operating the equipment


The purpose of icing tests is to and its ice removal features.
evaluate the effect of icing produced by
freezing rain, mist, or sea spray on the 7-9.11 SOLAR RADIATION
operational capability of components. A (SUNSHINE)
buildup of ice occurs in three principal ways: The purpose of a solar radiation test
from rain falling on an item whose is to determine the effects of solar radiation
temperature is below freezing, from freezing on equipment that may be exposed to
rain falling on an item at or near freezing, or sunshine during operation or unsheltered
from sea spray that coats equipment when storage.
temperatures are below freezing. Ice The heating effects of solar radiation
formation can result in the following differ from those of air at high temperature
problems: alone because the amount of heat absorbed
1. Mechanical and vibrational or reflected depends on the roughness and
problems from the uneven shedding of ice in color of the surface on which the radiation is
rotating components incident. Some materials may also be
2. Binding moving parts together susceptible to the solar radiation spectrum
3. Added weight to radar antennas, and intensity. Solar radiation effects include
helicopter rotors, and other airframe jamming or loosening of moving parts,
components weakening of solder joints and glued parts,
4. Increased footing hazard change in strength and elasticity, loss of
5. Interference with clearances calibration or malfunction of linkage devices,
between moving parts loss of seal integrity, changes in electrical or
6. Reduced airflow efficiency and electronic components, premature actuation
sigificantly degraded aerodynamic of electrical contacts, fading of colors of
characteristics of surfaces color-coded components, changes in
7. Impeded visibility through characteristics of elastomers and polymers,
windshields and optical devices blistering and peeling of paints and other
8. Affected transmission of finishes, and softening of potting
electromagnetic radiation compounds.
9. Probability of damage from use of Test procedures involve
mechanical, manual, or chemical ice removal 1. Raising chamber air temperature
measures. to a specified level
Icing test procedures involve 2. Exposing the test item to
stabilizing the test item at approximately 2°C continuous 24-h cycles of controlled,
(36°F), delivering a uniform spray of specified, simulated solar radiation and dry
precooled water, lowering the chamber bulb temperature
temperature to –10°C (14°F) and 3. Repeating the cycles a specified
maintaining the spray until 6 mm (0.24 in.) of number of times
ice has accumulated, adjusting the chamber 4. Conducting operational tests and
temperature to –6°C (21°F) for 2 to 6 h, visual inspections.
operating the equipment, exercising integral
ice removal methods, operating the system 7-9.12 SALT FOG
again, increasing the ice coating thickness to Salt fog climatic chamber tests are
13 mm (0.51 in.), and repeating the previous performed to determine the resistance of

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

equipment to the effects of an aqueous salt to prove that a flame reaction occurring
atmosphere. Methods to minimize corrosive within an encased equipment will be
effects using protective schemes or handling contained and will not propagate outside the
are described in ADS-13, Air Vehicle test item.
Materials and Processes, (Ref. 19). Low levels of energy discharge or
The effects of exposure to an electrical arc from devices as simple as
environment in which there is an aqueous pocket transistor radios can ignite mixtures
salt atmosphere can be divided in three broad of fuel vapor and air. A hot spot on the
categories: corrosion effects, electrical surface of a hermetically sealed, apparently
effects, and physical effects. Corrosion inert equipment case can ignite fuel vapor
effects include corrosion due to and air mixtures. Fuel vapors in
electrochemical reaction, accelerated stress compartments can be ignited by a low-
corrosion, and formation of acidic or alkaline energy discharge such as a spark from a
solutions following salt ionization in water. shorted flashlight cell or switch contacts.
Electrical effects include impairment of For testing the operation of a
electrical equipment due to salt deposits, component in an explosive environment, the
production of conductive coatings, and test involves
corrosion of insulating materials and metals. 1. Preparing the chamber for test
Physical effects include binding of the 2. Sealing the chamber with the test
moving parts of mechanical components and item mounted inside
assemblies and blistering of paint due to 3. Raising the chamber temperature
electrolysis. to a specified level
The salt fog test procedure involves 4. Adjusting the chamber air
adjusting the chamber temperature to 35°C pressure to a specified level
(95°F) and conditioning the test item for at 5. Injecting the required quantity of
least 2 h. The item is then exposed to a n-hexane into the test chamber
continuous atomized solution of appropriate 6. Circulating the test atmosphere to
salt composition for a period of 48 h. The allow for complete vaporization of fuel and
item is then stored in a standard ambient development of a homogeneous mixture
atmosphere for 48 h. At the end of the 7. Operating the test item
drying period, the test item is operated and 8. Increasing the air pressure slowly
results are documented. in the test chamber to simulate an altitude
Because of the limited duration of the change
salt fog exposure, the test is limited in 9. Checking the potential
predicting long-term resistance to corrosion explosiveness of the air-vapor mixture by
and deterioration. Therefore, better test attempting to ignite the mixture with a
methods to determine corrosion spark-gap or glow plug ignition source
susceptibility for a particular program or 10. Documenting the results.
application are needed.
7-9.14 LEAKAGE (IMMERSION)
7-9.13 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE Leakage (immersion) tests are
The explosive atmosphere test is conducted to determine whether materiel is
conducted to demonstrate the ability of a constructed to be immersed in water without
component to operate in flammable leakage of the water into the enclosure.
atmospheres without causing an explosion or

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

Penetration (seepage) of water into transported by air in its normal shipping


equipment enclosures can result in problems, configuration, and survive a rapid
such as fouling of lubricants between moving decompression.
parts, formation of electrically conductive
bridges (which may cause electronic 7-9.16 TEMPERATURE, HUMIDITY,
equipment to malfunction or become unsafe VIBRATION, AND ALTITUDE
to operate), corrosion due to direct exposure Typically, US Army rotorcraft
to the water or the relatively high humidity operate below 2100 m (7000 ft); however,
levels caused by the water, and diminishment many rotorcraft are capable of operating at
of the burning qualities of explosives, 6100 m (20,000 ft) and more. Additionally,
propellants, and fuels. other US Army air vehicles might operate at
The immersion test procedure 9800 m (32,000 ft) and more. Studies have
consists of shown that thermal effects, vibration,
1. Opening and closing any doors, moisture, humidity, and in certain cases,
covers, etc., that would be opened during altitude have the greatest effect on the life of
normal use to ensure that any seals are aviation electronic equipment in the
functioning properly and are not adhering to operational environment. Temperature,
the sealing surfaces humidity, vibration, and altitude can interact
2. Conditioning the test item as to produce failures. Hence this test
specified procedure involves application of the
3. Adjusting the immersion water combination of temperature, humidity,
temperature to the specified level altitude, and vibration environments to the
4. Closing all sealed areas and test item.
valves, immersing the test item in water so
the uppermost point of the test item is 1 m 7-10 ELECTROMAGNETIC
below the surface of the water ENVIRONMENTS
5. Leaving the test item immersed The term “electromagnetic
for a specified period of time environment effects (E3)” is used to
6. Removing the item from the water encompass adverse effects due to any source
7. Opening seals and inspecting and of electromagnetic energy on victim
operating the item equipment either at the system, subsystem,
8. Recording the results. or component level. Electromagnetic
environment is defined as the power and
7-9.15 LOW PRESSURE (ALTITUDE) distribution in various frequency ranges of
The purpose of the low-pressure the radiated or conducted electromagnetic
(altitude) chamber tests is to determine emission levels that may be encountered by
whether materiel can withstand and operate an equipment, subsystem, or system when
in a low-pressure (altitude) environment. performing its assigned mission. This
Typically, low-level tests are not intended to paragraph describes electromagnetic
test equipment that is to be installed and environment tests consisting of
operated in air vehicles that fly at high electromagnetic interference (EMI) tests,
altitudes, above 4600 m (15,000 ft). The electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests, nuclear
primary objectives of the low-pressure test electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) tests,
are to determine whether the test item can be lightning tests, and TEMPEST tests.
stored and operated at high ground sites,

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

7-10.1 ELECTROMAGNETIC discussed in ADS-37A-PRF,


INTERFERENCE (EMI) Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3)
MIL-STD-461, Requirements for the Performance and Verification Requirements ,
Control of Electromagnetic Interference (Ref. 22).
Emissions and Susceptibility, (Ref. 20) can ADS-37A-PRF (Ref. 22) establishes
be used as a source of information to the electromagnetic environmental effects
establish performance and related criteria for performance and interface requirements for
the control of electromagnetic emissions and implementation at all stages of the life cycle
susceptibility characteristics of electronic, of air vehicle systems and components.
electrical, and electromechanical equipment. ADS-37A-PRF also establishes verification
An emission consists of electromagnetic requirements.
energy propagated from a source by
radiation or conduction. Electromagnetic 7-10.2 ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE
susceptibility is the degree to which an (ESD)
equipment, subsystem, or system evidences Equipment performance
undesired responses caused by the specifications should also include a
electromagnetic emissions (radiated or requirement that solid-state devices within
conducted) to which it is exposed. the equipment must not be susceptible to
The associated test document, MIL- damage or upset from ESD due to handling
STD-462, Measurement of Electromagnetic of the equipment by operating or
Characteristics, (Ref. 21) can be used as a maintenance personnel. ESD testing is
source of information to establish test criteria applicable to solid-state components,
needed to verify specified levels of emission conductors, pins, and enclosures exposed
and susceptibility. In general, for radiation during assembly or maintenance actions.
emissions the tests consist of placing the test ESD tests are intended to demonstrate
sample on a ground plane in a shielded room compliance with this requirement by
and operating the equipment throughout its subjecting the equipment to a specified ESD
operating modes. Antennas are placed in the and verifying that no damage has occurred.
room at specified distances either to detect Such verification may be difficult because
the electromagnetic radiation or generate the ESD may not cause an immediate failure of
electromagnetic radiation. Conducted the solid-state device. Also embedded
radiation and susceptibility test procedures processing components are susceptible to
vary depending on the specific design ESD. The damage may significantly reduce
requirement being tested. The most common the life of a component without being
problem in conducting EMI tests is to design immediately detectable. Additional
test monitoring equipment that is not information and criteria are available in MIL-
susceptible to the electromagnetic STD-883, Test Methods and Procedures for
environment being tested. Fiber-optic links Microelectronics, (Ref. 23).
and cable isolation should be used to the
maximum extent possible to limit these
interferences. Transverse electromagnetic
(TEM) cell chambers and reverberation
chambers or a chamber that combines both
radiation methods may be used for EMI
tests. Criteria for using the chambers are

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15 Aug 96
Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

7-10.3 NUCLEAR 4. Minimize upset and prevent


ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (NEMP) permanent damage to mission-critical
Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is the subsystems and components so that the
broadband high-power effect encompassing mission may be completed.
the totality of a system as an antenna, such as Lightning tests are intended to
would result from a nuclear burst. EMP demonstrate compliance with these
susceptibility analysis should be conducted to requirements by subjecting components to
determine that the system is capable of specified sudden discharge of static electric
completing its mission in a nuclear EMP potential that simulates a natural occurrence
environment. The analysis should include in the atmosphere. Typically, the contractor
the shielding effectiveness of the overall is responsible for the test. Information
airframe, the shielding effectiveness of cable concerning lightning and lightning tests is
shielding, and the determination of the included in MIL-STD-1795, Lightning
responses of electrical connections, including Protection of Aerospace Vehicles and
inputs, outputs, antennas, power, and spare Hardware, (Ref. 25). Federal Aviation
pins of mission-essential equipment or Administration airworthiness standards for
functions. EMP tests are intended to lightning protection of various categories of
demonstrate that a nuclear EMP will not air vehicles may be found in Parts 23, 25, 27,
cause permanent damage or hazardous and 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations,
temporary upset to flight-critical functions. Title 14, Aeronautics and Space, (Refs. 15,
Additional information on EMP test 16, 26, and 27).
procedures is available in the Test Operating
Procedures (TOP) 1-2-612, Nuclear 7-10.5 TEMPEST
Environment Survivability, (Ref. 24). (See TEMPEST is a US National Security
subpar. 7-12.2 for additional information Agency program designed to provide
concerning survivability testing.) standards for electronic equipment to protect
sensitive data from electronic eavesdropping.
7-10.4 LIGHTNING The classification of TEMPEST work should
Air vehicles are required to survive be determined and handled in accordance
the direct and indirect effects of a severe with the DoD Contract Security
lightning strike that either directly attaches to Classification Specification (DD Form 254).
the air vehicle or occurs nearby. Specifically, An original DD Form 254, which sets forth
the air vehicle and its subsystems and the classification specifications or cites the
components should be designed to satisfy the classification guidance, is provided to the
performance criteria that follow: contractor as part of the solicitation and
1. Prevent hazardous, temporary award of a contract that necessitates access
upset and permanent damage to flight-critical to classified information. TEMPEST test
subsystems and components facilities and testing should comply with the
2. Prevent lightning ignition of fuel requirements of National COMSEC*
and ordnance Information Memorandum (NACSIM)
3. Prevent catastrophic structural 5100(RP-1), Comprising Emanation
damage to the air vehicle and associated Laboratory Test Requirements
flight-critical subsystems and components
that would preclude safe return and landing
of the air vehicle *
COMSEC = communications security

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15 Aug 96
Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

Electromagnetic (U), (Ref. 28) and other 7-11 OPTICAL/ELECTRO-OPTICAL


national security communications security QUALIFICATION TESTS
instructions that might be specified in the The component qualification of
contract. All personnel assigned to perform optical/electro-optical systems is discussed in
TEMPEST work must have a Government- the subparagraphs that follow.
granted final security clearance of SECRET.
Typically, the provisions of National 7-11.1 TARGETING SYSTEMS
COMSEC/EMSEC Information Tests applicable to electro-optical
Memorandum (NACSEM) 5112(RP-4), targeting systems include boresight, focus,
Nonstop Evaluation Techniques(U), (Ref. distortion, transmissibility, uniformity,
29) apply to air vehicles at the subsystem contrast transfer function (CTF) and
level in regard to handling of modulation transfer function (MTF) tests,
classified data including hardware and minimum resolvable contrast (MRC),
software. NACSEM 5201, TEMPEST minimum resolvable temperature (MRT),
Guidelines for Equipment/System Design and stabilization tests.
(U), (Ref. 30) and NACSEM 5203, Boresight tests are performed to
TEMPEST Guidelinesfor Facility Design ensure that the optical alignment among the
and Red/Black Installations(U), (Ref. 31) various sensor and designator subsystems of
should be used for guidance. Typically, the the targeting system is within specification
contractor is required to prepare and submit requirements and that the internal
a test plan for Government approval. The boresighting equipment provides the required
scope of the plan depends on the complexity boresight accuracy. In addition, tests are
of the program. After obtaining Government performed to ensure that the system can
approval of the test plan, facility, and retain its boresight during the specified
equipment, the contractor conducts the test mission duration. Boresight tests may be
according to the test plan and submits a performed in the laboratory by presenting
TEMPEST report. The US Army simulated targets to the various sensors
Communications and Electronics Command through the use of collimators or in test
typically evaluates the facility, equipment, ranges in which appropriately placed and
test plan(s), and report(s). Additionally, data instrumented targets are observed and
might be required for TEMPEST evaluation designated.
of facility and equipment. Instructions Focus tests are performed to
should be provided within the contract. determine the capability of optical subsystem
to focus a collimated light source at a desired
point in the optical subsystem. Focus tests
are performed to determine proper optical
alignment and positioning of optical
elements.
Distortion is a form of lens aberration
that occurs when the magnification of an
object line segment varies with its distance
from the optical axis of the lens. If the image
of a rectangle appears with its sides curved
inward, the distortion is called positive, or
pincushion, distortion. If the sides curve

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

outward, it is called negative, or barrel, MRC is analogous to MRT except


distortion. Distortion tests are performed to that it measures the lowest contrast
determine the extent of such aberrations in difference that a system is able to resolve.
an optical subsystem by presenting the MRC testing is performed similarly to MRT
subsystem with rectangular targets and testing.
observing and quantifying the type and MTF is a measure of the resolution
magnitude of distortion. of an imaging subsystem. It is the sine-wave
Transmissibility of optical devices is a spatial frequency amplitude response of the
measure of the amount of energy passing subsystem and equals 1 for sufficiently low
through the optical elements. Energy spatial frequencies. In general, MTF tests
incident upon the optical device is attenuated are performed by presenting the targeting
either because it is absorbed by the element sensor with a number of sinusoidally varying
or scattered. Transmission of radiation is target patterns at various spatial frequencies
important because it determines the amount and measuring the response of the
of energy available for detection at the subsystem. The usefulness of MTF tests is
sensor. Transmission is determined by that the overall performance of an electro-
performing radiometric measurements of optical system may be determined from the
optical elements. MTF characteristics of its individual
Uniformity tests are performed to components.
determine display characteristics. Uniformity The CTF of a system is its square-
is a measure of the system to produce wave spatial frequency amplitude response.
equally bright images for equally bright The CTF is easier to measure because it is
targets at various positions on the display. easier to produce a square-wave optical
These tests are performed by performing pattern than a sine-wave pattern. The CTF
brightness measurements over the entire values of system components, however,
display under varying display conditions. cannot be directly combined to produce
MRT is a laboratory measurement of system-level performance information.
the lowest temperature difference for a Stabilization tests are performed to
square-wave bar pattern that a thermal determine the capability of the electro-optical
imaging subsystem will allow an observer to system to meet its performance requirement
resolve. This threshold temperature in the specified vibration environments.
difference is a function of the spatial Line-of-sight angular motion results in MTF
frequency of the bar pattern. Spatial degradation and in undesirable motion of the
frequency is measured in cycles per laser spot in systems incorporating laser
milliradian in object space. MRT tests are designation. Stabilization tests are
normally performed at a given spatial performed by placing the sensor on a shaker
frequency by presenting a bar target to the platform and measuring the resulting line-of-
imaging subsystem and gradually increasing sight angular motions while being shaken and
the temperature difference between the before and after being shaken.
pattern and its background. The temperature
value at which the observer can discern a
modulation within the bar pattern image is
recorded as the MRT for the specific spatial 7-11.2 PILOTAGE SYSTEMS
frequency. The test is repeated for other Pilotage electro-optical systems are
spatial frequencies of interest. similar to targeting electro-optical systems in

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terms of the types of performance or to retain its integrity in the case of


parameters requiring component-level structural components. In addition,
testing. Major differences are that pilotage component-level tests may be performed to
systems may include special requirements for determine the capability of components to
the detection of hazards, such as wires, operate safely after loss of lubrication, which
poles, and other obstacles. Additionally, may result from ballistic damage. Damage
line-of-sight stabilization requirements are might also occur to flight-critical avionic
normally much less stringent for pilotage systems and components, such as computers
systems than for targeting systems. and processors. The contractor typically
selects the components, subsystems, and air
7-12 SURVIVABILITY vehicle and specifies the proposed test
QUALIFICATION TESTS program in the Airworthiness Qualification
This paragraph addresses ballistic, Specification (AQS).
directed energy, nuclear, and NBC threat
testing of systems, subsystems, components, 7-12.2 DIRECTED ENERGY TESTS
and materials. All of these threats are For the purposes of this handbook,
capable of affecting mechanical, structural, directed energy weapons are limited to
electrical, and electronic components. battlefield lasers and the high-power
Typical test requirements are summarized in microwave. The battlefield laser threats and
subpars. 7-12.1 through 7-12.4. Additional related performance requirements usually are
information concerning ballistic hardening, described in the system specification and may
analyses, and tests; directed energy threats, include several types of weapons. The
tests, and vulnerabilities; nuclear hardening, directed energy hardness should be validated
electromagnetic pulse, neutron fluence, total through component and subsystem tests.
dose, peak gamma dose rate, thermal Demonstrations at the air vehicle system
radiation, nuclear air blast, and level would also be appropriate. The tests
demonstrations; and NBC analyses, tests, should be conducted on actual or simulated
and demonstrations may be found in ADS- components (same material and design as the
11, Survivability Program, Rotary Wing, actual components) and on complete
(Ref. 32). subsystems or portions thereof. The
vulnerability reduction substantiation,
7-12.1 BALLISTIC TESTS verification, and demonstration tests should
Components, subsystems, and an air be integrated and piggybacked on
vehicle should be subjected to ballistic firing endurance-, fatigue-, ballistic-, and failure-
tests, controlled damage tests, and a type test programs to the fullest extent
vulnerability reduction demonstration as possible.
provided for in MIL-STD-2069,
Requirements for AircraftNonnuclear 7-12.3 NUCLEAR HARDENING TESTS
Survivability Program, (Ref. 33). Typically, Nuclear hardening tests are
ballistic tests are performed by subjecting the concerned with radiation and blast effects,
specimens to impact by projectiles of a whereas NBC tests are concerned only with
specified type at a specified velocity and nuclear particles, bacteria, and chemicals.
orientation and by determining the capability Selected flight- and mission-critical items
of the specimen to prevent penetration in the should be subjected to electromagnetic pulse,
case of protective materials, such as armor, neutron fluence, total dose, peak gamma

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dose rate, thermal radiation, and nuclear air of the corrective action and to uncover any
blast. Typically, these environments are remaining deficiencies. This cycle is
simulated. For additional information continued throughout the component
concerning electromagnetic pulse and its qualification program. Schedule constraints
effects on electronic components, see subpar. may not always allow the testing to stop for
7-10.3. Also see ADS-11 (Ref. 32) for each anomaly uncovered. This practice,
additional guidance. however, can result in deferral of corrective
action incorporation and increase program
7-12.4 NBC TESTS risk due to uncertainties concerning the
Simulant tests should be performed effectiveness of the corrective actions.
to reproduce an NBC contamination TAFT should be included in the
environment relationship to the threat Airworthiness Qualification Plan (AQP) and
environment. If NBC surety material (actual AQS to ensure early incorporation of
agent) tests are necessary, test methods corrective actions and elimination of
should be described and their relationship to weaknesses prior to production.
the simulant test correlated. Any
assumptions made in the interpretations of 7-14 MATERIAL QUALIFICATION
the NBC survivability criteria are usually The requirement to qualify materials
identified in the test plan along with their as part of the airworthiness qualification
impact on the test design, procedures, and process is discussed in the subparagraphs
results. Component live-agent tests of the that follow. This requirement is especially
NBC filter(s) should be conducted to verify important to the use of new materials, such
the filter absorption capability at the as plastics and composite materials, or to
maximum permissible concentration applications of new materials.
specified. Live agents are actual agents.
Typically, tests should be performed on the 7-14.1 STRUCTURAL ALLOWABLES
basic materials and on them in their intended Material design allowables are those
operating configuration to assure NBC strength requirement properties of materials
contamination and decontamination used in the design. For new materials and
survivability. new material applications, design allowables
are generally not available in widely
7-13 COMPONENT TEST-ANALYZE- published references and must be determined
FIX-TEST experimentally. When it is necessary to
The principles of test-analyze-fix-test develop data for materials, the test materials
(TAFT), sometimes referred to as test- and processes should be the same as those
analyze-and-fix (TAAF), are equally intended for use in the production air vehicle
applicable at the component, subsystem, and and should represent a minimum of three
system levels. The TAFT cycle consists of batches of material. The statistical
subjecting the component to its intended significance of experimental data should be
operating environment and operating it. As identified, and the effects of the following
failures occur or performance deficiencies should be established:
are identified, analyses are performed to 1. The variation in material
determine the root cause, and corrective properties due to the variation allowed in the
actions are developed and implemented. time, temperature, and pressure of the cure
Testing is resumed to verify the effectiveness

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cycle to be used for the final component environmental resistance tests must also be
must be established. determined.
2. The degradation due to the
combined effect of temperature and humidity 7-14.3 SPECIAL PROPERTIES
should be established. An experimental New materials, such as composite
knockdown factor may be determined to materials, may have special properties that
account for this effect. The method and require testing and documentation prior to
criteria to determine an environmental factor use. During the curing process, if
should be approved by the procuring activity. undesirable curing products are generated, it
ADS-35 (Ref. 5) provides guidance is important to identify those products and
to determine tensile, compressive, flexural, their effects. Composite materials may
shear, fatigue, creep, damage tolerance, and undergo dimensional changes after
bearing strength properties. The procedures manufacture due to not only the expected
described in this ADS are for the temperature effects but also other factors
characterization of organic matrix composite such as humidity conditions or age.
materials and are generally in accordance Outgassing may have detrimental effects
with the guidelines in MIL-HDBK-17 (Ref. such as forming deposits on optical surfaces
8). and degrading optical performance.

7-14.2 ENVIRONMENTAL 7-14.4 PROCESS DEFINITION AND


RESISTANCE CONTROL
Because of their potential Essential to establishing properties of
susceptibility to external environmental materials are the procedures and processes
factors, it is imperative that composite used to produce the material and the
materials be tested to ensure that they can fabrication processes to manufacture it into a
maintain their structural properties in their final product. For this reason, it is
intended environment throughout their imperative that material processes be defined
required life. The resistance of composite and documented in the form of process
materials to the effects of moisture, solvents, specifications and that the processes be
cleaners, and air vehicle fluids is determined controlled through the appropriate quality
by immersing samples in the appropriate fluid assurance procedures. In the production of
for specified times and at specified metallic materials, for example, processes
temperatures followed by testing the physical that impact inherent properties include the
characteristics, e.g., tensile strength and critical temperatures and cooling rates
flexing endurance, of the samples. It is also necessary to achieve proper crystalline
necessary to determine the resistance of structure. During manufacture of composite
composite materials to the effects of nuclear materials, for example, curing process
blast, thermal energy, and radiation; characteristics (temperature, pressure, and
biological agents; and chemical agents, as time) significantly impact material
well as to any potential adverse effects of characteristics. Compound effects of both
decontamination agents. The effects of material production and manufacturing must
naturally occurring environmental factors, also be addressed as part of process
such as solar radiation, acid rain, specifications. Examples include annealing
hydrocarbons, and other unexpected normal before forming and hardness treatment after
environments, through appropriate forming.

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

would no longer meet the original


7-15 PROCESS QUALIFICATION qualification criteria.
For performance-based procurements
the contractor is totally responsible for the 7-16 SPARES AND REPAIR PARTS
processes and controls needed to satisfy the QUALIFICATION
performance requirements of the contract The purpose of spare and repair parts
and specification. The US Army requires qualification is to ensure that items procured
controls for military-unique processes and for the purpose of supplying the repair
those associated with flight safety parts. inventory are suitable for their intended
Process qualification is the formal procedure function. Except when parts have been
used to document that a specifically defined determined to be fully competitive, all parts
manufacturing and fabrication process require some type of qualification,
produces the required repeatable particularly if spare and repair parts are
performance results regardless of the procured from a supplier different from the
manufacturer. In general, the procedure for original supplier of the end item. Par. 3-12
process qualification consists of documenting provides special requirements applicable to
the process in the form of a process parts covered by a Flight Safety Parts
specification. Process specifications identify Program. (Also see ADS-39, Substantiation
the equipment necessary to conduct the Requirements for Alternate Manufacturing
process, the required materials, the Source of HelicopterDrive System
procedures and operations (both required Components, (Ref. 34).)
and recommended), the certification
requirements of operators or process 7-16.1 BUILD TO PRINT
techniques, and the quality assurance Build to print refers to the process of
provisions. The process specification is then manufacturing an item to the dimensions and
applied to the specific materials intended for processes requirements of the drawing.
use in the process. Finally, tests, inspections, When an item is built to print from an
and verifications are conducted to determine alternate source, it is necessary to perform a
that the process has yielded acceptable formal review in order to demonstrate that
results and conforms to the requirements of the source has the technical capability to
the specification. convert the print information into a
Qualification by process qualification conforming item. It may also be required of
may also be applicable to the manufacture of a vendor after a break in production or for
microcircuits in which parts of differing the production of new lots. A first article
performance characteristics are produced by test may also be required. Performance
a common process with only minor changes specifications at the spare part and higher
in their overall configuration. The benefit of assembly level are preferred.
such an approach is that it avoids the
requirement to undergo sometimes costly 7-16.2 SPECIFICATION CONTROL
qualification procedures when only minor An item procured under specification
changes are made to a class of components control should undergo qualification testing
by a common process. The risk of such an to demonstrate that the vendor is capable of
approach is that at some point a significant correctly translating the specification
departure in configuration may be made that requirements into hardware meeting
performance parameters. A first article test

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

forms the basis for this demonstration, and in 7-16.3 SOURCE CONTROL
addition to being performed on the first Source control items are items that
article produced, it may also be required of a can be procured only from an approved
vendor after a break for production or in the source. For source control items in-system
production of new lots. qualification testing must be performed
initially since source control implies that
there are unknown and intangible
performance characteristics that cannot be
determined by testing the repair item in
isolation from its next higher assembly. This
situation is an undesirable one because it also
presents diagnostic and repair problems in
the field. A first article test forms the basis
for this demonstration, and in addition to
being performed on the first article
produced, it may also be required of a
vendor after a break in production or for the
production of new lots.

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REFERENCES

1. MIL-HDBK-402A, Guidelines for the Implementation of the DoD Parts ControlProgram,


14 May 1993.
2. J. Martin, J. Fila, and D. Reisdorfer, Helicopter Structural Integrity Program (HSIP),Volume
I, Structural Test Requirements Specification , US Army Aviation Applied Technology
Directorate, Fort Eustis, VA, July 1990.
3. MIL-STD-1530A, Aircraft Structural Integrity Program, Airplane Requirements , 26
February 1988.
4. Barry Spigel, “Foundations of an Army Helicopter Structural Integrity Program”, Vertiflite,
61 (March/April 1989).
5. ADS-35, Composite Materials for Helicopters, US Army Aviation Systems Command, St.
Louis, MO, May 1990.
6. ADS-29, Structural Design Criteria for Rotary Wing Aircraft , US Army Aviation Systems
Command, St. Louis, MO, September 1986.
7. MIL-HDBK-5G, Metallic Materials and Elements for Aerospace Vehicle Structures ,1
November 1994.
8. MIL-HDBK-17A, Plastic for Aerospace Vehicles, Part 1, Reinforced Plastics , 1 January
1971.
9. Robert E. Ball, The Fundamentals of Aircraft Combat Survivability and Design , AIAA
Education Series, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, DC,
1985, p. 200.
10. F. Liard, Ed., Helicopter Fatigue Design Guide, AGARD-AG-292, NATO Advisory Group
for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD), Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, 1983.
11. Joseph Edward Shigley, Mechanical Engineering Design, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York,
NY, 1977, pp. 185-8.
12. Walter Illg, Factors in Evaluating Fatigue Life of Structural Parts, NASA TN D-725,
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, April 1961.
13. MIL-STD-1290A, Light Fixed and Rotary Wing Aircraft Crash Resistance , 26 September
1988.
14. ADS-24, Structural Demonstration, US Army Aviation Systems Command, St. Louis, MO,
November 1985.
15. 14 CFR, Part 23, Airworthiness Standards: Normal Utility, Acrobatic, andCommuter
Category Airplanes, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1 January 1994.
16. CFR, Part 25, Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Airplanes , US Government
Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1 January 1994.
17. MIL-STD-810E, Environmental Test Methods and Engineering Guidelines , 1 September
1993.
18. ADS-27, Requirements for Rotorcraft Vibration Specifications, Modeling, andTesting, US
Army Aviation Systems Command, St. Louis, MO, November 1985.
19. ADS-13C, Air Vehicle Materials and Processes, US Army Aviation Systems Command, St.
Louis, MO, September 1982.
20. MIL-STD-461D, Requirements for the Control of Electromagnetic InterferenceEmissions
and Susceptibility, 11 January 1993.
21. MIL-STD-462D, Measurement of Electromagnetic Characteristics , 11 January 1993.

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15 Aug 96
Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

22. ADS-37A-PRF, Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) Performance and Verification


Requirements, US Army Aviation and Troop Command, St. Louis, MO, 28 May 1996.
23. MIL-STD-883D, Test Methods and Procedures for Microelectronics , 1 June 1993.
24. TOP 1-2-612, Nuclear Environment Survivability, US Army Test and Evaluation Command,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 15 April 1994.
25. MIL-STD-1795A, Lightning Protection of Aerospace Vehicles and Hardware , 20 June 1989.
26. 14 CFR, Part 27, Airworthiness Standards: Normal Category Rotorcraft , US Government
Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1 January 1994.
27. 14 CFR, Part 29, Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Rotorcraft , US Government
Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1 January 1994.
28. NACSIM 5100(RP-1), Comprising Emanation Laboratory Test Requirements
Electromagnetic (U), National Security Agency, Fort Meade, MD, July 1981. (THIS
DOCUMENT IS CLASSIFIED CONFIDENTIAL.)
29. NACSEM 5112(RP-4), Nonstop Evaluation Techniques(U), National Security Agency, Fort
Meade, MD, April 1975. (THIS DOCUMENT IS CLASSIFIED SECRET.)
30. NACSEM 5201, TEMPEST Guidelines for Equipment/System Design(U), National Security
Agency, Fort Meade, MD, September 1978. (THIS DOCUMENT IS CLASSIFIED
CONFIDENTIAL.)
31. NACSEM 5203, TEMPEST Guidelines for Facility Design and Red/BlackInstallations (U),
National Security Agency, Fort Meade, MD, June 1982. (THIS DOCUMENT IS
CLASSIFIED CONFIDENTIAL.)
32. ADS-11B, Survivability Program, Rotary Wing, US Army Aviation Systems Command, St.
Louis, MO, April 1976.
33. MIL-STD-2069, Requirements for AircraftNonnuclear Survivability Program, 24 August
1981.
34. ADS-39A (draft), Substantiation Requirements for Alternate Manufacturing Sources of
Helicopter Drive System Components, US Army Aviation and Troop Command, St. Louis, MO,
April 1996.

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

USAATD US Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate, Fort Eustis VA.

AQS = Airworthiness Qualification Specification

ASIP = Aircraft Structural Integrity Program

CDRL = Contract Data Requirement List

CTF = Contrast Transfer Function

DID = Data Item Description

DoD = Department of Defense

E3 = Electromagnetic Environment Effects

EMI = Electromagnetic Interference

EMP = Electromagnetic Pulse

FAA = Federal Aviation Administration

ESD = Electrostatic Discharge

ESS = Environmental Stress Screening

FSP = Flight Safety Part

HSIP = Helicopter Structural Integrity Program

MAGW = Maximum Alternate Gross Weight Pulse

MRC = Minimum Resolvable Contrast

MRT = Minimum Resolvable Temperature

MTF = Modulation Transfer Function

NBC = Nuclear, Biological, Chemical

NEMP = Nuclear Electromagnetic

PCP = Parts Control Program

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Rotorcraft and Aircraft Qualification

QDR = Quality Deficiency Report

QPL = Qualified Products List

SDGW = Structural Design Gross Weight

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ROTORCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

CHAPTER 8
SUBSYSTEM QUALIFICATION

Subsystem qualification requirements and procedures for specific subsystem


airworthiness qualification are identified. Also identified are subsystems that normally undergo
subsystem qualification.

8-1 INTRODUCTION and environment of the actual hardware.


The procedures used to establish and Hot mock-ups constitute the next higher
carry out subsystem qualification as part of level of integration and representation of the
an overall qualification program are actual subsystem configuration and actual
presented in this chapter. The objective of environment. In this examination subsystem
subsystem qualification is to ensure, within components are positioned relative to each
reason, that the subsystem meets or exceeds other as they would be on the air vehicle.
the specified performance. A subsystem can Iron bird and tied down air vehicle testing
be airworthy but not necessarily qualified. are forms of hot mock-ups. Environments
More often than not, subsystems are not are also representative of actual operation.
qualified prior to first flight. Subsystem- Palletized flight testing is performed by
level analyses and tests are used to assure integrating a subsystem (usually electronic or
adequate safety characteristics and also to avionic) onto a pallet for ease of installation
support a preflight airworthiness and removal from an air vehicle and
determination. Early identification of performing flight testing to determine
operational suitability and performance subsystem performance in an actual flight
deficiencies allows time for the development environment. Another method of flight
process to correct these deficiencies. testing at the subsystem level is to integrate a
Qualification tests should be performed on subsystem into a surrogate host, i.e., an air
production or near-production hardware. vehicle different from air vehicles for which
Some requirements can be tested practically the subsystem is ultimately intended. This
only at the subsystem level. In these cases might be necessary if the air vehicle is not
subsystem-level qualification is used to available due to schedule or other
demonstrate formal compliance with design programmatic issues. The surrogate host
and/or specification requirements. serves as the platform from which
Subsystem test articles and various test subsystem-level characteristics can be
environments are discussed in detail in the derived in a flight environment without the
paragraphs that follow. necessity for the actual air vehicle for which
In general, test setups at the the subsystem is intended.
subsystem test level include bare bench, hot Subsystem-level tests may be
mock-up, palletized flight test, and surrogate performed to satisfy both survey and
host flight testing. Bare bench tests are tests demonstration requirements. Surveys are
in which the subsystem is assembled and used to obtain data to establish the
interfaced functionally with its components. performance capabilities of the subsystem or
Their purpose is to determine that the system. Demonstrations are used to provide
subsystem components perform and interface data that show that a performance
functionally as intended. This setup is not requirement has been met. Par. 2-4 provides
necessarily representative of the positioning

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further discussion of the differences between may reference this ADS as a source of
surveys and demonstrations. information but should not require
Environmental and electromagnetic compliance. The contractor is responsible
interference (EMI) qualification tests are for design. These data provide a basis for
normally performed at the component level. technical proposal presentations, for their
Chapter 7 provides discussion and guidance evaluation, and for evaluation of analytic
on performing these tests. In some cases it reports. The ADS prescribes that a general
might also be desirable to perform tests at description of the overall propulsion
the subsystem level to account for factors subsystem should be submitted to define
such as interconnecting cables and the configuration, arrangement, and functional
ground plane. Electromagnetic compatibility relationships. It requires the analysis of the
(EMC) and electromagnetic vulnerability rotorcraft drive subsystem’s torsional
(EMV) tests are always performed at the stability showing both gain margin and phase
system level. Chapter 9 provides discussion margin throughout the operational envelope.
and guidance on performing electromagnetic It also requires air vehicle manufacturers to
environment effects (E3) tests. supply all installation performance losses
including the total installed effect of the
8-2 ENGINE, TRANSMISSION, AND losses on engine performance. For the
DRIVE SUBSYSTEM engine and auxiliary power unit (APU)
QUALIFICATION starting subsystem, a detailed description is
The engine, transmission, and drive required and should include schematics to
subsystem airworthiness and typical show component location and associated
qualification test objectives are to hardware used in the installation. Any
demonstrate that these subsystems satisfy the special operating procedures should be
performance and interface requirements of defined and include both normal and extreme
the air vehicle, detail, and airworthiness temperature cases. Required fuel subsystem
qualification specifications. The qualification data necessary to verify fuel system design
requirements fall generally under the are required as well. For propul